Surah Al Anfal is a Medinan Surah revealed after the Battle of Badr. It is the eigth chapter of The Quran and consists of 75 ayats.
The Muslims won the battle in spite of being outnumbered and began to question the distribution of the gains (spoils of war). Surah Anfal was sent to remind them that it was Allah who brought about the victory. Ayat 41 highlights how the gains are to be distributed.
Below you can read the full surah with complete transliteration and translation. The Tafsir by Ibn Kathir is also provided below.
“[Remember] when you asked help of your Lord, and He answered you, Indeed, I will reinforce you with a thousand from the angels, following one another.”
Surah Anfal Ayat 9
Read Surah Anfal Transliteration and English Translation
Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Raheem
In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful
يَسْـَٔلُونَكَ عَنِ ٱلْأَنفَالِ ۖ قُلِ ٱلْأَنفَالُ لِلَّهِ وَٱلرَّسُولِ ۖ فَٱتَّقُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَأَصْلِحُوا۟ ذَاتَ بَيْنِكُمْ ۖ وَأَطِيعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥٓ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ
Yas’aloonaka ‘anil anfaali qulil anfaalu lillaahi war Rasooli fattaqul laaha wa ahlihoo zaata bainikum wa atee’ul laaha wa Rasoolahooo in kuntum mu’mineen
1. They ask you, [O Muhammad], about the bounties [of war]. Say, “The [decision concerning] bounties is for Allah and the Messenger.” So fear Allah and amend that which is between you and obey Allah and His Messenger, if you should be believers.
إِنَّمَا ٱلْمُؤْمِنُونَ ٱلَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِرَ ٱللَّهُ وَجِلَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَإِذَا تُلِيَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ ءَايَٰتُهُۥ زَادَتْهُمْ إِيمَٰنًا وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ
Innamal mu’minoonal lazeena izaa zukiral laahu wajilat quloobuhum wa izaa tuliyat ‘alaihim Aayaatuhoo zaadat hum eemaananw wa ‘alaa Rabbihim yatawakkaloon
2. The believers are only those who, when Allah is mentioned, their hearts become fearful, and when His verses are recited to them, it increases them in faith; and upon their Lord they rely –
ٱلَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَٰهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ
3. The ones who establish prayer, and from what We have provided them, they spend
أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلْمُؤْمِنُونَ حَقًّا ۚ لَّهُمْ دَرَجَٰتٌ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَمَغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيمٌ
Ulaaa’ika humul mu’minoona haqqaa; lahum darajaatun ‘inda Rabbihim wa magh firatunw wa rizqun kareem
4. Those are the believers, truly. For them are degrees [of high position] with their Lord and forgiveness and noble provision.
كَمَآ أَخْرَجَكَ رَبُّكَ مِنۢ بَيْتِكَ بِٱلْحَقِّ وَإِنَّ فَرِيقًا مِّنَ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ لَكَٰرِهُونَ
Kaamaaa akhrajaka Rabbuka mim baitika bilhaqq; wa inna fareeqam minal mu’mineena lakaarihoon
5. [It is] just as when your Lord brought you out of your home [for the battle of Badr] in truth, while indeed, a party among the believers were unwilling,
يُجَٰدِلُونَكَ فِى ٱلْحَقِّ بَعْدَمَا تَبَيَّنَ كَأَنَّمَا يُسَاقُونَ إِلَى ٱلْمَوْتِ وَهُمْ يَنظُرُونَ
Yujaadiloonaka fil haqqi ba’da maa tabaiyana kaannamaa yasaaqoona ilal mawti wa hum yanzuroon
6. Arguing with you concerning the truth after it had become clear, as if they were being driven toward death while they were looking on.
وَإِذْ يَعِدُكُمُ ٱللَّهُ إِحْدَى ٱلطَّآئِفَتَيْنِ أَنَّهَا لَكُمْ وَتَوَدُّونَ أَنَّ غَيْرَ ذَاتِ ٱلشَّوْكَةِ تَكُونُ لَكُمْ وَيُرِيدُ ٱللَّهُ أَن يُحِقَّ ٱلْحَقَّ بِكَلِمَٰتِهِۦ وَيَقْطَعَ دَابِرَ ٱلْكَٰفِرِينَ
Wa iz ya’idukumul laahu ihdat taaa’ifataini annahaa lakum wa tawaddoona anna ghaira zaatish shawkati takoonu lakum wa yureedul laahu ai yuhiqqal haqqa bikalimaatihee wa taqta’a daabiral kaafireen
7. [Remember, O believers], when Allah promised you one of the two groups – that it would be yours – and you wished that the unarmed one would be yours. But Allah intended to establish the truth by His words and to eliminate the disbelievers
لِيُحِقَّ ٱلْحَقَّ وَيُبْطِلَ ٱلْبَٰطِلَ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ ٱلْمُجْرِمُونَ
Liyuhiqqal haqqa wa tubtilal baatila wa law karihal mujrimoon
8. That He should establish the truth and abolish falsehood, even if the criminals disliked it.
إِذْ تَسْتَغِيثُونَ رَبَّكُمْ فَٱسْتَجَابَ لَكُمْ أَنِّى مُمِدُّكُم بِأَلْفٍ مِّنَ ٱلْمَلَٰٓئِكَةِ مُرْدِفِينَ
Iz tastagheesoona Rabbakum fastajaaba lakum annee mumiddukum bi alfim minal malaaa’ikati murdifeen
Ayat 9. [Remember] when you asked help of your Lord, and He answered you, “Indeed, I will reinforce you with a thousand from the angels, following one another.”
وَمَا جَعَلَهُ ٱللَّهُ إِلَّا بُشْرَىٰ وَلِتَطْمَئِنَّ بِهِۦ قُلُوبُكُمْ ۚ وَمَا ٱلنَّصْرُ إِلَّا مِنْ عِندِ ٱللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
Wa maa ja’alahul laahu illaa bushraa wa litatma’inna bihee quloobukum; wa man nasru illaa min ‘indil laah; innal laaha Azeezun Hakeem (section 1)
10. And Allah made it not but good tidings and so that your hearts would be assured thereby. And victory is not but from Allah . Indeed, Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise.
إِذْ يُغَشِّيكُمُ ٱلنُّعَاسَ أَمَنَةً مِّنْهُ وَيُنَزِّلُ عَلَيْكُم مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءً لِّيُطَهِّرَكُم بِهِۦ وَيُذْهِبَ عَنكُمْ رِجْزَ ٱلشَّيْطَٰنِ وَلِيَرْبِطَ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِكُمْ وَيُثَبِّتَ بِهِ ٱلْأَقْدَامَ
Iz yughashsheekumun nu’assa amanatam minhu wa yunazzilu ‘alaikum minas samaaa’i maaa’al liyutah hirakum bihee wa yuzhiba ‘ankum rijzash Shaitaani wa liyarbita ‘ala quloobikum wa yusabbita bihil aqdaam
11. [Remember] when He overwhelmed you with drowsiness [giving] security from Him and sent down upon you from the sky, rain by which to purify you and remove from you the evil [suggestions] of Satan and to make steadfast your hearts and plant firmly thereby your feet.
إِذْ يُوحِى رَبُّكَ إِلَى ٱلْمَلَٰٓئِكَةِ أَنِّى مَعَكُمْ فَثَبِّتُوا۟ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ ۚ سَأُلْقِى فِى قُلُوبِ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ ٱلرُّعْبَ فَٱضْرِبُوا۟ فَوْقَ ٱلْأَعْنَاقِ وَٱضْرِبُوا۟ مِنْهُمْ كُلَّ بَنَانٍ
Iz yoohee Rabbuka ilal malaaa’ikati annee ma’akum fasabbitul lazeena aamanoo; sa ulqee fee quloobil lazeena kafarur ru’ba fadriboo fawqal a’naaqi wadriboo minhum kulla banaan
12. [Remember] when your Lord inspired to the angels, “I am with you, so strengthen those who have believed. I will cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieved, so strike [them] upon the necks and strike from them every fingertip.”
ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ شَآقُّوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ ۚ وَمَن يُشَاقِقِ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ شَدِيدُ ٱلْعِقَابِ
Zaalika bi annahum shaaaqqul laaha wa Rasoolah; wa mai yushaqiqil laaha wa Rasoolahoo fa innal laaha shadeedul ‘iqaab
13. That is because they opposed Allah and His Messenger. And whoever opposes Allah and His Messenger – indeed, Allah is severe in penalty.
ذَٰلِكُمْ فَذُوقُوهُ وَأَنَّ لِلْكَٰفِرِينَ عَذَابَ ٱلنَّارِ
Zaalikum fazooqoohu wa anna lilkaafireena ‘azaaban Naar
14. “That [is yours], so taste it.” And indeed for the disbelievers is the punishment of the Fire.
يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓا۟ إِذَا لَقِيتُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ زَحْفًا فَلَا تُوَلُّوهُمُ ٱلْأَدْبَارَ
Yaaa aiyuhal lazeena aamanoo izaa laqeetumul lazeena kafaroo zahfan falaa tuwalloohumul adbaar
15. O you who have believed, when you meet those who disbelieve advancing [for battle], do not turn to them your backs [in flight].
وَمَن يُوَلِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ دُبُرَهُۥٓ إِلَّا مُتَحَرِّفًا لِّقِتَالٍ أَوْ مُتَحَيِّزًا إِلَىٰ فِئَةٍ فَقَدْ بَآءَ بِغَضَبٍ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَمَأْوَىٰهُ جَهَنَّمُ ۖ وَبِئْسَ ٱلْمَصِيرُ
Wa mai yuwallihim yawma’izin duburahooo illaa mutaharrifal liqitaalin aw mutahaiyizan ilaa fi’atin faqad baaa’a bighadabim minal laahi wa maawaahu Jahannamu wa bi’sal maseer
16. And whoever turns his back to them on such a day, unless swerving [as a strategy] for war or joining [another] company, has certainly returned with anger [upon him] from Allah, and his refuge is Hell – and wretched is the destination.
فَلَمْ تَقْتُلُوهُمْ وَلَٰكِنَّ ٱللَّهَ قَتَلَهُمْ ۚ وَمَا رَمَيْتَ إِذْ رَمَيْتَ وَلَٰكِنَّ ٱللَّهَ رَمَىٰ ۚ وَلِيُبْلِىَ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْهُ بَلَآءً حَسَنًا ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
Falam taqtuloohum wa laakinnal laaha qatalahum; wa maa ramaita iz ramaita wa laakinnal laaha ramaa; wa liyubliyal mu’mineena minhu balaaa’an hasanaa; innal laaha Samee’un Aleem
17. And you did not kill them, but it was Allah who killed them. And you threw not, [O Muhammad], when you threw, but it was Allah who threw that He might test the believers with a good test. Indeed, Allah is Hearing and Knowing.
ذَٰلِكُمْ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ مُوهِنُ كَيْدِ ٱلْكَٰفِرِينَ
Zaalikum wa annal laaha moohinu kaidil kaafireen
18. That [is so], and [also] that Allah will weaken the plot of the disbelievers.
إِن تَسْتَفْتِحُوا۟ فَقَدْ جَآءَكُمُ ٱلْفَتْحُ ۖ وَإِن تَنتَهُوا۟ فَهُوَ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ وَإِن تَعُودُوا۟ نَعُدْ وَلَن تُغْنِىَ عَنكُمْ فِئَتُكُمْ شَيْـًٔا وَلَوْ كَثُرَتْ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ مَعَ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ
In tastaftihoo faqad jaaa’akumul fathu wa in tantahoo fahuwa khairul lakum wa in ta’oodoo na’ud wa lan tughniya ‘ankum fi’atukum shai’anw wa law kasurat wa annal laaha ma’al mu’mineen (section 2)
19. If you [disbelievers] seek the victory – the defeat has come to you. And if you desist [from hostilities], it is best for you; but if you return [to war], We will return, and never will you be availed by your [large] company at all, even if it should increase; and [that is] because Allah is with the believers.
يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓا۟ أَطِيعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ وَلَا تَوَلَّوْا۟ عَنْهُ وَأَنتُمْ تَسْمَعُونَ
Yaaa aiyuhal lazeena aamanoo atee’ul laaha wa Rasoolahoo wa laa tawallaw ‘anhu wa antum tasma’oon
20. O you who have believed, obey Allah and His Messenger and do not turn from him while you hear [his order].
وَلَا تَكُونُوا۟ كَٱلَّذِينَ قَالُوا۟ سَمِعْنَا وَهُمْ لَا يَسْمَعُونَ
Wa laa takoonoo kallazeena qaaloo sami’naa wa hum laa yasma’oon
21. And do not be like those who say, “We have heard,” while they do not hear.
إِنَّ شَرَّ ٱلدَّوَآبِّ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلصُّمُّ ٱلْبُكْمُ ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ
Inna sharrad dawaaabbi ‘indal laahis summul bukmul lazeena laa ya’qiloon
22. Indeed, the worst of living creatures in the sight of Allah are the deaf and dumb who do not use reason.
وَلَوْ عَلِمَ ٱللَّهُ فِيهِمْ خَيْرًا لَّأَسْمَعَهُمْ ۖ وَلَوْ أَسْمَعَهُمْ لَتَوَلَّوا۟ وَّهُم مُّعْرِضُونَ
Wa law ‘alimal laahu feehim khairal la asma’ahum; wa law asma’ahum latawallaw wa hum mu’ridoon
23. Had Allah known any good in them, He would have made them hear. And if He had made them hear, they would [still] have turned away, while they were refusing.
يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ ٱسْتَجِيبُوا۟ لِلَّهِ وَلِلرَّسُولِ إِذَا دَعَاكُمْ لِمَا يُحْيِيكُمْ ۖ وَٱعْلَمُوٓا۟ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَحُولُ بَيْنَ ٱلْمَرْءِ وَقَلْبِهِۦ وَأَنَّهُۥٓ إِلَيْهِ تُحْشَرُونَ
Yaaa aiyuhal lazeena aamanus tajeeboo lillaahi wa lir Rasooli izaa da’aakum limaa yuhyeekum wa’lamooo annal laaha yahoolu bainal mar’i wa qalbihee wa anahooo ilaihi tuhsharoon
24. O you who have believed, respond to Allah and to the Messenger when he calls you to that which gives you life. And know that Allah intervenes between a man and his heart and that to Him you will be gathered.
