Surah Fath >> Currently viewing Surah Fath Ayat 25 (48:25)

Surah Fath Ayat 25 in Arabic Text

هُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ وَصَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ ٱلْمَسْجِدِ ٱلْحَرَامِ وَٱلْهَدْىَ مَعْكُوفًا أَن يَبْلُغَ مَحِلَّهُۥ ۚ وَلَوْلَا رِجَالٌۭ مُّؤْمِنُونَ وَنِسَآءٌۭ مُّؤْمِنَـٰتٌۭ لَّمْ تَعْلَمُوهُمْ أَن تَطَـُٔوهُمْ فَتُصِيبَكُم مِّنْهُم مَّعَرَّةٌۢ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍۢ ۖ لِّيُدْخِلَ ٱللَّهُ فِى رَحْمَتِهِۦ مَن يَشَآءُ ۚ لَوْ تَزَيَّلُوا۟ لَعَذَّبْنَا ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ مِنْهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا
Humul lazeena kafaroo wa saddookum ‘anil-Masjidil-Haraami walhadya ma’koofan any yablugha mahillah; wa law laa rijaalum mu’minoona wa nisaaa’um mu’minaatul lam ta’lamoohum an tata’oohum fatuseebakum minhum ma’arratum bighairi ‘ilmin liyud khilal laahu fee rahmatihee many yashaaa’; law tazayyaloo la’azzabnal lazeena kafaroo minhum ‘azaaban aleema

English Translation

Here you can read various translations of verse 25

Sahih International
They are the ones who disbelieved and obstructed you from al-Masjid al-Haram while the offering was prevented from reaching its place of sacrifice. And if not for believing men and believing women whom you did not know – that you might trample them and there would befall you because of them dishonor without [your] knowledge – [you would have been permitted to enter Makkah]. [This was so] that Allah might admit to His mercy whom He willed. If they had been apart [from them], We would have punished those who disbelieved among them with painful punishment

Yusuf Ali
They are the ones who denied Revelation and hindered you from the Sacred Mosque and the sacrificial animals, detained from reaching their place of sacrifice. Had there not been believing men and believing women whom ye did not know that ye were trampling down and on whose account a crime would have accrued to you without (your) knowledge, (Allah would have allowed you to force your way, but He held back your hands) that He may admit to His Mercy whom He will. If they had been apart, We should certainly have punished the Unbelievers among them with a grievous Punishment.

Abul Ala Maududi
They are the ones who disbelieved and barred you from the Inviolable Mosque and prevented the animals you had designated for sacrifice from reaching the place of their offering. If it had not been for the believing men and believing women (who lived in Makkah and) whom you did not know, and had there not been the fear that you might trample on them and unwittingly incur blame on their account, (then fighting would not have been put to a stop. It was stopped so that) Allah may admit to His Mercy whomsoever He pleases. Had those believers been separated from the rest, We would certainly have inflicted a grievous chastise-ment on those of them [i.e. the Makkans) who disbelieved.

Muhsin Khan
They are the ones who disbelieved (in the Oneness of Allah Islamic Monotheism), and hindered you from Al-Masjid-al-Haram (the sacred mosque of Makkah) and the sacrificial animals, detained from reaching their place of sacrifice. Had there not been believing men and believing women whom you did not know, that you may kill them, and on whose account a sin would have been committed by you without (your) knowledge, that Allah might bring into His Mercy whom He will, if they (the believers and the disbelievers) should have been apart, We verily had punished those of them who disbelieved, with painful torment.

Pickthall
These it was who disbelieved and debarred you from the Inviolable Place of Worship, and debarred the offering from reaching its goal. And if it had not been for believing men and believing women, whom ye know not – lest ye should tread them under foot and thus incur guilt for them unknowingly; that Allah might bring into His mercy whom He will – If (the believers and the disbelievers) had been clearly separated We verily had punished those of them who disbelieved with painful punishment.

Dr. Ghali
They are (the ones) who disbelieved and barred you from the Inviolable Mosque and (barred) the consecrated offering (also) from reaching its lawful destination. And had it not been for (some) believing men and (some) believing women whom you did not know, (for fear) that you should trample (i.e., kill them) them, and so dishonor would afflict you on their account without (your) knowing it, that Allah may cause whomever He decides to enter into His mercy. If they (i.e., believers and disbelivers) had been made clearly distinct, indeed We would have tormented the ones who disbelieved among them with a painful torment.

Abdel Haleem
They were the ones who disbelieved, who barred you from the Sacred Mosque, and who prevented the offering from reaching its place of sacrifice. If there had not been among them, unknown to you, believing men and women whom you would have trampled underfoot, inadvertently incurring guilt on their account- God brings whoever He will into His mercy- if the [believers] had been clearly separated, We would have inflicted a painful punishment on the disbelievers.

