Assalamualaikum.

Surah Ghafir (in Arabic text: غافر‎) also known as Surah Al-Mu’min is the 40th chapter of Qur’an composed of 85 ayat (verses). It is classified as a Meccan Surah and the title in English is “The Forgiver”.

This Surah is about Da’wah meaning an invitation to Islam. It begins by addressing how the Qur’an is from Allah who is merciful and severe, It Warns to the non-believers and gives comfort to the believers. There is also a lesson from history about Prophet Musa (pbuh) and how even the powerful Pharaoh could not be helped against the wrath of Allah.

Notable Quote:

 “O my people, this worldly life is only [temporary] enjoyment, and indeed, the Hereafter – that is the home of [permanent] settlement.”
Surah Ghafir Ayat 81

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Read Surah Ghafir with English Translation and Transliteration

Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Raheem
In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful

حمٓ

Haa-Meeem
1. Ha, Meem.

تَنزِيلُ ٱلْكِتَـٰبِ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلْعَزِيزِ ٱلْعَلِيمِ

Tanzeelul Kitaabi minal laahil Azeezil ‘Aleem
2. The revelation of the Book is from Allah, the Exalted in Might, the Knowing.

غَافِرِ ٱلذَّنۢبِ وَقَابِلِ ٱلتَّوْبِ شَدِيدِ ٱلْعِقَابِ ذِى ٱلطَّوْلِ ۖ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ إِلَيْهِ ٱلْمَصِيرُ

Ghaafiriz zambi wa qaabilit tawbi shadeedil ‘iqaabi zit tawli laaa ilaaha illaa Huwa ilaihil maseer
3. The forgiver of sin, acceptor of repentance, severe in punishment, owner of abundance. There is no deity except Him; to Him is the destination.

مَا يُجَـٰدِلُ فِىٓ ءَايَـٰتِ ٱللَّهِ إِلَّا ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ فَلَا يَغْرُرْكَ تَقَلُّبُهُمْ فِى ٱلْبِلَـٰدِ

Maa yujaadilu feee Aayaatil laahi illal lazeena kafaroo falaa yaghrurka taqallubuhum fil bilaad
4. No one disputes concerning the signs of Allah except those who disbelieve, so be not deceived by their [uninhibited] movement throughout the land.

كَذَّبَتْ قَبْلَهُمْ قَوْمُ نُوحٍۢ وَٱلْأَحْزَابُ مِنۢ بَعْدِهِمْ ۖ وَهَمَّتْ كُلُّ أُمَّةٍۭ بِرَسُولِهِمْ لِيَأْخُذُوهُ ۖ وَجَـٰدَلُوا۟ بِٱلْبَـٰطِلِ لِيُدْحِضُوا۟ بِهِ ٱلْحَقَّ فَأَخَذْتُهُمْ ۖ فَكَيْفَ كَانَ عِقَابِ

Kazzabat qablahum qawmu Noohinw wal Ahzaabu mim ba’dihim wa hammat kullu ummatim bi Rasoolihim liyaa khuzoobhu wa jaadaloo bilbaatili liyudhidoo bihil haqqa fa akhaztuhum fakifa kaana ‘iqaab
5. The people of Noah denied before them and the [disbelieving] factions after them, and every nation intended [a plot] for their messenger to seize him, and they disputed by [using] falsehood to [attempt to] invalidate thereby the truth. So I seized them, and how [terrible] was My penalty.

وَكَذَ‌ٰلِكَ حَقَّتْ كَلِمَتُ رَبِّكَ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓا۟ أَنَّهُمْ أَصْحَـٰبُ ٱلنَّارِ

Wa kazaalika haqqat Kalimatu Rabbika ‘alal lazeena kafarooo annahum Ashaabun Naar
6. And thus has the word of your Lord come into effect upon those who disbelieved that they are companions of the Fire.

ٱلَّذِينَ يَحْمِلُونَ ٱلْعَرْشَ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهُۥ يُسَبِّحُونَ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّهِمْ وَيُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِۦ وَيَسْتَغْفِرُونَ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ رَبَّنَا وَسِعْتَ كُلَّ شَىْءٍۢ رَّحْمَةًۭ وَعِلْمًۭا فَٱغْفِرْ لِلَّذِينَ تَابُوا۟ وَٱتَّبَعُوا۟ سَبِيلَكَ وَقِهِمْ عَذَابَ ٱلْجَحِيمِ

Allazeena yahmiloonal ‘Arsha wa man hawlahoo yusabbihoona bihamdi Rabbihim wa yu’minoona bihee wa yastaghfiroona lillazeena aamanoo Rabbanaa wasi’ta kulla shai’ir rahmatanw wa ‘ilman faghfir lillazeena taaboo wattaba’oo sabeelaka wa qihim ‘azaabal Jaheem
7. Those [angels] who carry the Throne and those around it exalt [ Allah ] with praise of their Lord and believe in Him and ask forgiveness for those who have believed, [saying], “Our Lord, You have encompassed all things in mercy and knowledge, so forgive those who have repented and followed Your way and protect them from the punishment of Hellfire.

رَبَّنَا وَأَدْخِلْهُمْ جَنَّـٰتِ عَدْنٍ ٱلَّتِى وَعَدتَّهُمْ وَمَن صَلَحَ مِنْ ءَابَآئِهِمْ وَأَزْوَ‌ٰجِهِمْ وَذُرِّيَّـٰتِهِمْ ۚ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ ٱلْعَزِيزُ ٱلْحَكِيمُ

Rabbannaa wa adkhilhum Jannaati ‘adninil latee wa’attahum wa man salaha min aabaaa’ihim wa azwaajihim wa zurriyyaatihim; innaka Antal ‘Azeezul Hakeem
8. Our Lord, and admit them to gardens of perpetual residence which You have promised them and whoever was righteous among their fathers, their spouses and their offspring. Indeed, it is You who is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.

وَقِهِمُ ٱلسَّيِّـَٔاتِ ۚ وَمَن تَقِ ٱلسَّيِّـَٔاتِ يَوْمَئِذٍۢ فَقَدْ رَحِمْتَهُۥ ۚ وَذَ‌ٰلِكَ هُوَ ٱلْفَوْزُ ٱلْعَظِيمُ

Wa qihimus saiyi-aat; wa man taqis saiyi-aati Yawma’izin faqad rahimtah; wa zaalika huwal fawzul ‘azeem (section 1)
9. And protect them from the evil consequences [of their deeds]. And he whom You protect from evil consequences that Day – You will have given him mercy. And that is the great attainment.”

إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ يُنَادَوْنَ لَمَقْتُ ٱللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ مِن مَّقْتِكُمْ أَنفُسَكُمْ إِذْ تُدْعَوْنَ إِلَى ٱلْإِيمَـٰنِ فَتَكْفُرُونَ

Innal lazeena kafaroo yunaadawna lamaqtul laahi akbaru mim maqtikum anfusakum iz tud’awna ilal eemaani fatakfuroon
10. Indeed, those who disbelieve will be addressed, “The hatred of Allah for you was [even] greater than your hatred of yourselves [this Day in Hell] when you were invited to faith, but you refused.”

قَالُوا۟ رَبَّنَآ أَمَتَّنَا ٱثْنَتَيْنِ وَأَحْيَيْتَنَا ٱثْنَتَيْنِ فَٱعْتَرَفْنَا بِذُنُوبِنَا فَهَلْ إِلَىٰ خُرُوجٍۢ مِّن سَبِيلٍۢ

Qaaloo Rabbanaaa amat tanasnataini wa ahyaitanas nataini fa’tarafnaa bizunoo binaa fahal ilaa khuroojim min sabeel
11. They will say, “Our Lord, You made us lifeless twice and gave us life twice, and we have confessed our sins. So is there to an exit any way?”

ذَ‌ٰلِكُم بِأَنَّهُۥٓ إِذَا دُعِىَ ٱللَّهُ وَحْدَهُۥ كَفَرْتُمْ ۖ وَإِن يُشْرَكْ بِهِۦ تُؤْمِنُوا۟ ۚ فَٱلْحُكْمُ لِلَّهِ ٱلْعَلِىِّ ٱلْكَبِيرِ

Zaalikum bi annahooo izaa du’iyal laahu wahdahoo kafartum wa iny yushrak bihee tu’minoo; falhukmu lillaahil ‘Aliyyil Kabeer
12. [They will be told], “That is because, when Allah was called upon alone, you disbelieved; but if others were associated with Him, you believed. So the judgement is with Allah, the Most High, the Grand.”

هُوَ ٱلَّذِى يُرِيكُمْ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦ وَيُنَزِّلُ لَكُم مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ رِزْقًۭا ۚ وَمَا يَتَذَكَّرُ إِلَّا مَن يُنِيبُ

Huwal lazee yureekum Aayaatihee wa yunazzilu lakum minas samaaa’i rizqaa; wa maa tatazakkaru illaa mai yuneeb
13. It is He who shows you His signs and sends down to you from the sky, provision. But none will remember except he who turns back [in repentance].

فَٱدْعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ ٱلدِّينَ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ ٱلْكَـٰفِرُونَ

Fad’ul laaha mukhliseena lahud deena wa law karihal kaafiroon
14. So invoke Allah, [being] sincere to Him in religion, although the disbelievers dislike it.

رَفِيعُ ٱلدَّرَجَـٰتِ ذُو ٱلْعَرْشِ يُلْقِى ٱلرُّوحَ مِنْ أَمْرِهِۦ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَآءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِۦ لِيُنذِرَ يَوْمَ ٱلتَّلَاقِ

Rafee’ud darajaati zul ‘Arshi yulqir rooha min amrihee ‘alaa mai yashaaa’u min ‘ibaadihee liyunzira yawmat talaaq
15. [He is] the Exalted above [all] degrees, Owner of the Throne; He places the inspiration of His command upon whom He wills of His servants to warn of the Day of Meeting.

يَوْمَ هُم بَـٰرِزُونَ ۖ لَا يَخْفَىٰ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ مِنْهُمْ شَىْءٌۭ ۚ لِّمَنِ ٱلْمُلْكُ ٱلْيَوْمَ ۖ لِلَّهِ ٱلْوَ‌ٰحِدِ ٱلْقَهَّارِ

Yawma hum baarizoona laa yakhfaa ‘alal laahi minhum shai; limanil mulkul Yawma lillaahil Waahidil Qahaar
16. The Day they come forth nothing concerning them will be concealed from Allah . To whom belongs [all] sovereignty this Day? To Allah, the One, the Prevailing.

ٱلْيَوْمَ تُجْزَىٰ كُلُّ نَفْسٍۭ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ ۚ لَا ظُلْمَ ٱلْيَوْمَ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ سَرِيعُ ٱلْحِسَابِ

Al-Yawma tujzaa kullu nafsim bimaa kasabat; laa zulmal Yawm; innal laaha saree’ul hisaab
17. This Day every soul will be recompensed for what it earned. No injustice today! Indeed, Allah is swift in account.

وَأَنذِرْهُمْ يَوْمَ ٱلْءَازِفَةِ إِذِ ٱلْقُلُوبُ لَدَى ٱلْحَنَاجِرِ كَـٰظِمِينَ ۚ مَا لِلظَّـٰلِمِينَ مِنْ حَمِيمٍۢ وَلَا شَفِيعٍۢ يُطَاعُ

Wa anzirhum yawmal aazifati izil quloobu ladal hanaajiri kaazimeen; maa lizzaalimeena min hameeminw wa laa shafee’iny-yutaa’
18. And warn them, [O Muhammad], of the Approaching Day, when hearts are at the throats, filled [with distress]. For the wrongdoers there will be no devoted friend and no intercessor [who is] obeyed.

يَعْلَمُ خَآئِنَةَ ٱلْأَعْيُنِ وَمَا تُخْفِى ٱلصُّدُورُ

Ya’lamu khaaa’inatal a’yuni wa maa tukhfis sudoor
19. He knows that which deceives the eyes and what the breasts conceal.

وَٱللَّهُ يَقْضِى بِٱلْحَقِّ ۖ وَٱلَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِۦ لَا يَقْضُونَ بِشَىْءٍ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ هُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلْبَصِيرُ

Wallaahu yaqdee bilhaqq, wallazeena yad’oona min doonihee laa yaqdoona bishai’; innal laaha Huwas Samee’ul Baseer (section 2)
20. And Allah judges with truth, while those they invoke besides Him judge not with anything. Indeed, Allah – He is the Hearing, the Seeing.

۞ أَوَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا۟ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ فَيَنظُرُوا۟ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَـٰقِبَةُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَانُوا۟ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ كَانُوا۟ هُمْ أَشَدَّ مِنْهُمْ قُوَّةًۭ وَءَاثَارًۭا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ فَأَخَذَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِذُنُوبِهِمْ وَمَا كَانَ لَهُم مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ مِن وَاقٍۢ

Awalam yaseeroo fil ardi fa yanzuroo kaifa kaana ‘aaqibatul lazeena kaanoo min qablihim; kaanoo hum ashadda minhum quwwatanw wa aasaaran fil ardi fa akhazahumul laahu bizunoobihim wa maa kaana lahum minal laahi minw waaq
21. Have they not traveled through the land and observed how was the end of those who were before them? They were greater than them in strength and in impression on the land, but Allah seized them for their sins. And they had not from Allah any protector.

ذَ‌ٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَانَت تَّأْتِيهِمْ رُسُلُهُم بِٱلْبَيِّنَـٰتِ فَكَفَرُوا۟ فَأَخَذَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ قَوِىٌّۭ شَدِيدُ ٱلْعِقَابِ

Zaalika bi annahum kaanat taateehim Rusuluhum bilbaiyinaati fakafaroo fa akhazahumul laah; innahoo qawiyyun shadeedul ‘iqaab
22. That was because their messengers were coming to them with clear proofs, but they disbelieved, so Allah seized them. Indeed, He is Powerful and severe in punishment.

وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا مُوسَىٰ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَا وَسُلْطَـٰنٍۢ مُّبِينٍ

Wa laqad arsalnaa Moosaa bi Aayaatinaa wa sultaanim mubeen
23. And We did certainly send Moses with Our signs and a clear authority

إِلَىٰ فِرْعَوْنَ وَهَـٰمَـٰنَ وَقَـٰرُونَ فَقَالُوا۟ سَـٰحِرٌۭ كَذَّابٌۭ

Ilaa Fir’awna wa Haamaana qa Qaaroona faqaaloo saahirun kazzaab
24. To Pharaoh, Haman and Qarun; but they said, “[He is] a magician and a liar.”

فَلَمَّا جَآءَهُم بِٱلْحَقِّ مِنْ عِندِنَا قَالُوا۟ ٱقْتُلُوٓا۟ أَبْنَآءَ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ مَعَهُۥ وَٱسْتَحْيُوا۟ نِسَآءَهُمْ ۚ وَمَا كَيْدُ ٱلْكَـٰفِرِينَ إِلَّا فِى ضَلَـٰلٍۢ

Falamuna jaaa’ahum bil haqqi min ‘indinaa qaaluq tulooo abnaaa’al lazeena aamanoo ma’ahoo wastahyoo nisaaa’ahum; wa maa kaidul kaafireena illaa fee dalaal
25. And when he brought them the truth from Us, they said, “Kill the sons of those who have believed with him and keep their women alive.” But the plan of the disbelievers is not except in error.

وَقَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ ذَرُونِىٓ أَقْتُلْ مُوسَىٰ وَلْيَدْعُ رَبَّهُۥٓ ۖ إِنِّىٓ أَخَافُ أَن يُبَدِّلَ دِينَكُمْ أَوْ أَن يُظْهِرَ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ ٱلْفَسَادَ

Wa qaala Fir’awnu zarooneee aqtul Moosaa walyad’u Rabbahoo inneee akhaafu ai yubaddila deenakum aw ai yuzhira fil ardil fasaad
26. And Pharaoh said, “Let me kill Moses and let him call upon his Lord. Indeed, I fear that he will change your religion or that he will cause corruption in the land.”

وَقَالَ مُوسَىٰٓ إِنِّى عُذْتُ بِرَبِّى وَرَبِّكُم مِّن كُلِّ مُتَكَبِّرٍۢ لَّا يُؤْمِنُ بِيَوْمِ ٱلْحِسَابِ

Wa qaala Moosaaaa innee ‘uztu bi Rabbee wa Rabbikum min kulli mutakabbiril laayu’minu bi Yawmil Hisaab (section 3)
27. But Moses said, “Indeed, I have sought refuge in my Lord and your Lord from every arrogant one who does not believe in the Day of Account.”

وَقَالَ رَجُلٌۭ مُّؤْمِنٌۭ مِّنْ ءَالِ فِرْعَوْنَ يَكْتُمُ إِيمَـٰنَهُۥٓ أَتَقْتُلُونَ رَجُلًا أَن يَقُولَ رَبِّىَ ٱللَّهُ وَقَدْ جَآءَكُم بِٱلْبَيِّنَـٰتِ مِن رَّبِّكُمْ ۖ وَإِن يَكُ كَـٰذِبًۭا فَعَلَيْهِ كَذِبُهُۥ ۖ وَإِن يَكُ صَادِقًۭا يُصِبْكُم بَعْضُ ٱلَّذِى يَعِدُكُمْ ۖ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِى مَنْ هُوَ مُسْرِفٌۭ كَذَّابٌۭ

Wa qaala rajulum mu’minummin Aali Fir’awna yaktumu eemaanahooo ataqtuloona rajulan ai yaqoola Rabbi yal laahu wa qad jaaa’akum bil haiyinaati mir Rabbikum wa iny yaku kaaziban fa’alaihi kazi buhoo wa iny yaku saadiqany yasibkum ba’dul lazee ya’idukum innal laaha laa yahdee man huwa musrifun kaazaab
28. And a believing man from the family of Pharaoh who concealed his faith said, “Do you kill a man [merely] because he says, ‘My Lord is Allah ‘ while he has brought you clear proofs from your Lord? And if he should be lying, then upon him is [the consequence of] his lie; but if he should be truthful, there will strike you some of what he promises you. Indeed, Allah does not guide one who is a transgressor and a liar.

يَـٰقَوْمِ لَكُمُ ٱلْمُلْكُ ٱلْيَوْمَ ظَـٰهِرِينَ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ فَمَن يَنصُرُنَا مِنۢ بَأْسِ ٱللَّهِ إِن جَآءَنَا ۚ قَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ مَآ أُرِيكُمْ إِلَّا مَآ أَرَىٰ وَمَآ أَهْدِيكُمْ إِلَّا سَبِيلَ ٱلرَّشَادِ

Yaa qawmi lakumul mulkul yawma zaahireena fil ardi famai yansurunaa mim baasil laahi in jaaa’anaa; qaala Fir’awnu maaa ureekum illaa maaa araa wa maaa ahdeekum illaa sabeelar Rashaad
29. O my people, sovereignty is yours today, [your being] dominant in the land. But who would protect us from the punishment of Allah if it came to us?” Pharaoh said, “I do not show you except what I see, and I do not guide you except to the way of right conduct.”

وَقَالَ ٱلَّذِىٓ ءَامَنَ يَـٰقَوْمِ إِنِّىٓ أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُم مِّثْلَ يَوْمِ ٱلْأَحْزَابِ

Wa qaalal lazee aamana yaa qawmi inneee akhaafu ‘alaikum misla yawmil Ahzaab
30. And he who believed said, “O my people, indeed I fear for you [a fate] like the day of the companies –

مِثْلَ دَأْبِ قَوْمِ نُوحٍۢ وَعَادٍۢ وَثَمُودَ وَٱلَّذِينَ مِنۢ بَعْدِهِمْ ۚ وَمَا ٱللَّهُ يُرِيدُ ظُلْمًۭا لِّلْعِبَادِ

Misla daabi qawmi Noohinw wa ‘aadinw wa Samooda wallazeena mim ba’dihim; wa mal laahu yureedu zulmal lil’ibaad
31. Like the custom of the people of Noah and of ‘Aad and Thamud and those after them. And Allah wants no injustice for [His] servants.

وَيَـٰقَوْمِ إِنِّىٓ أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ يَوْمَ ٱلتَّنَادِ

Wa yaa qawmi inneee akhaafu ‘alaikum yawmat tanaad
32. And O my people, indeed I fear for you the Day of Calling –

يَوْمَ تُوَلُّونَ مُدْبِرِينَ مَا لَكُم مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ مِنْ عَاصِمٍۢ ۗ وَمَن يُضْلِلِ ٱللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُۥ مِنْ هَادٍۢ

Yawma tuwalloona mud bireena maa lakum minal laahi min ‘aasim; wa mai yudlilil laahu famaa lahoo min haad
33. The Day you will turn your backs fleeing; there is not for you from Allah any protector. And whoever Allah leaves astray – there is not for him any guide.

وَلَقَدْ جَآءَكُمْ يُوسُفُ مِن قَبْلُ بِٱلْبَيِّنَـٰتِ فَمَا زِلْتُمْ فِى شَكٍّۢ مِّمَّا جَآءَكُم بِهِۦ ۖ حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا هَلَكَ قُلْتُمْ لَن يَبْعَثَ ٱللَّهُ مِنۢ بَعْدِهِۦ رَسُولًۭا ۚ كَذَ‌ٰلِكَ يُضِلُّ ٱللَّهُ مَنْ هُوَ مُسْرِفٌۭ مُّرْتَابٌ

Wa laqad jaaa’akum Yoosufu min qablu bil baiyinaati famaa ziltum fee shakkim mimaa jaaa’akum bihee hattaaa izaa halaka qultum lai yab asal laahu mim ba’dihee Rasoolaa; kazaalika yudillul laahu man huwa Musrifum murtaab
34. And Joseph had already come to you before with clear proofs, but you remained in doubt of that which he brought to you, until when he died, you said, ‘Never will Allah send a messenger after him.’ Thus does Allah leave astray he who is a transgressor and skeptic.”