وَٱتَّقُوا۟ فِتْنَةً لَّا تُصِيبَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا۟ مِنكُمْ خَآصَّةً ۖ وَٱعْلَمُوٓا۟ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ شَدِيدُ ٱلْعِقَابِ
Wattaqoo fitnatal laa tuseebannal lazeena zalamoo minkum khaaaassatanw wa’lamooo annal laaha shadeedul ‘iqaab
25. And fear a trial which will not strike those who have wronged among you exclusively, and know that Allah is severe in penalty.
وَٱذْكُرُوٓا۟ إِذْ أَنتُمْ قَلِيلٌ مُّسْتَضْعَفُونَ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ تَخَافُونَ أَن يَتَخَطَّفَكُمُ ٱلنَّاسُ فَـَٔاوَىٰكُمْ وَأَيَّدَكُم بِنَصْرِهِۦ وَرَزَقَكُم مِّنَ ٱلطَّيِّبَٰتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
Wazkurooo iz antum qaleelum mustad ‘afoona filardi takhaafoona ai yatakhat tafakumun naasu fa aawaakum wa aiyadakum binasrihee wa razaqakum minat taiyibaati la’allakum tashkuroon
26. And remember when you were few and oppressed in the land, fearing that people might abduct you, but He sheltered you, supported you with His victory, and provided you with good things – that you might be grateful.
يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ لَا تَخُونُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَٱلرَّسُولَ وَتَخُونُوٓا۟ أَمَٰنَٰتِكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
Yaaa aiyuhal lazeena aamanoo laa takhoonal laaha war Rasoola wa takhoonooo amaanaatikum wa antum ta’lamoon
27. O you who have believed, do not betray Allah and the Messenger or betray your trusts while you know [the consequence].
وَٱعْلَمُوٓا۟ أَنَّمَآ أَمْوَٰلُكُمْ وَأَوْلَٰدُكُمْ فِتْنَةٌ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ عِندَهُۥٓ أَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ
Wa’lamooo annamaaa amwaalukum wa awlaadukum fitnatunw wa annal laaha ‘indahooo ajrun azeem (section 3)
28. And know that your properties and your children are but a trial and that Allah has with Him a great reward.
يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓا۟ إِن تَتَّقُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ يَجْعَل لَّكُمْ فُرْقَانًا وَيُكَفِّرْ عَنكُمْ سَيِّـَٔاتِكُمْ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ ذُو ٱلْفَضْلِ ٱلْعَظِيمِ
Yaaa aiyuhal lazeena aamanooo in tattaqul laaha yaj’al lakum furqaananw wa yukaffir ‘ankum saiyi aatikum wa yaghfir lakum; wallaahu zul fadlil ‘azeem
29. O you who have believed, if you fear Allah, He will grant you a criterion and will remove from you your misdeeds and forgive you. And Allah is the possessor of great bounty.
وَإِذْ يَمْكُرُ بِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ لِيُثْبِتُوكَ أَوْ يَقْتُلُوكَ أَوْ يُخْرِجُوكَ ۚ وَيَمْكُرُونَ وَيَمْكُرُ ٱللَّهُ ۖ وَٱللَّهُ خَيْرُ ٱلْمَٰكِرِينَ
Wa iz yamkuru bikal lazeena kafaroo liyusbitooka aw yaqtulooka aw yukhrijook; wa yamkuroona wa yamkurul laahu wallaahu khairul maakireen
30. And [remember, O Muhammad], when those who disbelieved plotted against you to restrain you or kill you or evict you [from Makkah]. But they plan, and Allah plans. And Allah is the best of planners.
وَإِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ ءَايَٰتُنَا قَالُوا۟ قَدْ سَمِعْنَا لَوْ نَشَآءُ لَقُلْنَا مِثْلَ هَٰذَآ ۙ إِنْ هَٰذَآ إِلَّآ أَسَٰطِيرُ ٱلْأَوَّلِينَ
Wa izaa tutlaa ‘alaihim Aayaatunaa qaaloo qad sami’naa law nashaaa’u laqulnaa misla haazaaa in haazaaa illaaa asaateerul awwaleen
31. And when Our verses are recited to them, they say, “We have heard. If we willed, we could say [something] like this. This is not but legends of the former peoples.”
وَإِذْ قَالُوا۟ ٱللَّهُمَّ إِن كَانَ هَٰذَا هُوَ ٱلْحَقَّ مِنْ عِندِكَ فَأَمْطِرْ عَلَيْنَا حِجَارَةً مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ أَوِ ٱئْتِنَا بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ
Wa iz qaalul laahumma in kaana haazaa huwal haqqa min ‘indika fa amtir ‘alainaa hijaaratam minas samaaa’i awi’tinaa bi ‘azaabin aleem
32. And [remember] when they said, “O Allah, if this should be the truth from You, then rain down upon us stones from the sky or bring us a painful punishment.”
وَمَا كَانَ ٱللَّهُ لِيُعَذِّبَهُمْ وَأَنتَ فِيهِمْ ۚ وَمَا كَانَ ٱللَّهُ مُعَذِّبَهُمْ وَهُمْ يَسْتَغْفِرُونَ
Wa maa kaanal laahu liyu’az zibahum wa anta feehim; wa maa kaanal laahu mu’az zibahum wa hum yastaghfiroon
33. But Allah would not punish them while you, [O Muhammad], are among them, and Allah would not punish them while they seek forgiveness.
وَمَا لَهُمْ أَلَّا يُعَذِّبَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ وَهُمْ يَصُدُّونَ عَنِ ٱلْمَسْجِدِ ٱلْحَرَامِ وَمَا كَانُوٓا۟ أَوْلِيَآءَهُۥٓ ۚ إِنْ أَوْلِيَآؤُهُۥٓ إِلَّا ٱلْمُتَّقُونَ وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ
Wa maa lahum allaa yu’az zibahumul laahu wa hum yasuddoona ‘anil Masjidil-Haraami wa maa kaanooo awliyaaa’ah; in awliyaaa’ uhooo illal muttaqoona wa laakinna aksarahum laa ya’lamoon
34. But why should Allah not punish them while they obstruct [people] from al-Masjid al- Haram and they were not [fit to be] its guardians? Its [true] guardians are not but the righteous, but most of them do not know.
وَمَا كَانَ صَلَاتُهُمْ عِندَ ٱلْبَيْتِ إِلَّا مُكَآءً وَتَصْدِيَةً ۚ فَذُوقُوا۟ ٱلْعَذَابَ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْفُرُونَ
Wa maa kaana Salaatuhum ‘indal Baiti illa mukaaa anw-wa tasdiyah; fazooqul ‘azaaba bimaa kuntum takfuroon
35. And their prayer at the House was not except whistling and handclapping. So taste the punishment for what you disbelieved.
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَٰلَهُمْ لِيَصُدُّوا۟ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ ۚ فَسَيُنفِقُونَهَا ثُمَّ تَكُونُ عَلَيْهِمْ حَسْرَةً ثُمَّ يُغْلَبُونَ ۗ وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓا۟ إِلَىٰ جَهَنَّمَ يُحْشَرُونَ
Innal lazeena kafaroo yunfiqoona amwaalahum liyasuddoo ‘an sabeelil laah; fasayunfiqoonahaa summa takoonu ‘alaihim hasratan summa yughlaboon; wal lazeena kafarooo ilaa Jahannnama yuhsharoona
36. Indeed, those who disbelieve spend their wealth to avert [people] from the way of Allah . So they will spend it; then it will be for them a [source of] regret; then they will be overcome. And those who have disbelieved – unto Hell they will be gathered.
لِيَمِيزَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلْخَبِيثَ مِنَ ٱلطَّيِّبِ وَيَجْعَلَ ٱلْخَبِيثَ بَعْضَهُۥ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ فَيَرْكُمَهُۥ جَمِيعًا فَيَجْعَلَهُۥ فِى جَهَنَّمَ ۚ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلْخَٰسِرُونَ
Liyameezal laahul khabeesa minat taiyibi wa yaj’alal khabeesa ba’dahoo ‘ala ba’din fayarkumahoo jamee’an fayaj’alahoo fee Jahannnam; ulaaa’ika humul khaasiroon (section 4)
37. [This is] so that Allah may distinguish the wicked from the good and place the wicked some of them upon others and heap them all together and put them into Hell. It is those who are the losers.
قُل لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓا۟ إِن يَنتَهُوا۟ يُغْفَرْ لَهُم مَّا قَدْ سَلَفَ وَإِن يَعُودُوا۟ فَقَدْ مَضَتْ سُنَّتُ ٱلْأَوَّلِينَ
Qul lillazeena kafarooo iny yantahoo yughfar lahum maa qad salafa wa iny ya’oodoo faqad madat sunnatul awwaleen
38. Say to those who have disbelieved [that] if they cease, what has previously occurred will be forgiven for them. But if they return [to hostility] – then the precedent of the former [rebellious] peoples has already taken place.
وَقَٰتِلُوهُمْ حَتَّىٰ لَا تَكُونَ فِتْنَةٌ وَيَكُونَ ٱلدِّينُ كُلُّهُۥ لِلَّهِ ۚ فَإِنِ ٱنتَهَوْا۟ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ
Wa qaatiloohum hattaa laa takoona fitnatunw wa yakoonaddeenu kulluhoo lillaah; fainin tahaw fa innallaaha bimaa ya’maloona Baseer
39. And fight them until there is no fitnah and [until] the religion, all of it, is for Allah . And if they cease – then indeed, Allah is Seeing of what they do.
وَإِن تَوَلَّوْا۟ فَٱعْلَمُوٓا۟ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ مَوْلَىٰكُمْ ۚ نِعْمَ ٱلْمَوْلَىٰ وَنِعْمَ ٱلنَّصِيرُ
Wa in tawallaw fa’lamooo annal laaha mawlaakum; ni’mal mawlaa wa ni’man naseer (End Juz 9)
40. But if they turn away – then know that Allah is your protector. Excellent is the protector, and Excellent is the helper.
وَٱعْلَمُوٓا۟ أَنَّمَا غَنِمْتُم مِّن شَىْءٍ فَأَنَّ لِلَّهِ خُمُسَهُۥ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِى ٱلْقُرْبَىٰ وَٱلْيَتَٰمَىٰ وَٱلْمَسَٰكِينِ وَٱبْنِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ إِن كُنتُمْ ءَامَنتُم بِٱللَّهِ وَمَآ أَنزَلْنَا عَلَىٰ عَبْدِنَا يَوْمَ ٱلْفُرْقَانِ يَوْمَ ٱلْتَقَى ٱلْجَمْعَانِ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ
Wa’lamooo annamaa ghanimtum min sha’in fa anna lillaahi khumusahoo wa lir Rasooli wa lizil qurba walyataamaa walmasaakeeni wabnis sabeeli in kuntum aamantum billaahi wa maaa anzalnaa ‘ala ‘abdinaa yawmal Furqaani yawmaltaqal jam’aan; wal laahu ‘alaa kulli shai’in Qadeer
41. And know that anything you obtain of war booty – then indeed, for Allah is one fifth of it and for the Messenger and for [his] near relatives and the orphans, the needy, and the [stranded] traveler, if you have believed in Allah and in that which We sent down to Our Servant on the day of criterion – the day when the two armies met. And Allah, over all things, is competent.
إِذْ أَنتُم بِٱلْعُدْوَةِ ٱلدُّنْيَا وَهُم بِٱلْعُدْوَةِ ٱلْقُصْوَىٰ وَٱلرَّكْبُ أَسْفَلَ مِنكُمْ ۚ وَلَوْ تَوَاعَدتُّمْ لَٱخْتَلَفْتُمْ فِى ٱلْمِيعَٰدِ ۙ وَلَٰكِن لِّيَقْضِىَ ٱللَّهُ أَمْرًا كَانَ مَفْعُولًا لِّيَهْلِكَ مَنْ هَلَكَ عَنۢ بَيِّنَةٍ وَيَحْيَىٰ مَنْ حَىَّ عَنۢ بَيِّنَةٍ ۗ وَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَسَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
Iz antum bil’udwatid dunyaa wa hum bil’udwatil quswaa warrakbu asfala minkum; wa law tawaa’attum lakhtalaftum fil mee’aadi wa laakil liyaqdiyal laahu amran kaana maf’oolal liyahlika man halaka ‘am baiyinatinw wa yahyaa man haiya ‘am baiyinah; wa innal laaha la Samee’un ‘Aleem
42. [Remember] when you were on the near side of the valley, and they were on the farther side, and the caravan was lower [in position] than you. If you had made an appointment [to meet], you would have missed the appointment. But [it was] so that Allah might accomplish a matter already destined – that those who perished [through disbelief] would perish upon evidence and those who lived [in faith] would live upon evidence; and indeed, Allah is Hearing and Knowing.
إِذْ يُرِيكَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ فِى مَنَامِكَ قَلِيلًا ۖ وَلَوْ أَرَىٰكَهُمْ كَثِيرًا لَّفَشِلْتُمْ وَلَتَنَٰزَعْتُمْ فِى ٱلْأَمْرِ وَلَٰكِنَّ ٱللَّهَ سَلَّمَ ۗ إِنَّهُۥ عَلِيمٌۢ بِذَاتِ ٱلصُّدُورِ
Iz yureekahumul laahu fee manaamika qaleela; wa law araakahum kaseeral lafashiltum wa latanaaza’tum fil amri wa laakinnal laaha sallam; innahoo ‘aleemum bizaatis sudoor
43. [Remember, O Muhammad], when Allah showed them to you in your dream as few; and if He had shown them to you as many, you [believers] would have lost courage and would have disputed in the matter [of whether to fight], but Allah saved [you from that]. Indeed, He is Knowing of that within the breasts.