Quran 48 Verse 25 Explanation

For those looking for commentary to help with the understanding of Surah Fath ayat 25, we’ve provided two Tafseer works below. The first is the tafseer of Abul Ala Maududi, the second is of Ibn Kathir.

Ala-Maududi

(48:25) They are the ones who disbelieved and barred you from the Inviolable Mosque and prevented the animals you had designated for sacrifice from reaching the place of their offering.[43] If it had not been for the believing men and believing women (who lived in Makkah and) whom you did not know, and had there not been the fear that you might trample on them and unwittingly incur blame on their account, (then fighting would not have been put to a stop. It was stopped so that) Allah may admit to His Mercy whomsoever He pleases. Had those believers been separated from the rest, We would certainly have inflicted a grievous chastise-ment on those of them [i.e. the Makkans) who disbelieved.[44]


43. That is, Allah was seeing the sincerity and the selfless devotion with which you had become ready to lay down your lives in the cause of the true faith and were obeying the Prophet (peace be upon him) without asking any question. Allah was also seeing that the disbelievers were being unfair. The demand of this situation was that they should have been punished there and then through you, but in spite of that, Allah restrained your hands from them and their hands from you.

44. This was the reason why Allah did not allow fighting to take place at Hudaibiyah. This has two aspects:

That at that time there were quite a number of the Muslim men and women living in Makkah, who were either hiding their faith, or were being persecuted because of their faith as they had no means to emigrate. Had there been fighting and the Muslims had pushed back the disbelievers and entered Makkah, these Muslims would also have been killed in ignorance along with the disbelievers. This would not only have grieved the Muslims but the Arab polytheists also would have gotten an opportunity to say that the Muslims did not even spare their own brethren in faith during wartime. Therefore, Allah took pity on the helpless Muslims and averted the war in order to save the companions from grief and infamy. The other aspect of the expedience was that Allah did not will that Makkah should fall to the Muslims as a result of the defeat of the Quraish after a bloody clash but He willed that they should be encircled from all sides so that within two years or so they should become absolutely helpless and subdued without offering any resistance, and then the whole tribe should accept Islam and enter Allah’s mercy as it actually happened on the conquest of Makkah.

Here the juristic dispute has arisen that if during a war between the Muslims and the disbelievers, the disbelievers should bring out some Muslim men and women, children and old men, in their possession and put them in the forefront as a shield for themselves, or if there is some Muslim population also in the non-Muslim city under attack by the Muslim forces, or if on a warship of the disbelievers, which is within gunfire, the disbelievers have also taken some

Ibn-Kathir

25. They are those who disbelieved and hindered you from Al-Masjid Al-Haram and detained the sacrificial animals, from reaching their place of sacrifice. Had there not been believing men and believing women whom you did not know, that you may kill and on whose account a sin would have been committed by you without (your) knowledge, that Allah might bring into His mercy whom He wills — if they had been apart, We verily, would have punished with painful torment those of them who disbelieved. 26. When those who disbelieve had put in their hearts pride and haughtiness — the pride and haughtiness of the time of ignorance, — then Allah sent down His calmness and tranquillity upon His Messenger and upon the believers, and made them stick to the word of Taqwa; and they were well entitled to it and worthy of it. And Allah is the All-Knower of everything.


Some of the Benefits gained from the Treaty at Al-Hudaybiyyah

Allah the Exalted states that the Arab idolators from Quraysh and their allies who extended help to them against His Messenger ,

﴿هُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ﴾

(They are those who disbelieved), they are indeed the disbelievers,

﴿وَصَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ﴾

(and hindered you from Al-Masjid Al-Haram) `even though you are its people and more worthy of being responsible for it,’

﴿وَالْهَدْىَ مَعْكُوفاً أَن يَبْلُغَ مَحِلَّهُ﴾

(and detained the sacrificial animals, from reaching their place of sacrifice.) they prevented, because of transgression and stubbornness, the sacrificial animals from being reached to the place where they would be slaughtered. There were seventy sacrificial camels designated for sacrifice, as we will mention, Allah willing. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

﴿وَلَوْلاَ رِجَالٌ مُّؤْمِنُونَ وَنِسَآءٌ مُّؤْمِنَـتٌ﴾

(Had there not been believing men and believing women) `living among the Makkans hiding their faith for fearing for their safety from the pagans. Otherwise, We would have given you authority over the Makkans and you would have killed them to the brink of extermination. However, there were some faithful believers, men and women, living among them, about whom you had no knowledge of being believers and you might try to kill them.’ Allah’s statement,