ٱلَّذِينَ يُجَـٰدِلُونَ فِىٓ ءَايَـٰتِ ٱللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ سُلْطَـٰنٍ أَتَىٰهُمْ ۖ كَبُرَ مَقْتًا عِندَ ٱللَّهِ وَعِندَ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ ۚ كَذَ‌ٰلِكَ يَطْبَعُ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ قَلْبِ مُتَكَبِّرٍۢ جَبَّارٍۢ

Allazeena yujaadiloona feee Aaayaatil laahi bighairi sultaanin ataahum kabura maqtan ‘indal laahi wa ‘indal lazeena aamanoo; kazaalika yatha’ul laahu ‘alaa kulli qalbi mutakabbirin jabbaar
35. Those who dispute concerning the signs of Allah without an authority having come to them – great is hatred [of them] in the sight of Allah and in the sight of those who have believed. Thus does Allah seal over every heart [belonging to] an arrogant tyrant.

وَقَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ يَـٰهَـٰمَـٰنُ ٱبْنِ لِى صَرْحًۭا لَّعَلِّىٓ أَبْلُغُ ٱلْأَسْبَـٰبَ

Wa qaala Fir’awnu yaa Haamaanub-ni lee sarhal la’alleee ablughul asbaab
36. And Pharaoh said, “O Haman, construct for me a tower that I might reach the ways –

أَسْبَـٰبَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَ‌ٰتِ فَأَطَّلِعَ إِلَىٰٓ إِلَـٰهِ مُوسَىٰ وَإِنِّى لَأَظُنُّهُۥ كَـٰذِبًۭا ۚ وَكَذَ‌ٰلِكَ زُيِّنَ لِفِرْعَوْنَ سُوٓءُ عَمَلِهِۦ وَصُدَّ عَنِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ ۚ وَمَا كَيْدُ فِرْعَوْنَ إِلَّا فِى تَبَابٍۢ

Asbaabas samaawaati faattali’a ilaaa ilaahi Moosaa wa innee la azunnuhoo kaazibaa; wa kazaalika zuyyina li-Fir’awna sooo’u ‘amalihee wa sudda ‘anis sabeel; wa maa kaidu Fir’awna illaa fee tabaab (section 4)
37. The ways into the heavens – so that I may look at the deity of Moses; but indeed, I think he is a liar.” And thus was made attractive to Pharaoh the evil of his deed, and he was averted from the [right] way. And the plan of Pharaoh was not except in ruin.

وَقَالَ ٱلَّذِىٓ ءَامَنَ يَـٰقَوْمِ ٱتَّبِعُونِ أَهْدِكُمْ سَبِيلَ ٱلرَّشَادِ

Wa qaalal lazeee aamana yaa qawmit tabi’ooni ahdikum sabeelar rashaad
38. And he who believed said, “O my people, follow me, I will guide you to the way of right conduct.

يَـٰقَوْمِ إِنَّمَا هَـٰذِهِ ٱلْحَيَوٰةُ ٱلدُّنْيَا مَتَـٰعٌۭ وَإِنَّ ٱلْءَاخِرَةَ هِىَ دَارُ ٱلْقَرَارِ

Yaa qawmi innamaa haazihil hayaatud dunyaa mataa’unw wa innal Aakhirata hiya daarul qaraar
39. O my people, this worldly life is only [temporary] enjoyment, and indeed, the Hereafter – that is the home of [permanent] settlement.

مَنْ عَمِلَ سَيِّئَةًۭ فَلَا يُجْزَىٰٓ إِلَّا مِثْلَهَا ۖ وَمَنْ عَمِلَ صَـٰلِحًۭا مِّن ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنثَىٰ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌۭ فَأُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ يَدْخُلُونَ ٱلْجَنَّةَ يُرْزَقُونَ فِيهَا بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍۢ

Man ‘amila saiyi’atan falaa yujzaaa illaa mislahaa wa man ‘amila saaliham min zakarin aw unsaa wa huwa mu’minun fa ulaaa’ika yadkhuloonal Jannata yurzaqoona feehaa bighairi hisaab
40. Whoever does an evil deed will not be recompensed except by the like thereof; but whoever does righteousness, whether male or female, while he is a believer – those will enter Paradise, being given provision therein without account.

۞ وَيَـٰقَوْمِ مَا لِىٓ أَدْعُوكُمْ إِلَى ٱلنَّجَوٰةِ وَتَدْعُونَنِىٓ إِلَى ٱلنَّارِ

Wa yaa qawmi maa leee ad’ookum ilan najaati wa tad’oonaneee ilan Naar
41. And O my people, how is it that I invite you to salvation while you invite me to the Fire?

تَدْعُونَنِى لِأَكْفُرَ بِٱللَّهِ وَأُشْرِكَ بِهِۦ مَا لَيْسَ لِى بِهِۦ عِلْمٌۭ وَأَنَا۠ أَدْعُوكُمْ إِلَى ٱلْعَزِيزِ ٱلْغَفَّـٰرِ

Tad’oonanee li-akfura billaahi wa ushrika bihee maa laisa lee bihee ‘ilmunw wa ana ad’ookum ilal’Azeezil Ghaffaar
42. You invite me to disbelieve in Allah and associate with Him that of which I have no knowledge, and I invite you to the Exalted in Might, the Perpetual Forgiver.

لَا جَرَمَ أَنَّمَا تَدْعُونَنِىٓ إِلَيْهِ لَيْسَ لَهُۥ دَعْوَةٌۭ فِى ٱلدُّنْيَا وَلَا فِى ٱلْءَاخِرَةِ وَأَنَّ مَرَدَّنَآ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَأَنَّ ٱلْمُسْرِفِينَ هُمْ أَصْحَـٰبُ ٱلنَّارِ

Laa jarama annamaa tad’oonanee ilaihi laisa lahoo da’watun fid dunyaa wa laa fil Aakhirati wa anna maraddanaaa ilal laahi wa annal musrifeenahum Ashaabun Naar
43. Assuredly, that to which you invite me has no [response to a] supplication in this world or in the Hereafter; and indeed, our return is to Allah, and indeed, the transgressors will be companions of the Fire.

فَسَتَذْكُرُونَ مَآ أَقُولُ لَكُمْ ۚ وَأُفَوِّضُ أَمْرِىٓ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ بَصِيرٌۢ بِٱلْعِبَادِ

Fasatazkuroona maaa aqoolu lakum; wa ufawwidu amreee ilal laah; innallaaha baseerum bil’ibaad
44. And you will remember what I [now] say to you, and I entrust my affair to Allah . Indeed, Allah is Seeing of [His] servants.”

فَوَقَىٰهُ ٱللَّهُ سَيِّـَٔاتِ مَا مَكَرُوا۟ ۖ وَحَاقَ بِـَٔالِ فِرْعَوْنَ سُوٓءُ ٱلْعَذَابِ

Fa waqaahul laahu saiyiaati maa makaroo wa haaqa bi Aali-Fir’awna sooo’ul ‘azaab
45. So Allah protected him from the evils they plotted, and the people of Pharaoh were enveloped by the worst of punishment –

ٱلنَّارُ يُعْرَضُونَ عَلَيْهَا غُدُوًّۭا وَعَشِيًّۭا ۖ وَيَوْمَ تَقُومُ ٱلسَّاعَةُ أَدْخِلُوٓا۟ ءَالَ فِرْعَوْنَ أَشَدَّ ٱلْعَذَابِ

An Naaru yu’radoona ‘alaihaa ghuduwwanw wa ‘ashiyyanw wa Yawma taqoomus Saa’aatu adkhilooo Aala Fir’awna ashaddal ‘azaab
46. The Fire, they are exposed to it morning and evening. And the Day the Hour appears [it will be said], “Make the people of Pharaoh enter the severest punishment.”

وَإِذْ يَتَحَآجُّونَ فِى ٱلنَّارِ فَيَقُولُ ٱلضُّعَفَـٰٓؤُا۟ لِلَّذِينَ ٱسْتَكْبَرُوٓا۟ إِنَّا كُنَّا لَكُمْ تَبَعًۭا فَهَلْ أَنتُم مُّغْنُونَ عَنَّا نَصِيبًۭا مِّنَ ٱلنَّارِ

Wa iz yatahaaajjoona fin Naari fa-yaqoolud du’afaaa’u lillazeenas takbarooo innaa kunnaa lakum taba’an fahal antum mughnoona annaa naseebam minan Naar
47. And [mention] when they will argue within the Fire, and the weak will say to those who had been arrogant, “Indeed, we were [only] your followers, so will you relieve us of a share of the Fire?”

قَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱسْتَكْبَرُوٓا۟ إِنَّا كُلٌّۭ فِيهَآ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ قَدْ حَكَمَ بَيْنَ ٱلْعِبَادِ

Qaalal lazeenas takbarooo innaa kullun feehaaa innal laaha qad hakama baynal’ibaad
48. Those who had been arrogant will say, “Indeed, all [of us] are in it. Indeed, Allah has judged between the servants.”

وَقَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ فِى ٱلنَّارِ لِخَزَنَةِ جَهَنَّمَ ٱدْعُوا۟ رَبَّكُمْ يُخَفِّفْ عَنَّا يَوْمًۭا مِّنَ ٱلْعَذَابِ

Wa qaalal lazeena fin Naari likhazanati Jahannamad-‘oo Rabbakum yukhaffif ‘annaa yawmam minal ‘azaab
49. And those in the Fire will say to the keepers of Hell, “Supplicate your Lord to lighten for us a day from the punishment.”

قَالُوٓا۟ أَوَلَمْ تَكُ تَأْتِيكُمْ رُسُلُكُم بِٱلْبَيِّنَـٰتِ ۖ قَالُوا۟ بَلَىٰ ۚ قَالُوا۟ فَٱدْعُوا۟ ۗ وَمَا دُعَـٰٓؤُا۟ ٱلْكَـٰفِرِينَ إِلَّا فِى ضَلَـٰلٍ

Qaalooo awalam taku taateekum Rusulukum bilbaiyinaati qaaloo balaa’ qaaloo fad’oo; wa maa du’aaa’ul kaafireena illaa fee dalaal (section 5)
50. They will say, “Did there not come to you your messengers with clear proofs?” They will say, “Yes.” They will reply, “Then supplicate [yourselves], but the supplication of the disbelievers is not except in error.”

إِنَّا لَنَنصُرُ رُسُلَنَا وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ فِى ٱلْحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنْيَا وَيَوْمَ يَقُومُ ٱلْأَشْهَـٰدُ

Innaa lanansuru Rusulanaa wallazeena aamanoo fil hayaatid dunyaa wa Yawma yaqoomul ashhaad
51. Indeed, We will support Our messengers and those who believe during the life of this world and on the Day when the witnesses will stand –

يَوْمَ لَا يَنفَعُ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ مَعْذِرَتُهُمْ ۖ وَلَهُمُ ٱللَّعْنَةُ وَلَهُمْ سُوٓءُ ٱلدَّارِ

Yawma laa yanfa’uz zaalimeena ma’ziratuhum wa lahumul la’natu wa lahum soooud daar
52. The Day their excuse will not benefit the wrongdoers, and they will have the curse, and they will have the worst home.

وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَا مُوسَى ٱلْهُدَىٰ وَأَوْرَثْنَا بَنِىٓ إِسْرَ‌ٰٓءِيلَ ٱلْكِتَـٰبَ

Wa laqad aatainaa Moosal hudaa wa awrasnaa Baneee Israaa ‘eelal Kitaab
53. And We had certainly given Moses guidance, and We caused the Children of Israel to inherit the Scripture

هُدًۭى وَذِكْرَىٰ لِأُو۟لِى ٱلْأَلْبَـٰبِ

Hudanw wa zikraa li ulil albaab
54. As guidance and a reminder for those of understanding.

فَٱصْبِرْ إِنَّ وَعْدَ ٱللَّهِ حَقٌّۭ وَٱسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنۢبِكَ وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ بِٱلْعَشِىِّ وَٱلْإِبْكَـٰرِ

Fasbir inna wa’dal laahi haqqunw wastaghfir lizambika wa sabbih bihamdi Rabbika bil’ashiyyi wal ibkaar
55. So be patient, [O Muhammad]. Indeed, the promise of Allah is truth. And ask forgiveness for your sin and exalt [ Allah ] with praise of your Lord in the evening and the morning.

إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يُجَـٰدِلُونَ فِىٓ ءَايَـٰتِ ٱللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ سُلْطَـٰنٍ أَتَىٰهُمْ ۙ إِن فِى صُدُورِهِمْ إِلَّا كِبْرٌۭ مَّا هُم بِبَـٰلِغِيهِ ۚ فَٱسْتَعِذْ بِٱللَّهِ ۖ إِنَّهُۥ هُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلْبَصِيرُ

Innal lazeena yujaadi loona feee Aayaatil laahi bighairi sultaanin ataahum in fee sudoorihim illaa kibrum maa hum bibaaligheeh; fasta’iz billaahi innahoo Huwas Samee’ul Baseer
56. Indeed, those who dispute concerning the signs of Allah without [any] authority having come to them – there is not within their breasts except pride, [the extent of] which they cannot reach. So seek refuge in Allah . Indeed, it is He who is the Hearing, the Seeing.

لَخَلْقُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَ‌ٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ أَكْبَرُ مِنْ خَلْقِ ٱلنَّاسِ وَلَـٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ ٱلنَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

Lakhalqus samaawaati wal ardi akbaru min khalqin naasi wa laakinna aksaran naasi laa ya’lamoon
57. The creation of the heavens and earth is greater than the creation of mankind, but most of the people do not know.

وَمَا يَسْتَوِى ٱلْأَعْمَىٰ وَٱلْبَصِيرُ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَعَمِلُوا۟ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ وَلَا ٱلْمُسِىٓءُ ۚ قَلِيلًۭا مَّا تَتَذَكَّرُونَ

Wa maa yastawil a’maa walbaseeru wallazeena aamanoo wa ‘amilus saalihaati wa lal museee’; qaleelam maa tatazakkaroon
58. And not equal are the blind and the seeing, nor are those who believe and do righteous deeds and the evildoer. Little do you remember.

إِنَّ ٱلسَّاعَةَ لَءَاتِيَةٌۭ لَّا رَيْبَ فِيهَا وَلَـٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ ٱلنَّاسِ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ

Innas Saa’ata la aatiyatul laa raiba feehaa wa laakinna aksaran naasi laa yu’minoon
59. Indeed, the Hour is coming – no doubt about it – but most of the people do not believe.

وَقَالَ رَبُّكُمُ ٱدْعُونِىٓ أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ عَنْ عِبَادَتِى سَيَدْخُلُونَ جَهَنَّمَ دَاخِرِينَ

Wa qaala Rabbukumud ‘ooneee astajib lakum; innal lazeena yastakbiroona an ‘ibaadatee sa yadkhuloona jahannama daakhireen (Section 6)
60. And your Lord says, “Call upon Me; I will respond to you.” Indeed, those who disdain My worship will enter Hell [rendered] contemptible.

ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى جَعَلَ لَكُمُ ٱلَّيْلَ لِتَسْكُنُوا۟ فِيهِ وَٱلنَّهَارَ مُبْصِرًا ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى ٱلنَّاسِ وَلَـٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ ٱلنَّاسِ لَا يَشْكُرُونَ

Allaahul lazee ja’ala lakumul laila litqaskunoo feehi wannahaara mubsiraa; innal laaha lazoo fadlin ‘alan naasi wa laakinna aksaran naasi laa yashkuroon
61. It is Allah who made for you the night that you may rest therein and the day giving sight. Indeed, Allah is full of bounty to the people, but most of the people are not grateful.

ذَ‌ٰلِكُمُ ٱللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ خَـٰلِقُ كُلِّ شَىْءٍۢ لَّآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ فَأَنَّىٰ تُؤْفَكُونَ

Zaalikumul laahu Rabbukum khaaliqu kulli shai’in; laaa ilaaha illaa Huwa fa annaa tu’fakoon
62. That is Allah, your Lord, Creator of all things; there is no deity except Him, so how are you deluded?

كَذَ‌ٰلِكَ يُؤْفَكُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَانُوا۟ بِـَٔايَـٰتِ ٱللَّهِ يَجْحَدُونَ

Kazaalika yu’fakul lazeena kaanoo bi Aayaatil laahi yajhadoon
63. Thus were those [before you] deluded who were rejecting the signs of Allah .

ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى جَعَلَ لَكُمُ ٱلْأَرْضَ قَرَارًۭا وَٱلسَّمَآءَ بِنَآءًۭ وَصَوَّرَكُمْ فَأَحْسَنَ صُوَرَكُمْ وَرَزَقَكُم مِّنَ ٱلطَّيِّبَـٰتِ ۚ ذَ‌ٰلِكُمُ ٱللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ ۖ فَتَبَارَكَ ٱللَّهُ رَبُّ ٱلْعَـٰلَمِينَ

Allaahul lazee ja’ala lakumul arda qaraaranw wassa maaa’a binaaa’anw wa sawwarakum fa ahsana suwarakum wa razaqakum minat taiyibaat; zaalikumul laahu Rabbukum fatabaarakal laahu Rabbul ‘aalameen
64. It is Allah who made for you the earth a place of settlement and the sky a ceiling and formed you and perfected your forms and provided you with good things. That is Allah, your Lord; then blessed is Allah, Lord of the worlds.

هُوَ ٱلْحَىُّ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ فَٱدْعُوهُ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ ٱلدِّينَ ۗ ٱلْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ ٱلْعَـٰلَمِينَ

Huwal Hayyu laaa ilaaha illaa Huwa fad’oohu mukh liseena lahudeen; alhamdu lillaahi Rabbil ‘aalameen
65. He is the Ever-Living; there is no deity except Him, so call upon Him, [being] sincere to Him in religion. [All] praise is [due] to Allah, Lord of the worlds.

۞ قُلْ إِنِّى نُهِيتُ أَنْ أَعْبُدَ ٱلَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ لَمَّا جَآءَنِىَ ٱلْبَيِّنَـٰتُ مِن رَّبِّى وَأُمِرْتُ أَنْ أُسْلِمَ لِرَبِّ ٱلْعَـٰلَمِينَ

Qul innee nuheetu an a’budal lazeena tad’oona min doonil laahi lammaa jaaa’a niyal baiyinaatu mir Rabbee wa umirtu an uslima li Rabbil ‘aalameen
66. Say, [O Muhammad], “Indeed, I have been forbidden to worship those you call upon besides Allah once the clear proofs have come to me from my Lord, and I have been commanded to submit to the Lord of the worlds.”

هُوَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَكُم مِّن تُرَابٍۢ ثُمَّ مِن نُّطْفَةٍۢ ثُمَّ مِنْ عَلَقَةٍۢ ثُمَّ يُخْرِجُكُمْ طِفْلًۭا ثُمَّ لِتَبْلُغُوٓا۟ أَشُدَّكُمْ ثُمَّ لِتَكُونُوا۟ شُيُوخًۭا ۚ وَمِنكُم مَّن يُتَوَفَّىٰ مِن قَبْلُ ۖ وَلِتَبْلُغُوٓا۟ أَجَلًۭا مُّسَمًّۭى وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ

Huwal lazee khalaqakum min turaabin summa min nutfatin summa min ‘alaqatin summa yukhrijukum tiflan summa litablughooo ashuddakum summa litakoonoo shuyookhaa; wa minkum mai yutawaffaa min qablu wa litablughooo ajalam musam manw-wa la’allakum ta’qiloon
67. It is He who created you from dust, then from a sperm-drop, then from a clinging clot; then He brings you out as a child; then [He develops you] that you reach your [time of] maturity, then [further] that you become elders. And among you is he who is taken in death before [that], so that you reach a specified term; and perhaps you will use reason.

هُوَ ٱلَّذِى يُحْىِۦ وَيُمِيتُ ۖ فَإِذَا قَضَىٰٓ أَمْرًۭا فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُۥ كُن فَيَكُونُ

Huwal lazee yuhyee wa yumeetu fa izaa qadaaa amran fa innamaa yaqoolu lahoo kun fa yakoon (section 7)
68. He it is who gives life and causes death; and when He decrees a matter, He but says to it, “Be,” and it is.

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ يُجَـٰدِلُونَ فِىٓ ءَايَـٰتِ ٱللَّهِ أَنَّىٰ يُصْرَفُونَ

Alam tara ilal lazeena yujaadiloona feee Aayaatil laahi annaa yusrafoon
69. Do you not consider those who dispute concerning the signs of Allah – how are they averted?

ٱلَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا۟ بِٱلْكِتَـٰبِ وَبِمَآ أَرْسَلْنَا بِهِۦ رُسُلَنَا ۖ فَسَوْفَ يَعْلَمُونَ

Allazeena kazzaboo bil Kitaabi wa bimaa arsalnaa bihee Rusulanaa fasawfa ya’lamoon
70. Those who deny the Book and that with which We sent Our messengers – they are going to know,

إِذِ ٱلْأَغْلَـٰلُ فِىٓ أَعْنَـٰقِهِمْ وَٱلسَّلَـٰسِلُ يُسْحَبُونَ

Izil aghlaalu feee a’naaqi-him wassalaasilu yashaboon
71. When the shackles are around their necks and the chains; they will be dragged

فِى ٱلْحَمِيمِ ثُمَّ فِى ٱلنَّارِ يُسْجَرُونَ

Fil hameemi summa fin Naari Yasjaroon
72. In boiling water; then in the Fire they will be filled [with flame].

ثُمَّ قِيلَ لَهُمْ أَيْنَ مَا كُنتُمْ تُشْرِكُونَ

Summaa qeela lahum ayna maa kuntum tushrikoon
73. Then it will be said to them, “Where is that which you used to associate [with Him in worship]

مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ ۖ قَالُوا۟ ضَلُّوا۟ عَنَّا بَل لَّمْ نَكُن نَّدْعُوا۟ مِن قَبْلُ شَيْـًۭٔا ۚ كَذَ‌ٰلِكَ يُضِلُّ ٱللَّهُ ٱلْكَـٰفِرِينَ

Min doonil laahi qaaloo dalloo ‘annaa bal lam nakun nad’oo min qablu shai’aa; kazaalika yudillul laahul kaafireen
74. Other than Allah ?” They will say, “They have departed from us; rather, we did not used to invoke previously anything.” Thus does Allah put astray the disbelievers.

ذَ‌ٰلِكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَفْرَحُونَ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ بِغَيْرِ ٱلْحَقِّ وَبِمَا كُنتُمْ تَمْرَحُونَ

Zaalikum bimaa kuntum tafrahoona fil ardi bighairil haqqi wa bimaa kuntum tamrahoon
75. [The angels will say], “That was because you used to exult upon the earth without right and you used to behave insolently.

ٱدْخُلُوٓا۟ أَبْوَ‌ٰبَ جَهَنَّمَ خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيهَا ۖ فَبِئْسَ مَثْوَى ٱلْمُتَكَبِّرِينَ

Udkhulooo abwaaba Jahannama khaalideena feehaa fabi’sa maswal mutakabbireen
76. Enter the gates of Hell to abide eternally therein, and wretched is the residence of the arrogant.”

فَٱصْبِرْ إِنَّ وَعْدَ ٱللَّهِ حَقٌّۭ ۚ فَإِمَّا نُرِيَنَّكَ بَعْضَ ٱلَّذِى نَعِدُهُمْ أَوْ نَتَوَفَّيَنَّكَ فَإِلَيْنَا يُرْجَعُونَ

Fasbir inna wa’dal laahi haqq; fa immaa nuriyannak ba’dal lazee na’i duhum aw natawaffayannaka fa ilainaa yurja’oon
77. So be patient, [O Muhammad]; indeed, the promise of Allah is truth. And whether We show you some of what We have promised them or We take you in death, it is to Us they will be returned.

وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا رُسُلًۭا مِّن قَبْلِكَ مِنْهُم مَّن قَصَصْنَا عَلَيْكَ وَمِنْهُم مَّن لَّمْ نَقْصُصْ عَلَيْكَ ۗ وَمَا كَانَ لِرَسُولٍ أَن يَأْتِىَ بِـَٔايَةٍ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ ٱللَّهِ ۚ فَإِذَا جَآءَ أَمْرُ ٱللَّهِ قُضِىَ بِٱلْحَقِّ وَخَسِرَ هُنَالِكَ ٱلْمُبْطِلُونَ

Wa laqad arsalnaa Rusulam min qablika minhum man qasasnaa ‘alaika wa minhum mal lam naqsus ‘alaik; wa maa kaana li Rasoolin any yaatiya bi Aayatin illaa bi iznil laah; fa izaa jaaa’a amrul laahi qudiya bilhaqqi wa khasira hunaalikal mubtiloon (section 8)
78. And We have already sent messengers before you. Among them are those [whose stories] We have related to you, and among them are those [whose stories] We have not related to you. And it was not for any messenger to bring a sign [or verse] except by permission of Allah . So when the command of Allah comes, it will be concluded in truth, and the falsifiers will thereupon lose [all].

ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى جَعَلَ لَكُمُ ٱلْأَنْعَـٰمَ لِتَرْكَبُوا۟ مِنْهَا وَمِنْهَا تَأْكُلُونَ

Allaahul lazee ja’ala lakumul an’aama litarkaboo minhaa wa minhaa taakuloon
79. It is Allah who made for you the grazing animals upon which you ride, and some of them you eat.

وَلَكُمْ فِيهَا مَنَـٰفِعُ وَلِتَبْلُغُوا۟ عَلَيْهَا حَاجَةًۭ فِى صُدُورِكُمْ وَعَلَيْهَا وَعَلَى ٱلْفُلْكِ تُحْمَلُونَ

Wa lakum feehaa manaafi’u wa litablughoo ‘alaihaa haajatan fee sudoorikum wa ‘alaihaa wa ‘alal fulki tuhmaloon
80. And for you therein are [other] benefits and that you may realize upon them a need which is in your breasts; and upon them and upon ships you are carried.

وَيُرِيكُمْ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦ فَأَىَّ ءَايَـٰتِ ٱللَّهِ تُنكِرُونَ

Wa yureekum Aayaatihee fa ayya Aayaatil laahi tunkiroon
81. And He shows you His signs. So which of the signs of Allah do you deny?

أَفَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا۟ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ فَيَنظُرُوا۟ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَـٰقِبَةُ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ كَانُوٓا۟ أَكْثَرَ مِنْهُمْ وَأَشَدَّ قُوَّةًۭ وَءَاثَارًۭا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ فَمَآ أَغْنَىٰ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا۟ يَكْسِبُونَ

Afalam yaseeroo fil ardi fa yanzuroo kaifa kaana ‘aaqibatul lazeena min qablihim; kaanoo aksara minhum wa ashadda quwwatanw wa aasaaran fil ardi famaaa aghnaa ‘anhum maa kaanoo yaksiboon
82. Have they not traveled through the land and observed how was the end of those before them? They were more numerous than themselves and greater in strength and in impression on the land, but they were not availed by what they used to earn.

فَلَمَّا جَآءَتْهُمْ رُسُلُهُم بِٱلْبَيِّنَـٰتِ فَرِحُوا۟ بِمَا عِندَهُم مِّنَ ٱلْعِلْمِ وَحَاقَ بِهِم مَّا كَانُوا۟ بِهِۦ يَسْتَهْزِءُونَ

Falammaa jaaa’at hum Rusuluhum bilbaiyinaati farihoo bimaa ‘indahum minal ‘ilmi wa haaqa bihim maa kaanoo bihee yastahzi’oon
83. And when their messengers came to them with clear proofs, they [merely] rejoiced in what they had of knowledge, but they were enveloped by what they used to ridicule.

فَلَمَّا رَأَوْا۟ بَأْسَنَا قَالُوٓا۟ ءَامَنَّا بِٱللَّهِ وَحْدَهُۥ وَكَفَرْنَا بِمَا كُنَّا بِهِۦ مُشْرِكِينَ

Falammaa ra aw baasanaa qaalooo aamannaa billaahi wahdahoo wa kafarnaa bimaa kunnaa bihee mushrikeen
84. And when they saw Our punishment, they said,” We believe in Allah alone and disbelieve in that which we used to associate with Him.”

فَلَمْ يَكُ يَنفَعُهُمْ إِيمَـٰنُهُمْ لَمَّا رَأَوْا۟ بَأْسَنَا ۖ سُنَّتَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلَّتِى قَدْ خَلَتْ فِى عِبَادِهِۦ ۖ وَخَسِرَ هُنَالِكَ ٱلْكَـٰفِرُونَ

Falam yaku tanfa ‘uhum eemaanuhum lammaa ra-aw baasana sunnatal laahil latee qad khalat fee ‘ibaadihee wa khasira hunaalikal kaafiroon (section 9)
85. But never did their faith benefit them once they saw Our punishment. [It is] the established way of Allah which has preceded among His servants. And the disbelievers thereupon lost [all].

Tafsir of Surah Ghafir

The revelation of the Qur’an was to call people to Islam and to be a book of guidance for all people. We should read the Quran regularly, but let’s not neglect to study it’s message and it’s teaching. Below you can benefit from reading the commentary of Surah Ghafir (Surah Mu’min) by Ibn Kathir and from Tafheem ul Quran by Abul A’a Maududi.

Surah Mu’Min Tafsir by Ibn Kathir

The Virtues of the Surahs that begin with Ha Mim

 

Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “Everything has an essence and the essence of the Qur’an is the family of Ha Mim,” or he said, “the Ha Mims.” Mis`ar bin Kidam said, “They used to be called `the brides’.” All of this was recorded by the the Imam, great scholar, Abu `Ubayd Al-Qasim bin Sallam, may Allah have mercy upon him, in his book Fada’il Al-Qur’an. Humayd bin Zanjuyah narrated that `Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The parable of the Qur’an is that of a man who sets out to find a place for his family to stay, and he comes to a place where there is evidence of rainfall. While he is walking about, admiring it, he suddenly comes upon beautiful gardens. He says, `I liked the first traces of rainfall, but this is far better.’ It was said to him, `The first place is like the Qur’an, and these beautiful gardens are like the splendor of family of Ha Mim in relation to the rest of the Qur’an’.” This was recorded by Al-Baghawi. Ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “When I reach the family of Ha Mim, it is like reaching a beautiful garden, so I take my time.”

﴿بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ ﴾

 

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

«إِنْ بُيِّتُّمُ اللَّيْلَةَ فَقُولُوا: حم لَا يُنْصَرُون»

 

(When you go to bed tonight, recite Ha Mim, La Yunsarun.)” Its chain of narrators is Sahih.

﴿تَنزِيلُ الْكِتَـبِ مِنَ اللَّهِ الْعَزِيزِ الْعَلِيمِ ﴾

 

(The revelation of the Book is from Allah, the Almighty, the All-Knower.) means, this book — the Qur’an — is from Allah, the Owner of might and knowledge, Who cannot be overtaken and from Whom nothing is hidden, not even an ant concealed beneath many layers.

﴿غَافِرِ الذَّنبِ وَقَابِلِ التَّوْبِ﴾

 

(The Forgiver of sin, the Acceptor of repentance,) means, He forgives sins that have been committed in the past, and He accepts repentance for sins that may be committed in the future, from the one who repents and submits to Him.

﴿شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ﴾

 

(the Severe in punishment,) means, to the one who persists in transgression and prefers the life of this world, who stubbornly turns away from the commands of Allah and commits sin. This is like the Ayah:

﴿نَبِّىءْ عِبَادِى أَنِّى أَنَا الْغَفُورُ الرَّحِيمُ – وَأَنَّ عَذَابِى هُوَ الْعَذَابُ الاٌّلِيمُ ﴾

 

(Declare unto My servants that truly I am the Oft-Forgiving, the Most-Merciful. And that My torment is indeed the most painful torment.) (15:49-50). These two attributes (mercy and punishment) are often mentioned together in the Qur’an, so that people will remain in a state of both hope and fear.

﴿ذِى الطَّوْلِ﴾

 

(the Bestower.) Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “This means He is Generous and Rich (Independent of means).” The meaning is that He is Most Generous to His servants, granting ongoing blessings for which they can never sufficiently thank Him.

﴿وَإِن تَعُدُّواْ نِعْمَةَ اللَّهِ لاَ تُحْصُوهَا﴾

 

(And if you would count the favors of Allah, never could you be able to count them…) (16:18).

﴿لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ﴾

 

(La ilaha illa Huwa) means, there is none that is equal to Him in all His attributes; there is no God or Lord besides Him.

﴿إِلَيْهِ الْمَصِيرُ﴾

 

(to Him is the final return.) means, all things will come back to Him and He will reward or punish each person according to his deeds.

﴿وَهُوَ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ﴾

 

(and He is Swift at reckoning) (13:41).

One of the Attributes of the Disbelievers is That they dispute the Ayat of Allah — and The Consequences of that Allah tells us that no one rejects or disputes His signs after clear proof has come,

 

﴿إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ﴾

 

(but those who disbelieve), i.e., those who reject the signs of Allah and His proof and evidence.

﴿فَلاَ يَغْرُرْكَ تَقَلُّبُهُمْ فِى الْبِلاَدِ﴾

 

(So let not their ability of going about here and there through the land deceive you!) means, their wealth and luxurious life. This is like the Ayah:

﴿لاَ يَغُرَّنَّكَ تَقَلُّبُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ فِى الْبِلَـدِ – مَتَـعٌ قَلِيلٌ ثُمَّ مَأْوَاهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ وَبِئْسَ الْمِهَادُ ﴾

 

(Let not the free disposal (and affluence) of the disbelievers throughout the land deceive you. A brief enjoyment; then, their ultimate abode is Hell; and worst indeed is that place for rest.) (3:196-197)

﴿نُمَتِّعُهُمْ قَلِيلاً ثُمَّ نَضْطَرُّهُمْ إِلَى عَذَابٍ غَلِيظٍ ﴾

 

(We let them enjoy for a little while, then in the end We shall oblige them to (enter) a great torment.) (31:24). Then Allah consoles His Prophet Muhammad for the rejection of his people. He tells him that he has an example in the Prophets who came before him, may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon them all, for their nations disbelieved them and opposed them, and only a few believed in them.

﴿كَذَّبَتْ قَبْلَهُمْ قَوْمُ نُوحٍ﴾

 

(The people of Nuh denied before these;) Nuh was the first Messenger whom Allah sent to denounce and forbid idol worship.

﴿وَالاٌّحْزَابُ مِن بَعْدِهِمْ﴾

 

(and the groups after them) means, from every nation.

﴿وَهَمَّتْ كُـلُّ أُمَّةٍ بِرَسُولِهِمْ لِيَأْخُذُوهُ﴾

 

(and every (disbelieving) nation plotted against their Messenger to seize him,) means, they wanted to kill him by any means possible, and some of them did kill their Messenger.

﴿وَجَـدَلُوا بِالْبَـطِلِ لِيُدْحِضُواْ بِهِ الْحَقَّ﴾

 

(and disputed by means of falsehood to refute therewith the truth.) means, they came up with specious arguments with which to dispute the truth which was so plain and clear.

﴿فَأَخَذَتْهُمُ﴾

 

(So I seized them) means, `I destroyed them, because of the sins they committed.’

﴿فَكَيْفَ كَانَ عِقَابِ﴾

 

(and how was My punishment!) means, `how have you heard that My punishment and vengeance was so severe and painful.’ Qatadah said, “It was terrible, by Allah.”

﴿وَكَذَلِكَ حَقَّتْ كَلِمَةُ رَبِّكَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ أَنَّهُمْ أَصْحَـبُ النَّارِ ﴾

 

(Thus has the Word of your Lord been justified against those who disbelieved, that they will be the dwellers of the Fire.) means, `just as the Word of punishment was justified against those of the past nations who disbelieved, so too is it justified against these disbelievers who have rejected you and gone against you, O Muhammad, and it is even more justified against them, because if they have disbelieved in you, there is no certainty that they will believe in any other Prophet.’ And Allah knows best.

The Bearers of the Throne praise Allah and pray for forgiveness for the Believers

 

Allah tells us that the angels who are close to Him, the bearers of the Throne, and the angels who are around Him — all glorify the praises of their Lord. They combine glorification (Tasbih) which implies that He is free of any shortcomings, with praise (Tahmid) which is an affirmation of praise.

﴿وَيُؤْمِنُونَ بِهِ﴾

 

(and believe in Him,) means, they humbly submit themselves before Him.

﴿وَيَسْتَغْفِرُونَ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ﴾

 

(and ask forgiveness for those who believe) means, for those among the people of earth who believe in the Unseen. Allah commanded that His angels who are close to Him should pray for the believers in their absence, so it is a part of the angels’ nature that they say Amin when a believer prays for his brother in his absence. In Sahih Muslim it says:

«إِذَا دَعَا الْمُسْلِمُ لِأَخِيهِ بِظَهْرِ الْغَيْبِ قَالَ الْمَلَكُ: آمِينَ وَلَكَ بِمِثْلِه»

 

(When a Muslim prays for his brother in his absence, the angel says, `Amin, and may you have something similar to it’.)” Shahr bin Hawshab said, “The bearers of the Throne are eight; four of them say, `Glory and praise be to You, O Allah, to You be praise for Your forebearance after Your knowledge. ‘ Four of them say, `Glory and praise be to You, O Allah, to You be praise for Your forgiveness after Your power.’ When they pray for forgiveness for those who believe, they say:

﴿رَبَّنَا وَسِعْتَ كُـلَّ شَىْءٍ رَّحْمَةً وَعِلْماً﴾

 

(Our Lord! You comprehend all things in mercy and knowledge,) meaning, `Your mercy encompasses their sins and Your knowledge encompasses all their deeds, words and action.’

﴿فَاغْفِرْ لِلَّذِينَ تَابُواْ وَاتَّبَعُواْ سَبِيلَكَ﴾

 

(so forgive those who repent and follow Your way.)” That is, `forgive the sinners when they repent to You and turn to You and give up their former ways, following Your commands to do good and abstain from evil.’

﴿وَقِهِمْ عَذَابَ الْجَحِيمِ﴾

 

(and save them from the torment of the blazing Fire!) means, `snatch them away from the punishment of Hell, which is a painful, agonizing punishment.’

﴿رَبَّنَا وَأَدْخِلْهُمْ جَنَّـتِ عَدْنٍ الَّتِى وَعَدْتَّهُمْ وَمَن صَـلَحَ مِنْ ءَابَآئِهِمْ وَأَزْوَجِهِمْ وَذُرِّيَّـتِهِمْ﴾

 

(Our Lord! And make them enter the `Adn (Eternal) Gardens which you have promised them — and to the righteous among their fathers, their wives, and their offspring!) meaning, `bring them together so that they may find delight in one another in neighboring dwellings. ‘ This is like the Ayah:

﴿وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَاتَّبَعَتْهُمْ ذُرِّيَّتُهُم بِإِيمَـنٍ أَلْحَقْنَا بِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ وَمَآ أَلَتْنَـهُمْ مِّنْ عَمَلِهِم مِّن شَىْءٍ﴾

 

(And those who believe and whose offspring follow them in faith, — to them shall We join their offspring, and We shall not decrease the reward of their deeds in anything)(52:21). This means, `that all of them will be made equal in status. In this way they may delight in one another’s company; the one who is in the higher status will not lose anything. On the contrary We will raise the one whose deeds are of a lower status so that they will become equal, as a favor and a blessing from Us.’ Sa`id bin Jubayr said that when the believer enters Paradise, he will ask where his father, son and brother are. It will be said to him, `they did not reach the same level of good deeds as you did’. He will say, `but I did it for my sake and for theirs.’ Then they will be brought to join him in that higher degree. Then Sa`id bin Jubayr recited this Ayah:

﴿رَبَّنَا وَأَدْخِلْهُمْ جَنَّـتِ عَدْنٍ الَّتِى وَعَدْتَّهُمْ وَمَن صَـلَحَ مِنْ ءَابَآئِهِمْ وَأَزْوَجِهِمْ وَذُرِّيَّـتِهِمْ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ ﴾

 

(Our Lord! And make them enter the `Adn (Eternal) Gardens which you have promised them — and to the righteous among their fathers, their wives, and their offspring! Verily, You are the Almighty, the All-Wise.) Mutarrif bin `Abdullah bin Ash-Shikhkhir said, “The most sincere of the servants of Allah towards the believers are the angels.” Then he recited this Ayah:

﴿رَبَّنَا وَأَدْخِلْهُمْ جَنَّـتِ عَدْنٍ الَّتِى وَعَدْتَّهُمْ﴾

 

(Our Lord! And make them enter the `Adn (Eternal) Paradises which you have promised them) He then said, “The most treacherous of the servants of Allah towards the believers are the Shayatin.”

﴿إِنَّكَ أَنتَ العَزِيزُ الحَكِيمُ﴾

 

(You are the Almighty, the All-Wise.) means, `the One Whom none can resist or overwhelm; what You will happens and what You do not will does not happen; You are Wise in all that You say and do, in all that You legislate and decree.’

﴿وَقِهِمُ السَّيِّئَـتِ﴾

 

(And save them from the sins,) means, the actions and the consequences.

﴿وَمَن تَقِ السَّيِّئَـتِ يَوْمَئِذٍ﴾

 

(and whomsoever You save from the sins that Day,) means, the Day of Resurrection,

﴿فَقَدْ رَحِمْتَهُ﴾

 

(him verily, You have taken into mercy.) means, `You have protected him and saved him from punishment.’

﴿وَذَلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْعَظِيمُ﴾

 

(And that is the supreme success.)