وَإِذْ يُرِيكُمُوهُمْ إِذِ ٱلْتَقَيْتُمْ فِىٓ أَعْيُنِكُمْ قَلِيلًا وَيُقَلِّلُكُمْ فِىٓ أَعْيُنِهِمْ لِيَقْضِىَ ٱللَّهُ أَمْرًا كَانَ مَفْعُولًا ۗ وَإِلَى ٱللَّهِ تُرْجَعُ ٱلْأُمُورُ
Wa iz yureekumoohum izil taqaitum feee a’yunikum qaleelanw wa yuqallilukum feee a’yunihim liyaqdiyal laahu amran kaana maf’oolaa; wa ilal laahi turja’ul umoor (section 5)
44. And [remember] when He showed them to you, when you met, as few in your eyes, and He made you [appear] as few in their eyes so that Allah might accomplish a matter already destined. And to Allah are [all] matters returned.
يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓا۟ إِذَا لَقِيتُمْ فِئَةً فَٱثْبُتُوا۟ وَٱذْكُرُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ كَثِيرًا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ
Yaaa aiyuhal lazeena aamanooo izaa laqeetum fi’atan fasbutoo wazkurul laaha kaseeral la’allakum tuflihoon
45. O you who have believed, when you encounter a company [from the enemy forces], stand firm and remember Allah much that you may be successful.
وَأَطِيعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ وَلَا تَنَٰزَعُوا۟ فَتَفْشَلُوا۟ وَتَذْهَبَ رِيحُكُمْ ۖ وَٱصْبِرُوٓا۟ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ مَعَ ٱلصَّٰبِرِينَ
Wa atee’ul laaha wa Rasoolahoo wa laa tanaaza’oo fatafshaloo wa tazhaba reehukum wasbiroo; innal laaha ma’as saabireen
46. And obey Allah and His Messenger, and do not dispute and [thus] lose courage and [then] your strength would depart; and be patient. Indeed, Allah is with the patient.
وَلَا تَكُونُوا۟ كَٱلَّذِينَ خَرَجُوا۟ مِن دِيَٰرِهِم بَطَرًا وَرِئَآءَ ٱلنَّاسِ وَيَصُدُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ ۚ وَٱللَّهُ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ مُحِيطٌ
Wa laa takoonoo kallazeena kharajoo min diyaarihim bataranw wa ri’aaa’an naasi wa yasuddoona ‘an sabeelil laah; wallaahu bimaa ya’maloona muheet
47. And do not be like those who came forth from their homes insolently and to be seen by people and avert [them] from the way of Allah . And Allah is encompassing of what they do.
وَإِذْ زَيَّنَ لَهُمُ ٱلشَّيْطَٰنُ أَعْمَٰلَهُمْ وَقَالَ لَا غَالِبَ لَكُمُ ٱلْيَوْمَ مِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ وَإِنِّى جَارٌ لَّكُمْ ۖ فَلَمَّا تَرَآءَتِ ٱلْفِئَتَانِ نَكَصَ عَلَىٰ عَقِبَيْهِ وَقَالَ إِنِّى بَرِىٓءٌ مِّنكُمْ إِنِّىٓ أَرَىٰ مَا لَا تَرَوْنَ إِنِّىٓ أَخَافُ ٱللَّهَ ۚ وَٱللَّهُ شَدِيدُ ٱلْعِقَابِ
Wa iz zaiyana lahumush shaitaanu a’ma alahum wa qaala laa ghaaliba lakumul yawma minan naasi wa innee jaarul lakum falammaa taraaa’atil fi’ataani nakasa ‘alaa aqibaihi wa qaala innee bareee’um minkum innee araa maa laa tarawna inneee akhaaful laah; wallaahu shadeedul ‘iqaab (section 6)
48. And [remember] when Satan made their deeds pleasing to them and said, “No one can overcome you today from among the people, and indeed, I am your protector.” But when the two armies sighted each other, he turned on his heels and said, “Indeed, I am disassociated from you. Indeed, I see what you do not see; indeed I fear Allah . And Allah is severe in penalty.”
إِذْ يَقُولُ ٱلْمُنَٰفِقُونَ وَٱلَّذِينَ فِى قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ غَرَّ هَٰٓؤُلَآءِ دِينُهُمْ ۗ وَمَن يَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
Iz yaqoolul munaafiqoona wallazeena fee quloobihim maradun gharra haaa’ulaaa’i deenuhum; wa mai yatawakkal ‘alal laahi fa innal laaha ‘azee zun Hakeem
49. [Remember] when the hypocrites and those in whose hearts was disease said, “Their religion has deluded those [Muslims].” But whoever relies upon Allah – then indeed, Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise.
وَلَوْ تَرَىٰٓ إِذْ يَتَوَفَّى ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ ۙ ٱلْمَلَٰٓئِكَةُ يَضْرِبُونَ وُجُوهَهُمْ وَأَدْبَٰرَهُمْ وَذُوقُوا۟ عَذَابَ ٱلْحَرِيقِ
Wa law taraaa iz yatawaf fal lazeena kafarul malaaa’ikatu yadriboona wujoohahum wa adbaarahum wa zooqoo ‘azaabal hareeq
50. And if you could but see when the angels take the souls of those who disbelieved… They are striking their faces and their backs and [saying], “Taste the punishment of the Burning Fire.
ذَٰلِكَ بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيكُمْ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَيْسَ بِظَلَّٰمٍ لِّلْعَبِيدِ
Zaalika bimaa qaddamat aideekum wa anal laaha laisa bizallaamil lil ‘abeed
51. That is for what your hands have put forth [of evil] and because Allah is not ever unjust to His servants.”
كَدَأْبِ ءَالِ فِرْعَوْنَ ۙ وَٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ كَفَرُوا۟ بِـَٔايَٰتِ ٱللَّهِ فَأَخَذَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِذُنُوبِهِمْ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ قَوِىٌّ شَدِيدُ ٱلْعِقَابِ
Kadaabi Aali Fir’awna wal lazeena min qablihim; kafaroo bi Aayaatil laahi fa akhazahu mul laahu bizunoobihim; innal laaha qawiyyun shadeedul ‘iqaab
52. [Theirs is] like the custom of the people of Pharaoh and of those before them. They disbelieved in the signs of Allah, so Allah seized them for their sins. Indeed, Allah is Powerful and severe in penalty.
ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَمْ يَكُ مُغَيِّرًا نِّعْمَةً أَنْعَمَهَا عَلَىٰ قَوْمٍ حَتَّىٰ يُغَيِّرُوا۟ مَا بِأَنفُسِهِمْ ۙ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
Zaalika bi annal laaha lam yaku mughaiyiran ni matan an’amahaa ‘alaa qawmin hattaa yughaiyiroo maa bianfusihim wa annallaaha samee un ‘Aleem
53. That is because Allah would not change a favor which He had bestowed upon a people until they change what is within themselves. And indeed, Allah is Hearing and Knowing.
كَدَأْبِ ءَالِ فِرْعَوْنَ ۙ وَٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ كَذَّبُوا۟ بِـَٔايَٰتِ رَبِّهِمْ فَأَهْلَكْنَٰهُم بِذُنُوبِهِمْ وَأَغْرَقْنَآ ءَالَ فِرْعَوْنَ ۚ وَكُلٌّ كَانُوا۟ ظَٰلِمِينَ
Kadaabi Aali Fir’awna wallazeena min qablihim; kazzaboo bi Aayaati Rabbihim faahlaknaahum bizunoobihim wa aghraqnaa Aala Fir’awn; wa kullun kaanoo zaalimeen
54. [Theirs is] like the custom of the people of Pharaoh and of those before them. They denied the signs of their Lord, so We destroyed them for their sins, and We drowned the people of Pharaoh. And all [of them] were wrongdoers.
إِنَّ شَرَّ ٱلدَّوَآبِّ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ فَهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ
Inna sharrad dawaaabbi ‘indal laahil lazeena kafaroo fahum laa yu’minoon
55. Indeed, the worst of living creatures in the sight of Allah are those who have disbelieved, and they will not [ever] believe –
ٱلَّذِينَ عَٰهَدتَّ مِنْهُمْ ثُمَّ يَنقُضُونَ عَهْدَهُمْ فِى كُلِّ مَرَّةٍ وَهُمْ لَا يَتَّقُونَ
Allazeena’aahatta min hum summa yanqudoona ‘ahdahum fee kulli marratinw wa hum laa yattaqoon
56. The ones with whom you made a treaty but then they break their pledge every time, and they do not fear Allah.
فَإِمَّا تَثْقَفَنَّهُمْ فِى ٱلْحَرْبِ فَشَرِّدْ بِهِم مَّنْ خَلْفَهُمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَذَّكَّرُونَ
Fa immaa tasqafannahum fil harbi fasharrid bihim man khalfahum la’allahum yazzakkaroon
57. So if you, [O Muhammad], gain dominance over them in war, disperse by [means of] them those behind them that perhaps they will be reminded.
وَإِمَّا تَخَافَنَّ مِن قَوْمٍ خِيَانَةً فَٱنۢبِذْ إِلَيْهِمْ عَلَىٰ سَوَآءٍ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلْخَآئِنِينَ
Wa immaa takhaafana min qawmin khiyaanatan fambiz ilaihim ‘alaa sawaaa’; innal laaha laayuhibbul khaaa’ineen (section 7)
58. If you [have reason to] fear from a people betrayal, throw [their treaty] back to them, [putting you] on equal terms. Indeed, Allah does not like traitors.
وَلَا يَحْسَبَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ سَبَقُوٓا۟ ۚ إِنَّهُمْ لَا يُعْجِزُونَ
Wa laa yahsabannal lazeena kafaroo sabaqooo; innahum laa yu’jizoon
59. And let not those who disbelieve think they will escape. Indeed, they will not cause failure [to Allah ].
وَأَعِدُّوا۟ لَهُم مَّا ٱسْتَطَعْتُم مِّن قُوَّةٍ وَمِن رِّبَاطِ ٱلْخَيْلِ تُرْهِبُونَ بِهِۦ عَدُوَّ ٱللَّهِ وَعَدُوَّكُمْ وَءَاخَرِينَ مِن دُونِهِمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ يَعْلَمُهُمْ ۚ وَمَا تُنفِقُوا۟ مِن شَىْءٍ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ يُوَفَّ إِلَيْكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تُظْلَمُونَ
Wa a’iddoo lahum mastata’tum min quwwatinw wa mirribaatil khaili turhiboona bihee ‘aduwwal laahi wa ‘aduwwakum wa aakhareena min doonihim laa ta’lamoo nahum Allaahu ya’lamuhum; wa maa tunfiqoo min shai’in fee sabeelil laahi yuwaf failaikum wa antum laa tuzlamoon
60. And prepare against them whatever you are able of power and of steeds of war by which you may terrify the enemy of Allah and your enemy and others besides them whom you do not know [but] whom Allah knows. And whatever you spend in the cause of Allah will be fully repaid to you, and you will not be wronged.
وَإِن جَنَحُوا۟ لِلسَّلْمِ فَٱجْنَحْ لَهَا وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ هُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلْعَلِيمُ
Wa in janahoo lissalmi fajnah lahaa wa tawakkal ‘alal laah; innahoo Huwas Samee’ul ‘Aleem
61. And if they incline to peace, then incline to it [also] and rely upon Allah . Indeed, it is He who is the Hearing, the Knowing.
وَإِن يُرِيدُوٓا۟ أَن يَخْدَعُوكَ فَإِنَّ حَسْبَكَ ٱللَّهُ ۚ هُوَ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَيَّدَكَ بِنَصْرِهِۦ وَبِٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ
Wa iny yureedooo any-yakhda’ooka fainna hasbakal laah; Huwal lazeee aiyadaka binasrihee wa bilmu’mineen
Ayat 62. But if they intend to deceive you – then sufficient for you is Allah. It is He who supported you with His help and with the believers
وَأَلَّفَ بَيْنَ قُلُوبِهِمْ ۚ لَوْ أَنفَقْتَ مَا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا مَّآ أَلَّفْتَ بَيْنَ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَلَٰكِنَّ ٱللَّهَ أَلَّفَ بَيْنَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
Wa allafa baina quloobihim; law anfaqta maa fil ardi jamee’am maaa allafta baina quloobihim wa laakinnallaaha allafa bainahum; innaahoo ‘Azeezun Hakeem
Ayat 63. And brought together their hearts. If you had spent all that is in the earth, you could not have brought their hearts together; but Allah brought them together. Indeed, He is Exalted in Might and Wise.
يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّبِىُّ حَسْبُكَ ٱللَّهُ وَمَنِ ٱتَّبَعَكَ مِنَ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ
Yaaa aiyuhan Nabiyyu hasbukal laahu wa manittaba ‘aka minal mu’mineen (section 8)
64. O Prophet, sufficient for you is Allah and for whoever follows you of the believers.
يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّبِىُّ حَرِّضِ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلَى ٱلْقِتَالِ ۚ إِن يَكُن مِّنكُمْ عِشْرُونَ صَٰبِرُونَ يَغْلِبُوا۟ مِا۟ئَتَيْنِ ۚ وَإِن يَكُن مِّنكُم مِّا۟ئَةٌ يَغْلِبُوٓا۟ أَلْفًا مِّنَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَّا يَفْقَهُونَ
Yaaa aiyuhan Nabiyyu harridil mu’mineena ‘alal qitaal; iny-yakum minkum ‘ishroona saabiroona yaghliboo mi’atayn; wa iny-yakum minkum min’atuny yaghlibooo alfam minal lazeena kafaroo bi anahum qawmul laa yafqahoon
65. O Prophet, urge the believers to battle. If there are among you twenty [who are] steadfast, they will overcome two hundred. And if there are among you one hundred [who are] steadfast, they will overcome a thousand of those who have disbelieved because they are a people who do not understand.