﴿لَّمْ تَعْلَمُوهُمْ أَن تَطَئُوهُمْ فَتُصِيبَكمْ مِّنْهُمْ مَّعَرَّةٌ﴾

(whom you did not know, that you may kill them and on whose account a sin would have been committed by you) an evil and erroneous act,

﴿بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ لِّيُدْخِلَ اللَّهُ فِى رَحْمَتِهِ مَن يَشَآءُ﴾

(without (your) knowledge, that Allah might bring into His mercy whom He wills) that Allah might delay the punishment of the pagans of Makkah to save the believers who lived among them, and so that many of the idolators might embrace Islam. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

﴿لَوْ تَزَيَّلُواْ﴾

(if they had been apart), if the disbelievers and the believers who were living among them had been apart,

﴿لَعَذَّبْنَا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ مِنْهُمْ عَذَاباً أَلِيماً﴾

(We verily, would have punished with painful torment those of them who disbelieved) `We would have given you dominance over the disbelievers and you would have inflicted tremendous slaughter on them.’ Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,

﴿إِذْ جَعَلَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ فِى قُلُوبِهِمُ الْحَمِيَّةَ حَمِيَّةَ الْجَـهِلِيَّةِ﴾

(When those who disbelieve had put in their hearts pride and haughtiness — the pride and haughtiness of the time of ignorance, ) when they refused to write (in the treaty document), `In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful,’ and, `These are the terms agreed on by Muhammad, Allah’s Messenger,’

﴿فَأَنزَلَ اللَّهُ سَكِينَتَهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ وَعَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَأَلْزَمَهُمْ كَلِمَةَ التَّقْوَى﴾

(then Allah sent down His calmness and tranquillity upon His Messenger and upon the believers and made them stick to the word of Taqwa;) the word of Taqwa refers to sincerity, according to Mujahid. `Ata’ bin Abi Rabah commented, “None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, alone without partners. All the dominion belongs to Him and all praise is due to Him. He is Ever Able to do everything.” Yunus bin Bukayr said that Ibn Ishaq narrated from Az-Zuhri, from `Urwah, from Al-Miswar, commenting on,

﴿وَأَلْزَمَهُمْ كَلِمَةَ التَّقْوَى﴾

(and made them stick to the word of Taqwa;) “`La ilaha illallah, alone without partners.”

 

The Hadiths that tell the Story of Al-Hudaybiyyah and the Peace Treaty that followed

Al-Bukhari, may Allah have mercy with him, recorded in his Sahih in `Book of Conditions’ that Al-Miswar bin Makhramah and Marwan bin Al-Hakam, both narrated attesting to the truthfulness of the other, “Allah’s Messenger set out at the time of Al-Hudaybiyyah with several hundred of his Companions. When he reached Dhul-Hulayfah, he had the sacrificial animals garlanded and marked and resumed the state of Ihram for `Umrah. He then sent several men from the tribe of Khuza`ah to gather news for him and then he proceeded. When he arrived at a village called Al-Ashtat, his advance regiment came back and said, `The Quraysh have gathered their forces against you, including Al-Ahabish tribes. They are intent on fighting you, stopping you, and preventing you.’ The Messenger said,

«أَشِيرُوا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ عَلَيَّ، أَتُرَوْنَ أَنْ نَمِيلَ عَلَى عِيَالِهِمْ وَذَرَارِيِّ هؤُلَاءِ، الَّذِينَ يُرِيدُونَ أَنْ يَصُدُّونَا عَنِ الْبَيْتِ؟»

(Give me your opinion, O people! Do you think we should attack the families and offspring of those who seek to prevent us from reaching the House)” in another narration, the Prophet said,

«(أَ)تُرَوْنَ أَنْ نَمِيلَ عَلَى ذَرَارِيِّ هؤُلَاءِ الَّذِينَ أَعَانُوهُمْ، فَإِنْ يَأْتُونَا كَانَ اللهُ قَدْ قَطَعَ عُنُقًا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ، وَإِلَّا تَرَكْنَاهُمْ مَحْزُونِين»

(Do you think we should attack the families of those who helped the Quraysh If they come to defend against us, then Allah would have diminished the idolator forces. Or we leave them to grieve!)” In another narration, the Prophet said,

«فَإِنْ قَعَدُوا قَعَدُوا مَوْتُورِينَ مَجْهُودِينَ مَحْزُونِينَ، وَإِنْ نَجَوْا يَكُنْ عُنُقًا قَطَعَهَا اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ. أَمْ تُرَوْنَ أَنْ نَؤُمَّ الْبَيْتَ فَمَنْ صَدَّنَا عَنْهُ قَاتَلْنَاه»

