Surah Ahzab >> Currently viewing Surah Ahzab Ayat 59 (33:59)

Surah Ahzab Ayat 59 in Arabic Text

يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّبِىُّ قُل لِّأَزْوَٰجِكَ وَبَنَاتِكَ وَنِسَآءِ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِن جَلَـٰبِيبِهِنَّ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ أَدْنَىٰٓ أَن يُعْرَفْنَ فَلَا يُؤْذَيْنَ ۗ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ غَفُورًۭا رَّحِيمًۭا
Yaaa aiyuhan Nabiyyu qul li azwaajika wa banaatika wa nisaaa’il mu’mineena yudneena ‘alaihinna min jalaabee bihinn; zaalika adnaaa ai yu’rafna falaa yu’zain; wa kaanal laahu Ghafoorar Raheemaa

English Translation

Here you can read various translations of verse 59

Sahih International
O Prophet, tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to bring down over themselves [part] of their outer garments. That is more suitable that they will be known and not be abused. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful.

Yusuf Ali
O Prophet! Tell thy wives and daughters, and the believing women, that they should cast their outer garments over their persons (when abroad): that is most convenient, that they should be known (as such) and not molested. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Abul Ala Maududi
O Prophet, enjoin your wives and your daughters and the believing women, to draw a part of their outer coverings around them. It is likelier that they will be recognised and not molested. Allah is Most Forgiving, Most Merciful.

Muhsin Khan
O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks (veils) all over their bodies (i.e. screen themselves completely except the eyes or one eye to see the way). That will be better, that they should be known (as free respectable women) so as not to be annoyed. And Allah is Ever OftForgiving, Most Merciful.

Pickthall
O Prophet! Tell thy wives and thy daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks close round them (when they go abroad). That will be better, so that they may be recognised and not annoyed. Allah is ever Forgiving, Merciful.

Dr. Ghali
O you Prophet, say to your spouses and your daughters and the women of believers, that they draw their outer garments closer to them; that will (make) it likelier that they will be recognized and so will not be hurt. And Allah has been Ever-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful.

Abdel Haleem
Prophet, tell your wives, your daughters, and women believers to make their outer garments hang low over them so as to be recog-nized and not insulted: God is most forgiving, most merciful.

Quran 33 Verse 59 Explanation

For those looking for commentary to help with the understanding of Surah Ahzab ayat 59, we’ve provided two Tafseer works below. The first is the tafseer of Abul Ala Maududi, the second is of Ibn Kathir.

Ala-Maududi

(33:59) O Prophet, enjoin your wives and your daughters and the believing women, to draw a part of their outer coverings around them.[110] It is likelier that they will be recognised and not molested.[111] Allah is Most Forgiving, Most Merciful.[112]


110. Jilbab is a large sheet and adna is to draw close and wrap up, but when this word is used with the associating particle ala, it gives the meaning of letting something down from above. Some modern translators, under the influence of the West, have translated this word “to wrap up” so as to avoid somehow the command about covering of the face. But if Allah had meant what these gentlemen want to construe, He would have said: yudnina ilai-hinna and not yudnina alai-hinna. Anyone who knows Arabic knows that yudnina alai-hinna cannot merely mean “wrapping up.” Moreover, the words min jalabib-i hinna also do not permit of this meaning. It is obvious that the preposition min here signifies a part of the sheet, and also that wrapping up is done by means of a whole sheet and not merely by a part of it. The verse, therefore, clearly means: “The women should wrap themselves up well in their sheets, and should draw and let down a part of the sheet in front of the face.”

This same meaning was understood by the major commentators who lived close to the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him). Ibn Jarir and Ibn al-Mundhir have related that Muhammad bin Sirin asked Ubaidah as- Salmani the meaning of this verse. (Ubaidah had become a Muslim in the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him) but had not been able to visit him. He came to Madinah in the time of Umar and settled down there. He was recognized as equal in rank with Qadi Shuraih in jurisprudence and judicial matters). Instead of giving a verbal reply Ubaidah put on his sheet and gave a practical demonstration by covering his head and forehead and face and an eye, leaving only the other eye uncovered. Ibn Abbas also has made almost the same commentary. In his statements which have been reported by Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Marduyah, he says: “Allah has commanded the women that when they move out of their houses for an outdoor duty, they should conceal their faces by drawing and letting down over themselves a part of their sheets, keeping only the eyes uncovered.” The same explanation of this verse has been given by Qatadah and Suddi.

All the great commentators who have passed after the period of the companions and their immediate followers have given the same meaning of this verse. Imam Ibn Jarir Tabari, in his commentary of this verse, says: “The respectable women should not look like the slave-girls from their dress when they move out of their houses, with uncovered faces and loose hair; they should rather draw and let down over them a part of their sheets or outergarments so that no evil person may dare molest them.” (Jamial Bayan, vol. xxii, p. 33).