ٱلْـَٰٔنَ خَفَّفَ ٱللَّهُ عَنكُمْ وَعَلِمَ أَنَّ فِيكُمْ ضَعْفًا ۚ فَإِن يَكُن مِّنكُم مِّا۟ئَةٌ صَابِرَةٌ يَغْلِبُوا۟ مِا۟ئَتَيْنِ ۚ وَإِن يَكُن مِّنكُمْ أَلْفٌ يَغْلِبُوٓا۟ أَلْفَيْنِ بِإِذْنِ ٱللَّهِ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ مَعَ ٱلصَّٰبِرِينَ
Al’aana khaffafal laahu ‘ankum wa ‘alima anna feekum da’faa; fa-iny yakum minkum mi’atun saabiratuny yaghliboo mi’atayn; wa iny-yakum minkum alfuny yaghlibooo alfaini bi iznil laah; wallaahu ma’as saabireen
66. Now, Allah has lightened [the hardship] for you, and He knows that among you is weakness. So if there are from you one hundred [who are] steadfast, they will overcome two hundred. And if there are among you a thousand, they will overcome two thousand by permission of Allah . And Allah is with the steadfast.
مَا كَانَ لِنَبِىٍّ أَن يَكُونَ لَهُۥٓ أَسْرَىٰ حَتَّىٰ يُثْخِنَ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ تُرِيدُونَ عَرَضَ ٱلدُّنْيَا وَٱللَّهُ يُرِيدُ ٱلْءَاخِرَةَ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
Maa kaana li Nabiyyin ai yakoona lahooo asraa hatta yuskhina fil ard; tureedoona aradad dunyaa wallaahu yureedul Aakhirah; wallaahu ‘Azeezun Hakeem
67. It is not for a prophet to have captives [of war] until he inflicts a massacre [upon Allah ‘s enemies] in the land. Some Muslims desire the commodities of this world, but Allah desires [for you] the Hereafter. And Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise.
لَّوْلَا كِتَٰبٌ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ سَبَقَ لَمَسَّكُمْ فِيمَآ أَخَذْتُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ
Law laa Kitaabum minal laahi sabaqa lamassakum fee maaa akhaztum ‘azaabun ‘azeem
68. If not for a decree from Allah that preceded, you would have been touched for what you took by a great punishment.
فَكُلُوا۟ مِمَّا غَنِمْتُمْ حَلَٰلًا طَيِّبًا ۚ وَٱتَّقُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
Fakuloo mimaa ghanimtum halaalan taiyibaa; watta qullaah; innal laaha Ghafoorur Raheem (section 9)
69. So consume what you have taken of war booty [as being] lawful and good, and fear Allah . Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.
يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّبِىُّ قُل لِّمَن فِىٓ أَيْدِيكُم مِّنَ ٱلْأَسْرَىٰٓ إِن يَعْلَمِ ٱللَّهُ فِى قُلُوبِكُمْ خَيْرًا يُؤْتِكُمْ خَيْرًا مِّمَّآ أُخِذَ مِنكُمْ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
Yaaa aiyuhan Nabiyyu qul liman feee aideekum minal asraaa iny-ya lamillaahu fee quloobikum khairany yu’tikum khayram mimmaaa ukhiza minkum wa yaghfir lakum; wallaahu Ghafoorur Raheem
70. O Prophet, say to whoever is in your hands of the captives, “If Allah knows [any] good in your hearts, He will give you [something] better than what was taken from you, and He will forgive you; and Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.”
وَإِن يُرِيدُوا۟ خِيَانَتَكَ فَقَدْ خَانُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ مِن قَبْلُ فَأَمْكَنَ مِنْهُمْ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ
Wa iny-yureedoo khiyaa nataka faqad khaanullaaha min qablu fa amkana minhum; wallaahu ‘aleemum Hakeem
71. But if they intend to betray you – then they have already betrayed Allah before, and He empowered [you] over them. And Allah is Knowing and Wise.
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَهَاجَرُوا۟ وَجَٰهَدُوا۟ بِأَمْوَٰلِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَاوَوا۟ وَّنَصَرُوٓا۟ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَآءُ بَعْضٍ ۚ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَلَمْ يُهَاجِرُوا۟ مَا لَكُم مِّن وَلَٰيَتِهِم مِّن شَىْءٍ حَتَّىٰ يُهَاجِرُوا۟ ۚ وَإِنِ ٱسْتَنصَرُوكُمْ فِى ٱلدِّينِ فَعَلَيْكُمُ ٱلنَّصْرُ إِلَّا عَلَىٰ قَوْمٍۭ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُم مِّيثَٰقٌ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ
Innal lazeena aamanoo wa haajaroo wa jaahadoo bi amwaalihim wa anfusihim fee sabeelil laahi wallazeena aawaw wa nasarooo ulaaa’ika ba’duhum awliyaaa’u ba’d; wallazeena aamanoo wa lam yuhaajiroo maa lakum minw walaayatihim min shai’in hatta yuhaajiroo; wa inistan sarookum fid deeni fa’alaiku munnasru illaa ‘alaa qawmim bainakum wa bainahum meesaaq; wallaahu bimaa ta’maloona Baseer
72. Indeed, those who have believed and emigrated and fought with their wealth and lives in the cause of Allah and those who gave shelter and aided – they are allies of one another. But those who believed and did not emigrate – for you there is no guardianship of them until they emigrate. And if they seek help of you for the religion, then you must help, except against a people between yourselves and whom is a treaty. And Allah is Seeing of what you do.
وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَآءُ بَعْضٍ ۚ إِلَّا تَفْعَلُوهُ تَكُن فِتْنَةٌ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ وَفَسَادٌ كَبِيرٌ
Wallazeena kafaroo ba’duhum awliyaaa’u ba’d; illaa taf’aloohu takun fitnatun fil ardi wa fasaadun kabeer
73. And those who disbelieved are allies of one another. If you do not do so, there will be fitnah on earth and great corruption.
وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَهَاجَرُوا۟ وَجَٰهَدُوا۟ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَاوَوا۟ وَّنَصَرُوٓا۟ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلْمُؤْمِنُونَ حَقًّا ۚ لَّهُم مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيمٌ
Wallazeena aamanoo wa haajaroo wa jaahadoo fee sabeelil laahi wallazeena aawaw wa nasarooo ulaaa’ika humul mu’minoona haqqaa; lahum maghfiratunw wa rizqun kareem
74. But those who have believed and emigrated and fought in the cause of Allah and those who gave shelter and aided – it is they who are the believers, truly. For them is forgiveness and noble provision.
وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ مِنۢ بَعْدُ وَهَاجَرُوا۟ وَجَٰهَدُوا۟ مَعَكُمْ فَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ مِنكُمْ ۚ وَأُو۟لُوا۟ ٱلْأَرْحَامِ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلَىٰ بِبَعْضٍ فِى كِتَٰبِ ٱللَّهِ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلِيمٌۢ
Wallazeena aamanoo mim ba’du wa haajaroo wa jaahadoo ma;akum faulaaa’ika minkum; wa ulul arhaami baduhum awlaa biba’din fee Kitaabil laah; innal laaha bikulli shai’in ‘Aleem (section 10)
75. And those who believed after [the initial emigration] and emigrated and fought with you – they are of you. But those of [blood] relationship are more entitled [to inheritance] in the decree of Allah . Indeed, Allah is Knowing of all things.
Tafsir Surah Al Anfal by Ibn Kathir
Which was revealed in Al-Madinah
There are seventy-five Ayat in this Surah. The word count of this Surah is one thousand, six hundred and thirty-one words and its letters number five thousand, two hundred and ninety-four. In the Name of Allah the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful (1. They ask you about Al-Anfal (the spoils of war). Say: “Al-Anfal are for Allah and the Messenger.” So have Taqwa of Allah and settle all matters of difference among you, and obey Allah and His Messenger, if you are believers.)
Meaning of Anfal
Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “Al-Anfal are the spoils of war.” Al-Bukhari also recorded that Sa`id bin Jubayr said, “I said to Ibn `Abbas, `Surat Al-Anfal’ He said, `It was revealed concerning (the battle of) Badr.”’ `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported, as Al-Bukhari recorded from Ibn `Abbas without a chain of narration, that Ibn `Abbas said,
“Al-Anfal are the spoils of war; they were for the Messenger of Allah , and none had a share in them.” Similar was said by Mujahid, `Ikrimah, `Ata’, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, `Ata’ Al-Khurasani, Muqatil bin Hayyan, `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam and several others.
It was also said that the Nafl (singular for Anfal) refers to the portion of the spoils of war that the commander gives to some of the fighters after dividing the bulk of the spoils. It was also said that Anfal refers to the Khumus; one-fifth of the captured goods after four-fifths are divided between the fighters.
It was also said that the Anfal refers to the Fay’, the possessions taken from the disbelievers without fighting, and the animals, servants or whatever other possessions escape from the disbelievers to Muslims. Ibn Jarir recorded that `Ali bin Salih bin Hay said: “It has reached me that, (They ask you about Al-Anfal) is about the divisions. This refer to what the Imam gives to some squads in addition to what is divided among the rest of the soldiers.”
The Reason behind revealing Ayah 8:1
Imam Ahmad recorded that Sa`d bin Malik said, “I said, `O Allah’s Messenger, Allah has brought comfort to me today over the idolators, so grant me this sword.’ He said, (This sword is neither yours nor mine; put it down.) So I put it down, but said to myself, `The Prophet might give this sword to another man who did not fight as fiercely as I did.’ I heard a man calling me from behind and I said, `Has Allah revealed something in my case’ The Prophet said, (You asked me to give you the sword, but it is not for me to decide about.
However, it has been granted to me (by Allah), and I give it to you.) So Allah sent down this Ayah, (They ask you about Al-Anfal. Say: “Al-Anfal are for Allah and the Messenger”). Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i collected this Hadith, At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih”.
Another Reason behind revealing the Ayah 8:1
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Umamah said, “I asked `Ubadah about Al-Anfal and he said, `It was revealed about us, those who participated in (the battle of) Badr, when we disputed about An-Nafl and our dispute was not appealing. So Allah took Al-Anfal from us and gave it to the Messenger of Allah . The Messenger divided it equally among Muslims.”’
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Umamah said that `Ubadah bin As-Samit said, “We went with the Messenger of Allah to the battle of Badr. When the two armies met, Allah defeated the enemy and some of us pursued them inflicting utter defeat and casualties. Another group of us came to the battlefield collecting the spoils of war.
Another group surrounded the Messenger of Allah , so that the enemy could not attack him suddenly. When it was night and the various army groups went back to our camp, some of those who collected the spoils said, `We collected it, so none else will have a share in it.’ Those who went in pursuit of the enemy said, `No, you have no more right to it than us. We kept the enemy away from the war spoils and defeated them.’
Those who surrounded the Messenger of Allah to protect him said, `You have no more right to it than us, we surrounded the Messenger of Allah for fear that the enemy might conduct a surprise attack against him, so we were busy.’ The Ayah, (They ask you about Al-Anfal (the spoils of war).
Say: “Al-Anfal are for Allah and the Messenger.” So fear Allah and settle all matters of difference among you.) was revealed and the Messenger of Allah divided the Anfal equally between Muslims.”’ (And Allah’s Messenger would give a fourth for Anfal when there was a surprise attack in the land of the enemy, and when there was a confrontation then a third to the people who returned).
The Prophet used to dislike the Anfal and encouraged strong fighters to give some of their share to weak Muslim fighters. At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah collected a similar narration for this Hadith, and At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan”. Allah said, (So have Taqwa of Allah and settle all matters of difference among you,) The Ayah commands, have Taqwa of Allah in all your affairs, settle matters of differences between you, do not wrong each other, do not dispute, and do not differ.
Certainly, the guidance and knowledge that Allah has granted you is better than what you are disputing about ﴿such as Al-Anfal, (and obey Allah and His Messenger,) in the division that the Messenger makes according to Allah’s order. The Prophet only divided according to what Allah ordained, which is perfectly just and fair. Ibn `Abbas commented on this Ayah, “This is a command from Allah and His Messenger to the believers, that they should have Taqwa of Allah and settle all matters of differences between them.”
A similar statement was reported from Mujahid. As-Suddi also commented on Allah’s statement, (So have Taqwa of Allah and settle all matters of difference among you), meaning “Do not curse each other.” (2. The believers are only those who, when Allah is mentioned, feel a fear in their hearts and when His Ayat are recited unto them, they increase their faith; and they put their trust in their Lord;) (3. Who perform the Salah and spend out of what We have provided them.) (4. It is they who are the believers in truth. For them are grades of dignity with their Lord, and forgiveness and a generous provision (Paradise).)
Qualities of the Faithful and Truthful Believers
Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said about the Ayah, (The believers are only those who, when Allah is mentioned, feel a fear in their hearts) “None of Allah’s remembrance enters the hearts of the hypocrites upon performing what He has ordained.
They neither believe in any of Allah’s Ayat nor trust (in Allah) nor pray if they are alone nor pay the Zakah due on their wealth. Allah stated that they are not believers. He then described the believers by saying, (The believers are only those who, when Allah is mentioned, feel a fear in their hearts) and they perform what He has ordained, (and when His Ayat are recited unto them, they increase their faith) and conviction, (and they put their trust in their Lord), having hope in none except Him. ” Mujahid commented on, (their hearts Wajilat), “Their hearts become afraid and fearful.”
Similar was said by As-Suddi and several others. The quality of a true believer is that when Allah is mentioned, he feels a fear in his heart, and thus implements His orders and abstains from His prohibitions.
Allah said in a similar Ayah, (And those who, when they have committed Fahishah (immoral sin) or wronged themselves with evil, remember Allah and ask forgiveness for their sins; — and none can forgive sins but Allah — and do not persist in what (wrong) they have done, while they know) 3:135, and, (But as for him who feared standing before his Lord, and restrained himself from vain desires. Verily, Paradise will be his abode.) 79:40-41 Sufyan Ath-Thawri narrated that As-Suddi commented,
(The believers are only those who, when Allah is mentioned, feel a fear in their hearts)
“A man might be thinking of committing injustice or a sin. But he abstains when he is told, `Have Taqwa of Allah’, and his heart becomes fearful.”