(If they remain where they have gathered, they do so in grief, fatigued and depressed. If they save their families, it would be a neck that Allah the Exalted and Most Honored has cut off. Or, should we head towards the House and if anyone prevents us from reaching it we would fight them) “Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “O, Allah’s Messenger! You only intended to visit the House, not to kill anyone or start a war. Therefore, head towards the House and whoever stands in our way, then we will fight him.” In another narration, Abu Bakr said, “Allah and His Messenger know that we only came to perform `Umrah not to fight anyone. However, anyone who tries to prevent us from reaching the House, we will fight him.” The Prophet said,

«فَرُوحُوا إِذَن»

(Go forth then.) In another narration, the Prophet said,

«فَامْضُوا عَلَى اسْمِ اللهِ تَعَالَى»

(Go forth, in the Name of Allah, the Exalted.) “When they proceeded for a distance, the Prophet said,

«إِنَّ خَالِدَ بْنَ الْوَلِيدِ فِي خَيْلٍ لِقُرَيْشٍ طَلِيعَةً، فَخُذُوا ذَاتَ الْيَمِين»

(Khalid bin Al-Walid is leading the cavalry of Quraysh forming the front of the army, so take the path on the right.) By Allah, Khalid did not perceive the arrival of the Muslims until the dust arising from the march of the Muslim army reached him, then he turned back hurriedly to inform the Quraysh. The Prophet went on advancing until he reached the Thaniyyah (i. e., a mountainous way) through which he could reach them. The she-camel of the Prophet sat down. The people tried their best to cause her to rise, but it was in vain. So, they said, `Al-Qaswa’ has become stubborn! Al-Qaswa’ has become stubborn!’ The Prophet said,

«مَا خَلَأَتِ الْقَصْوَاءُ وَمَا ذَاكَ لَهَا بِخُلُقٍ، وَلكِنْ حَبَسَها حَابِسُ الْفِيل»

(Al-Qaswa’ has not become stubborn, for stubbornness is not her habit, but she was stopped by Him Who stopped the elephant.) Then he said,

«وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَا يَسْأَلُونِّي خُطَّةً يُعَظِّمُونَ فِيهَا حُرُمَاتِ اللهِ تَعَالَى إِلَّا أَعْطَيْتُهُمْ إِيَّاهَا»

(By the Name of Him in Whose Hands is my soul, if they ask me anything which will respect the ordinances of Allah, the Exalted, I will grant it to them.) The Prophet then rebuked the she-camel and she got up. The Prophet changed his direction, until he dismounted at the farthest end of Al-Hudaybiyyah. There was a pit containing a little water which the people used in small amounts, and after a short time the people exhausted all its water and complained of thirst to Allah’s Messenger . The Prophet took an arrow out of his quiver and ordered them to put the arrow in the pit. By Allah, the water started flowing and continued sprouting until all the people quenched their thirst and returned satisfied. While they were still in that state, Budayl bin Warqa’ Al-Khuza`i came with some people from his tribe, Khuza`ah. They were the advisers of Allah’s Messenger who would keep no secret from him and were from the people of Tihamah. Budayl said, `I left (the tribes of) Ka`b bin Lu’ay and `Amir bin Lu’ay residing at the abundant water of Al-Hudaybiyyah. They had milk camels with them, intending to wage war against you and prevent you from visiting the Ka`bah.’ Allah’s Messenger said,

«إِنَّا لَمْ نَجِىءْ لِقِتَالِ أَحَدٍ، وَلكِنْ جِئْنَا مُعْتَمِرِينَ، وَإِنَّ قُرَيْشًا قَدْ نَهَكَتْهُمُ الْحَرْبُ، وَأَضَرَّتْ بِهِمْ، فَإِنْ شَاؤُوا مَادَدْتُهُمْ مُدَّةً وَيُخَلُّوا بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَ النَّاسِ، فَإِنْ أَظْهَرْ، فَإِنْ شَاءُوا أَنْ يَدْخُلُوا فِيمَا دَخَلَ فِيهِ النَّاسُ فَعَلُوا، وَإِلَّا فَقَدْ جَمُّوا، وَإِنْ هُمْ أَبَوْا فَوَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَأُقَاتِلَنَّهُمْ عَلَى أَمْرِي هذَا حَتْى تَنْفَرِدَ سَالِفَتِي أَوْ لَيُنْفِذَنَّ اللهُ أَمْرَه»