The Regret of the Disbelievers after They enter Hell

 

Allah tells us that the disbelievers will feel regret on the Day of Resurrection, when they enter Hell and sink in the agonizing depth of fire. When they actually experience the unbearable punishment of Allah, they will hate themselves with the utmost hatred, because of the sins they committed in the past, which were the cause of their entering the Fire. At that point the angels will tell them in a loud voice that Allah’s hatred towards them in this world, when Faith was offered to them and they rejected it, is greater than their hatred towards themselves in this situation. Qatadah said, concerning the Ayah:

﴿لَمَقْتُ اللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ مِن مَّقْتِكُمْ أَنفُسَكُـمْ إِذْ تُدْعَوْنَ إِلَى الإِيمَـنِ فَتَكْفُرُونَ﴾

 

(Indeed, Allah’s aversion was greater towards you than your aversion toward yourselves, when you were called to the Faith but you used to refuse.) “Allah’s hatred for the people of misguidance — when Faith is presented to them in this world, and they turn away from it and refuse to accept it — is greater than their hatred for themselves when they see the punishment of Allah with their own eyes on the Day of Resurrection.” This was also the view of Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Mujahid, As-Suddi, Dharr bin `Ubaydullah Al-Hamdani, `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam and Ibn Jarir At-Tabari, may Allah have mercy on them all.

﴿قَالُواْ رَبَّنَآ أَمَتَّنَا اثْنَتَيْنِ وَأَحْيَيْتَنَا اثْنَتَيْنِ﴾

 

(They will say: “Our Lord! You have made us to die twice, and You have given us life twice!…”) Ath-Thawri narrated from Abu Ishaq from Abu Al-Ahwas from Ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him: “This Ayah is like the Ayah:

﴿كَيْفَ تَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَكُنتُمْ أَمْوَتًا فَأَحْيَـكُمْ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ ﴾

 

(How can you disbelieve in Allah Seeing that you were dead and He gave you life. Then He will give you death, then again will bring you to life and then unto Him you will return.)”(2:28) This was also the view of Ibn `Abbas, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah and Abu Malik. This is undoubtedly the correct view. What is meant by all of this is that when they are standing before Allah in the arena of Resurrection, the disbelievers will ask to go back, as Allah says:

﴿وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذِ الْمُجْرِمُونَ نَاكِسُواْ رُءُوسِهِمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ رَبَّنَآ أَبْصَرْنَا وَسَمِعْنَا فَارْجِعْنَا نَعْمَلْ صَـلِحاً إِنَّا مُوقِنُونَ ﴾

 

(And if you only could see when the criminals shall hang their heads before their Lord (saying): “Our Lord! We have now seen and heard, so send us back, that we will do righteous good deeds. Verily, we now believe with certainty.”) (32:12), However, they will get no response. Then when they see the Fire and they are held over it and they look at the punishments therein, they will ask even more fervently than before to go back, but they will get no response. Allah says:

﴿وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذْ وُقِفُواْ عَلَى النَّارِ فَقَالُواْ يلَيْتَنَا نُرَدُّ وَلاَ نُكَذِّبَ بِـَايَـتِ رَبِّنَا وَنَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ – بَلْ بَدَا لَهُمْ مَّا كَانُواْ يُخْفُونَ مِن قَبْلُ وَلَوْ رُدُّواْ لَعَـدُواْ لِمَا نُهُواْ عَنْهُ وَإِنَّهُمْ لَكَـذِبُونَ ﴾

 

(If you could but see when they will be held over the (Hell) Fire! They will say: “Would that we were but sent back (to the world)! Then we would not deny the Ayat of our Lord, and we would be of the believers!” Nay, it has become manifest to them what they had been concealing before. But if they were returned, they would certainly revert to that which they were forbidden. And indeed they are liars.) (6:27-28). When they actually enter Hell and have a taste of its heat, hooked rods of iron and chains, their plea to go back will be at its most desperate and fervent:

﴿وَهُمْ يَصْطَرِخُونَ فِيهَا رَبَّنَآ أَخْرِجْنَا نَعْمَلْ صَـلِحاً غَيْرَ الَّذِى كُـنَّا نَعْمَلُ أَوَلَمْ نُعَمِّرْكُمْ مَّا يَتَذَكَّرُ فِيهِ مَن تَذَكَّرَ وَجَآءَكُمُ النَّذِيرُ فَذُوقُواْ فَمَا لِلظَّـلِمِينَ مِن نَّصِيرٍ ﴾

 

(Therein they will cry: “Our Lord! Bring us out, we shall do righteous good deeds, not that we used do.” (Allah will reply): “Did We not give you lives long enough, so that whosoever would receive admonition could receive it And the warner came to you. So taste you. For the wrongdoers there is no helper.”) (35:37)

﴿رَبَّنَآ أَخْرِجْنَا مِنْهَا فَإِنْ عُدْنَا فَإِنَّا ظَـلِمُونَ – قَالَ اخْسَئُواْ فِيهَا وَلاَ تُكَلِّمُونِ ﴾

 

(Our Lord! Bring us out of this. If ever we return (to evil), then indeed we shall be wrongdoers.” He (Allah) will say: “Remain you in it with ignominy! And speak you not to Me!) (23:108). According to this Ayah, they will speak more eloquently, and they will introduce their plea with the words:

﴿رَبَّنَآ أَمَتَّنَا اثْنَتَيْنِ وَأَحْيَيْتَنَا اثْنَتَيْنِ﴾

 

(Our Lord! You have made us to die twice, and You have given us life twice!) meaning, `by Your almighty power, You have brought us to life after we were dead, then You caused us to die after we were alive; You are able to do whatever You will. We confess our sins and admit that we wronged ourselves in the world,’

﴿فَهَلْ إِلَى خُرُوجٍ مِّن سَبِيلٍ﴾

 

(then is there any way to get out) means, `will You answer our prayer to send us back to the world, for You are able to do that, so that we might do deeds different from those which we used to do Then if we go back to our former ways, we will indeed be wrongdoers.’ The response will be: `There is no way for you to go back to the world.’ Then the reason for that will be given: `Your nature will not accept the truth and be governed by it, you would reject it and ignore it.’ Allah says:

﴿ذَلِكُم بِأَنَّهُ إِذَا دُعِىَ اللَّهُ وَحْدَهُ كَـفَرْتُمْ وَإِن يُشْرَكْ بِهِ تُؤْمِنُواْ﴾

 

((It will be said): “This is because, when Allah Alone was invoked (in worship), you disbelieved; but when partners were joined to Him, you believed!”) meaning, `if you were to go back, this is how you would be.’ This is like the Ayah:

﴿وَلَوْ رُدُّواْ لَعَـدُواْ لِمَا نُهُواْ عَنْهُ وَإِنَّهُمْ لَكَـذِبُونَ﴾

 

(But if they were returned (to the world), they would certainly revert to that when they were forbidden. And indeed they are liars) (6:28).

﴿فَالْحُكْمُ للَّهِ الْعَلِـىِّ الْكَبِيرِ﴾

 

(So the judgement is only with Allah, the Most High, the Most Great!) means, He is the Judge of His creation, the Just Who is never unjust. He guides whomsoever He wills and sends astray whomsoever He wills; He has mercy on whomsoever He wills and punishes whomsoever He wills; there is no God except Him.

﴿هُوَ الَّذِى يُرِيكُمْ ءَايَـتِهِ﴾

 

(It is He Who shows you His Ayat) means, He demonstrates His power to His servants through the mighty signs which they see in His creation, above and below, which indicate the perfection of its Creator and Originator.

﴿وَيُنَزِّلُ لَكُم مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ رِزْقاً﴾

 

(and sends down provision for you from the sky.) this refers to rain, through which crops and fruits are brought forth, which with their different colors, tastes, fragrances and forms are a sign of the Creator. It is one kind of water, but by His great power He makes all these things different.

﴿وَمَا يَتَذَكَّرُ﴾

 

(And none remembers) means, no one learns a lesson or is reminded by these things, or takes them as a sign of the might of the Creator,

﴿إِلاَّ مَن يُنِيبُ﴾

 

(but those who turn in repentance.) which means, those who have insight and turn to Allah, may He be blessed and exalted.

 

The Believers are commanded to worship Allah Alone no matter what Their Circumstances

 

﴿فَادْعُواْ اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْكَـفِرُونَ ﴾

 

(So, call you upon Allah making religion sincerely for Him, however much the disbelievers may hate.) This means, worship Allah and call upon Him alone in all sincerity. Do not be like the idolators in conduct and beliefs. Imam Ahmad recorded that after ending every prayer, `Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr used to say: “There is no (true) God except Allah Alone with no partner or associate, His is the dominion and praise, for He is able to do all things; there is no strength and no power except with Allah; there is no (true) God except Allah and we worship none but Him; to Him belongs the blessings and the virtue and good praise; there is no (true) God except Allah, we worship Him in all sincerity even though the disbelievers may hate that.” He said, “The Messenger of Allah used to say Tahlil with this after every prayer.” Something similar was also recorded by Muslim, Abu Dawud and An-Nasa’i. It was reported in Sahih from Ibn Az-Zubayr, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah used to say the following after the prescribed (obligatory) prayers:

«لَا إِلهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ، لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ، وَهُوَ عَلى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ، لَا حَوْلَ وَلَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللهِ، لَا إِلهَ إِلَّا اللهُ، وَلَا نَعْبُدُ إِلَّا إِيَّاهُ، لَهُ النِّعْمَةُ وَلَهُ الْفَضْلُ وَلَهُ الثَّــنَاءُ الْحَسَنُ، لَا إِلهَ إِلَّا اللهُ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْكَافِرُون»

 

(There is no (true) God except Allah Alone with no partner or associate, His is the dominion and praise, for He is able to do all things; there is no strength and no power except with Allah; there is no (true) God except Allah and we worship none but Him; His is the blessing and virtue and good praise; there is no (true) God except Allah, we worship Him in all sincerity even though the disbelievers hate that.)

Allah sends the Revelation to warn His Servants of the Day of Mutual Meeting

Allah tells us of His might and pride, and that His Mighty Throne is raised above all of His creation like a roof. This is like the Ayah:

﴿مِّنَ اللَّهِ ذِي الْمَعَارِجِ – تَعْرُجُ الْمَلَـئِكَةُ وَالرُّوحُ إِلَيْهِ فِى يَوْمٍ كَانَ مِقْدَارُهُ خَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ ﴾

 

(From Allah, the Lord of the ways of ascent. The angels and the Ruh (Jibril) ascend to Him in a Day the measure whereof is fifty thousand years.) (70:3-4). If Allah wills, we will discuss below which is the most correct view the distance between the Throne and the seventh earth according to a group of earlier and later scholars. More than one scholar said that the Throne is made of red rubies. The width between two corners of it is the distance of a fifty thousand year long journey and its height above the seventh earth is the distance of a fifty thousand years long journey.

﴿يُلْقِى الرُّوحَ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ عَلَى مَن يَشَآءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ﴾

 

(He sends the revelation of His command to any of His servants He wills,) This is like the Ayat:

﴿يُنَزِّلُ الْمَلَـئِكَةَ بِالْرُّوحِ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ عَلَى مَن يَشَآءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ أَنْ أَنْذِرُواْ أَنَّهُ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَ أَنَاْ فَاتَّقُونِ ﴾

 

(He sends down the angels with the Ruh (revelation) of His command to whom of His servants He wills (saying): “Warn mankind that none has the right to be worshipped but I, so have Taqwa of Me.”) (16:2), and

﴿وَإِنَّهُ لَتَنزِيلُ رَبِّ الْعَـلَمِينَ – نَزَلَ بِهِ الرُّوحُ الاٌّمِينُ – عَلَى قَلْبِكَ لِتَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُنْذِرِينَ ﴾

 

(And truly, this is a revelation from the Lord of all that exits, Which the trustworthy Ruh (Jibril) has brought down Upon your heart that you may be (one) of the warners.) (26:192-194) Allah says:

﴿لِيُنذِرَ يَوْمَ التَّلاَقِ﴾

 

(that he may warn (men) of the Day of Mutual Meeting.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said: “The Day of Mutual Meeting is one of the names of the Day of Resurrection, of which Allah warns His servants.” That is the Day when everyone will find out about his deeds, good and bad.

﴿يَوْمَ هُم بَـرِزُونَ لاَ يَخْفَى عَلَى اللَّهِ مِنْهُمْ شَىْءٌ﴾

 

(The Day when they will come out, nothing of them will be hidden from Allah.) means, they will all appear in the open, with nothing to give them shelter or shade, or cover them. Allah says:

﴿يَوْمَ هُم بَـرِزُونَ لاَ يَخْفَى عَلَى اللَّهِ مِنْهُمْ شَىْءٌ﴾

 

(The Day when they will come out, nothing of them will be hidden from Allah.) meaning, everything will be equally known to Him.

﴿لِّمَنِ الْمُلْكُ الْيَوْمَ لِلَّهِ الْوَحِدِ الْقَهَّارِ﴾

 

(Whose is the kingdom this Day It is Allah’s, the One, the Irresistible!) We have already mentioned the Hadith of Ibn `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, that Allah will roll up the heavens and the earth in His Hand and will say,

«أَنَا الْمَلِكُ، أَنَا الْجَبَّارُ، أَنَا الْمُتَكَبِّرُ، أَيْنَ مُلُوكُ الْأَرْضِ؟ أَيْنَ الْجَبَّارُونَ؟ أَيْنَ الْمُتَكَبِّرُونَ؟»

 

(“I am the King, I am the Compeller, I am the Proud, where are the kings of the earth Where are the tyrants Where are the proud”) In the Hadith about the Trumpet, it says that Allah will take the souls of all of His creatures, and there will be none left but Him Alone, with no partner or associate. Then He will say, “Whose is the kingdom today” three times, and He will answer Himself by saying,

﴿لِلَّهِ الْوَحِدِ الْقَهَّارِ﴾

 

(It is Allah’s, the One, the Irresistible!) meaning, He is the Only One Who has subjugated all things.

﴿الْيَوْمَ تُجْزَى كُلُّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا كَـسَبَتْ لاَ ظُلْمَ الْيَوْمَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ ﴾

 

(This Day shall every person be recompensed for what he earned. This Day no injustice (shall be done to anybody). Truly, Allah is swift in reckoning.) Here Allah tells us of His justice when He judges between His creation; He does not do even a speck of dust’s weight of injustice, whether it be for good or for evil. For every good deed He gives a tenfold reward and for every bad deed He gives recompense of one bad deed. Allah says:

﴿لاَ ظُلْمَ الْيَوْمَ﴾

 

(This Day no injustice (shall be done to anybody).) It was reported in Sahih Muslim from Abu Dharr, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah said that Allah said:

«يَا عِبَادِي إِنِّي حَرَّمْتُ الظُّلْمَ عَلى نَفْسِي وَجَعَلْتُهُ بَيْنَكُمْ مُحَرَّمًا فَلَا تَظَالَمُوا إلى أن قال يَا عِبَادِي إِنَّمَا هِيَ أَعْمَالُكُمْ أُحْصِيهَا عَلَيْكُمْ ثُمَّ أُوَفِّيكُمْ إِيَّاهَا، فَمَنْ وَجَدَ خَيْرًا فَلْيَحْمَدِ اللهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى، وَمَنْ وَجَدَ غَيْرَ ذَلِكَ فَلَا يَلُومَنَّ إِلَّا نَفْسَه»

 

(“O My servants, I have forbidden injustice for Myself, and made it unlawful for you, so do not commit injustice to one another …”) up to: (“O My servants, these are your deeds, I record them for you then I will recompense you for them. Whoever finds something good, let him give praise to Allah, and whoever finds something other than that, let him blame no one but himself.”)

﴿إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ﴾

 

(Truly, Allah is swift in reckoning.) means, He will bring all His creation to account as if He is bringing just one person to account. This is like the Ayah:

﴿مَّا خَلْقُكُمْ وَلاَ بَعْثُكُمْ إِلاَّ كَنَفْسٍ وَحِدَةٍ﴾

 

(The creation of you all and the resurrection of you all are only as a single person) (31: 28).

﴿وَمَآ أَمْرُنَآ إِلاَّ وَحِدَةٌ كَلَمْحٍ بِالْبَصَرِ ﴾

 

(And Our commandment is but one as the twinkling of an eye.) (54:50)

Warning of the Day of Resurrection and Allah’s judgement on that Day

 

`The Day that is drawing near’ is one of the names of the Day of Judgement. It is so called because it is close, as Allah says:

﴿أَزِفَتِ الاٌّزِفَةُ – لَيْسَ لَهَا مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ كَاشِفَةٌ ﴾

 

(The Day of Resurrection draws near. None besides Allah can avert it) (53:57-58)

﴿اقْتَرَبَتِ السَّاعَةُ وَانشَقَّ الْقَمَرُ ﴾

 

(The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder) (54:1)

﴿اقْتَرَبَ لِلنَّاسِ حِسَـبُهُمْ﴾

 

(Draws near for mankind their reckoning) (21:1),

﴿أَتَى أَمْرُ اللَّهِ فَلاَ تَسْتَعْجِلُوهُ﴾

 

(The Event (the Hour) ordained by Allah will come to pass, so seek not to hasten it) (16:1),

﴿فَلَمَّا رَأَوْهُ زُلْفَةً سِيئَتْ وُجُوهُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ﴾

 

(But when they will see it approaching, the faces of those who disbelieve will change and turn black with sadness and in grief) (67:27), and

﴿إِذِ الْقُلُوبُ لَدَى الْحَنَاجِرِ كَـظِمِينَ﴾

 

(when the hearts will be at the throats Kazimin. ) Qatadah said, “When the hearts reach the throats because of fear, and they will neither come out nor go back to their places.” This was also the view of `Ikrimah, As-Suddi and others.

﴿كَـظِمِينَ﴾

 

(Kazimin) means silent, for no one will speak without His permission:

﴿يَوْمَ يَقُومُ الرُّوحُ وَالْمَلَـئِكَةُ صَفّاً لاَّ يَتَكَلَّمُونَ إِلاَّ مَنْ أَذِنَ لَهُ الرَّحْمَـنُ وَقَالَ صَوَاباً ﴾

 

(The Day that Ar-Ruh (Jibril) and the angels will stand forth in rows, they will not speak except him whom the Most Gracious allows, and he will speak what is right.) (78:38). Ibn Jurayj said:

﴿كَـظِمِينَ﴾

 

(Kazimin) “It means weeping.”

﴿مَا لِلظَّـلِمِينَ مِنْ حَمِيمٍ وَلاَ شَفِيعٍ يُطَاعُ﴾

 

(There will be no friend, nor an intercessor for the wrongdoers, who could be given heed to.) means, those who wronged themselves by associating others in worship with Allah, will have no relative to help them and no intercessor who can plead on their behalf; all means of good will be cut off from them.

﴿يَعْلَمُ خَآئِنَةَ الاٌّعْيُنِ وَمَا تُخْفِى الصُّدُورُ ﴾

 

(Allah knows the fraud of the eyes, and all that the breasts conceal.) Allah tells us about His complete knowledge which encompasses all things, great and small, major and minor, so that people will take note that He knows about them and they will have the proper sense of shyness before Allah. They will pay attention to the fact that He can see them, for He knows the fraud of the eyes, even if the eyes look innocent, and He knows what the hearts conceal. Ad-Dahhak said:

﴿خَآئِنَةَ الاٌّعْيُنِ﴾

 

(the fraud of the eyes,) “A wink and a man saying that he has seen something when he has not seen it, or saying that he has not seen it when he did see it.” Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “Allah knows when the eye looks at something, whether it wants to commit an act of betrayal or not.” This was also the view of Mujahid and Qatadah. Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, commented on the Ayah:

﴿وَمَا تُخْفِى الصُّدُورُ﴾

 

(and all that the breasts conceal.)”He knows, if you were able to, whether you would commit Zina with a woman or not.” As-Suddi said:

﴿وَمَا تُخْفِى الصُّدُورُ﴾

 

(and all that the breasts conceal.) meaning, of insinuating whispers.

﴿وَاللَّهُ يَقْضِى بِالْحَقِّ﴾

 

(And Allah judges with truth, ) means, He judges with justice. Al-A`mash narrated from Sa`id bin Jubayr from Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, that this Ayah means: “He is able to reward those who do good with good and those who do evil with evil.”

﴿إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ﴾

 

(Certainly, Allah! He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.) This is how it was interpreted by Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him. This is like the Ayah:

﴿لِيَجْزِىَ الَّذِينَ أَسَاءُواْ بِمَا عَمِلُواْ وَيِجْزِى الَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُواْ بِالْحُسْنَى﴾

 

(that He may requite those who do evil with that which they have done, and reward those who do good, with what is best) (53:31).

﴿وَالَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ﴾

 

(while those to whom they invoke besides Him,) means, the idols and false gods,

﴿لاَ يَقْضُونَ بِشَىْءٍ﴾

 

(cannot judge anything.) means, they do not possess anything and they cannot judge anything.

﴿إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ﴾

 

(Certainly, Allah! He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.) means, He hears all that His creatures say and He knows all about them, so He guides whomsoever He wills and sends astray whomsoever He wills. And He judges with perfect justice in all of that.

The Severe Punishment for the Disbelievers

 

﴿أَوَلَمْ يَسيرُواْ﴾

 

(Have they not traveled), `these people who disbelieve in your Message, O Muhammad,’

﴿فِى الاٌّرْضِ فَيَنظُرُواْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَـقِبَةُ الَّذِينَ كَانُواْ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ﴾

 

(in the land and seen what was the end of those who were before them) means, the nations of the past who disbelieved in their Prophets (peace be upon them), for which the punishment came upon them even though they were stronger than Quraysh.