Faith increases when the Qur’an is recited
Allah’s statement, (And when His Ayat are recited unto them, they increase their faith;) is similar to His statement, (And whenever there comes down a Surah, some of them (hypocrites) say: “Which of you has had his faith increased by it” As for those who believe, it has increased their faith, and they rejoice) ﴿9:124﴾. Al-Bukhari and other scholars relied on this Ayah (8:2) and those similar, as evidence that faith increases and varies in strength from heart to heart. This is also the view of the majority of the scholars of Islam, prompting some scholars, such as Ash-Shafi`i, Ahmad bin Hanbal and Abu `Ubayd to declare that this is the consensus of the Ummah, as we mentioned in the beginning of the explanation of Sahih Al-Bukhari. All the thanks and praises are due to Allah.
The Reality of Tawakkul
Allah said, (And they put their trust in their Lord.) Therefore, the believers hope in none except Allah, direct their dedication to Him alone, seek refuge with Him alone, invoke Him alone for their various needs and supplicate to Him alone. They know that whatever He wills, occurs and that whatever He does not will never occurs, that He alone is the One Who has the decision in His kingdom, without partners; none can avert the decision of Allah and He is swift in reckoning. Hence the statement of Sa`id bin Jubayr, “Tawakkul of Allah is the essence of faith.
Deeds of Faithful Believers
Allah said next, (Who perform the Salah and spend out of what We have provided them.) Allah describes the actions of the believers after He mentioned their faith. The acts mentioned here include all types of righteous acts, such as establishing prayer, which is Allah’s right. Qatadah said, “Establishing the prayer requires preserving its times, making ablution for it, bowing down and prostrating.” Muqatil bin Hayyan said, “Establishing the prayer means to preserve its times, perform perfect purity for it, perform perfect bowings and prostrations, recite the Qur’an during it, sitting for Tashahhud and reciting the Salah (invoking Allah’s blessings) for the benefit of the Prophet.” Spending from what Allah has granted includes giving the Zakah and the rest of the what is due from the servant, either what is obligatory or recommended. All of the servants are Allah’s dependents, and the most beloved among them to Him are the most beneficial to His creation.
The Reality of Faith
Allah’s statement, (It is they who are the believers in truth.) means, those who have these qualities are the believers with true faith.
The Fruits of Perfect Faith
Allah said, (For them are grades of dignity with their Lord) meaning, they have different grades, ranks and status in Paradise, (They are in varying grades with Allah, and Allah is All-Seer of what they do.)﴿3:163﴾ Next, Allah said, (and forgiveness), therefore, Allah will forgive them their sins and reward them for their good deeds.
In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said, (The residents of `Illiyyin (in Paradise) are seen from those below them, just as you see the distant planet in the horizon of the sky.) They said, “O Allah’s Messenger! They are the grades of the Prophets that none except them would attain.”
The Prophet said, (Rather, by He in Whose Hand is my soul! They are for men who have faith in Allah and believed in the Messengers.) In a Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad and the collectors of Sunan, Abu `Atiyyah said that Ibn Abu Sa`id said that the Messenger of Allah said, (Residents of Paradise see the residents of the highest grades just as you see the distant planet in the horizon of the sky. Verily, Abu Bakr and `Umar are among them (in the highest grades), and how excellent they are.) (5. As your Lord caused you to go out from your home with the truth; and verily, a party among the believers disliked it.) (6. Disputing with you concerning the truth after it was made manifest, as if they were being driven to death, while they were looking (at it).) (7. And (remember) when Allah promised you (Muslims) one of the two parties, that it should be yours; you wished that the one not armed should be yours, but Allah willed to justify the truth by His Words and to cut off the roots of the disbelievers.) (8. That He might cause the truth to triumph and bring falsehood to nothing, even though the criminals hate it.)
Following the Messenger is Better for the Believers
Allah said, (As your Lord caused you to go out…) After Allah described the believers as fearing their Lord, resolving matters of dispute between themselves and obeying Allah and His Messenger , He then said here, “since you disputed about dividing war spoils and differed with each other about them, Allah took them away from you.
He and His Messenger then divided them in truth and justice, thus ensuring continued benefit for all of you. Similarly, you disliked meeting the armed enemy in battle, who marched in support of their religion and to protect their caravan. You disliked fighting, so Allah decided that battle should occur and made you meet your enemy, without planning to do so on your part.’ This incident carried guidance, light, victory and triumph.
Allah said; (Jihad is ordained for you though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you, and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allah knows but you do not know.) 2:216 As-Suddi commented, (And verily, a party among the believers disliked) to meet ﴿the armed﴾ idolators. ” (Disputing with you concerning the truth after it was made manifest,) Some have commented, “(Allah says:) they ask and argue with you about Al-Anfal just as they argued with you when you went out for the battle of Badr, saying, `You marched with us to confiscate the caravan.
You did not inform us that there will be fighting and that we should prepare for it.”’ (but Allah willed to justify the truth by His Words) Allah says, `He willed for you to meet the armed enemy ﴿rather than the caravan﴾ so that He makes you prevail above them and gain victory over them, making His religion apparent and Islam victorious and dominant above all religions.
He has perfect knowledge of the consequences of all things, you are surrounded by His wise planning, although people only like what appears favorable to them,’ (Jihad (fighting in Allah’s cause) is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you) 2:216. Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that `Abdullah bin `Abbas said, “When the Messenger of Allah heard that Abu Sufyan had left the Sham area (headed towards Makkah with Quraysh’s caravan), he encouraged the Muslims to march forth to intercept them, saying, (This is the caravan of Quraysh carrying their property, so march forth to intercept it, Allah might make it as war spoils for you.)
The people started mobilizing Muslims, although some of them did not mobilize, thinking that the Prophet would not have to fight. Abu Sufyan was cautiously gathering information on the latest news spying on travelers he met, out of fear for the caravan, especially upon entering the area of Hijaz (Western Arabia). Some travelers told him that Muhammad had mobilized his companions for his caravan.
He was anxious and hired Damdam bin `Amr Al-Ghifari to go to Makkah and mobilize the Quraysh to protect their caravan, informing them that Muhammad had mobilized his Companions to intercept the caravan. Damdam bin `Amr went in a hurry to Makkah. Meanwhile, the Messenger of Allah marched with his companions until he reached a valley called Dhafiran. When he left the valley, he camped and was informed that the Quraysh had marched to protect their caravan.
The Messenger of Allah consulted the people for advice and conveyed the news about Quraysh to them. Abu Bakr stood up and said something good, and so did `Umar. Al-Miqdad bin `Amr stood up and said, `O Allah’s Messenger! March to what Allah has commanded you, for we are with you. By Allah! We will not say to you what the Children of Israel said to Musa, (“So go you and your Lord and fight you two, we are sitting right here”) ﴿5:24﴾. Rather, go you and Your Lord and fight, we will be fighting along with you both. By He Who has sent you with Truth!
If you decide to take us to Birk-ul-Ghimad, we will fight along with you until you reach it.’ The Messenger of Allah said good words to Al-Miqdad and invoked Allah for his benefit. The Messenger of Allah again said, (Give me your opinion, O people! wanting to hear from the Ansar. This is because the majority of the people with him then were the Ansar. When the Ansar gave the Prophet their pledge of obedience at Al-`Aqabah, they proclaimed, `O Allah’s Messenger!
We are not bound by this pledge unless, and until, you arrive in our land. When you have arrived in our area, you are under our protection, and we shall protect you in the same manner we protect our children and wives.’ The Messenger of Allah feared that the Ansar might think that they are not obliged to support him except from his enemies who attack Al-Madinah, not to march with him to an enemy in other areas.
When the Prophet said this, Sa`d bin Mu`adh asked him, `O Allah’s Messenger! Is it us whom you meant’ The Prophet answered in the positive. Sa`d said, `We have faith and believed in you, testified that what you brought is the truth, and gave you our pledges and promises of allegiance and obedience.
Therefore, march, O Allah’s Messenger, for what Allah has commanded you. Verily, by He Who has sent you in Truth, if you decided to cross this sea (the Red Sea), we will follow you in it, and none among us would stay behind. We do not dislike that we meet our enemy tomorrow. Verily, we are patient in war, fierce in battle.
May Allah make you witness what makes your eyes pleased with us. Therefore, march with us with the blessing of Allah.’ The Messenger of Allah was pleased with what Sa`d said and was encouraged by it. He proclaimed, (March with the blessing of Allah and receive the good news. For Allah has indeed promised me one of the two camps (confiscating the caravan or defeating the Quraysh army).
By Allah! It is as if I am now looking at the demise of the people (the Quraysh).)” Al-`Awfi reported similar from Ibn `Abbas. As-Suddi, Qatadah, `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam; and several others among the Salaf and later generations mentioned similarly, We have just summarized the story as Muhammad bin Ishaq briefed it. (9. (Remember) when you sought help of your Lord and He answered you (saying): “I will help you with a thousand of the angels Murdifin.”) (10. Allah made it only as glad tidings, and that your hearts be at rest therewith. And there is no victory except from Allah. Verily, Allah is Almighty, All-Wise.)
Muslims invoke Allah for Help, Allah sends the Angels to help Them
Al-Bukhari wrote in the book of battles (in his Sahih) under “Chapter; Allah’s statement, ((Remember) when you sought help of your Lord and He answered you) until, (then verily, Allah is severe in punishment)” that Ibn Mas`ud said, “I was a witness to something that Al-Miqdad bin Al-Aswad did, that I would like more than almost anything else to have been the one who did it.
Al-Miqdad came to the Prophet while he was invoking Allah against the idolators and proclaimed, `We will not say as the people of Musa said, “So go you and your Lord and fight you two.” Rather, we will fight to your right, to your left, before you and behind you.’ I saw the Prophet’s face beaming with pleasure because of what Al-Miqdad said to him.”
Al-Bukhari next narrated from Ibn `Abbas that on the day of Badr, the Prophet said, (O Allah! I invoke You for Your covenant and promise (victory). O Allah! If You decide so (cause our defeat), You will not be worshipped.) Abu Bakr held the Prophet’s hand and said, “Enough.”
The Prophet went out proclaiming, (Their multitude will be put to flight, and they will show their backs.) An-Nasa’i also collected this Hadith. Allah’s statement, (with a thousand of the angels Murdifin) means, they follow each other in succession, according to Harun bin Hubayrah who narrated this from Ibn `Abbas about, (Murdifin), meaning each behind the other in succession. `Ali bin Abi Talhah Al-Walibi reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “Allah supported His Prophet and the believers with a thousand angels, five hundred under the leadership of Jibril on one side and five hundred under the leadership of Mika’il on another side.”
Imams Abu Ja`far bin Jarir At-Tabari and Muslim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that `Umar said, “While a Muslim man was pursuing an idolator (during the battle of Badr), he heard the sound of a whip above him and a rider saying, `Come, O Hayzum!’
Then he looked at the idolator, who fell to the ground. When he investigated, he found that the idolator’s nose had wound and his face torn apart, just as if he received a strike from a whip on it, and the entire face had turned green.
The Ansari man came to the Messenger of Allah and told him what had happened and the Messenger replied, (You have said the truth, that was from the reinforcements from the third heaven.) The Muslims killed seventy (pagans) in that battle and captured another seventy. Al-Bukhari also wrote a chapter in his Sahih about the participation of the angels in Badr. He collected a Hadith from Rifa`h bin Rafi `Az-Zuraqi, who participated in Badr, Jibril came to the Prophet and asked him, “How honored are those who participated in Badr among you” The Prophet said, (Among the best Muslims.)
Jibril said, “This is the case with the angels who participated in Badr.” Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith. At-Tabarani also collected it in Al-Mu`jam Al-Kabir, but from Rafi` bin Khadij, which is an apparent mistake. The correct narration is from Rifa`h, as Al-Bukhari recorded it.
In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said to `Umar, when `Umar suggested that the Prophet have Hatib bin Abi Balta`ah executed, (He ﴿Hatib﴾ participated in Badr. How do you know that Allah has not looked at the people of Badr and proclaimed, `Do whatever you want, for I have forgiven you.’) Allah said next, (Allah made it only as glad tidings).
Allah made sending down the angels and informing you of this fact as glad tidings, (and that your hearts be at rest therewith.) Surely, Allah is able to give you (O Muslims) victory over your enemies, and victory only comes from Him, without need to send the angels, (And there is no victory except from Allah.) Allah said in another Ayah, (So, when you meet (in fight in Allah’s cause) those who disbelieve, smite (their) necks till when you have killed and wounded many of them, then bind a bond firmly (on them, take them as captives).
Thereafter (is the time) either for generosity (free them without ransom), or ransom (according to what benefits Islam), until war lays down its burden. Thus, but if it had been Allah’s will, He Himself could certainly have punished them (without you). But (He lets you fight) in order to test some of you with others. But those who are killed in the way of Allah, He will never let their deeds be lost.
He will guide them and set right their state. And admit them to Paradise which He has made known to them.) ﴿47:4-6﴾ and, (And so are the days (good and not so good), that We give to men by turns, that Allah may test those who believe, and that He may take martyrs from among you.
And Allah likes not the wrongdoers. And that Allah may test (or purify) the believers (from sins) and destroy the disbelievers.) ﴿3:140-141﴾ These are points of wisdom for which Allah has legislated performing Jihad, by the hands of the believers against the disbelievers. Allah used to destroy the previous nations that denied the Prophets, using various disasters that encompassed these rebellious nations. For instance, Allah destroyed the people of Nuh with the flood, `Ad with the wind, Thamud with the scream, the people of Lut with an earthquake and the people of Shu`ayb by the Day of the Shadow.
After Allah sent Musa and destroyed his enemy Fir`awn and his soldiers by drowning, He sent down the Tawrah to him in which He legislated fighting against the disbelievers, and this legislation remained in the successive Laws. Allah said, (And indeed We gave Musa — after We had destroyed the generations of old — the Scripture as an enlightenment. ) 28:43.