Allama Abu Bakr al-Jassas says: “This verse points out that the young woman has been commanded to conceal her face from the other men; when moving out of the house she should cover herself up well to express chastity and purity of character so that people of doubtful character do not cherish any false hope when they see her.” (Ahkam al- Quran, vol. iii, p. 458).

Allama Zamakhshari says: “It means that they should let down a part of their sheet over themselves, and should cover their faces and wrap up their sides well.” (AlKashshaf, vol. ii, p. 221). Allama Nizamuddin Nishapuri says: “That is, they should let down a part of the sheet over them: in this verse, the women have been commanded to cover the head and face.” (Gharaib al-Quran, vol. xxii, p. 32).

Imam Razi says: “What is mean is that the people may know that they are not promiscuous women. For the woman who covers her face, though the face is not included in the satar, cannot be expected to uncover her satar, which is obligatory to cover before the other man. Thus, everyone will know that they are modest and virtuous women who cannot be expected to do anything indecent.” (Tafsir Kabir. vol. vi, p 591)

Incidentally, another thing that is proved by this verse is that the Prophet (peace be upon him) had several daughters, for Allah Himself says: “O Prophet, enjoin your wives and daughters.” These words absolutely refute the assertion of those people who without any fear of God make the claim that the Prophet had only one daughter, Fatimah, and the other daughters were not from his own loins but by the former husbands. These people are so blinded by prejudice that they do not even bother to consider what crime they arc committing by denying the parentage of the children of the Prophet (peace be upon him), and what severe punishment will await for them in the Hereafter. All authentic traditions concur that from Khadijah the Prophet (peace be upon him) had not one daughter, Fatimah, but three other daughters as well. The Prophet’s earliest biographer, Muhammad bin Ishaq, after mentioning his marriage with Khadijah, says; “She was the mother of all the Prophet’s children except Ibrahim. Prophet Muhammad’s (peace be upon him) children with Khadijah were Qasim, Tahir, Tayyib, Zainab, Ruqayyah, Fatimah and Umm Kulthum and.” (Ibn Hisham, vol. 1, p. 202).

The famous genealogist, Hashim bin Muhammad bin as- Saib al-Kalbi, states: “The first born child to the, Messenger (peace be upon him) of Allah before his call to Prophethood was Qasim, then Zainab was born to him, then Ruqayyah, then Umm Kulthum.” (Tabaqat Ibn Saad, vol. 1, p. 133). Ibn Hazam writes in Jawami asSirah that from Khadijah the Prophet (peace be upon him) had four daughters, the eldest being Zainab, then Ruqayyah, then Fatimah and then Umm Kulthum (pp. 38-39). Tabari, Ibn Saad, Abu Jafar Muhammad bin Habib (author of Kitab al-Muhabbar) and Ibn Abd al-Bart (author of Kitab allstiab) state on the strength of authentic sources that before her marriage with the Prophet (peace be upon him), Khadijah had two husbands, Abu Halah Tamimi by whom she had a son named Hind bin Abu Halah, and Atiq bin Aidh Makhzumi, by whom she had a daughter named Hind. Then she was married to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and all the genealogists agree that from his loins she had the four daughters as stated above. (see Tabari, vol. ii, p. 411: tabaqat Ibn Saad, vol. viii, pp. 14-16; Kitab al- Muhabbar, pp. 78, 79, 452; .9l-Isti’ab, vol. ii, p. 718). All these statements are authenticated by the Quranic declaration that the Holy Prophet had not one but several daughters.

111. “May be recognized”: may be recognized to be noble and chaste women from their simple and modest dress, and not women of ill repute from whom some wicked person could cherish evil hopes. “May not be harmed”: will not be teased but let alone.

Let us pause here for a while and try to understand what spirit of the social law of Islam is being expressed by this Quranic command and what is its object which Allah Himself has stated. Before this in ( Surah An-Nur, Ayat 31), the women have been forbidden to display their adornments before others except such and such men and women, and “also that they should not stamp their feet on the ground lest their hidden decoration (ornaments) should be known.” If that command is read with this verse of Al- Ahzab it becomes obvious that the intention of the command for the woman to cover herself well with the sheet here is to conceal her adornments from others. And, evidently, this purpose can be fulfilled only if the sheet or the outer-garment itself is simple; otherwise wrapping up oneself with a decorated and attractive sheet will defeat the purpose itself. Besides, Allah does not only command the woman to conceal her adornment by covering herself with the sheet, but also enjoins that she should let down a pan of the sheet over herself. No sensible person can take any other meaning of this command than that it requires to conceal the face along with the concealment of the adornments of the body and dress. Then, Allah Himself states the reason for enjoining the command, saying: “This is an appropriate way by adopting which the Muslim women will be recognized and will remain safe from trouble.” Evidently, this instruction is being given to those women who regard flirtation and stares and evil advances by men as annoying and troublesome and not as enjoyable, who do not want to be counted a

Ibn-Kathir

59. O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their Jalabib over their bodies. That will be better that they should be known so as not to be annoyed. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful. 60. If the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease, and those who spread false news among the people in Al-Madinah stop not, We shall certainly let you overpower them, then they will not be able to stay in it as your neighbors but a little while. 61. Accursed, they shall be seized wherever found, and killed with a (terrible) slaughter. 62. That was the way of Allah in the case of those who passed away of old, and you will not find any change in the way of Allah.