﴿وَءَاثَاراً فِى الاٌّرْضِ﴾

 

(and in the traces in the land.) means, they left behind traces in the earth, such as structures, buildings and dwellings which these people ﴿i.e., the Quraysh﴾ cannot match. This is like the Ayat:

﴿وَلَقَدْ مَكَّنَـهُمْ فِيمَآ إِن مَّكَّنَّـكُمْ فِيهِ﴾

 

(And indeed We had firmly established them with that wherewith We have not established you!) (46:26)

﴿وَأَثَارُواْ الاٌّرْضَ وَعَمَرُوهَآ أَكْثَرَ مِمَّا عَمَرُوهَا﴾

 

(and they tilled the earth and populated it in greater numbers than these have done) (30:9). Yet despite this great strength, Allah punished them for their sin, which was their disbelief in their Messengers.

﴿وَمَا كَانَ لَهُم مِّنَ اللَّهِ مِن وَاقٍ﴾

 

(And none had they to protect them from Allah.) means, they had no one who could protect them or ward off the punishment from them. Then Allah mentions the reason why He punished them, and the sins which they committed. Allah says:

﴿ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَانَت تَّأْتِيهِمْ رُسُلُهُم بِالْبَيِّنَـتِ﴾

 

(That was because there came to them their Messengers with clear evidences) meaning with clear proof and definitive evidence.

﴿فَكَفَرُواْ﴾

 

(but they disbelieved.) means, despite all these signs, they disbelieved and rejected the Message.

﴿فَأَخَذَهُمُ اللَّهُ﴾

 

(So Allah seized them.) means, He destroyed them utterly, and a similar fate awaits the disbelievers.

﴿إِنَّهُ قَوِىٌّ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ﴾

 

(Verily, He is All-Strong, Severe in punishment) means, He is possessed of great strength and might.

﴿شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ﴾

 

(Severe in punishment, ) means, His punishment is severe and agonizing; we seek refuge with Allah, may He be blessed and exalted, from that.

The Story of Musa and Fir`awn

 

Allah consoles His Prophet Muhammad for the disbelief of his people and gives him the glad tidings of good consequences and victory in this world and the Hereafter, as happened to Musa bin `Imran, peace be upon him, whom Allah sent with clear proof and definitive evidence. Allah says:

﴿بِـَايَـتِنَا وَسُلْطَانٍ مُّبِينٍ﴾

 

(with Our Ayat, and a manifest authority). Authority means proof and evidence.

﴿إِلَى فِرْعَوْنَ﴾

 

(to Fir`awn), who was the king of the Copts of Egypt.

﴿وَهَـمَـنَ﴾

 

(Haman) who was his adviser.

﴿وَقَـشرُونَ﴾

 

(and Qarun) who was the richest trader among the people of his time.

﴿فَقَالُواْ سَـحِرٌ كَـذَّابٌ﴾

 

(but they called (him): “A sorcerer, liar!”) means, they rejected him and thought he was a sorcerer, a madman and an illusionist who was telling lies about having been sent by Allah. This is like the Ayah:

﴿كَذَلِكَ مَآ أَتَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ مِّن رَّسُولٍ إِلاَّ قَالُواْ سَـحِرٌ أَوْ مَجْنُونٌ – أَتَوَاصَوْاْ بِهِ بَلْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ طَـغُونَ ﴾

 

(Likewise, no Messenger came to those before them but they said: “A sorcerer or a madman!” Have they transmitted this saying to these Nay, they are themselves a people transgressing beyond bounds!) (51:52-53)

﴿فَلَمَّا جَآءَهُمْ بِالْحَقِّ مِنْ عِندِنَا﴾

 

(Then, when he brought them the Truth from Us,) means, with definite evidence that Allah had sent him to them,

﴿قَالُواْ اقْتُلُواْ أَبْنَآءَ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مَعَهُ وَاسْتَحْيُواْ نِسَآءَهُمْ﴾

 

(they said: “Kill with him the sons of those who believe and let their women live;) This was a second command from Fir`awn to kill the males of the Children of Israel. The first command had been as a precaution against the emergence of a man like Musa, or an act intended to humiliate this people or reduce their numbers or both. The second command was for the second reason, to humiliate the people so that they would regard Musa as a bad omen. they said:

﴿أُوذِينَا مِن قَبْلِ أَن تَأْتِيَنَا وَمِن بَعْدِ مَا جِئْتَنَا قَالَ عَسَى رَبُّكُمْ أَن يُهْلِكَ عَدُوَّكُمْ وَيَسْتَخْلِفَكُمْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ فَيَنظُرَ كَيْفَ تَعْمَلُونَ﴾

 

(“We (Children of Israel) had suffered troubles before you came to us, and since you have come to us.” He said: “It may be that your Lord will destroy your enemy and make you successors on the earth, so that He may see how you act”) (7:129). Qatadah said, this was one command after another.

﴿وَمَا كَـيْدُ الْكَـفِرِينَ إِلاَّ فِى ضَلَـلٍ﴾

 

(but the plots of disbelievers are nothing but in vain!) means, their schemes and intentions — to reduce the numbers of the Children of Israel lest they prevail over them — were doomed to failure.

﴿وَقَالَ فِرْعَوْنُ ذَرُونِى أَقْتُلْ مُوسَى وَلْيَدْعُ رَبَّهُ﴾

 

(Fir`awn said: “Leave me to kill Musa, and let him call his Lord!…”) Fir`awn, may Allah curse him, resolved to kill Musa, peace be upon him, i.e., he said to his people, `let me kill him for you.’

﴿وَلْيَدْعُ رَبَّهُ﴾

 

(and let him call his Lord!) means, `I do not care.’ This is the utmost in offensive stubbornness.

﴿إِنِّى أَخَافُ أَن يُبَدِّلَ دِينَكُـمْ أَوْ أَن يُظْهِرَ فِى الاٌّرْضِ الْفَسَادَ﴾

 

(I fear that he may change your religion, or that he may cause mischief to appear in the land!) means, Musa; Fir`awn was afraid that Musa would lead his people astray and change their ways and customs. As if Fir`awn would be concerned about what Musa might do to his people! The majority understood this as meaning, `he will change your religion and cause mischief to appear in the land.’

﴿وَقَالَ مُوسَى إِنِّى عُذْتُ بِرَبِّى وَرَبِّكُـمْ مِّن كُلِّ مُتَكَبِّرٍ لاَّ يُؤْمِنُ بِيَوْمِ الْحِسَابِ ﴾

 

(Musa said: “Verily, I seek refuge in my Lord and your Lord from every arrogant who believes not in the Day of Reckoning!”) means, when he heard that Fir`awn had said,

﴿ذَرُونِى أَقْتُلْ مُوسَى﴾

 

(Leave me to kill Musa,) Musa, peace be upon him, said, “I seek refuge and protection with Allah from his evil and the evil of those like him.” So he said:

﴿إِنِّى عُذْتُ بِرَبِّى وَرَبِّكُـمْ﴾

 

(Verily, I seek refuge in my Lord and your Lord) — those who were being addressed here —

﴿مِّن كُلِّ مُتَكَبِّرٍ﴾

 

(from every arrogant) means, from every evildoer,

﴿لاَّ يُؤْمِنُ بِيَوْمِ الْحِسَابِ﴾

 

(who believes not in the Day of Reckoning!) It was reported in the Hadith narrated from Abu Musa, may Allah be pleased with him, that when the Messenger of Allah was afraid of some people, he would say:

«اللْهُمَّ إِنَّا نَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ شُرُورِهِمْ، وَنَدْرَأُ بِكَ فِي نُحُورِهِم»

 

(O Allah, we seek refuge in You from their evil and we seek Your help in repulsing them.)

Musa was supported by a believing Man from Fir`awn’s Family

 

The well-known view is that this believing man was a Coptic (Egyptian) from the family of Fir`awn. As-Suddi said, he was a cousin ﴿son of the paternal uncle﴾ of Fir`awn. And it was said that he was the one who was saved along with Musa, peace be upon him. Ibn Jurayj reported that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said “No one from among the family of Fir`awn believed apart from this man, the wife of Fir`awn, and the one who said,

﴿يمُوسَى إِنَّ الْمَلاّ يَأْتَمِرُونَ بِكَ لِيَقْتُلُوكَ﴾

 

(“O Musa! Verily, the chiefs are taking counsel together about you, to kill you.”)” (28:20) This was narrated by Ibn Abi Hatim. This man concealed his Faith from his people, the Egyptians, and did not reveal it except on this day when Fir`awn said,

﴿ذَرُونِى أَقْتُلْ مُوسَى﴾

 

(Leave me to kill Musa,) The man was seized with anger for the sake of Allah, and the best of Jihad is to speak a just word before an unjust ruler, as is stated in the Hadith. There is no greater example of this than the words that this man said to Fir`awn:

﴿أَتَقْتُلُونَ رَجُلاً أَن يَقُولَ رَبِّىَ اللَّهُ﴾

 

(Would you kill a man because he says: `My Lord is Allah,) Al-Bukhari narrated a similar story in his Sahih from `Urwah bin Az-Zubayr, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: “I said to `Abdullah bin `Amr bin Al-`As, may Allah be pleased with him: `Tell me, what was the worst thing the idolators did to the Messenger of Allah ‘ He said, `While the Messenger of Allah was praying in the courtyard of the Ka`bah, `Uqbah bin Abi Mu`it came and grabbed the shoulder of the Messenger of Allah and started twisting his garment so that it strangled him. Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, came and grabbed ﴿`Uqbah’s﴾ shoulder and pushed him away from the Prophet , then he said,

﴿أَتَقْتُلُونَ رَجُلاً أَن يَقُولَ رَبِّىَ اللَّهُ وَقَدْ جَآءَكُمْ بِالْبَيِّنَـتِ مِن رَّبِّكُمْ﴾

 

(Would you kill a man because he says: `My Lord is Allah,’ and he has come to you with clear signs from your Lord).”’ This was recorded by Al-Bukhari. Allah’s saying;

﴿وَقَدْ جَآءَكُمْ بِالْبَيِّنَـتِ مِن رَّبِّكُمْ﴾

 

(and he has come to you with clear signs from your Lord) means, “how can you kill a man just because he says, `My Lord is Allah,’ and he brings proof that what he is saying is the truth” Then, for the sake of argument, he went along with them and said,

﴿وَإِن يَكُ كَـذِباً فَعَلَيْهِ كَذِبُهُ وَإِن يَكُ صَـدِقاً يُصِبْكُمْ بَعْضُ الَّذِى يَعِدُكُمْ﴾

 

(And if he is a liar, upon him will be (the sin of) his lie; but if he is telling the truth, then some of that (calamity) wherewith he threatens you will befall on you. ) meaning, `if you do not believe in what he is saying, then it is only common sense to leave him alone and not harm him; if he is lying, then Allah will punish him for his lies in this world and in the Hereafter. If he is telling the truth and you harm him, then some of what he is warning about will happen to you too, because he is threatening you with punishment in this world and in the Hereafter if you go against him. It is possible that he is telling the truth in your case, so you should leave him and his people alone, and not harm them.’ Allah tells us that Musa asked Fir`awn and his people to leave them in peace, as Allah says:

﴿وَلَقَدْ فَتَنَّا قَبْلَهُمْ قَوْمَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَجَآءَهُمْ رَسُولٌ كَرِيمٌ – أَنْ أَدُّواْ إِلَىَّ عِبَادَ اللَّهِ إِنِّى لَكُمْ رَسُولٌ أَمِينٌ ﴾

 

﴿وَأَن لاَّ تَعْلُواْ عَلَى اللَّهِ إِنِّى ءَاتِيكُمْ بِسُلْطَانٍ مُّبِينٍ – وَإِنِّى عُذْتُ بِرَبِّى وَرَبِّكُمْ أَن تَرْجُمُونِ – وَإِن لَّمْ تُؤْمِنُواْ لِى فَاعْتَزِلُونِ ﴾

 

(And indeed We tried before them Fir`awn’s people, when there came to them a noble Messenger, saying: “Deliver to me the servants of Allah. Verily, I am to you a Messenger worthy of all trust. And exalt not yourselves against Allah. Truly, I have come to you with a manifest authority. And truly, I seek refuge with my Lord and your Lord, lest you should stone me. But if you believe me not, then keep away from me and leave me alone.”) (44:17-21). Similarly, the Messenger of Allah told the Quraysh to leave him alone and let him call the servants of Allah to Allah; he asked them not to harm him, and to uphold the ties of kinship that existed between him and them, by not harming him. Allah says:

﴿قُل لاَّ أَسْـَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْراً إِلاَّ الْمَوَدَّةَ فِى الْقُرْبَى﴾

 

(Say: “No reward do I ask of you for this except to be kind to me for my kinship with you.”) (42:23), meaning, `do not harm me, because of the ties of kinship that exist between me and you; so do not harm me, and let me address my call to the people.’ This was the basis of the truce agreed upon on the day of Al-Hudaybiyah, which was a manifest victory.

﴿إِنَّ اللَّهَ لاَ يَهْدِى مَنْ هُوَ مُسْرِفٌ كَذَّابٌ﴾

 

(Verily, Allah guides not one who is a transgressor, a liar!) means, `if the one who claims to have been sent by Allah is a liar, as you say, this would be obvious to everyone from his words and deeds, for they would be inconsistent and self-contradictory. But we can see that this man is upright and what he says is consistent. If he was a sinner and a liar, Allah would not have guided him and made his words and actions rational and consistent as you see them.’ Then this believer warned his people that they would lose the blessings Allah bestowed upon them and that the vengeance of Allah would befall them:

﴿يقَومِ لَكُمُ الْمُلْكُ الْيَوْمَ ظَـهِرِينَ فِى الاٌّرْضِ﴾

 

(O my people! Yours is the kingdom today, you being dominant in the land.) means, `Allah has blessed you with this kingdom, dominance in the land, power and authority, so take care of this blessing by giving thanks to Allah and believing in his Messenger, and beware of the punishment of Allah if you reject His Messenger.’

﴿فَمَن يَنصُرُنَا مِن بَأْسِ اللَّهِ إِن جَآءَنَا﴾

 

(But who will save us from the torment of Allah, should it befall us) means, `these soldiers and troops will not avail you anything and will not ward off the punishment of Allah, if He decides to punish us.’ Fir`awn said to his people, in response to the advice of this righteous man who was more deserving of kingship than Fir`awn:

﴿مَآ أُرِيكُمْ إِلاَّ مَآ أَرَى﴾

 

(I show you only that which I see,) meaning, `I only tell you and advise you to do that which I think is good for myself, too.’ But Fir`awn lied, because he knew that Musa was telling the truth concerning the Message which he brought.

﴿قَالَ لَقَدْ عَلِمْتَ مَآ أَنزَلَ هَـؤُلاءِ إِلاَّ رَبُّ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ بَصَآئِرَ﴾

 

(﴿Musa﴾ said: “Verily, you know that these signs have been sent down by none but the Lord of the heavens and the earth.”) (17:102)

﴿وَجَحَدُواْ بِهَا وَاسْتَيْقَنَتْهَآ أَنفُسُهُمْ ظُلْماً وَعُلُوّاً﴾

 

(And they belied them (those Ayat) wrongfully and arrogantly, though they were themselves convinced thereof) (27:14)

﴿مَآ أُرِيكُمْ إِلاَّ مَآ أَرَى﴾

 

(I show you only that which I see,) — Fir`awn uttered a lie and a fabrication; he betrayed Allah and His Messenger, and cheated his people by not advising them sincerely.

﴿وَمَآ أَهْدِيكُمْ إِلاَّ سَبِيلَ الرَّشَادِ﴾

 

(and I guide you only to the path of right policy!) means, `and I am only calling you to the path of truth, sincerity and guidance.’ This was also a lie, but his people obeyed him and followed him. Allah says:

﴿فَاتَّبَعُواْ أَمْرَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَمَآ أَمْرُ فِرْعَوْنَ بِرَشِيدٍ﴾

 

(they followed the command of Fir`awn, and the command of Fir`awn was no right guide) (11:97).

﴿وَأَضَلَّ فِرْعَوْنُ قَوْمَهُ وَمَا هَدَى ﴾

 

(And Fir`awn led his people astray, and he did not guide them.) (20:79) According to a Hadith:

«مَا مِنْ إِمَام يَمُوتُ يَوْمَ يَمُوتُ وَهُوَ غَاشٌّ لِرَعِيَّتِهِ، إِلَّا لَمْ يَرَحْ رَائِحَةَ الْجَنَّةِ، وَإِنَّ رِيحَهَا لَيُوجَدُ مِنْ مَسِيرَةِ خَمْسِمِائَةِ عَام»

 

(There is no leader who dies having cheated his people, but he will never smell the fragrance of Paradise, and its fragrance can be detected from a distance of a five-hundred year journey.)” And Allah is the Guide to the straight path.

﴿يقَوْمِ إِنِّى أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ مِّثْلَ يَوْمِ الاٌّحْزَابِ﴾

 

(O my people! Verily, I fear for you an end like that day (of disaster) of the groups (of old)!) meaning, those of the earlier nations who disbelieved the Messengers of Allah, such as the people of Nuh, `Ad, Thamud and the disbelieving nations who came after them, how the punishment of Allah came upon them and they had no one to protect them or ward off that punishment.

﴿وَمَا اللَّهُ يُرِيدُ ظُلْماً لِّلْعِبَادِ﴾

 

(And Allah wills no injustice for (His) servants.) means, Allah destroyed them for their sins and for their disbelief in and rejection of His Messengers; this was His command and His decree concerning them that was fulfilled. Then he said:

﴿وَيقَوْمِ إِنِّى أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ يَوْمَ التَّنَادِ ﴾

 

(And, O my people! Verily, I fear for you the Day when there will be mutual calling.) meaning, the Day of Resurrection.

﴿يَوْمَ تُوَلُّونَ مُدْبِرِينَ﴾

 

(A Day when you will turn your backs and flee) means, running away.

﴿كَلاَّ لاَ وَزَرَ – إِلَى رَبِّكَ يَوْمَئِذٍ الْمُسْتَقَرُّ ﴾

 

(No! There is no refuge! Unto your Lord will be the place of rest that Day.) (75:11-12) Allah says:

﴿مَا لَكُمْ مِّنَ اللَّهِ مِنْ عَاصِمٍ﴾

 

(having no protector from Allah.) meaning, `you will have no one to protect you from the punishment and torment of Allah.’

﴿وَمَن يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُ مِنْ هَادٍ﴾

 

(And whomsoever Allah sends astray, for him there is no guide.) means, whomever Allah sends astray will have no other guide except Him. Allah’s saying:

﴿وَلَقَدْ جَآءَكُـمْ يُوسُفُ مِن قَبْلُ بِالْبَيِّنَـتِ﴾

 

(And indeed Yusuf came to you, in times gone by, with clear signs,) refers to the people of Egypt. Allah sent a Messenger to them before the time of Musa, peace be upon him, in the person of Yusuf, peace be upon him, who attained a high position in the government of the people of Egypt. He was a Messenger who called his people to Allah with justice, but they did not obey him in matters of worshipping Allah, they only obeyed him in worldly matters that pertained to his position in the government. Allah says:

﴿فَمَا زِلْتُمْ فِى شَكٍّ مِّمَّا جَآءَكُـمْ بِهِ حَتَّى إِذَا هَلَكَ قُلْتُمْ لَن يَبْعَثَ اللَّهُ مِن بَعْدِهِ رَسُولاً﴾

 

(but you ceased not to doubt in that which he brought to you, till when he died, you said: “No Messenger will Allah send after him.”) means, `you despaired, and said by way of wishful thinking,’

﴿لَن يَبْعَثَ اللَّهُ مِن بَعْدِهِ رَسُولاً﴾

 

(No Messenger will Allah send after him.) This was because of their disbelief and rejection (of the Messengers).

﴿كَذَلِكَ يُضِلُّ اللَّهُ مَنْ هُوَ مُسْرِفٌ مُّرْتَابٌ﴾

 

(Thus Allah leaves astray him who is a transgressor and a skeptic. ) means, this is the state of the one whom Allah sends astray because of his sinful actions and the doubts in his heart.

﴿الَّذِينَ يُجَـدِلُونَ فِى ءَايَـتِ اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ سُلْطَـنٍ أَتَـهُمْ﴾

 

(Those who dispute about the Ayat of Allah, without any authority that has come to them,) means, those who attempt to refute truth with falsehood and who dispute the proof without evidence or proof from Allah, Allah will hate them with the utmost loathing. Allah says:

﴿كَبُرَ مَقْتاً عِندَ اللَّهِ وَعِندَ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ﴾

 

(it is greatly hateful and disgusting to Allah and to those who believe.) meaning, the believers too will despise those who are like this, and whoever is like this, Allah will put a seal on his heart so that after that he will not acknowledge anything good or denounce anything evil. Allah says:

﴿كَذَلِكَ يَطْبَعُ اللَّهُ عَلَى كُـلِّ قَلْبِ مُتَكَبِّرٍ﴾

 

(Thus does Allah seal up the heart of every arrogant.) meaning, so that they cannot follow the truth.

﴿جَبَّارٍ﴾

 

(tyrant.)