It is more humiliating for the disbeliever and more comforting to the hearts of the faithful that the believers kill the disbelievers by their own hands. Allah said to the believers of this Ummah, (Fight against them so that Allah will punish them by your hands, and disgrace them, and give you victory over them, and heal the breasts of a believing people.)﴿9:14﴾ This is why killing the disbelievers of Quraysh by the hand of their enemies, whom they used to despise, was more humiliating to the disbelievers and comforting to the hearts of the party of faith.
Abu Jahl, for instance, was killed in battle and this was more humiliating for him than dying in his bed, or from lightening, wind, or similar afflictions. Also, Abu Lahab died from a terrible disease ﴿that caused him to stink﴾ and none of his relatives could bear approaching him.
They had to wash him with water by sprinkling it from a distance, then threw stones over his corpse, until it was buried under them! Allah said next, (Verily, Allah is All-Mighty,), the might is His, His Messengers and the believers, both in this life and the Hereafter.
Allah said in another Ayah, (We will indeed make victorious Our Messengers and those who believe, in this world’s life and on the Day when the witnesses will stand forth (Day of Resurrection). )﴿40:51﴾ Allah said next, (All-Wise.), in that He legislated fighting the disbeliever, even though He is able to destroy them and bring their demise by His will and power, all praise and honor is due to Him.
(11. (Remember) when He covered you with a slumber as a security from Him, and He caused water (rain) to descend on you from the sky, to clean you thereby and to remove from you the Rijz (whispering or dirt) of Shaytan, and to strengthen your hearts, and make your feet firm thereby.) (12. (Remember) when your Lord revealed to the angels, “Verily, I am with you, so keep firm those who have believed.
I will cast terror into the hearts of those who have disbelieved, so strike them over the necks, and smite over all their fingers and toes.”) (13. This is because they defied and disobeyed Allah and His Messenger. And whoever defies and disobeys Allah and His Messenger, then verily, Allah is severe in punishment. ) (14. This is (the torment), so taste it; and surely, for the disbelievers is the torment of the Fire.)
Slumber overcomes Muslims
Allah reminds the believers of the slumber that He sent down on them as security from the fear they suffered from, because of the multitude of their enemy and the sparseness of their forces. They were given the same favor during the battle of Uhud, which Allah described, (Then after the distress, He sent down security for you.
Slumber overtook a party of you, while another party was thinking about themselves. ) ﴿3:154﴾ Abu Talhah said, “I was among those who were overcome by slumber during (the battle of) Uhud. The sword fell from my hand several times, and I kept picking it up again, several times. I also saw the Companions’ heads nodding while in the rear guard.” Al-Hafiz Abu Ya`la narrated that `Ali said, “Only Al-Miqdad had a horse during Badr, and at some point, I found that all of us fell asleep, except the Messenger of Allah.
He was praying under a tree and crying until dawn.” `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, “Slumber during battle is security from Allah, but during prayer, it is from Shaytan.” Qatadah said, “Slumber affects the head, while sleep affects the heart.” Slumber overcame the believers on the day of Uhud, and this incident is very well-known. As for this Ayah (8:11), it is describing the battle of Badr, indicating that slumber also overcame the believers during Badr. Therefore, it appears that this will occur for the believers, whenever they are in distress, so that their hearts feel safe and sure of Allah’s aid, rewards, favor and mercy from Allah with them. Allah said in another Ayah, (Verily, along with every hardship is relief. Verily, along with every hardship is relief.) 94:5-6
In the Sahih, it is recorded that on the day of Badr, while he was in the bunker with Abu Bakr, the Messenger and Abu Bakr were invoking Allah. Suddenly, slumber overcame the Messenger and he woke up smiling and declared, (“Good news, O Abu Bakr! This is Jibril with dust on his shoulders.” He left the shade while reciting Allah’s statement, (Their multitude will be put to flight, and they will show their backs.) ﴿54:45﴾
Rain falls on the Eve of Badr
Allah said next, (and He caused rain to descend on you from the sky.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “When the Prophet arrived at Badr, he made camp. At the time, there was a sandy piece of land between the idolators and the water (the wells at Badr). Muslims felt weak and the Shaytan cast frustration into their hearts. He whispered to them, `You claim that you are Allah’s supporters and that His Messenger is among you!
However, the idolators have taken over the water resource from you, while you pray needing purity.’ Allah sent down heavy rain, allowing the Muslims to drink and use it for purity. Allah also removed Shaytan’s whisper and made the sand firm when rain fell on it, and the Muslims walked on the sand along with their animals, until they reached the enemy. Allah supported His Prophet and the believers with a thousand angels on one side, five hundred under the command of Jibril and another five hundred under the command of Mika’il on another side.”
An even a better narration is that collected by Imam Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar, author of Al-Maghazi, may Allah have mercy upon him. Ibn Ishaq narrated that, Yazid bin Ruwman narrated to him that, `Urwah bin Az-Zubayr said, “Allah sent rain down from the sky on a sandy valley. That rain made the area where the Messenger of Allah and his Companions camped firmer so that it did not hinder their movement.
Meanwhile, the part that the Quraysh were camping on became difficult to move in.” Mujahid said, “Allah sent down the rain on the believers before slumber overtook them, and the rain settled the dust, made the ground firmer, made them feel at ease and their feet firmer.” Allah said next, (to clean you thereby) using it after answering the call of nature or needing to wash oneself, and this involves cleansing what is on the out side, (and to remove from you the Rijz of Shaytan,) such as his whispers and evil thoughts, this involves sinner purification, whereas Allah’s statement about the residents of Paradise, (Their garments will be of fine green silk, and gold embroidery.
They will be adorned with bracelets of silver) ﴿76:21﴾ involves outer appearance, (and their Lord will give them a pure drink.) ﴿76:21﴾ that purifies the anger, envy and hatred that they might have felt. This is the inner purity. Next, Allah said, (and to strengthen your hearts, ) with patience and to encourage you to fight the enemies, and this is inner courage, (and make your feet firm thereby). this involves outer courage. Allah know best.
Allah commands the Angels to fight and support the Believers
Allah said next, ((Remember) when your Lord revealed to the angels, “Verily, I am with you, so keep firm those who have believed.”) This is a hidden favor that Allah has made known to the believers, so that they thank Him and are grateful to Him for it.
Allah, glorified, exalted, blessed and praised be He, has revealed to the angels — whom He sent to support His Prophet, religion and believing group — to make the believers firmer. Allah’s statement, (I will cast terror into the hearts of those who have disbelieved.) means, `you — angels — support the believers, strengthen their (battle) front against their enemies, thus, implementing My command to you. I will cast fear, disgrace and humiliation over those who defied My command and denied My Messenger, f (so strike them over the necks, and smite over all their fingers and toes.) strike them on their foreheads to tear them apart and over the necks to cut them off, and cut off their limbs, hands and feet.
It was said that, (over the necks) refers to striking the forehead, or the neck, according to Ad-Dahhak and `Atiyyah Al-`Awfi. In support of the latter, Allah commanded the believers, (So, when you meet (in fight Jihad in Allah’s cause) those who disbelieve, smite (their) necks till when you have killed and wounded many of them, then bind a bond firmly (on them, take them as captives).) ﴿47:4﴾ Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said, “In the aftermath of Badr, the people used to recognize whomever the angels killed from those whom they killed, by the wounds over their necks, fingers and toes, because those parts had a mark as if they were branded by fire.” Allah said, (and smite over all their fingers and toes.)
Ibn Jarir commented that this Ayah commands, “O believers! Strike every limb and finger on the hands and feet of your (disbelieving) enemies.” Al-`Awfi reported, that Ibn `Abbas said about the battle of Badr that Abu Jahl said, “Do not kill them (the Muslims), but capture them so that you make known to them what they did, their ridiculing your religion and shunning Al-Lat and Al-`Uzza (two idols).” Allah than sent down to the angels, (Verily, I am with you, so keep firm those who have believed. I will cast terror into the hearts of those who have disbelieved, so strike them over the necks, and smite over all their fingers and toes.)
In that battle, Abu Jahl (may Allah curse him) was killed along with sixty-nine men. `Uqbah bin Abu Mua`it was captured and then killed, thus bring the death toll of the pagans to seventy, (This is because they defied and disobeyed Allah and His Messenger.) joining the camp that defied Allah and His Messenger not including themselves in the camp of Allah’s Law and faith in Him.
Allah said, (And whoever defies and disobeys Allah and His Messenger, then verily, Allah is severe in punishment.) for He will crush whoever defies and disobeys Him. Nothing ever escapes Allah’s grasp nor can anything ever stand against His anger. Blessed and exalted He is, there is no true deity or Lord except Him. (This is (the torment), so taste it; and surely, for the disbelievers is the torment of the Fire.)
This Ayah addresses the disbeliever, saying, taste this torment and punishment in this life and know that the torment of the Fire in the Hereafter is for the disbelievers. (15. O you who believe! When you meet those who disbelieve, in a battlefield, never turn your backs to them.) (16. And whoever turns his back to them on such a day — unless it be a stratagem of war, or to retreat to a troop (of his own) — he indeed has drawn upon himself wrath from Allah. And his abode is Hell, and worst indeed is that destination!)
Fleeing from Battle is prohibited, and its Punishment Allah said, while warning against fleeing from the battlefield and threatening those who do it with the Fire, (O you who believe! When you meet those who disbelieve, in a battlefield,) when you get near the enemy and march towards them, (never turn your backs to them.) do not run away from battle and leave your fellow Muslims behind, (And whoever turns his back to them on such a day — unless it be a stratagem of war.)
The Ayah says, whoever flees from the enemy by way of planning to pretend that he is afraid of the enemy, so that they follow him and he takes the chance and returns to kill the enemy, then there is no sin on him. This is the explanation of Sa`id bin Jubayr and As-Suddi. Ad-Dahhak also commented, “Whoever went ahead of his fellow Muslims to investigate the strength of the enemy and make use of it, (or to retreat to a troop (of his own)), meaning he leaves from here to another troop of Muslims to assist them or be assisted by them.
So that is allowed for him, or even during the battle if he flees from his brigade to the commander. Or going to the grand Imam, would also fall under this permission.” `Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, said about Abu `Ubayd when he was fighting on the bridge in the land of the Persians, because of the many Zoroastrian soldiers, “If he retreated to me then I would be as a troop for him.”
This is how it was reported by Muhammad bin Sirin from `Umar. In the report of Abu `Uthman An-Nahdi from `Umar, he said: When Abu `Ubayd was fighting, `Umar said, “O people! We are your troop.” Mujahid said that `Umar said, “We are the troop of every Muslim.” Abdul-Malik bin `Umayr reported from `Umar, “O people! Don’t be confused over this Ayah, it was only about the day of Badr, and we are a troop for every Muslim.” Ibn Abi Hatim ﴿recorded﴾ that Nafi` questioned Ibn `Umar, “We are people who are not stationary when fighting our enemy, and we may not know where our troop is, be it that of our Imam or our army.”
So he replied, “The troop is Allah’s Messenger .” I said but Allah said, (when you meet those who disbelieve in the battlefield) to the end of the Ayah . So he said; “This Ayah was about Badr, not before it nor after it.” Ad-Dahhak commented that Allah’s statement, (or to retreat to a troop), refers to “Those who retreat to the Messenger of Allah and his Companions (when the Messenger was alive), and those who retreat in the present time to his commander or companions.”
However, if one flees for any other reason than those mentioned here, then it is prohibited and considered a major sin. Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said, (“Shun the seven great destructive sins.”) The people inquired, “O Allah’s Messenger! What are they” He said, ((They are:) Joining others in worship with Allah, magic taking life which Allah has forbidden, except for a just cause (according to Islamic law), consuming Riba, consuming an orphan’s wealth, fleeing the battlefield at the time of fighting, and false accusation to chaste women, who never even think of anything touching chastity and are good believers.)
This is why Allah said here, (he indeed has drawn upon himself…), and returned with, (wrath from Allah. And his abode…), destination, and dwelling place on the Day of Return, (is Hell, and worst indeed is that destination!) (17. You killed them not, but Allah killed them. And you threw not when you did throw, but Allah threw, that He might test the believers by a fair trial from Him.
Verily, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower). (18. This (is the fact) and surely Allah weakens the deceitful plots of the disbelievers.) Allah’s Signs displayed during Badr, And throwing Sand in the Eyes of the Disbelievers Allah states that He creates the actions that the servants perform and that whatever good actions they take, it is He Who should be praised for them, for He directed and helped them perform these actions. Allah said, (You killed them not, but Allah killed them.) meaning, it is not because of your power and strength that you killed the pagans, who were many while you were few.
Rather, it is He Who gave you victory over them, just as He said in another Ayah, (And Allah has already made you victorious at Badr, when you were a weak little force.) ﴿3:123﴾, and, (Truly, Allah has given you victory on many battlefields, and on the day of Hunayn when you rejoiced at your great number, but it availed you naught and the earth, vast as it is, was straitened for you, then you turned back in flight.) 9:25 Allah, the Exalted and Ever High, states that victory does not depend on numbers or collecting weapons and shields.
Rather, victory is from Him, Exalted He is. (How often has a small group overcome a mighty host by Allah’s leave” And Allah is with the patient.) ﴿2:249﴾ Allah then mentioned the handful of sand that His Prophet threw at the disbelievers during the day of Badr, when he went out of his bunker. While in the bunker, the Prophet invoked Allah humbly and expressing his neediness before Allah. He then threw a handful of sand at the disbelievers and said, (Humiliated be their faces.)
He then commanded his Companions to start fighting with sincerity and they did. Allah made this handful of sand enter the eyes of the idolators, each one of them were struck by some of it and it distracted them making each of them busy. Allah said, (And you threw not when you did throw, but Allah threw.) Therefore, it is Allah Who made the sand reach their eyes and busied them with it, not you (O Muhammad) . Muhammad bin Ishaq said that Muhammad bin Ja`far bin Az-Zubayr narrated to him that `Urwah bin Az-Zubayr said about Allah’s statement, (that He might test the believers by a fair trial from Him. ) “So that the believers know Allah’s favor for them by giving them victory over their enemy, even though their enemy was numerous, while they were few.
