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There are a total of 9 conditions that must be met before praying Salah.

If you are a praying Muslim and are startled to hear that there are nine do not worry. You probably complete the checklist without even having realized it.

So let’s begin…

The 9 Conditions which validate your Salah:

  1. To be a mature Muslim. What is meant by this is that the praying Muslim is of age and have ability of discernment (to judge well). As a rule of thumb this is once they have passed puberty.
  2. Have Proper Niyyah. Having the correct intention before offering the prayer is essential. In Sahih Bukhari and Muslim there’s a hadith which says “Actions are according to intentions, and everyone will get what was intended.” [1]
  3. Taharat or ritual purity. To be in a clean or purified state. This would mean having performed Wudu or Ghusl. In certain cases Tayammum (dry ablution) is acceptable.
  4. Cleanliness of garments. In Surah Al-A’raf ayah 31 Allah states, “O Children of Adam! wear your beautiful apparel at every time and place of prayer”.
  5. Cleanliness of place of Salat. Examples of places to avoid praying salat are bathrooms, slaughterhouse, or barns. Any place that may be deemed filthy or unclean should be avoided.
  6. Covering of Awrah (intimate parts). These are the private parts of the body. For men this is anything between your naval to the knees. For women this is everything but face and hands.
  7. Praying at the right direction. All five prayers should be done with the direction of praying oriented towards the house of Allah (aka as the kaaba)
  8. Proper time of prayer. Offering praying at the proper time is essential, once the time has passed the prayer can not be given. In the Quran it says, “Verily, As‑Salah is enjoined on the believers at fixed hours”  [2] In the hadith, the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) reported, “Indeed for (the time of) Salat (there is a) beginning and an end.” [3]
  9. Being Sane. What is meant by being sane is that the Muslim does not have any underlying mental health issues. Those who do are excused from praying Salat as they are not accountable for their actions.

Reference:
[1] It is narrated on the authority of Amir al-Mu’minin (Leader of the Believers), Abu Hafs ‘Umar bin al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him), who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him), say “Actions are according to intentions, and everyone will get what was intended. Whoever migrates with an intention for Allah and His messenger, the migration will be for the sake of Allah and his Messenger. And whoever migrates for worldly gain or to marry a woman, then his migration will be for the sake of whatever he migrated for.” Related by Bukhari & Muslim

[2] Surah Al-Nisa, ayah 103.

[3] Abu Hurairah narrated that : Allah’s Messenger said: “Indeed for (the time of) Salat (there is a) beginning and an end. The beginning of the time for the Zuhr prayer is when the sun passes the zenith, and the end of its time is when the time for Asr enters. The beginning of the time for the Asr [prayer] is when its time enters, and the end of its time is when the sun yellows (turns pale). The beginning of the time of Maghrib is when the sun as set, and the end of its time is when the twilight has vanished (i.e., the horizon is invisible because of darkness). The beginning of the time for Isha, the later one, is when the horizon has vanished, and the end of its time is when the night is at its half. The beginning of the time for Fajr is when Fajr begins, and its end is when the sun rises.” Grade: Hasan (Darussalam) Reference: Jami At-Tirmidhi 151