(We have not come to fight anyone, but to perform `Umrah. No doubt, war has weakened Quraysh and they have suffered great losses. So if they wish, I will conclude a truce with them, during which they should refrain from interfering between me and others. If I have victory over those infidels, Quraysh will have the option to embrace Islam as the other people do, if they wish. They will at least get strong enough to fight. But if they do not accept the truce, by Allah in Whose Hands my life is, I will fight with them defending my cause until I get killed, but (I am sure) Allah will definitely make His cause victorious.) Budayl said, `I will inform them of what you have said.’ So, he set off until he reached Quraysh and said, `We have come from that man whom we heard saying something which we will disclose to you, if you should like.’ Some of the fools among the Quraysh shouted that they were not in need of this information, but the wiser among them said, `Relate what you heard him saying.’ Budayl said, `I heard him saying such and such,’ relating what the Prophet had told him. `Urwah bin Mas`ud stood up and said, `O people! Aren’t you the sons’ They said, `Yes.’ He added, `Am I not the father’ They said, `Yes.’ He said, `Do you mistrust me’ They said, `No.’ He said, `Don’t you know that I invited the people of `Ukaz for your help, and when they refused I brought my relatives and children and those who obeyed me’ They said, `Yes.’ He said, `Well, this man has offered you a reasonable proposal, it is better for you to accept it and allow me to meet him.’ They said, `You may meet him.’ So, he went to the Prophet and started talking to him. The Prophet said the same to him as he had to Budayl bin Warqa. Then `Urwah said, `O Muhammad! Won’t you feel any qualms by exterminating your relations Have you ever heard of anyone among the Arabs annihilating his relatives before you On the other hand, if the reverse should happen, by Allah, I do not see dignified people here, but people from various tribes who would run away leaving you alone.’ Hearing that, Abu Bakr verbally abused him and said, `Go suck Al-Lat’s womb! Are you saying we would run and leave the Prophet alone’ `Urwah said, `Who is that man’ They said, `He is Abu Bakr.’ `Urwah said to Abu Bakr, `By Him in Whose Hands my life is, were it not for the favor which you did to me and which I did not compensate, I would rebuke you.’ `Urwah kept on talking to the Prophet and seizing the Prophet’s beard as he was talking, while Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah was standing near the head of the Prophet , holding a sword and wearing a helmet. Whenever `Urwah stretched his hand towards the beard of the Prophet , Al-Mughirah would hit his hand with the handle of the sword and say, `Remove your hand from the beard of Allah’s Messenger.’ `Urwah raised his head and asked, `Who is that’ The people said, `He is Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah.’ `Urwah said, `O treacherous (one)! Am I not doing my best to prevent evil consequences of your treachery’ Before embracing Islam, Al-Mughirah was in the company of some people. He killed them, took their property and came (to Al-Madinah) to embrace Islam. The Prophet said to him,

«أَمَّا الْإِسْلَامُ فَأَقْبَلُ، وَأَمَّا الْمَالُ فَلَسْتُ مِنْهُ فِي شَيْء»

(As regards to your Islam, I accept it, but as for the property I do not take anything of it.) `Urwah then started looking at the Companions of the Prophet . By Allah, whenever Allah’s Messenger spat, the spittle would fall in the hand of one of them, who would rub it on his face and skin. If he ordered them, they would carry his orders immediately, if he performed ablution, they would struggle to take the remaining water, and when they spoke to him, they would lower their voices and would not look at his face constantly out of respect. `Urwah returned to his people and said, `O people! By Allah, I have been to the kings and to Caesar, Khosrau and An-Najashi. Yet, by Allah! I have never seen any of them respected by his courtiers, as much as, Muhammad is respected by his companions. By Allah, if he spat, the spittle would fall into the hand of one of them and he would rub it on his face and skin. If he ordered them, they would carry out his order immediately, if he performed ablution, they would struggle to take the remaining water, and when they spoke, they would lower their voices and would not look at his face constantly out of respect. No doubt, he has presented to you a good reasonable offer, so please accept it.’ A man from the tribe of Bani Kinanah said, `Allow me to go to him,’ and they allowed him. When he approached the Prophet and his Companions, Allah’s Messenger said,

«هذَا فُلَانٌ وَهُوَ مِنْ قَوْمٍ يُعَظِّمُونَ الْبُدْنَ فَابْعَثُوهَا لَه»

(He is so-and-so who belongs to the tribe that respects the sacrificial camels. So, bring the sacrificial camels before him.) So, the sacrificial camels were brought before him and the people received him while they were reciting Talbiyah. When he saw that scene, he said, `Glorified is Allah! It is not fair to prevent these people from visiting the Ka`bah.’ When he returned to his people, he said, `I saw the sacrificial camels garlanded and marked. I do not think it is advisable to prevent them from visiting the Ka`bah.’ Another person called Mikraz bin Hafs stood up and sought their permission to go to Muhammad , and they allowed him, too. When he approached the Muslims, the Prophet said,

«هَذَا مِكْرَزٌ وَهُوَ رَجُلٌ فَاجِر»

(Here is Mikraz and he is a vicious man.) Mikraz started talking to the Prophet and as he was talking, Suhayl bin `Amr came.” Ma`mar said that Ayyub said to him that `Ikrimah said, “When Suhayl bin `Amr came, the Prophet said,