They should thus know His right and express gratitude for His favor on them.” Similar was said by Ibn Jarir. It is stated in a Hadith, (Every trail (from Allah) is a favor for us.) Allah said next, (Verily, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.) Allah hears the supplication and knows those who deserve help and triumph. Allah said, (This (is the fact) and surely Allah weakens the deceitful plots of the disbelievers.) This is more good news, aside from the victory that the believers gained.
Allah informed them that He will weaken the plots of the disbelievers in the future, degrade them and make everything they have perish and be destroyed, all praise and thanks are due to Allah. (19. (O disbelievers) if you ask for a judgement, now has the judgement come unto you; and if you cease (to do wrong), it will be better for you, and if you return (to the attack), so shall We return, and your forces will be of no avail to you, however numerous they be; and verily, Allah is with the believers.) The Response to the Disbelievers Who ask for a Judgement Allah says to the disbeliever, (If you ask for a judgement), you invoked Allah for victory, judgement and a decision between you and your believing nemesis, and you got what you asked for.
Muhammad bin Ishaq and several others reported from Az-Zuhri from `Abdullah bin Tha`labah bin Su`ayr who said that Abu Jahl said on the day of Badr, “O Allah! Whichever of the two camps (pagans and Muslims) severed the relation of the womb and brought us what is not familiar, then destroy him this day.” This Ayah was later on revealed, (If you ask for a judgement, then now has the judgement come unto you,) until the end of the Ayah.
Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Tha`labah said, “Abu Jahl asked for (Allah’s judgment) when he said upon facing the Muslims, `O Allah! Those among us who severed the relations of the womb and brought forth what we do not recognize, then destroy him this day.”’ This was also recorded by An-Nasa’i in the Book of Tafsir (of his Sunan) and Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, and he said, “It is Sahih according to the criteria of the Two Shaykhs, and they did not record it.’
Similar statements were reported from Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, Yazid bin Ruwman and several others. As-Suddi commented, “Before the idolators left Makkah for Badr, they clung to the curtains covering the Ka`bah and supplicated to Allah for victory, `O Allah! Give victory to the exalted among the two armies, the most honored among the two groups, and the most righteous among the two tribes.’
Allah revealed the Ayah, F (If you ask for a judgement, then now has the judgement come unto you.) Allah says here, `I accepted your supplication and Muhammad gained the victory.”’ `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said; “This is Allah the Most High’s answer to their supplication; (And (remember) when they said: “O Allah! If this is indeed the truth from you..)” ﴿8:32﴾ Allah said next, (and if you cease…) from your disbelief and rejection of Allah and His Messenger , (it will be better for you), in this life and the Hereafter. Allah said, (and if you return, so shall We return…)
This is similar to another Ayah, (but if you return (to sins), We shall return (to Our punishment).) ﴿17:8﴾ meaning, `if you persist in your disbelief and misguidance, We shall repeat the defeat that you suffered,’ (and your forces will be of no avail to you, however numerous they be…) for even if you gather whatever forces you can, then know that those whom Allah is with cannot be defeated, (and verily, Allah is with the believers.) in reference to the Prophet’s group, the side of the chosen Messenger . (20. O you who believe! Obey Allah and His Messenger, and turn not away from him while you are hearing. ) (21. And be not like those who say: “We have heard,” but they hear not.) (22. Verily, the worst of living creatures with Allah are the deaf and the dumb (the disbelievers), who understand not.) (23. Had Allah known of any good in them, He would indeed have made them listen; and even if He had made them listen, they would but have turned away with aversion.)
The Command to obey Allah and His Messenger Allah commands His believing servants to obey Him and His Messenger and warns them against defying him and imitating the disbelievers who reject him. Allah said, (and turn not away from him…), neither refrain from obeying him or following his commands nor indulge in what he forbade, (while you are hearing.) after you gained knowledge of his Message, (And be not like those who say: “We have heard,” but they hear not.)
Ibn Ishaq said that this Ayah refers to the hypocrites, who pretend to hear and obey, while in fact they do neither. Allah declares that these are the most wicked creatures among the Children of Adam, (Verily, the worst of living creatures with Allah are the deaf) who do not hear the truth, (and the dumb) who cannot comprehend it, (who understand not. )
These indeed are the most wicked creatures, for every creature except them abide by the way that Allah created in them. These people were created to worship Allah, but instead disbelieved. This is why Allah equated them to animals, when He said, (And the example of those who disbelieve is as that of him who shouts to those that hear nothing but calls and cries.) ﴿2:171﴾, and, (They are like cattle, nay even more astray; those!
They are the heedless ones.) ﴿7:179﴾ It was also said that the Ayah (8:22) refers to some of the pagans of Quraysh from the tribe of Bani `Abd Ad-Dar, according to Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and Ibn Jarir. Muhammad bin Ishaq said that this Ayah refers to hypocrites, as we stated.
There is no contradiction here, because both disbelievers and hypocrites are devoid of sound comprehension, in addition to having lost the intention to do good. Allah states here that such are those who neither have sound understanding nor good intentions, even if they have some type of reason, (Had Allah known of any good in them, He would indeed have made them listen.) He would have helped them understand.
However, this did not happen because there is no goodness in such people, for Allah knows that, (even if He had made them listen…) and allowed them to understand, (they would but have turned…), intentionally and out of stubbornness, even after they comprehend, (with aversion.), to the truth. (24. O you who believe! Answer Allah and (His) Messenger when he (the Messenger) calls you to that which will give you life, and know that Allah comes between a person and his heart. And verily to Him you shall (all) be gathered.)
The Command to answer and obey Allah and His Messenger
Al-Bukhari said, “(Answer), obey, (that which will give you life) that which will make your affairs good.” Al-Bukhari went on to narrate that Abu Sa`id bin Al-Mu`alla said, “I was praying when the Prophet passed by and called me, but I did not answer him until I finished the prayer.
He said, (What prevented you from answering me Has not Allah said: (O you who believe! Answer Allah and (His) Messenger when he calls you to that which will give you life)’ He then said: (I will teach you the greatest Suah in the Qur’an before I leave.)
When he was about to leave, I mentioned what he said to me. He said, (All the praises and thanks are to Allah, the Lord of all that exists…) ﴿1:1-6﴾. (Surely, it is the seven oft-repeated verses.)”’
Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated that Muhammad bin Ja`far bin Az-Zubayr said that `Urwah bin Az-Zubayr explained this Ayah, (O you who believe! Answer Allah and (His) Messenger when he calls you to that which will give you life,) “Answer when called to war (Jihad) with which Allah gives you might after meekness, and strength after weakness, and shields you from the enemy who oppressed you.”
Allah comes in between a Person and His Heart
Allah said, (and know that Allah comes in between a person and his heart.) Ibn `Abbas commented, “Allah prevents the believer from disbelief and the disbeliever from faith.” Al-Hakim recorded this in his Mustadrak and said, “It is Sahih and they did not record it.” . Similar was said by Mujahid, Sa`id, `Ikrimah, Ad-Dahhak, Abu Salih `Atiyyah, Muqatil bin Hayyan and As-Suddi.
In another report from Mujahid, he commented; (…comes in between a person and his heart.) “Leaves him without comprehension,” As-Suddi said, “Prevents one self from his own heart, so he will neither believe nor disbelieve except by His leave.” There are several Hadiths that conform with the meaning of this Ayah.
For instance, Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik said, “The Prophet used to often say these words, (O You Who changes the hearts, make my heart firm on Your religion.) We said, `O Allah’s Messenger! We believed in you and in what you brought us.
Are you afraid for us’ He said, (Yes, for the hearts are between two of Allah’s Fingers, He changes them (as He wills).)” This is the same narration recorded by At-Tirmidhi in the Book of Qadar in his Jami’ ﴿Sunan﴾, and he said, “Hasan.” Imam Ahmad recorded that An-Nawwas bin Sam`an Al-Kilabi said that he heard the Prophet saying, (Every heart is between two of the Fingers of the Most Beneficent (Allah), Lord of all that exists, if He wills, He makes it straight, and if He wills, He makes it stray.) And he said: (O You Who changes the hearts! keep my heart firm on Your religion) And he would say; (The Balance is in the Hand of Ar-Rahman, He raises and lowers it.) This was also recorded by An-Nasai and Ibn Majah. (25. And fear the Fitnah (affliction and trial) which affects not in particular (only) those of you who do wrong, and know that Allah is severe in punishment.)
Warning against an encompassing Fitnah
Allah warns His believing servants of a Fitnah, trial and test, that encompasses the wicked and those around them. Therefore, such Fitnah will not be restricted to the sinners and evildoers. Rather, it will reach the others if the sins are not stopped and prevented.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Mutarrif said, “We asked Az-Zubayr, `O Abu `Abdullah! What brought you here (for the battle of Al-Jamal) You abandoned the Khalifah who was assassinated (`Uthman, may Allah be pleased with him) and then came asking for revenge for his blood’ He said, `We recited at the time of the Messenger of Allah , and Abu Bakr, `Umar and `Uthman, (And fear the Fitnah (affliction and trial) which affects not in particular (only) those of you who do wrong,)
We did not think that this Ayah was about us too, until it reached us as it did.”’ `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah, (And fear the Fitnah (affliction and trial) which affects not in particular (only) those of you who do wrong,) refers to the Companions of the Prophet in particular.
In another narration from Ibn `Abbas, he said, “Allah commanded the believers to stop evil from flourishing among them, so that Allah does not encompass them all in the torment (Fitnah). ” This, indeed, is a very good explanation, prompting Mujahid to comment about Allah’s statement, (And fear the Fitnah (affliction and trial) which affects not in particular (only) those of you who do wrong,) “Is for you too!”
Several said similarly, such as Ad-Dahhak and Yazid bin Abi Habib and several others. Ibn Mas`ud said, “There is none among you but there is something that represents a Fitnah for him, for Allah said, (Your wealth and your children are only a trial (Fitnah)…) ﴿64:15﴾. Therefore, when you seek refuge, seek it with Allah from the Fitnah that causes misguidance.” Ibn Jarir collected this Hadith.
The view that the warning in this Ayah addresses the Companions and all others is true, even though the speech in the Ayah was directed at the Companions. There are Hadiths that warn against Fitnah in general, thus providing the correctness of this explanation. Similarly there will be a separate book in which this subject will be discussed, Allah willing, as also is the case with the Imams, there being a number of writings about this.
Of the most precise things that have been mentioned under this topic, is what was recorded by Imam Ahmad from Hudhayfah bin Al-Yaman that the Messenger of Allah said, (By He in Whose Hand is my soul! You will enjoin righteousness and forbid evil, or Allah will send a punishment upon you from Him; you will supplicate then to Him, but He will not answer your supplication.)
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Ar-Riqad said, “I heard Hudhayfah saying, `A person used to utter one word during the time of the Messenger of Allah and become a hypocrite on account of it. I now hear such words from one of you four times in the same sitting. Surely, you will enjoin good, forbid evil and encourage each other to do good or Allah will surround you all with torment, or make the wicked among you become your leaders. The righteous among you will then supplicate, but their supplication will not be accepted.”’ sImam Ahmad recorded that An-Nu`man bin Bashir said that the Prophet gave a speech in which he said, while pointing to his ears with two of his fingers, (The parable of the person abiding by Allah’s order and restrictions in comparison to those who violate them, or sit idle while they are being violated, is that of those who drew lots for their seats in a boat.
Some of them got seats in the lower part, which is the most rough and worst part, and the others in the upper. When the former needed water, they had to go up to bring water and that troubled the others, so they said, `Let us make a hole in our share of the ship and get water, saving those who are above us from troubling them, so, if the people in the upper part let the others do what they suggested, all the people of the ship would be destroyed, but if they prevented them, both parties would be safe.)
This was recorded by Al-Bukhari, but not Muslim, in the Book of Partnerships and the Book of Witnesses. It was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi through a different route of narration. Imam Ahmad recorded that Umm Salamah, the Prophet’s wife, said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah saying, (If sins become apparent in my Ummah, Allah will surround them with punishment from Him.)
I said, `O Allah’s Messenger! Will they have righteous people among them then’ He said, (Yes.) I asked, `What will happen to them’ He said, (They will be striken as the people, but they will end up with Allah’s forgiveness and pleasure.)” Imam Ahmad recorded that Jarir said that the Messenger of Allah said, (Every people among whom sins are being committed, while they are mightier and more numerous than those who do wrong, yet they did nothing to stop them, then Allah will surround them all with punishment.)
Ibn Majah collected this Hadith. (26. And remember when you were few and were reckoned weak in the land, and were afraid that men might kidnap you, but He provided a safe place for you, strengthened you with His help, and provided you with good things (for livelihood) so that you might be grateful.)
Reminding Muslims of Their previous State of Weakness and Subjugation which changed into Might and Triumph
Allah, the Exalted, reminds His believing servants of His blessings and favors on them. They were few and He made them many, weak and fearful and He provided them with strength and victory. They were meek and poor, and He granted them sustenance and livelihood. He ordered them to be grateful to Him, and they obeyed Him and implemented what He commanded.
When the believers were still in Makkah they were few, practicing their religion in secret, oppressed, fearing that pagans, fire worshippers or Romans might kidnap them from the various parts of Allah’s earth, for they were all enemies of the Muslims, especially since Muslims were few and weak. Later on, Allah permitted the believers to migrate to Al-Madinah, where He allowed them to settle in a safe resort. Allah made the people of Al-Madinah their allies, giving them refuge and support during Badr and other battles.
They helped the Migrants with their wealth and gave up their lives in obedience of Allah and His Messenger . Qatadah bin Di`amah As-Sadusi commented, (And remember when you were few and were reckoned weak in the land,) “Arabs were the weakest of the weak, had the toughest life, the emptiest stomachs, the barest skin and the most obvious misguidance. Those who lived among them lived in misery; those who died went to the Fire.