The Command of Hijab

Here Allah tells His Messenger to command the believing women — especially his wives and daughters, because of their position of honor — to draw their Jilbabs over their bodies, so that they will be distinct in their appearance from the women of the Jahiliyyah and from slave women. The Jilbab is a Rida’, worn over the Khimar. This was the view of Ibn Mas`ud, `Ubaydah, Qatadah, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, `Ata’ Al-Khurasani and others. It is like the Izar used today. Al-Jawhari said: “The Jilbab is the outer wrapper. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said that Allah commanded the believing women, when they went out of their houses for some need, to cover their faces from above their heads with the Jilbab, leaving only one eye showing. Muhammad bin Sirin said, “I asked `Ubaydah As-Salmani about the Ayah:

﴿يُدْنِينَ عَلَيْهِنَّ مِن جَلَـبِيبِهِنَّ﴾

(to draw their Jalabib over their bodies.) He covered his face and head, with just his left eye showing.”

﴿ذلِكَ أَدْنَى أَن يُعْرَفْنَ فَلاَ يُؤْذَيْنَ﴾

(That will be better that they should be known so as not to be annoyed. ) means, if they do that, it will be known that they are free, and that they are not servants or whores.

﴿وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُوراً رَّحِيماً﴾

(And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) means, with regard to what happened previously during the days of Jahiliyyah, when they did not have any knowledge about this.

A Stern Warning to the Evil Hypocrites

Then Allah issues a warning to the hypocrites, those who make an outward display of faith while concealing their disbelief,

﴿وَالَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ﴾

(those in whose hearts is a disease,) `Ikrimah and others said that this refers to adulterers in this instance.

﴿وَالْمُرْجِفُونَ فِى الْمَدِينَةِ﴾

(and those who spread false news among the people in Al-Madinah) means, those who say that the enemy has come and war has started, which is a lie and a fabrication. Unless they give up these actions and return to the truth,

﴿لَنُغْرِيَنَّكَ بِهِمْ﴾

(We shall certainly let you overpower them,) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “We will give you power over them.” Qatadah said: “We will incite you against them.” As-Suddi said: “We will inform you about them.”

﴿ثُمَّ لاَ يُجَاوِرُونَكَ فِيهَآ﴾

(then they will not be able to stay in it) means, in Al-Madinah,

﴿إِلاَّ قَلِيلاًمَّلْعُونِينَ﴾

(but a little while. Accursed…) `this describes their state while they are in Al-Madinah for this short time before they are expelled and sent far away.’

﴿أَيْنَمَا ثُقِفُواْ أُخِذُواْ﴾

(they shall be seized wherever found,) means, `they will be attacked, because they are so weak and so few,’

﴿وَقُتِّلُواْ تَقْتِيلاً﴾

(and killed with a (terrible) slaughter.) Then Allah says:

﴿سُنَّةَ اللَّهِ فِى الَّذِينَ خَلَوْاْ مِن قَبْلُ﴾

(That was the way of Allah in the case of those who passed away of old,) meaning, this is how Allah dealt with the hypocrites when they persisted in hypocrisy and disbelief and did not give it up; He incited the believers against them and caused them to prevail over them.

﴿وَلَن تَجِدَ لِسُنَّةِ اللَّهِ تَبْدِيلاً﴾

(and you will not find any change in the way of Allah.) means, the way in which Allah deals with this does not alter or change.

﴿يَسْـَلُكَ النَّاسُ عَنِ السَّاعَةِ قُلْ إِنَّمَا عِلْمُهَا عِندَ اللَّهِ وَمَا يُدْرِيكَ لَعَلَّ السَّاعَةَ تَكُونُ قَرِيباً – إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَعَنَ الْكَـفِرِينَ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ سَعِيراً – خَـلِدِينَ فِيهَآ أَبَداً لاَّ يَجِدُونَ وَلِيّاً وَلاَ نَصِيراً – يَوْمَ تُقَلَّبُ وُجُوهُهُمْ فِى النَّارِ يَقُولُونَ يلَيْتَنَآ أَطَعْنَا اللَّهَ وَأَطَعْنَا الرَّسُولاَ – وَقَالُواْ رَبَّنَآ إِنَّآ أَطَعْنَا سَادَتَنَا وَكُبَرَآءَنَا فَأَضَلُّونَا السَّبِيلاْ – رَبَّنَآ ءَاتِهِمْ ضِعْفَيْنِ مِنَ الْعَذَابِ وَالْعَنْهُمْ لَعْناً كَبِيراً ﴾

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