«قَدْ سَهُلَ لَكُمْ مِنْ أَمْرِكُم»

(Now the matter has become easy for you.)” Ma`mar said that Az-Zuhri narrated, “When Suhayl bin `Amr came, he said to the Prophet , `Please conclude a peace treaty with us.’ So, the Prophet called `Ali bin Abi Talib and said to him,

«اكْتُبْ بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيم»

(Write: In the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman, Ar-Rahim.) Suhayl bin `Amr said, `As for Ar-Rahman, by Allah, I do not know what it means. So write: By Your Name, O Allah, as you used to write previously.’ The Muslims said, `By Allah, we will not write except: By the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman, Ar-Rahim.’ The Prophet said,

«اكْتُبْ بِاسْمِكَ اللْهُم»

(Write: “In Your Name O Allah.”) Then he dictated,

«هذَا مَا قَاضَى عَلَيْهِ مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ الله»

(This is a peace treaty, which Muhammad, Allah’s Messenger has concluded.) Suhayl said, `By Allah, if we knew that you are Allah’s Messenger, we would not prevent you from visiting the Ka`bah, and would not fight with you. So, write: Muhammad bin `Abdullah.’ The Prophet said to him,

«وَاللهِ إِنِّي لَرَسُولُ اللهِ وَإِنْ كَذَّبْتُمُونِي، اكْتُبْ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِالله»

(By Allah! I am the Messenger of Allah even if your people do not believe me. Write: “Muhammad bin `Abdullah.”)” Az-Zuhri continued, “The Prophet accepted all those things, since he had already said that he would accept everything they would demand if it respects the ordinance of Allah, the Exalted.” The Hadith continues, “The Prophet said to Suhayl,

«عَلَى أَنْ تُخَلُّوا بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَ الْبَيْتِ فَنَطُوفَ بِه»

(On the condition that you allow us to visit the House so that we may perform Tawaf around it.) Suhayl said, `By Allah, we will not, so as not to give the Arabs a chance to say that we have yielded to your pressure, but we will allow you next year.’ So, the Prophet had that written. Then Suhayl said, `We also stipulate that you should return to us whoever comes to you from us, even if he embraced your religion.’ The Muslims protested, `Glorified be Allah! How can a person be returned to the idolators after he has become a Muslim’ While they were in this state Abu Jandal bin Suhayl bin `Amr came from the valley of Makkah staggering with his chains and fell down among the Muslims. Suhayl said, `O Muhammad! This is the very first term with which we make peace with you, that is, you shall return Abu Jandal to me.’ The Prophet said,

«إِنَّا لَمْ نَقْضِ الْكِتَابَ بَعْد»

(The peace treaty has not been written yet.) Suhayl said, `Then by Allah, I will never conduct peace with you.’ The Prophet said,

«فَأَجِزْهُ لِي»

(Release him to me,) and Suhayl responded, `I will never allow you to keep him.’ The Prophet said,

«بَلَى فَافْعَل»

(Yes, do.) He said, `I will not.’ Mikraz said, `We allow you (to keep him).’ Abu Jandal said, `O, Muslims! Will I be returned to the idolators although I have come as a Muslim Don’t you see how much I have suffered’ Abu Jandal had been tortured severely for the cause of Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored. `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, `I went to the Prophet and said: Aren’t you truly the Messenger of Allah’ The Prophet said,

«بَلَى»

(Yes, indeed.) I said, `Isn’t our cause just and the cause of the enemy unjust’ He said,

«بَلَى»

(Yes.) I said, `Then why should we be humble in our religion’ He said,

«إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللهِ وَلَسْتُ أَعْصِيهِ وَهُوَ نَاصِرِي»

(I am Allah’s Messenger and I do not disobey Him, and He will make me victorious.) I said, `Didn’t you tell us that we would go to the Ka`bah and perform Tawaf around it’ He said,

«بَلَى أَفَأَخْبَرْتُكَ أَنَّا نَأْتِيهِ الْعَامَ؟»

(Yes, but did I tell you that we would visit the Ka`bah this year) I said, `No.’ He said,

«فَإِنَّكَ آتِيهِ وَمُطَّوِّفٌ بِه»