How Fir`awn mocked the Lord of Musa

Allah tells us of the arrogant and hostile defiance of Fir`awn and his rejection of Musa, when he commanded his minister Haman to build him a tower, i.e., a tall, high, strong fortress. He built it of bricks made from baked clay, as Allah says:

﴿فَأَوْقِدْ لِى يَهَـمَـنُ عَلَى الطِّينِ فَاجْعَل لِّى صَرْحاً﴾

 

(So kindle for me (a fire), O Haman, to bake (bricks out of) clay, and set up for me a lofty tower) (28:38).

﴿لَّعَـلِّى أَبْلُغُ الاٌّسْبَـبَأَسْبَـبَ السَّمَـوَتِ﴾

 

(that I may arrive at the ways — the ways of the heavens,) Sa`id bin Jubayr and Abu Salih said, “The gates of the heavens.” Or it was said, the ways of the heavens.

﴿فَأَطَّلِعَ إِلَى إِلَـهِ مُوسَى وَإِنِّى لاّظُنُّهُ كَـذِباً﴾

 

(and I may look upon the God of Musa, but verily, I think him to be a liar.) Because of his disbelief and defiance, he did not believe that Allah had sent Musa to him. Allah says:

﴿وَكَـذَلِكَ زُيِّنَ لِفِرْعَوْنَ سُوءُ عَمَلِهِ وَصُدَّ عَنِ السَّبِيلِ﴾

 

(Thus it was made fair seeming, in Fir`awn’s eyes, the evil of his deeds, and he was hindered from the path;) means, this act of his ﴿building the tower﴾, by means of which he wanted to deceive his people and make them think that he could prove that Musa was lying. Allah says:

﴿وَمَا كَـيْدُ فِرْعَوْنَ إِلاَّ فِى تَبَابٍ﴾

 

(and the plot of Fir`awn led to nothing but loss and destruction.) Ibn `Abbas and Mujahid said, “Meaning nothing but ruin.”

More of what the Believer from Fir`awn’s Family said

 

This believer said to his people who persisted in their rebellion and transgression, and preferred the life of this world:

﴿يقَوْمِ اتَّبِعُونِ أَهْدِكُـمْ سَبِيـلَ الرَّشَـادِ﴾

 

(O my people! Follow me, I will guide you to the way of right conduct.) This is in contrast to the false claim of Fir`awn:

﴿وَمَآ أَهْدِيكُمْ إِلاَّ سَبِيلَ الرَّشَادِ﴾

 

(and I guide you only to the path of right policy.) Then he sought to make them shun this world which they preferred to the Hereafter, and which had prevented them from believing in the Messenger of Allah, Musa, peace be upon him. He said:

﴿يقَوْمِ إِنَّمَا هَـذِهِ الْحَيَوةُ الدُّنْيَا مَتَـعٌ﴾

 

(O my people! Truly, this life of the world is nothing but an enjoyment,) meaning, it is insignificant and fleeting, and soon it will diminish and pass away.

﴿وَإِنَّ الاٌّخِرَةَ هِىَ دَارُ الْقَـرَارِ﴾

 

(and verily, the Hereafter that is the home that will remain forever.) means, the abode which will never end and from which there will be no departure, which will be either Paradise or Hell. Allah says:

﴿مَنْ عَمِـلَ سَـيِّئَةً فَلاَ يُجْزَى إِلاَّ مِثْلَهَا﴾

 

(Whosoever does an evil deed, will not be requited except the like thereof;) means, one like it.

﴿وَمَنْ عَمِـلَ صَـلِحاً مِّن ذَكَـرٍ أَوْ أُنْثَى وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ يُرْزَقُونَ فِيهَا بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ﴾

 

(and whosoever does a righteous deed, whether male or female and is a true believer, such will enter Paradise, where they will be provided therein without limit.) means, the reward cannot be enumerated, but Allah will give an immense reward without end. And Allah is the Guide to the straight path.

The Conclusion of the Believer’s Words, and the ultimate Destiny of both Parties

That believer said: `Why do I call you to salvation, which is the worship of Allah alone with no partner or associate, and belief in His Messenger, whom He has sent,’

﴿وَتَدْعُونَنِى إِلَى النَّارِتَدْعُونَنِى لاّكْـفُرَ بِاللَّهِ وَأُشْرِكَ بِهِ مَا لَيْسَ لِى بِهِ عِلْمٌ﴾

 

(while you call me to the Fire! You invite me to disbelieve in Allah, and to join partners in worship with Him of which I have no knowledge;) means, on the basis of ignorance, with no proof or evidence.

﴿وَأَنَاْ أَدْعُوكُمْ إِلَى الْعَزِيزِ الْغَفَّارِ﴾

 

(and I invite you to the Almighty, the Oft-Forgiving!) means, with all His might and pride, He still forgives the sin of the one who repents to Him.

﴿لاَ جَرَمَ أَنَّمَا تَدْعُونَنِى إِلَيْهِ﴾

 

(La Jarama, you call me to one) They say it means, “Truly.” As-Suddi and Ibn Jarir said that the meaning of His saying:

﴿لاَ جَرَمَ﴾

 

(La jarama) means “Truly.” Ad-Dahhak said:

﴿لاَ جَرَمَ﴾

 

(La Jarama) means, “No lie.” `Ali bin Abi Talhah and Ibn `Abbas said:

﴿لاَ جَرَمَ﴾

 

(La Jarama) means, “Indeed, the one that you call me to of idols and false gods

﴿لَيْسَ لَهُ دَعْوَةٌ فِى الدُّنْيَا وَلاَ فِى الاٌّخِرَةِ﴾

 

(that does not have a claim in this world or in the Hereafter).” Mujahid said, “The idols that do not have anything.” Qatadah said, “This means that idols possess no power either to benefit or to harm.” As-Suddi said, “They do not respond to those who call upon them, either in this world or in the Hereafter.” This is like the Ayah:

﴿وَمَنْ أَضَلُّ مِمَّن يَدْعُو مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ مَن لاَّ يَسْتَجِيبُ لَهُ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَـمَةِ وَهُمْ عَن دُعَآئِهِمْ غَـفِلُونَ – وَإِذَا حُشِرَ النَّاسُ كَانُواْ لَهُمْ أَعْدَآءً وَكَانُواْ بِعِبَادَتِهِمْ كَـفِرِينَ ﴾

 

(And who is more astray than one who calls on besides Allah, such as will not answer him till the Day of Resurrection, and who are unaware of their calls to them And when the people are gathered, they will become their enemies and deny their worship.) (46:5-6)

﴿إِن تَدْعُوهُمْ لاَ يَسْمَعُواْ دُعَآءَكُمْ وَلَوْ سَمِعُواْ مَا اسْتَجَابُواْ لَكُمْ﴾

 

(If you invoke them, they hear not your call; and if they were to hear, they could not grant it to you) (35:14).

﴿وَأَنَّ مَرَدَّنَآ إِلَى اللَّهِ﴾

 

(And our return will be to Allah,) means, in the Hereafter, where He will reward or punish each person according to his deeds. He says:

﴿وَأَنَّ الْمُسْرِفِينَ هُمْ أَصْحَـبُ النَّارِ﴾

 

(and the transgressors, they shall be the dwellers of the Fire!) meaning, they will dwell therein forever, because of their great sin, which is associating others in worship with Allah.

﴿فَسَتَذْكُرُونَ مَآ أَقُولُ لَكُـمْ﴾

 

(And you will remember what I am telling you,) means, `you will come to know the truth of what I enjoined upon `you and forbade you to do, the advice I gave you and what I explained to you. You will come to know, and you will feel regret at the time when regret will be of no avail.’

﴿وَأُفَوِّضُ أَمْرِى إِلَى اللَّهِ﴾

 

(and my affair I leave it to Allah.) means, `I put my trust in Allah and seek His help, and I renounce you utterly.’

﴿إِنَّ اللَّهَ بَصِيرٌ بِالْعِبَادِ﴾

 

(Verily, Allah is the All-Seer of (His) servants.) means, He knows all about them, may He be exalted and sanctified, and He guides those who deserve to be guided and sends astray those who deserve to be sent astray; His is the perfect proof, utmost wisdom and mighty power.

﴿فَوقَاهُ اللَّهُ سَيِّئَاتِ مَا مَكَـرُواْ﴾

 

(So Allah saved him from the evils that they plotted,) means, in this world and in the Hereafter; in this world, Allah saved him along with Musa, peace be upon him, and in the Hereafter (He will admit him) to Paradise.

Proof of the Torment of the Grave

 

﴿وَحَاقَ بِـَالِ فِرْعَوْنَ سُوءُ الْعَذَابِ﴾

 

(while an evil torment encompassed Fir`awn’s people.) this refers to drowning in the sea, then being transferred from there to Hell, for their souls are exposed to the Fire morning and evening until the Hour begins. When the Day of Resurrection comes, their souls and bodies will be reunited in Hell. Allah says:

﴿وَيَوْمَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ أَدْخِلُواْ ءَالَ فِرْعَوْنَ أَشَدَّ الْعَذَابِ﴾

 

(And on the Day when the Hour will be established (it will be said to the angels): “Admit Fir`awn’s people to the severest torment!”) meaning, more intense pain and greater agony. This Ayah contains one of the major proofs used by the Ahlus-Sunnah to prove that there will be torment in the grave during the period of Al-Barzakh; it is the phrase:

﴿النَّارُ يُعْرَضُونَ عَلَيْهَا غُدُوّاً وَعَشِيّاً﴾

 

(The Fire, they are exposed to it, morning and afternoon). But the question arises: this Ayah was undoubtedly revealed in Makkah, but they use it as evidence to prove that there will be torment in the grave during the period of Al-Barzakh. Imam Ahmad recorded from `A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, that a Jewish woman used to serve her, and whenever `A’ishah did her a favor, the Jewish woman would say, “May Allah save you from the torment of the grave. ” `A’ishah said, “Then the Messenger of Allah came in, and I said, `O Messenger of Allah, will there be any torment in the grave before the Day of Resurrection’ He said,

«لَا، مَنْ زَعَمَ ذَلِكَ؟»

 

(No, who said that) I said, `This Jewish woman, whenever I do her a favor, she says: May Allah save you from the torment of the grave.”’ The Messenger of Allah said,

«كَذَبَتْ يَهُودُ وَهُمْ عَلَى اللهِ أَكْذَبُ، لَا عَذَابَ دُونَ يَوْمِ الْقِيَامَة»

 

(The Jews are lying, and they tell more lies about Allah. There is no torment except on the Day of Resurrection.) Then as much time passed as Allah willed should pass, then one day he came out at midday, wrapped in his robe with his eyes reddening, calling at the top of his voice:

«الْقَبْرُ كَقِطَع اللَّيْلِ الْمُظْلِمِ، أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ لَوْ تَعْلَمُونَ مَا أَعْلَمُ لَبَكَيْتُمْ كَثِيرًا وَضَحِكْتُمْ قَلِيلًا، أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ، اسْتَعِـــــــــيذُوا بِاللهِ مِنْ عَذَابِ الْقَبْرِ، فَإِنَّ عَذَابَ الْقَبْرِ حَق»

 

(The grave is like patches of dark night! O people, if you knew what I know, you would weep much and laugh little. O people, seek refuge with Allah from the torment of the grave, for the torment of the grave is real.)” This chain of narration is Sahih according to the conditions of Al-Bukhari and Muslim, although they did not record it. It was said, `how can this report be reconciled with the fact that the Ayah was revealed in Makkah and the Ayah indicates that there will be torment during the period of Al-Barzakh’ The answer is that the Ayah refers to the souls (of Fir`awn and his people) being exposed to the Fire morning and evening; it does not say that the pain will affect their bodies in the grave. So it may be that this has to do specifically with their souls. With regard to there being any effect on their bodies in Al-Barzakh, and their feeling pain as a result, this is indicated in the Sunnah, in some Hadiths which we will mention below. It was said that this Ayah refers to the punishment of the disbelievers in Al-Barzakh, and that it does not by itself imply that the believer will be punished in the grave for his sins. This is indicated by the Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad from `A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, according to which the Messenger of Allah entered upon `A’ishah when a Jewish woman was with her, and she (the Jewish woman) was saying, “I was told that you will be tried in the grave.” The Messenger of Allah was worried and said:

«إِنَّمَا يُفْتَنُ يَهُود»

 

(Only the Jews will be tested.) `A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said, “Several nights passed, then the Messenger of Allah said:

«أَلَا إِنَّكُمْ تُفْتَنُونَ فِي الْقُبُور»

 

(Verily you will be tested in the graves.)” `A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said, “After that, the Messenger of Allah used to seek refuge with Allah from the torment of the grave.” This was also recorded by Muslim. It could be said that this Ayah indicates that the souls will be punished in Al-Barzakh, but this does not necessarily imply that the bodies in their graves will be affected by that. When Allah revealed something about the torment of the grave to His Prophet , he sought refuge with Allah from that. And Allah knows best. The Hadiths which speak of the torment of the grave are very many. Qatadah said, concerning the Ayah,

﴿غُدُوّاً وَعَشِيّاً﴾

 

(morning and afternoon.): “(This means) every morning and every evening, for as long as this world remains, it will be said to them by way of rebuke and humiliation, O people of Fir`awn, this is your position.” Ibn Zayd said, “They are there today, being exposed to it morning and evening, until the Hour begins.

﴿وَيَوْمَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ أَدْخِلُواْ ءَالَ فِرْعَوْنَ أَشَدَّ الْعَذَابِ﴾

 

(And on the Day when the Hour will be established (it will be said to the angels): “Cause Fir`awn’s people to enter the severest torment!”) The people of Fir`awn are like foolish camels, stumbling into rocks and trees without thinking.” Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah said:

«إِنَّ أَحَدَكُمْ إِذَا مَاتَ عُرِضَ عَلَيْهِ مَقْعَدُهُ بِالْغَدَاةِ وَالْعَشِيِّ، إِنْ كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ فَمِنْ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ، وَإِنْ كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ فَمِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ، فَيُقَالُ: هذَا مَقْعَدُكَ حَتْى يَبْعَثَكَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلَيْهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَة»

 

(When one of you dies, he is shown his place ﴿in Paradise or Hell﴾ morning and evening; if he is one of the people of Paradise, then he is one of the people of Paradise, and if he is one of the people of Hell, then he is one of the people of Hell. It will be said to him, this is your place until Allah resurrects you to go to it on the Day of Resurrection.)” It was also reported in the Two Sahihs.

The Dispute of the People of Hell

Allah tells us how the people of Hell will dispute and argue with one another, and Fir`awn and his people will be among them. The weak, who were the followers, will say to those who were arrogant, who were the leaders and masters:

﴿إِنَّا كُنَّا لَكُمْ تَبَعًا﴾

 

(Verily, we followed you,) meaning, `we obeyed you and heeded your call to disbelief and misguidance in the world, ‘

﴿فَهَلْ أَنتُم مُّغْنُونَ عَنَّا نَصِيباً مِّنَ النَّارِ﴾

 

(can you then take from us some portion of the Fire) means, `can you carry a part of our burden for us’

﴿قَالَ الَّذِينَ اسْتَكْبَرُواْ إِنَّا كُلٌّ فِيهَآ﴾

 

(Those who were arrogant will say: “We are all (together) in this (Fire)!…”) meaning, `we will not bear any part of your burden for you; our own punishment is enough for us to bear.’

﴿إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ حَكَمَ بَيْنَ الْعِبَادِ﴾

 

(Verily, Allah has judged (His) servants!) means, `He has shared out the punishment among us according to what each of us deserves’. This is like the Ayah:

﴿قَالَ لِكُلٍّ ضِعْفٌ وَلَـكِن لاَّ تَعْلَمُونَ﴾

 

(He will say: “For each one there is double (torment), but you know not.”) (7:38)

﴿وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ فِى النَّارِ لِخَزَنَةِ جَهَنَّمَ ادْعُواْ رَبَّكُمْ يُخَفِّفْ عَنَّا يَوْماً مِّنَ الْعَذَابِ ﴾

 

(And those in the Fire will say to the keepers (angels) of Hell: “Call upon your Lord to lighten for us the torment for a day!”) They know that Allah will not answer them and will not listen to their prayer, because He said,

﴿اخْسَئُواْ فِيهَا وَلاَ تُكَلِّمُونِ﴾

 

(Remain you in it with ignominy! And speak you not to Me!) (23:108), so they will ask the keepers of Hell, who are like jailers watching over the people of Hell, to pray to Allah to lessen the Fire for them if only for one day. But the keepers of Hell will refuse, saying to them,

﴿أَوَلَمْ تَكُ تَأْتِيكُمْ رُسُلُكُم بِالْبَيِّنَـتِ﴾

 

(Did there not come to you, your Messengers with (clear) evidences) meaning, was not proof established in the world on the lips of the Messengers

﴿قَالُواْ بَلَى قَالُواْ فَادْعُواْ﴾

 

(They will say: “Yes.” They will reply: “Then call (as you like)!…”) means, you are on your own. We will not pray for you or listen to you; we do not want you to be saved and we have nothing to do with you. Moreover, we tell you that it is all the same whether you offer supplication or not, because Allah will not respond and He will not lighten the torment for you.’ They will say:

﴿وَمَا دُعَآءُ الْكَـفِرِينَ إِلاَّ فِى ضَلَـلٍ﴾

 

(And the invocation of the disbelievers is nothing but in vain!) meaning, it will not be accepted or responded to.

The Victory of the Messengers and the Believers


﴿إِنَّا لَنَنصُرُ رُسُلَنَا وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ فِى الْحَيَوةِ الدُّنْيَا﴾

 

(Verily, We will indeed make victorious Our Messengers and those who believe in this world’s life). As-Suddi, “Allah never sends a Messenger to a people and they kill him or some of the believers who call them to the truth, then that generation passes away, but He then sends them someone who will support their call and will seek vengeance for their blood from those who did that to them in this world. So the Prophets and believers may be killed in this world, but their call will prevail in this world.” Allah granted victory to His Prophet Muhammad and his Companions over those who had opposed him, disbelieved in him and shown hostility towards him. He caused His Word and His religion to prevail over all other religions, commanded him to emigrate from his people to Al-Madinah, where He gave him supporters and helpers. Then He caused him to prevail over the idolators on the day of Badr, when He granted him victory over them and he humiliated them, killing their leaders and taking their elite prisoner, driving them before him in chains. Then he did them the favor of accepting ransom from them. Shortly after that, Allah enabled him to conquer Makkah, and he rejoiced in his return to his homeland, the sacred and holy land of Al-Haram. Through him, Allah saved it from its disbelief and Shirk. Then Allah enabled him to conquer the Yemen, and the entire Arabian Peninsula submitted to him, and the people entered the religion of Allah in crowds. Then Allah took him (in death), because of his high status and honor, and He established his Companions as his Khalifahs. They conveyed the religion of Allah from him, called mankind to Allah, they conquered many regions, countries and cities, and opened people’s hearts, until the call of Muhammad spread throughout the world, east and west. This religion will continue to prevail until the Hour begins. Allah says:

﴿إِنَّا لَنَنصُرُ رُسُلَنَا وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ فِى الْحَيَوةِ الدُّنْيَا وَيَوْمَ يَقُومُ الاٌّشْهَـدُ ﴾

 

(Verily, We will indeed make victorious Our Messengers and those who believe in this world’s life and on the Day when the witnesses will stand forth) meaning, on the Day of Resurrection the victory will be greater and more complete. Mujahid said, “The witnesses are the angels.”

﴿يَوْمَ لاَ يَنفَعُ الظَّـلِمِينَ مَعْذِرَتُهُمْ﴾

 

(The Day when their excuses will be of no profit to wrongdoers.) is referring to the same as;

﴿وَيَوْمَ يَقُومُ الاٌّشْهَـدُ﴾

 

(…the Day when the witnesses will stand forth.) Others read it with that meaning;

﴿وَيَوْمَ يَقُومُ الاٌّشْهَـدُيَوْمَ لاَ يَنفَعُ الظَّـلِمِينَ﴾

 

(And the Day the witnesses will stand forth, is a Day when there will be no profit to wrongdoers.) and the wrongdoers are the idolators.

﴿مَعْذِرَتُهُمْ﴾

 

(their excuses) means, no excuse or ransom will be accepted from them.

﴿وَلَهُمُ الْلَّعْنَةُ﴾

 

(Theirs will be the curse,) means, they will be cast out far away from the mercy of Allah.

﴿وَلَهُمْ سُوءُ الدَّارِ﴾

 

(and theirs will be the evil abode.) means, the Hell-fire, as As-Suddi said, a terrible abode and dwellingplace.

 

Indication that the Messenger and the Believers will prevail just as Musa and the Children of Israel prevailed


﴿وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَا مُوسَى الْهُدَى﴾

 

(And, indeed We gave Musa the guidance.) means, the guidance and light with which Allah sent him.

﴿وَأَوْرَثْنَا بَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ الْكِتَـبَ﴾

 

(and We caused the Children of Israel to inherit the Scripture.) means, `We caused them to prevail in the end and they inherited the land and accumulated wealth of Fir`awn, because of their patience in obeying Allah and following His Messenger Musa.’ The Scripture which they inherited, the Tawrah, was

﴿هُدًى وَذِكْرَى لاٌّوْلِى الاٌّلْبَـبِ ﴾

 

(A guide and a reminder for men of understanding.) i.e. those of a sound and upright nature.

﴿فَاصْبِرْ﴾

 

(So be patient) means, `O Muhammad,’

﴿إِنَّ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقٌّ﴾

 

(Verily, the promise of Allah is true,) means, `We have promised that your word will prevail and that the ultimate victory will be for you and those who follow you, and Allah does not break His promises. What We have told you is true and there is no doubt in it whatsoever.’