They were being eaten up, but unable to eat up others! By Allah! We do not know of a people on the face of the earth at that time who had a worse life than them. When Allah brought Islam, He made it dominant on the earth, thus bringing provisions and leadership for them over the necks of people. It is through Islam that Allah granted all what you see, so thank Him for His favors, for your Lord is One Who bestows favors and likes praise. Verily, those who thank Allah enjoy even more bounties from Him.” (27. O you who believe! Betray not Allah and His Messenger, nor betray knowingly your Amanat (things entrusted to you)). (28. And know that your possessions and your children are but a trial and that surely, with Allah is a mighty reward.)
Reason behind revealing This Ayah, and the prohibition of Betrayal
The Two Sahihs mention the story of Hatib bin Abi Balta`ah. In the year of the victory of Makkah he wrote to the Quraysh alerting them that the Messenger of Allah intended to march towards them. Allah informed His Messenger of this, and he sent a Companion to retrieve the letter that Hatib sent, and then he summoned him.
He admitted to what he did. `Umar bin Al-Khattab stood up and said, “O Allah’s Messenger! Should I cut off his head, for he has betrayed Allah, His Messenger and the believers” The Prophet said, (Leave him! He participated in Badr. How do you know that Allah has not looked at those who participated in Badr and said, Do whatever you want, for I have forgiven you.) However, it appears that this Ayah is more general, even if it was revealed about a specific incident.
Such rulings are dealt with by their indications, not the specific reasons behind revealing them, according to the majority of scholars. Betrayal includes both minor and major sins, as well those that affect others. `Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah, (nor betray your Amanat) “The Amanah refers to the actions that Allah has entrusted the servants with, such as and including what He ordained.
Therefore, Allah says here, (nor betray…), `do not abandon the obligations.”’ `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd commented, “Allah forbade you from betraying Him and His Messenger, as hypocrites do.” Allah said, (And know that your possessions and your children are but a trial.) from Him to you.
He grants these to you so that He knows which of you will be grateful and obedient to Him, or become busy with and dedicated to them instead of Him. Allah said in another Ayah, (Your wealth and your children are only a trial, whereas Allah! With Him is a great reward.) ﴿64:15﴾, (And We shall make a trial of you with evil and with good.) ﴿21:35﴾, (O you who believe! Let not your properties or your children divert you from the remembrance of Allah. And whosoever does that, then they are the losers.)﴿63:9﴾, and, (O you who believe!
Verily, among your wives and your children there are enemies for you (who may stop you from the obedience of Allah); therefore beware of them!) ﴿64:14﴾ Allah said next, (And that surely with Allah is a mighty reward.) Therefore, Allah’s reward, favor and Paradise are better for you than wealth and children. Certainly, among the wealth and children there might be enemies for you and much of them avail nothing.
With Allah alone is the decision and sovereignty in this life and the Hereafter, and He gives tremendous rewards on the Day of Resurrection. In the Sahih, there is a Hadith in which the Messenger of Allah said, (There are three qualities for which whomever has them, he will have tasted the sweetness of faith. (They are:) whoever Allah and His Messenger are dearer to him than anyone else, whoever loves a person for Allah’s sake alone, and whoever prefers to be thrown in fire rather than revert to disbelief, after Allah has saved him from it.)
Therefore, loving the Messenger of Allah comes before loving children, wealth and oneself. In the Sahih, it is confirmed that he said, (By He in Whose Hand is my soul! None of you will have faith unless I become dearer to him than himself, his family, his wealth and all people.) (29. O you who believe! If you obey and fear Allah, He will grant you Furqan, and will expiate for you your sins, and forgive you; and Allah is the Owner of the great bounty.) Ibn `Abbas, As-Suddi, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, Muqatil bin Hayyan and several others said that, (Furqan), means, `a way out’; Mujahid added, “In this life and the Hereafter.” In another narration, Ibn `Abbas is reported to have said, `Furqan’ means `salvation’ or — according to another narration — `aid’. Muhammad bin Ishaq said that `Furqan’ means `criterion between truth and falsehood’.
This last explanation from Ibn Ishaq is more general than the rest that we mentioned, and it also includes the other meanings. Certainly, those who have Taqwa of Allah by obeying what He ordained and abstaining from what he forbade, will be guided to differentiate between the truth and the falsehood. This will be a triumph, safety and a way out for them from the affairs of this life, all the while acquiring happiness in the Hereafter.
They will also gain forgiveness, thus having their sins erased, and pardon, thus having their sins covered from other people, as well as, being directed to a way to gain Allah’s tremendous rewards, (O you who believe! Have Taqwa of Allah, and believe in His Messenger, He will give you a double portion of His mercy, and He will give you a light by which you shall walk (straight). And He will forgive you. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) ﴿57:28﴾. (30. And (remember) when the disbelievers plotted against you to imprison you, or to kill you, or to expel you (from your home, Makkah); they were plotting and Allah too was plotting; and Allah is the best of plotters.)
The Makkans plot to kill the Prophet , imprison Him or expel Him from Makkah Ibn
`Abbas, Mujahid and Qatadah said, (Liyuthbituka) means “to imprison you.” As-Suddi said, “Ithbat is to confine or to shackle.” Imam Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar, the author of Al-Maghazi, reported from `Abdullah bin Abi Najih, from Mujahid, from Ibn `Abbas, “Some of the chiefs of the various tribes of Quraysh gathered in Dar An-Nadwah (their conference area) and Iblis (Shaytan) met them in the shape of an eminent old man. When they saw him, they asked, `Who are you’ He said, `An old man from Najd.
I heard that you are having a meeting, and I wished to attend your meeting. You will benefit from my opinion and advice.’ They said, `Agreed, come in.’ He entered with them. Iblis said, `You have to think about this man (Muhammad)! By Allah, he will soon overwhelm you with his matter (religion).’ One of them said, `Imprison him, restrained in chains, until he dies just like the poets before him all died, such as Zuhayr and An-Nabighah! Verily, he is a poet like they were.’ The old man from Najd, the enemy of Allah, commented, `By Allah! This is not a good idea.
His Lord will release him from his prison to his companions, who will liberate him from your hands. They will protect him from you and they might expel you from your land.’ They said, `This old man said the truth. Therefore, seek an opinion other than this one.’ Another one of them said, `Expel him from your land, so that you are free from his trouble! If he leaves your land, you will not be bothered by what he does or where he goes, as long as he is not among you to bring you troubles, he will be with someone else.’ The old man from Najd replied, `By Allah! This is not a good opinion. Have you forgotten his sweet talk and eloquency, as well as, how his speech captures the hearts By Allah! This way, he will collect even more followers among Arabs, who will gather against you and attack you in your own land, expel you and kill your chiefs.’
They said, `He has said the truth, by Allah! Therefore, seek an opinion other than this one.’ hAbu Jahl, may Allah curse him, spoke next, `By Allah! I have an idea that no one else has suggested yet, and I see no better opinion for you. Choose a strong, socially elevated young man from each tribe, and give each one of them a sharp sword. Then they would all strike Muhammad at the same time with their swords and kill him. Hence, his blood would be shed by all tribes.
This way, his tribe, Banu Hashim, would realize that they cannot wage war against all of the Quraysh tribes and would be forced to agree to accept the blood money; we would have brought comfort to ourselves and stopped him from bothering us.’ The old man from Najd commented, `By Allah! This man has expressed the best opinion, and I do not support any other opinion.’ They quickly ended their meeting and started preparing for the implementation of this plan. Jibril came to the Prophet and commanded him not to sleep in his bed that night and conveyed to him the news of their plot. The Messenger of Allah did not sleep in his house that night, and Allah gave him permission to migrate.
After the Messenger migrated to Al-Madinah, Allah revealed to him Suat Al-Anfal reminding him of His favors and the bounties He gave him, (And (remember) when the disbelievers plotted against you to imprison you, or to kill you, or to expel you (from Makkah); they were plotting and Allah too was plotting; and Allah is the best of plotters.)
Allah replied to the pagans’ statement that they should await the death of the Prophet , just as the poets before him perished, as they claimed, (Or do they say: “He is a poet! We await for him some calamity by time!”) ﴿52:30﴾ As-Suddi narrated a similar story. Muhammad bin Ishaq reported from Muhammad bin Ja`far bin Az-Zubayr, from `Urwah bin Az-Zubayr who commented on Allah’s statement, (…they were plotting and Allah too was plotting, and Allah is the best of plotters.) “I (Allah) plotted against them with My sure planning, and I saved you (O Muhammad) from them.” (31. And when Our Ayat are recited to them, they say: “We have heard (the Qur’an); if we wish we can say the like of this. This is nothing but the tales of the ancients.”) (32. And (remember) when they said: “O Allah! If this (the Qur’an) is indeed the truth (revealed) from You, then rain down stones on us from the sky or bring on us a painful torment.”) (33. And Allah would not punish them while you (Muhammad ) are among them, nor will He punish them while they seek (Allah’s) forgiveness.)
The Quraysh claimed They can produce Something similar to the Qur’an
Allah describes the disbelief, transgression, rebellion, as well as misguided statements that the pagans of Quraysh used to utter when they heard Allah’s Ayat being recited to them, (“We have heard (the Qur’an); if we wish we can say the like of this.”) They boasted with their words, but not with their actions.
They were challenged several times to bring even one chapter like the Qur’an, and they had no way to meet this challenge. They only boasted in order to deceive themselves and those who followed their falsehood. It was said that An-Nadr bin Al-Harith, may Allah curse him, was the one who said this, according to Sa`id bin Jubayr, As-Suddi, Ibn Jurayj and others. An-Nadr visited Persia and learned the stories of some Persian kings, such as Rustum and Isphandiyar.
When he went back to Makkah, He found that the Prophet was sent from Allah and reciting the Qur’an to the people. Whenever the Prophet would leave an audience in which An-Nadr was sitting, An-Nadr began narrating to them the stories that he learned in Persia, proclaiming afterwards, “Who, by Allah, has better tales to narrate, I or Muhammad” When Allah allowed the Muslims to capture An-Nadr in Badr, the Messenger of Allah commanded that his head be cut off before him, and that was done, all thanks are due to Allah.
The meaning of, (. ..tales of the ancients) meaning that the Prophet has plagiarized and learned books of ancient people, and this is what he narrated to people, as they claimed. This is the pure falsehood that Allah mentioned in another Ayah, (And they say: “Tales of the ancients, which he has written down:, and they are dictated to him morning and afternoon.” Say: “It (this Qur’an) has been sent down by Him (Allah) Who knows the secret of the heavens and the earth. Truly, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”) ﴿25:5-6﴾ for those who repent and return to Him, He accepts repentance from them and forgives them.
The Idolators ask for Allah’s Judgment and Torment!
Allah said, (And (remember) when they said: “O Allah! If this (the Qur’an) is indeed the truth (revealed) from You, then rain down stones on us from the sky or bring on us a painful torment.”)
This is indicative of the pagans’ enormous ignorance, denial, stubbornness and transgression. They should have said, “O Allah! If this is the truth from You, then guide us to it and help us follow it.” However, they brought Allah’s judgment on themselves and asked for His punishment. Allah said in other Ayat, (And they ask you to hasten on the torment (for them), and had it not been for a term appointed, the torment would certainly have come to them.
And surely, it will come upon them suddenly while they perceive not!) ﴿29:53﴾, (They say: “Our Lord! Hasten to us Qittana (our record of good and bad deeds so that we may see it) before the Day of Reckoning!”) ﴿38:16﴾, and, (A questioner asked concerning a torment about to befall. Upon the disbelievers, which none can avert.
From Allah, the Lord of the ways of ascent.) ﴿70:1-3﴾ The ignorant ones in ancient times said similar things. The people of Shu`ayb said to him, (“So cause a piece of the heaven to fall on us, if you are of the truthful!”)﴿26:187﴾ while the pagans of Quraysh said, (“O Allah! If this (the Qur’an) is indeed the truth (revealed) from You, then rain down stones on us from the sky or bring on us a painful torment.”) Shu`bah said from `Abdul-Hamid that Anas bin Malik said that it was Abu Jahl bin Hisham who uttered this statement, (“O Allah! If this (the Qur’an) is indeed the truth (revealed) from You, then rain down stones on us from the sky or bring on us a painful torment.”) So Allah revealed this Ayah, (And Allah would not punish them while you are among them, nor will He punish them while they seek (Allah’s) forgiveness.) Al-Bukhari recorded it.
The Presence of the Prophet , and the Idolators’ asking For forgiveness, were the Shelters against receiving Allah’s immediate Torment
Allah said, (And Allah would not punish them while you are among them, nor will He punish them while they seek (Allah’s) forgiveness.) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “Pagans used to go around the House in Tawaf and proclaim, `We rush to Your obedience, O Allah, there is no partner with You,’ and the Prophet would tell them, (Enough, enough.) But they would go on, `We rush to Your obedience, O Allah, there is no partner with You except a partner who is with You, You own Him but he does not own!
They also used to say, `O Allah, Your forgiveness, Your forgiveness.’ Allah revealed this verse; (And Allah would not punish them while you are among them…)”’ Ibn `Abbas commented, “They had two safety shelters: the Prophet , and their seeking forgiveness (from Allah).
The Prophet went away, and only seeking forgiveness remained.” At-Tirmidhi recorded that Abu Musa said that the Messenger of Allah said, (“Allah sent down to me two safe shelters for the benefit of my Ummah) (And Allah would not punish them while you are among them, nor will He punish them while they seek (Allah’s) forgiveness.) (When I die, I will leave the seeking of forgiveness with them, until the Day of Resurrection.)
What testifies to this Hadith, is the Hadith that Ahmad recorded in his Musnad and Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, that Abu Sa`id narrated that the Messenger of Allah said, (Shaytan said, `By Your might, O Lord! I will go on luring Your servants as long as their souls are still in their bodies.’ The Lord said, `By My might and majesty!
I will keep forgiving them, as long as they keep invoking Me for forgiveness.’) Al-Hakim, “Its chain is Sahih and they did not record it.” (34. And why should not Allah punish them while they hinder (men) from Al-Masjid Al-Haram, and they are not its guardians None can be its guardians except those who have Taqwa, but most of them know not.) (35. Their Salah at the House was nothing but Muka’ and Tasdiyah. Therefore taste the punishment because you used to disbelieve.)