(So you will visit it and perform Tawaf around it.) `Umar further said, `I went to Abu Bakr and said: O Abu Bakr! Isn’t he truly Allah’s Prophet’ He replied, `Yes.’ I said, `Is not our cause just and the cause of our enemy unjust’ He said, `Yes.’ I said, `Then why should we be humble in our religion’ He said, `O you man! Indeed, he is Allah’s Messenger and he does not disobey his Lord, and He will make him victorious. Adhere to him for, by Allah, he is on the right path.’ I said, `Was he not telling us that we would go to the Ka`bah and perform Tawaf around it’ He said, `Yes, but did he tell you that you would go to the Ka`bah this year’ I said, `No.’ He said, `You will go to the Ka`bah and perform Tawaf around it.’ Az-Zuhri said, “`Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, said, `I performed many good deeds as expiation for the improper questions I asked them.’ ” “When the writing of the peace treaty was concluded, Allah’s Messenger said to his Companions,

«قُومُوا فَانْحَرُوا ثُمَّ احْلِقُوا»

(Get up and slaughter your sacrifices and have your heads shaved.) By Allah none of them got up, and the Prophet repeated his order thrice. When none of them got up, he left them and went to Umm Salamah and told her of the people’s attitudes towards him. Umm Salamah said, `O Prophet of Allah! Do you want your order to be carried out Go out and don’t say a word to anybody until you have slaughtered your sacrifice and call your barber to shave your head.’ The Messenger of Allah went out and did not talk to anyone until he did what she suggested, slaughtered the sacrifice and shaved his head. Seeing that, the Companions got up, slaughtered their sacrifices, and started shaving the heads of one another. There was so much of a rush — and sadness — that there was a danger of killing each other. Then some believing women came and Allah the Exalted and most Honored revealed the following Ayat,

﴿يأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ إِذَا جَآءَكُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَـتُ﴾

(O you who believe! When believing women come to you) (60:10), until,

﴿بِعِصَمِ الْكَوَافِرِ﴾

(Likewise hold not the disbelieving women as wives.) `Umar then divorced two of his wives, who were disbelievers. Later on Mu`awiyah bin Abu Sufyan married one of them, and Safwan bin Umayyah married the other. When the Prophet returned to Al-Madinah, Abu Basir, a new Muslim convert from the Quraysh, came to him. The disbelievers sent two men in pursuit who said to the Prophet , `Abide by the promise you gave us.’ So, the Prophet handed him over to them. They took him out (of Al-Madinah) until they reached Dhul-Hulayfah where they dismounted to eat some dates they had with them. Abu Basir said to one of them, `By Allah, O, so-and-so, I see you have a fine sword.’ The other drew it out (of its sheath) and said, `Yes, by Allah, it is very fine and I have tried it many times.’ Abu Basir said, `Let me have a look at it.’ When the other gave the sword to Abu Basir, he struck him with it until he died. His companion ran away until he reached Al-Madinah, entering the Masjid running. When Allah’s Messenger saw him he said,

«لَقَدْ رَأَى هذَا ذُعْرًا»

(This man appears to have been frightened.) When he reached the Prophet he said, `My companion has been murdered, by Allah, and I would have been murdered too. ‘ Abu Basir came and said, `O Allah’s Messenger, by Allah! Allah has made you fulfill your obligations by returning me to them, but Allah the Exalted has saved me from them.’ The Prophet said,

«وَيْلُ أُمِّهِ مِسْعَرَ حَرْبٍ لَوْ كَانَ مَعَهُ أَحَد»

(Woe to his mother! What an excellent war kindler he would be, if he only have supporters.) When Abu Basir heard this from the Prophet , he understood that he would return him to the idolators again, so he set off until he reached the seashore. Abu Jandal bin Suhayl also got himself released from the disbelievers and joined Abu Basir. Thereafter, whenever a man from Quraysh embraced Islam he would follow Abu Basir until they formed a strong group. By Allah, whenever they heard about a caravan of the Quraysh heading towards Ash-Sham (Greater Syria), they stopped it, attacked and killed the disbelievers and took their properties. The people of Quraysh sent a message to the Prophet requesting him for the sake of Allah and kith and kin to send for (Abu Basir and his companions) promising that whoever among them came to the Prophet , would be secure. So, the Prophet sent for them and Allah the Exalted and Most Honored revealed the following Ayat,

﴿وَهُوَ الَّذِى كَفَّ أَيْدِيَهُمْ عَنكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ عَنْهُم بِبَطْنِ مَكَّةَ﴾