﴿وَاسْتَغْفِـرْ لِذَنبِكَ﴾

 

(and ask forgiveness for your fault,) This encourages the Ummah to seek forgiveness.

﴿وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ بِالْعَشِىِّ﴾

 

(and glorify the praises of your Lord in the `Ashi) meaning, at the end of the day and the beginning of the night,

﴿وَالابْكَارِ﴾

 

(and in the Ibkar.) meaning, at the beginning of the day and the end of the night.

﴿إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُجَـدِلُونَ فِى ءَايَـتِ اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ سُلْطَـنٍ أَتَـهُمْ﴾

 

(Verily, those who dispute about the Ayat of Allah, without any authority having come to them,) means, they try to refute the truth with falsehood, and to refute sound evidence with dubious arguments, having no proof or evidence from Allah.

﴿إِن فِى صُدُورِهِمْ إِلاَّ كِبْرٌ مَّـا هُم بِبَـلِغِيهِ﴾

 

(there is nothing else in their breasts except pride. They will never have it.) means, they are too proud to follow the truth and submit to the one who has brought it. But their attempts to suppress the truth and elevate falsehood will fail; the truth will prevail and their words and aspirations will be defeated.

﴿فَاسْتَعِذْ بِاللَّهِ﴾

 

(So seek refuge in Allah. ) means, from being like these people,

﴿إِنَّهُ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ البَصِيرُ﴾

 

(Verily, it is He Who is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.) or seek refuge with Him from being like these people who dispute about the Ayat of Allah without any authority having come to them.

Life after Death

Allah tells us that He will bring back His creation on the Day of Resurrection. That is very easy for Him, because He created the heavens and the earth, and creating them is greater than creating mankind, the first time and when He creates them again. The One Who is able to do that is able to do anything that is less than that. As Allah says:

﴿أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْاْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ الَّذِى خَلَقَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَلَمْ يَعْىَ بِخَلْقِهِنَّ بِقَادِرٍ عَلَى أَن يُحْىِ الْمَوْتَى بَلَى إِنَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ ﴾

 

(Do they not see that Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth, and was not wearied by their creation, is able to give life to the dead Yes, He surely is able to do all things.) (46:33) And Allah says here:

﴿لَخَلْقُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ أَكْـبَرُ مِنْ خَلْقِ النَّاسِ وَلَـكِنَّ أَكْـثَرَ النَّاسِ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ ﴾

 

(The creation of the heavens and the earth is indeed greater than the creation of mankind; yet, most of mankind know not.) hence they do not think about or ponder this proof. Similarly, many of the Arabs recognized that Allah had created the heavens and the earth, but they denied and rejected the idea of the resurrection; they acknowledged something which was greater than that which they denied. Then Allah says:

﴿وَمَا يَسْتَوِى الاٌّعْـمَى وَالْبَصِيرُ وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ وَلاَ الْمُسِىءُ قَلِيـلاً مَّا تَتَذَكَّرُونَ ﴾

 

(And not equal are the blind and those who see; nor are those who believe, and do righteous good deeds, and those who do evil. Little do you remember!) The blind man who cannot see anything is not the same as the sighted man who can see everything as far as his eyesight reaches — there is a huge difference between them. By the same token, the righteous believers and the immoral disbelievers are not equal.

﴿قَلِيـلاً مَّا تَتَذَكَّرُونَ﴾

 

(Little do you remember!) means, most of the people remember little.

﴿وَإِنَّ السَّاعَةَ لآتِيَةٌ﴾

 

(Verily, the Hour (Day of Judgement) is surely coming,) means, it will indeed come to pass.

﴿لاَّ رَيْبَ فِيهَا وَلَـكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لاَ يُؤْمِنُونَ﴾

 

(there is no doubt about it, yet most men believe not.) means, they do not believe in it, and in fact they doubt its existence altogether.

The Command to call upon Allah By His grace and kindness,

Allah encourages His servants to call upon Him, and He guarantees to respond. Sufyan Ath-Thawri used to say: “O You Who love most those who ask of You, and O You Who hate most those who do not ask of You, and there is no one like that apart from You, O Lord.” This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim. Similarly; the poet said: “Allah hates not to be asked, and the son of Adam hates to be asked.” Qatadah said that Ka`b Al-Ahbar said, “This Ummah has been given three things which were not given to any nation before, only to Prophets. When Allah sent a Prophet, He said to him, `You are a witness over your nation.’ But you have been made witnesses over mankind; it was said to the Prophets individually, `Allah has not laid upon you any hardship in religion,’ but He said to this entire Ummah:

﴿وَمَا جَعَلَ عَلَيْكمْ فِى الدِّينِ مِنْ حَرَجٍ﴾

 

(and ﴿Allah﴾ has not laid upon you in religion any hardship) (22:78) and it was said to the Prophets individually; `Call upon Me, I will answer you,’ but it was said to this Ummah,

﴿ادْعُونِى أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ﴾

 

(Call upon Me, I will answer you).” This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim. Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Nu`man bin Bashir, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah said:

«إِنَّ الدُّعَاءَ هُوَ الْعِبَادَة»

 

l(Indeed the supplication is the worship. )” Then he recited,

﴿ادْعُونِى أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُمْ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ عَنْ عِبَادَتِى سَيَدْخُلُونَ جَهَنَّمَ دَخِرِينَ﴾

 

(And your Lord said: “Call upon Me, I will answer you. Verily, those who scorn My worship they will surely enter Hell in humiliation!”). This was also recorded by the Sunan compilers; At-Tirmdhi, An-Nasa’i, Ibn Majah, and Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir. At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih.” It was also recorded by Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i, and Ibn Jarir with a different chain of narration. Allah’s saying:

﴿إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ عَنْ عِبَادَتِى﴾

 

(Verily, those who scorn My worship) means, `those who are too proud to call on Me and single Me out,’

﴿سَيَدْخُلُونَ جَهَنَّمَ دَخِرِينَ﴾

 

(they will surely enter Hell in humiliation!) means, in disgrace and insignificance. Imam Ahmad recorded from `Amr bin Shu`ayb from his father, from his grandfather that the Prophet said:

«يُحْشَرُ الْمُتَكَبِّرُونَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أَمْثَالَ الذَّرِّ فِي صُوَرِ النَّاسِ، يَعْلُوهُمْ كُلُّ شَيْءٍ مِنَ الصَّغَارِ، حَتْى يَدْخُلُوا سِجْنًا فِي جَهَنَّمَ يُقَالُ لَهُ: بُولَسُ، تَعْلُوهُمْ نَارُ الْأنْيَارِ، يُسْقَوْنَ مِنْ طِينَةِ الْخَبَالِ، عُصَارَةِ أَهْلِ النَّار»

 

(The proud will be gathered on the Day of Resurrection like ants in the image of people, and everything will be stepping on them, humiliating them, until they enter a prison in Hell called Bulas. They will be fed flames of fire, and given for drink a paste of insanity dripping from the people the Fire.)”

Signs of the Power and Oneness of Allah

Allah reminds us of His grace towards His creation in that He has given them the night in which they rest and relax from their activities so that they can go back to them for their livelihood during the day. He has given them the day with its light, so that they can undertake their journeys and engage in their business.

﴿إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَذُو فَضْلٍ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَلَـكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لاَ يَشْكُرُونَ﴾

 

(Truly, Allah is full of bounty to mankind; yet, most of mankind give no thanks.) means, they do not express gratitude for the favors which Allah bestows upon them. Then Allah says:

﴿ذَلِكُـمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّـكُمْ خَـلِقُ كُـلِّ شَىْءٍ لاَّ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ﴾

 

(That is Allah, your Lord, the Creator of all things, La ilaha illa Huwa.) means, the One Who does all of these things is Allah, the One, the Unique, the Creator of all things, besides Whom there is no other god or lord.

﴿فَأَنَّى تُؤْفَكُونَ﴾

 

(How then are you turning away) means, `how can you worship idols which cannot create anything but are themselves hand-made and carved’

﴿كَذَلِكَ يُؤْفَكُ الَّذِينَ كَانُواْ بِـَايَـتِ اللَّهِ يَجْحَدُونَ ﴾

 

(Thus were turned away those who used to deny the Ayat of Allah) means, just as these people ﴿Quraysh﴾ were led astray by their worship of gods other than Allah, those who came before them also disbelieved and worshipped others, with no proof or evidence, but on the basis of ignorance and desires. They denied the signs and proof of Allah.

﴿اللَّهُ الَّذِى جَعَـلَ لَكُـمُ الاٌّرْضَ قَـرَاراً﴾

 

(Allah, it is He Who has made for you the earth as a dwelling place) means, `He made it stable and spread it out for you, so that you might live on it and travel about in it; He strengthened it with the mountains so that it does not shake with you.’

﴿وَالسَّمَآءَ بِنَآءً﴾

 

(and the sky as a canopy,) means, `a roof covering and protecting the world.’

﴿وَصَوَّرَكُمْ فَأَحْسَنَ صُوَرَكُمْ﴾

 

(and has given you shape and made your shapes good) means, `He created you in the best and most perfect form.’

﴿وَرَزَقَكُم مِّنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ﴾

 

(and has provided you with good and pure things.) means, of food and drink in this world. Allah states that that He is the Creator of the dwelling place and of the inhabitants and of the provision; He is the Creator and Provider, as He says in Surat Al-Baqarah:

﴿يَـأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُواْ رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِىْ خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ – الَّذِى جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الاٌّرْضَ فِرَاشاً وَالسَّمَآءَ بِنَآءً وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مَآءً فَأَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الثَّمَرَتِ رِزْقاً لَّكُمْ فَلاَ تَجْعَلُواْ للَّهِ أَندَاداً وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ ﴾

 

(O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allah), Who created you and those who were before you so that you may have Taqwa. Who has made the earth a resting place for you, and the sky as a canopy, and sent down water (rain) from the sky and brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you. Then do not set up rivals unto Allah while you know.) (2:21-22) And here Allah says, after mentioning the creation of all these things:

﴿ذَلِكُمُ اللَّهُ رَبُّكُـمْ فَتَـبَـرَكَ اللَّهُ رَبُّ الْعَـلَمِينَ﴾

 

(That is Allah, your Lord, so Blessed be Allah, the Lord of all that exists.) meaning, exalted and sanctified and glorified be Allah, the Lord of all the worlds. Then He says:

﴿هُوَ الْحَىُّ لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ﴾

 

(He is the Ever Living, La ilaha illa Huwa;) means, He is the Ever Living, from eternity to eternity, Who was, is and shall be, the First and the Last, the Manifest, the Hidden.

﴿لاَ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ﴾

 

(La ilaha illa Huwa) means, there is none comparable or equal to Him.

﴿فَـادْعُوهُ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ﴾

 

(so invoke Him making the religion for Him Alone.) means, affirm His Oneness by testifying that there is no God but He. Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. Imam Ahmad recorded that after ending every prayer, `Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr used to say:

«لَا إِلهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ،لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ، وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ، لَا حَوْلَ وَلَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللهِ، لَا إِلهَ إِلَّا اللهُ، وَلَا نَعْبُدُ إِلَّا إِيَّاهُ، لَهُ النِّعْمَةُ وَلَهُ الْفَضْلُ وَلَهُ الثَّنَاءُ الْحَسَنُ، لَا إِلهَ إِلَّا اللهُ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْكَافِرُون»

 

(There is no (true) God except Allah Alone with no partner or associate, to Him belongs the dominion and praise, for He is able to do all things; there is no strength and no power except with Allah; there is no (true) God except Allah and we worship none but Him; to Him belong blessings and virtue and goodly praise; there is no (true) God except Allah, we worship Him in all sincerity even though the disbelievers may hate that.) He said, “The Messenger of Allah used to say the Tahlil in this fashion after every prayer.” Similar was also recorded by Muslim, Abu Dawud and An-Nasa’i.

The Prohibition of Shirk, the Order for Tawhid, and the Evidence

Allah says, `say, O Muhammad, to these idolators, that Allah forbids them to worship anyone, such as these idols and false gods, except Him.’ Allah explains that no one apart from Him is deserving of worship, as He says:

﴿هُوَ الَّذِى خَلَقَكُمْ مِّن تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ مِن نُّطْفَةٍ ثُمَّ مِنْ عَلَقَةٍ ثُمَّ يُخْرِجُكُمْ طِفْلاً ثُمَّ لِتَـبْلُغُواْ أَشُدَّكُـمْ ثُمَّ لِتَكُـونُواْ شُيُوخاً﴾

 

(It is He, Who has created you from dust, then from a Nutfah then from a clot (a piece of coagulated blood), then brings you forth as an infant, then (makes you grow) to reach the age of full strength, and afterwards to be old.) meaning, He is the One Who Alone, with no partner or associate, causes you to pass through these different stages, and this happens in accordance with His command, will and decree.

﴿وَمِنكُمْ مَّن يُتَوَفَّى مِن قَبْلُ﴾

 

(though some among you die before) means, before being fully formed and emerging to this world; so his mother miscarries him. And there are some who die in infancy or in their youth, or when they are adults but before they reach old age, as Allah says:

﴿لِّنُبَيِّنَ لَكُمْ وَنُقِرُّ فِى الاٌّرْحَامِ مَا نَشَآءُ إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى﴾

 

(that We may make (it) clear to you. And We cause whom We will to remain in the wombs for an appointed term) (22:5).

﴿وَلِتَبْلُغُواْ أَجَلاً مُّسَمًّى وَلَعَلَّـكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ﴾

 

(and that you reach an appointed term in order that you may understand. ) Ibn Jurayj said, “In order that you may remember the Resurrection.” Then Allah says:

﴿هُوَ الَّذِى يُحْىِ وَيُمِيتُ﴾

 

(It is He Who gives life and causes death.) meaning, He is the Only One Who does that, and none is able to do that except He.

﴿فَإِذَا قَضَى أَمْراً فَإِنَّمَا يَقُولُ لَهُ كُن فيَكُونُ﴾

 

(And when He decides upon a thing He says to it only: “Be!” — and it is.) means, He cannot be opposed or resisted. Whatever He wills definitely comes to pass.

The End of Those Who dispute and deny the Signs of Allah

Allah says, `do you not wonder, O Muhammad, at those who deny the signs of Allah and dispute the truth by means of falsehood, how their minds are diverted from the truth and are misguided’

﴿الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواْ بِالْكِـتَـبِ وَبِمَآ أَرْسَلْنَا بِهِ رُسُلَنَا﴾

 

(Those who deny the Book, and that with which We sent Our Messengers) means, guidance and clear proof.

﴿فَسَوْفَ يَعْلَمُونَ﴾

 

(they will come to know.) This is a stern warning and clear threat from the Lord to these people. This is like the Ayah:

﴿وَيْلٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِّلْمُكَذِّبِينَ ﴾

 

(Woe that Day to the deniers!) (77:15)

﴿إِذِ الاٌّغْلَـلُ فِى أَعْنَـقِهِمْ والسَّلَـسِلُ﴾

 

(When iron collars will be rounded over their necks, and the chains.) means, the chains will be attached to the iron collars, and the keepers of Hell will drag them along on their faces, sometimes to the boiling water, and sometimes to the Fire. Allah says:

﴿يُسْحَبُونَ فِىالْحَمِيمِ ثُمَّ فِى النَّارِ يُسْجَرُونَ﴾

 

(they shall be dragged along, in the boiling water, then they will be burned in the Fire. ) This is like the Ayat:

﴿هَـذِهِ جَهَنَّمُ الَّتِى يُكَذِّبُ بِهَا الْمُجْرِمُونَ – يَطُوفُونَ بَيْنَهَا وَبَيْنَ حَمِيمٍ ءَانٍ ﴾

 

(This is the Hell which the criminals denied. They will go between it and the fierce boiling water!) (55:43-44). After describing how they will eat Zaqqum (a bitter tree of Hell) and drink Hamim (boiling water), Allah says:

﴿ثُمَّ إِنَّ مَرْجِعَهُمْ لإِلَى الْجَحِيمِ ﴾

 

(Then thereafter, verily, their return is to the flaming fire of Hell.) (37:68), And Allah says:

﴿وَأَصْحَـبُ الشِّمَالِ مَآ أَصْحَـبُ الشِّمَالِ – فِى سَمُومٍ وَحَمِيمٍ – وَظِلٍّ مِّن يَحْمُومٍ – لاَّ بَارِدٍ وَلاَ كَرِيمٍ ﴾

 

h(And those on the Left Hand — how (unfortunate) will be those on the Left Hand In fierce hot wind and boiling water, and shadow of black smoke, (that shadow) neither cool nor (even) pleasant.) until

﴿ثُمَّ إِنَّكُمْ أَيُّهَا الضَّآلُّونَ الْمُكَذِّبُونَ – لاّكِلُونَ مِن شَجَرٍ مِّن زَقُّومٍ – فَمَالِـُونَ مِنْهَا الْبُطُونَ – فَشَـرِبُونَ عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الْحَمِيمِ – فَشَـرِبُونَ شُرْبَ الْهِيمِ – هَـذَا نُزُلُهُمْ يَوْمَ الدِّينِ ﴾

 

(Then moreover, verily, — you the erring-ones, the deniers (of Resurrection)! You verily, will eat of the trees of Zaqqum. Then you will fill your bellies therewith, and drink boiling water on top of it. And you will drink (that) like thirsty camels! That will be their entertainment on the Day of Recompense!) (56: 41-44, 51-56),

﴿إِنَّ شَجَرَةَ الزَّقُّومِ – طَعَامُ الاٌّثِيمِ – كَالْمُهْلِ يَغْلِى فِى الْبُطُونِ – كَغَلْىِ الْحَمِيمِ – خُذُوهُ فَاعْتِلُوهُ إِلَى سَوَآءِ الْجَحِيمِ – ثُمَّ صُبُّواْ فَوْقَ رَأْسِهِ مِنْ عَذَابِ الْحَمِيمِ – ذُقْ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْكَرِيمُ – إِنَّ هَـذَا مَا كُنتُمْ بِهِ تَمْتَرُونَ ﴾

 

(Verily, the tree of Zaqqum will be the food of the sinners. Like boiling oil, it will boil in the bellies, like the boiling of scalding water. (It will be said:) ”Seize him and drag him into the midst of blazing Fire, then pour over his head the torment of boiling water. Taste you (this)! Verily, you were (pretending to be) the mighty, the generous! Verily, this is that whereof you used to doubt!”) (44:43-50) i.e., this will be said to them to rebuke and ridicule them.

﴿ثُمَّ قِيلَ لَهُمْ أَيْنَ مَا كُنتُمْ تُشْرِكُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ﴾

 

(Then it will be said to them: “Where are (all) those whom you considered partners — besides Allah”) means, it will be said to them, `where are the idols whom you used to worship instead of Allah Can they help you today’

﴿قَـالُواْ ضَـلُّواْ عَنَّا﴾

 

(They will say: “They have vanished from us…”) mean, they have gone away and they cannot do anything for us.’

﴿بَل لَّمْ نَكُنْ نَّدْعُواْ مِن قَبْلُ شَيْئاً﴾

 

(Nay, we did not invoke (worship) anything before. ) means, they will deny that they worshipped them. This is like the Ayah:

﴿ثُمَّ لَمْ تَكُنْ فِتْنَتُهُمْ إِلاَّ أَن قَالُواْ وَاللَّهِ رَبِّنَا مَا كُنَّا مُشْرِكِينَ ﴾

 

(There will then be (left) no Fitnah (excuse) for them but to say: “By Allah, our Lord, we were not those who joined others in worship with Allah.”) (6:23) Allah says:

﴿كَذَلِكَ يُضِلُّ اللَّهُ الْكَـفِرِينَ﴾

 

(Thus Allah leads astray the disbelievers).

﴿ذَلِكُمْ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَفْرَحُونَ فِى الاٌّرْضِ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَبِمَا كُنتُمْ تَمْرَحُونَ ﴾

 

(That was because you had been exulting in the earth without any right, and that you used to rejoice extremely.) means, the angels will say to them, `what you are suffering now is your recompense for your exulting in the earth without any right, and for your extravagance.’

﴿ادْخُلُواْ أَبْوَبَ جَهَنَّمَ خَـلِدِينَ فِيهَا فَبِئْسَ مَثْوَى الْمُتَكَبِّرِينَ ﴾

 

(Enter the gates of Hell to abide therein, and (indeed) what an evil abode of the arrogant!) means, what a terrible abode and final destination, filled with humiliation and severe punishment for those who arrogantly ignored the signs of Allah and refused to accept His proof and evidence. And Allah knows best.

The Command to be Patient and Good News of Victory

Here Allah commands His Messenger to patiently bear the rejection of those who rejected him: `Allah will fulfill His promise to you that you will be victorious and will prevail over your people, and you and those who follow you, will be the successful ones in this world and the Hereafter.’

﴿فَـإِمَّا نُرِيَنَّكَ بَعْضَ الَّذِى نَعِدُهُمْ﴾

 

(and whether We show you some part of what We have promised them,) means, in this world, and this is what happened, for Allah gave them the joy of humiliating the leaders and nobles (of the Quraysh), who were killed on the day of Badr, then Allah granted them victory over Makkah and the entire Arabian Peninsula during the lifetime of the Prophet .