(And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah), until,

﴿حَمِيَّةَ الْجَـهِلِيَّةِ﴾

(the pride and haughtiness of the time of ignorance, ) Their pride and haughtiness was that they did not confess that Muhammad was the Prophet of Allah, refused to write, `In the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman, Ar-Rahim,’ and prevented Muslims from visiting the Ka`bah.” This is the narration Al-Bukhari collected in the Book of Tafsir, `Umrat Al-Hudaybiyyah, Hajj, and so forth. Allah is the Only One sought for help, all reliance is on Him alone and there is no might or strength except from Allah, the Almighty, the All-Wise. Al-Bukhari narrated in the Book of Tafsir that Habib bin Abi Thabit said that he went to Abu Wa’il asking him about something and he said, “We were at Siffin, when a man said, `Do you not see those who call to Allah’s Book’ `Ali bin Abi Talib said, `Yes.’ Sahl bin Hunayf said, `Do not feel certain in the reliability of your own opinions! On the day of Hudaybiyyah, the day the treaty of peace was signed between the Prophet and idolators, had we found a chance to fight, we would have done so.’ `Umar came (to the Prophet ) and said, `Are we not on the true cause and theirs is the false cause Are not our killed in Paradise and theirs in the Fire’ He said, `Yes.’ `Umar said, `Why then should we be humble with regards to the cause of our religion Why should we go back before Allah decides in the matter between us (between Muslims and the idolators.)’ The Prophet said,

«يَا ابْنَ الْخَطَّابِ إِنِّي رَسُولُ اللهِ وَلَنْ يُضَيِّعَنِي اللهُ أَبَدًا»

(O son of Al-Khattab! I am Allah’s Messenger and He will never abandon me. ) `Umar left while feeling angry and soon went to Abu Bakr and said, `O Abu Bakr! Are we not on the true cause and they are on falsehood’ Abu Bakr said, `O son of Al-Khattab! He is Allah’s Messenger and Allah will never abandon him.’ Surat Al-Fath was later revealed.”’ Al-Bukhari collected this Hadith in several other parts of his Sahih, and so did Muslim and An-Nasa’i using various chains of narration from Abu Wa’il, Sufyan bin Salamah, from Sahl bin Hunayf. Some of these narrations read, “O people! Accuse sheer opinion (of being imperfect)! On the day Abu Jandal came, I saw myself willing to reject the command of Allah’s Messenger , had I had the chance.” In yet another narration, “Surat Al-Fath was revealed and the Messenger of Allah called `Umar bin Al-Khattab and recited it to him.” Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said, “Quraysh resorted to peace with the Prophet . Suhayl bin `Amr was among the idolators then. The Prophet said to `Ali,

«اكْتُبْ بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيم»

(Write: “In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.”) Suhayl said, `We do not know the meaning of: In the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman Ar-Rahim. However, write what we do know: In Your Name, O Allah!’ The Messenger said,

«اكْتُبْ مِنْ مُحَمَّدٍ رَسُولِ الله»

(Write: “From Muhammad, Allah’s Messenger,”) and Suhayl said, `If we knew that you are Allah’s Messenger, we would have followed you. However, write your name and the name of your father.’ The Prophet said,

«اكْتُبْ مِنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِالله»

(Write: “From Muhammad son of `Abdullah.”) They set the terms with the Prophet that, `If anyone comes from your side to us, we will not send him back to you. If anyone from among us came to you, you send him back to us.’ `Ali said, `O Allah’s Messenger! Should I write this,’ and the Prophet said,

«نَعَمْ، إِنَّهُ مَنْ ذَهَبَ مِنَّا إِلَيْهِمْ فَأَبْعَدَهُ الله»

(Yes. Surely, those who revert from our side and go to them, then may Allah cast them away.) Muslim also collected this Hadith.” Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Abbas said, “When Al-Haruriyyah rebelled, they set a separate camp for their group. I said to them, `On the day of Al-Hudaybiyyah, the Messenger of Allah agreed to conduct peace with the idolators. He said to `Ali,

«اكْتُبْ يَا عَلِيُّ، هذَا مَا صَالَحَ عَلَيْهِ مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ الله»

(Write, O `Ali: “These are the terms agreed to by Muhammad, Allah’s Messenger.”)’ The idolators said, `If we knew that you are Allah’s Messenger, we would not have fought you.’ Allah’s Messenger said,

«امْحُ يَا عَلِيُّ، اللْهُمَّ إِنَّكَ تَعْلَمُ أَنِّي رَسُولُكَ، امْحُ يَا عَلِيُّ وَاكْتُبْ: هذَا مَا صَالَحَ عَلَيْهِ مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِالله»

(O `Ali! Erase it. O Allah! You know that I am Your Messenger. O `Ali! Erase it and write instead: “These are the peace terms agreed to by Muhammad bin `Abdullah.”) By Allah, Allah’s Messenger is better than `Ali, and the Messenger erased his title. However, erasing his title did not mean that he was erased from being a Prophet. Have I given you sufficient proof in this.’ They said, `Yes.”’ Abu Dawud also collected a similar narration. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Abbas said, “On the day of Hudaybiyyah, the Messenger of Allah slaughtered seventy sacrificial camels, including a camel that belonged to Abu Jahl. When the camel was prevented from coming to the House, she cried just as she would cry when seeing her offspring.”

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