﴿أَوْ نَتَوَفَّيَنَّكَ فَإِلَيْنَا يُرْجَعُونَ﴾

 

(or We cause you to die, then still it is to Us they all shall be returned.) means, `and We shall inflict a severe punishment upon them in the Hereafter.’ Then Allah says, consoling ﴿His Prophet ﴾:

﴿وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا رُسُلاً مِّن قَبْلِكَ مِنْهُم مَّن قَصَصْنَا عَلَيْكَ﴾

 

(And, indeed We have sent Messengers before you, of some of them We have related to you their story.) as Allah also says in Surat An-Nisa’, meaning, `We have revealed the stories of some of them and how their people disbelieved in them, but the Messengers ultimately prevailed.’

﴿وَمِنْهُمْ مَّن لَّمْ نَقْصُصْ عَلَيْكَ﴾

 

(And of some We have not related to you their story, ) and they are many, many more than those whose stories have been told, as has been stated in Surat An-Nisa’. Praise and blessings be to Allah.

﴿وَمَا كَانَ لِرَسُولٍ أَن يَأْتِىَ بِـَايَةٍ إِلاَّ بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ﴾

 

(and it was not given to any Messenger that he should bring a sign except by the leave of Allah.) means, none of the Prophets was able to bring miracles to his people except when Allah granted him permission to do that as a sign of the truth of the message he brought to them.

﴿فَإِذَا جَـآءَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ﴾

 

(But, when comes the commandment of Allah,) means, His punishment and vengeance which will encompass the disbelievers,

﴿قُضِىَ بِالْحَقِّ﴾

 

(the matter will be decided with truth,) so the believers will be saved and the disbelievers will be destroyed. Allah says:

﴿وَخَسِرَ هُنَالِكَ الْمُبْطِلُونَ﴾

 

(and the followers of falsehood will then be lost.)

The Cattle are also a Blessing from Allah and a Sign from Him

Allah reminds His servants of His blessing in that He created the cattle ﴿Al-An`am﴾ for them, which refers to camels, cows and sheep; some of them they ride and some of them they eat. Camels may be ridden or eaten; their milk is drunk and they are used for carrying heavy burdens on journeys to distant lands. Cattle are eaten and their milk is drunk; they are also used for plowing the earth. Sheep are eaten and their milk is also drunk. The hair and wool of all of these animals is used to make tents, clothing and furnishings, as we have already discussed in Surat Al-An`am and Surat An-Nahl, etc. Allah says here:

﴿اللَّهُ الَّذِى جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الاٌّنْعَـمَ لِتَرْكَـبُواْ مِنْهَا وَمِنْهَا تَأْكُلُونَ – وَلَكُمْ فِيهَا مَنَـفِعُ وَلِتَـبْلُغُواْ عَلَيْهَا حَاجَةً فِى صُدُورِكُمْ وَعَلَيْهَا وَعَلَى الْفُلْكِ تُحْمَلُونَ ﴾

 

(Allah, it is He Who has made cattle for you, that you may ride on some of them, and of some you eat. And you have (many other) benefits from them, and that you may reach by their means a desire that is in your breasts, and on them and on ships you are carried.)

﴿وَيُرِيكُمْ آيَـتِهِ﴾

 

(And He shows you His Ayat.) means, `His proof and evidence, on the horizons and in yourselves.’

﴿فَأَىَّ ءَايَـتِ اللَّهِ تُنكِرُونَ﴾

 

(Which, then of the Ayat of Allah do you deny) means, you cannot deny any of His signs and proofs, unless you are stubborn and arrogant.

﴿أَفَلَمْ يَسِيرُواْ فِى الاٌّرْضِ فَيَنظُرُواْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَـقِبَةُ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ كَانُواْ أَكْـثَرَ مِنْهُمْ وَأَشَدَّ قُوَّةً وَءَاثَاراً فِى الاٌّرْضِ فَمَآ أَغْنَى عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُواْ يَكْسِبُونَ – فَلَمَّا جَآءَتْهُمْ رُسُلُهُم بِالْبَيِّنَـتِ فَرِحُواْ بِمَا عِندَهُمْ مِّنَ الْعِلْمِ وَحَاقَ بِهِم مَّا كَانُواْ بِهِ يَسْتَهْزِءُونَ – فَلَمَّا رَأَوْاْ بَأْسَنَا قَالُواْ ءَامَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَحْدَهُ وَكَـفَرْنَا بِمَا كُنَّا بِهِ مُشْرِكِينَ ﴾

The Lesson to be learned from what happened to Those Who Came before

Allah tells us about the nations who rejected their Messengers in ancient times. He mentioned the severe punishment they suffered despite their great strength, He mentioned the traces which they left behind in the earth and the great wealth they amassed. None of that availed them anything and could not prevent the punishment of Allah at all. That is because when the Messengers came to them with clear signs and decisive evidence, they did not pay any attention to them. Instead, they were content with the knowledge with them, or so they claimed, and they said that they did not need what the Messengers brought them. Mujahid said, “They said, we know better than them, we will not be resurrected and we will not be punished.” As-Suddi said, “In their ignorance, they rejoiced in what they had of (worldly) knowledge. So Allah sent upon them a punishment which they could not escape or resist.”

﴿وَحَاقَ بِهِم﴾

 

(and surrounded them.) means, encompassed them.

﴿مَا كَانُواْ بِهِ يَسْتَهْزِءُونَ﴾

 

(that at which they used to mock,) means, that which they used to disbelieve in and said would never happen,

﴿فَلَمَّا رَأَوْاْ بَأْسَنَا﴾

 

(So when they saw Our punishment,) means, when they saw with their own eyes the punishment which came upon them, they said,

﴿قَالُواْ ءَامَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَحْدَهُ وَكَـفَرْنَا بِمَا كُنَّا بِهِ مُشْرِكِينَ﴾

 

(We believe in Allah Alone and reject (all) that we used to associate with Him as (His) partners. ) means, they affirmed that Allah is One and denied the false gods, but this was at the time when excuses were to no avail. This is like what Fir`awn said as he was drowning:

﴿ءَامَنتُ أَنَّهُ لا إِلِـهَ إِلاَّ الَّذِى ءَامَنَتْ بِهِ بَنواْ إِسْرَءِيلَ وَأَنَاْ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ﴾

 

(I believe that none has the right to be worshipped but He in Whom the Children of Israel believe, and I am one of the Muslims.) (10:90) But Allah said:

﴿ءَالَنَ وَقَدْ عَصَيْتَ قَبْلُ وَكُنتَ مِنَ الْمُفْسِدِينَ ﴾

 

(Now (you believe) while you refused to believe before and you were one of the the corrupters.) (10:91) meaning, Allah did not accept this from him, because He had answered the prayer of His Prophet Musa, when he said,

﴿وَاشْدُدْ عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ فَلاَ يُؤْمِنُواْ حَتَّى يَرَوُاْ الْعَذَابَ الاٌّلِيمَ﴾

 

(And harden their hearts, so that they will not believe until they see the painful torment) (10:88). Allah says here:

﴿فَلَمْ يَكُ يَنفَعُهُمْ إِيمَـنُهُمْ لَمَّا رَأَوْاْ بَأْسَنَا سُنَّةَ اللَّهِ الَّتِى قَدْ خَلَتْ فِى عِبَادِهِ﴾

 

(Then their Faith could not avail them when they saw Our punishment. (Like) this has been the way of Allah in dealing with His servants.) means, this is the ruling of Allah concerning all those who repent only when they actually see the punishment: He does not accept that from them. It says in the Hadith:

«إِنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى يَقْبَلُ تَوْبَةَ الْعَبْدِ مَالَمْ يُغَرْغِر»

 

(Allah will accept the repentance of His servant so long as the death rattle is not sounding in his throat.) Once the death rattle is sounding and the soul has reached the throat, and the dying person actually sees the angel (of death), then he can no longer repent. Allah says:

﴿وَخَسِرَ هُنَالِكَ الْكَـفِرُونَ﴾

 

(And there the disbelievers lost utterly.) This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Ghafir. Praise and thanks be to Allah.

 

Tafseer by Abul A’la Maududi

40. Surah Al Mu’min (The Believer), also known as Surah Al Ghafir (The Forgiver)

Name
The Surah takes its name Al Mu’min from verse 28, implying thereby, that it is a Surah in which Al Mu’min (the Believer of Pharaoh’s people) has been mentioned.

Period of Revelation
According to Ibn ‘Abbas and Jabir bin Zaid, this Surah was sent down consecutively after Surah Az-Zumar, and its present position in the order of the Surahs in the Quran is the same as its chronological order.

Background of Revelation
There are clear indications in the subject matter of this Surah to the conditions in which it was revealed. The disbelievers of Makkah at that time were engaged in two kinds of the activities against the Holy Prophet. First, they were creating every kind of suspicion and misgiving in the minds of the people about the teaching of the Quran and the message of Islam and about the Holy Prophet himself by starting many disputes and discussions, raising irrelevant objections and bringing ever new accusations so that the Holy Prophet and the believers were sick of trying to answer them. Second, they were preparing the ground for putting an end to the Holy Prophet himself. They were devising one plot after the other, and on one occasion had even taken the practical steps to execute a plot. Bukhari has related a tradition on the authority of Hadrat Abdullah bin Amr bin ‘As saying that one day when the Holy Prophet was offering his Prayer in the precinct’s of the Kabbah, suddenly ‘Uqbah bin Abi Mu’ait, rushed forward and putting a piece of cloth round his neck started twisting it so as to strangle him to death. Hadrat Abu Bakr, who happened to go there in time, pushed him away. Hadrat Abdullah says that when Abu Bakr was struggling with the cruel man, he was saying words to the effect: “Would you kill a man only because he says: Allah is my Lord?” With a little variation this event has also been mentioned in Ibn Hisham, Nasa’i and Ibn Abi Hatim .

Theme and Topics
Both aspects of this have been clear]y stated at the very outset, and then the whole following discourse is a most effective and instructive review of them.

As an answer to the conspiracies of murder, the story of the Believer of the people of Pharaoh has been narrated (vv. 23 – 55) and through this story three different lessons have been taught to the three groups:

The disbelievers have been admonished: “Whatever you intend to do against Muhammad (upon whom be Allah’s peace), the same did the Pharaoh with his might intend against the Prophet Moses. Now, would you like to meet with the same fate with which he met by plotting such conspiracies ?”

The Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be Allah’s peace) and his followers have been taught the lesson: “These wicked people may apparently be very strong and powerful and you very weak and helpless against them, yet you should rest assured that the might of that God Whose Word you are trying to raise high is superior to every other power. Therefore, you should only seek Allah’s refuge in response to every and any dreadful threat that they utter against you, and then busy yourself after this in fearlessly performing your mission. The God-worshiper has only one answer to every threat of the tyrant: `I have taken refuge in my Lord and your Lord against every arrogant person who does not believe in the Day of Reckoning.’ (v. 27) Thus, if you go on performing your mission fearless of every danger and with full trust in God, His succor will ultimately reach you, and the Pharaohs of today shall be doomed just as the Pharaohs of yesterday. Till that time you will have to face and bear patiently every wave of persecution and tyranny that may be directed against you.”

Besides these two, there was a third group of the people also in the society, who had been convinced in their hearts that the Truth was only on the side of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be Allah’s peace), and that the disbelieving Quraish were being unjust and cruel. But in spite of the conviction they were watching quietly and unconcerned the conflict between the Truth and falsehood. Allah here has aroused their conscience as if to say: “When the enemies of the Truth have openly plotted, in front of your very eyes, it would be a sad reflection on you if you still remained indifferent. Under such conditions, unless a person’s conscience has wholly become dead, he should rise and perform the duty, which a righteous man from among the courtiers of Pharaoh himself had performed at a time when the Pharaoh had made up his mind to kill the Prophet Moses. The circumstances that prevent you from raising your voice had also obstructed the way of the Believer, but he had full faith in Allah and disregarded all expediency; then note that the Pharaoh was not able to do him any harm.”

Now as for the conspiracies, which were continuing in Makkah day and night to defeat the Truth, on the one hand, arguments have been given to prove the doctrines of Tauhid and the Hereafter as true, which were the real basis of the dispute between the Holy Prophet and the disbelievers, and it has been stated plainly and openly that the disbelievers are wrangling over those truths without any knowledge. On the other, the motives which were the real cause of the Quraishite chiefs’ conflict against the Holy Prophet, have been exposed. Apparently they were trying to have the common people believe that they had some genuine objections against the teaching of the Prophet and his claim to prophethood; that is why they were not prepared to listen to him. But, in fact, this was their struggle for power. In verse 56, they have been openly warned, so as to say” “The real cause of your denial is your arrogance and vanity. You think that if you acknowledge the prophethood of Muhammad (upon whom be Allah’s peace), your power and authority will come to an end. That is why you are straining every nerve to frustrate and defeat him.”

In the same connection, the disbelievers have been warned again and again to the effect:”If you do not desist from wrangling against the Revelations of Allah, you will be doomed to the same fate as the nations of the past. Much worse torment awaits you in the Hereafter. Then you will repent, but it will be too late.

In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.


1-9 No one disputes the revelations of Allah except the kafirs (unbelievers) and The angels who bear the Throne of Allah pray for those who repent and follow the Right Way


(40:1) Ha’. Mim. (40:2) This Book is a revelation from Allah, the All-Mighty, the All-Knowing; (40:3) the Forgiver of sins, the Accepter of repentance, the Stern in retribution, the Bountiful. There is no god but He. To Him are all destined to return.1 (40:4) None but the unbelievers3 dispute regarding the Signs of Allah.2 So let not their strutting about in the land delude you.4 (40:5) Before them the people of Noah also gave the lie (to Messengers), and so did many parties after them. Each nation sallied forth against its Messenger to seize him, and they disputed with false arguments seeking therewith to repudiate the Truth. Then I seized them; and behold, how woeful was My retribution! (40:6) Thus has the decree of your Lord become due against the unbelievers. They are destined for the Fire.5 (40:7) The angels that bear the Throne and those that are around to extol your Lord’s glory with His praise, they believe in Him, and ask forgiveness for the believers,6saying: “Our Lord! You encompass everything with Your Mercy and Knowledge.7 So forgive those that repent and follow Your Path,9 and guard them against the chastisement of Hell.8 (40:8) Our Lord, admit them to the everlasting Gardens You have promised them10 and those of their fathers and spouses and progeny that were righteous.11 Surely You alone are Most Mighty, Most Wise; (40:9) and guard them against all ills.12 He whom You guard against ills on that Day,13 to him You have surely been Most Merciful. That is the great triumph.”


1. This is the introduction to the discourse. By this the listener has been forewarned to the effect: What is being presented before you is not the word of an ordinary being but of that God Who has infinite power. After this, some of Allah’s attributes have been mentioned, one after the other, which bear a deep relevance to the following theme:

First, that He is All-Mighty, i.e. He is Dominant over everything. His every decree concerning anybody is always enforced; none can fight Him and win; none can escape His grasp. Therefore, a person who expects to be successful after turning away from His command and expects to frustrate His Message after having a dispute with Him is himself foolish. Such notions are only deceptions.

Second, that He is All-Knowing, i.e. He does not say anything on mere conjecture, but has the direct knowledge of everything. Therefore, whatever information He gives about the supernatural realities is true, and the one who does not accept it is following nothing but ignorance. Likewise, He knows in what lies the true success of man and what rules and laws and commands are necessary for his well being. His every teaching is based on wisdom and correct knowledge, which does not admit of any error. Therefore, if a person does not accept His guidance, he only wants to follow the path of his own ruin. Then, nothing from the acts and deeds of man can remain hidden from Him, so much so that He even knows the intentions of man, which are the real motives of his deeds. Therefore, man can never escape His punishment.

The third attribute is that He is Forgiver of sin and Acceptor of repentance. This attribute brings hope and causes inducement, which has been mentioned so that the people who have led lives of sin, should not despair but should reform themselves with the hope that if they refrained from their behavior even now, they could still be redeemed by Allah’s mercy. Here, one should understand well that forgiving of sins and accepting of repentance are not necessarily one and the same thing, but in most cases Allah forgives sins even without the repentance. For example, a person commits errors as well as does good and his good acts become the means of forgiveness for his mistakes, whether or not he had opportunity to show repentance for the errors, but might even have forgotten them. Likewise, all the troubles and hardships and diseases and calamities that afflict man and cause him grief in the world, serve as penance for his mistakes. That is why mention of forgiveness of sins has been made separately from the acceptance of repentance. But one should remember that the concession of forgiveness of errors without repentance only refers to those believers, who are free from defiance and who committed sins due to human weakness and not persistence in pride and sin.

The fourth attribute is that He is stern in punishment. By this the people have been warned that just as Allah is Merciful for those who adopt the way of His service, so He is stern for those who adopt an attitude of rebellion against Him. When a person (or persons) transgresses the limits where he can still deserve pardon and forgiveness from Allah, then he becomes worthy of His punishment, and His punishment is so dreadful that only a fool would persist in his wrongdoing.

The fifth attribute is that He is Bountiful, i.e. He is Generous and Beneficent. All creatures are being showered with His blessings and favors every moment, whatever the servants are getting, they are getting only through His bounty and beneficence.

After these five attributes, two realities have been stated expressly:

(1) That none but Allah is the Deity, no matter how many false gods the people might have set up.

(2) That to Him everyone must return. There is no other deity which can call the people to account and reward or punish them.

Therefore, if somebody makes someone else his deity, apart from Him, he will himself face the consequences of his folly.

3. Here, the word kufr has been used in two meanings: for ingratitude and for denial of the truth. According to the first meaning, the sentence would mean: As against the revelations of Allah this sort of behavior is adopted only by those who have forgotten His bounties and who have even lost the feeling that it is by His bounty that they are flourishing. According to the second, it would mean: This sort of behavior is adopted only by those who have turned away from the truth and are determined not to accept it. From the context it becomes obvious that here the disbeliever does not imply every non-Muslim, for a non- Muslim who disputes a point in good faith for the sake of understanding Islam, and who tries to grasp thoroughly those things which he fends hard to follow, although a non Muslim technically, yet that which has been condemned in this verse does not apply to him.

4. There is a gap between the previous sentence and this, which has been left for the listener to fill. From the context and style it becomes evident that those who adopt the attitude of disputation as against the revelations of Allah Almighty, can never escape the punishment. Therefore, they shall inevitably meet their doom. Now, if one sees that those people, even after adopting such an attitude, are strutting about, their business is flourishing, their governments functioning in a grand style and they are enjoying the good things of life, one should not be misled into thinking that they have escaped Allah’s punishment, or that war against Allah’s revelations is a sport which can be adopted as a pastime and its evil consequences warded off easily. This, in fact, is a respite which they have been granted by Allah. Those who abuse this respite for doing more mischief are indeed preparing for an ignominious end.

5. That is, the torment that seized them in the world was not their final punishment, but Allah has also decreed that they shall go to Hell. Another meaning can be: Just as the nations of the past have gone to their doom, so will those people also who are committing disbelief go to Hell, according to the fixed decree of Allah.

5. That is, the torment that seized them in the world was not their final punishment, but Allah has also decreed that they shall go to Hell. Another meaning can be: Just as the nations of the past have gone to their doom, so will those people also who are committing disbelief go to Hell, according to the fixed decree of Allah.

6. This thing has been said for the consolation of the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) companions, who were feeling greatly discouraged at the impudence and rebellious attitude of the disbelievers of Makkah as against their own helplessness, as if to say: Why do you feel grieved at what these mean and worthless people say? You have the support of the angels who bear the divine Throne and of those who stand around it. They are interceding with Allah for you. The mention of the angels who bear the divine Throne and of those who stand around it, has been made, instead of the common angels, to impress the fact that not to speak of the common angels of divine kingdom, even the angels who are the pillars of this kingdom, being nearest in rank and station to Allah, bear deep sympathy and regard for you. Then the words: They affirm faith in Him and ask forgiveness for the believers, show that the relationship of the faith is the real relationship, which has joined the heavenly creatures and the earthly creatures together, and which has induced sympathy and esteem in the angels stationed around the Throne for the mortal humans inhabiting the earth, who affirm faith in Allah just like them. The angels affirming the faith in Allah does not mean that they could disbelieve, and they adopted belief instead of disbelief, but it means that they believe in the sovereignty of Allah, the One, alone there is no other being that may be commanding them and they submit before it in utter obedience. When the same attitude and behavior was adopted by the human believers, a strong relationship of cherishing a common creed and faith was established between them and the angels in spite of the great disparity in species and remoteness in rank and station.

7. That is, the weakness, lapses and errors of Your servants are not hidden from You. You indeed know everything, but like Your knowledge, Your Mercy also is infinite. Therefore, forgive the poor creatures in spite of knowing their errors. Another meaning can be: Forgive by Your Mercy all those about whom by knowledge You know that they have repented sincerely and have, in reality, adopted Your way.

8. To forgive and to save from the torment of Hell are although not related, and there seems to be no need to mention the other when one has been mentioned, this style, in fact, reflects the deep interest the angels have in the believers. It is customary that when a person who is deeply involved in a matter, finds an opportunity to make submissions before a judge, he presents the same petition humbly over and over again, in different ways, and does not rest content with making the petition just once.

9. And save those who have given up disobedience and rebellion, adopted obedience and followed the way which You Yourself have shown.

10. Here again there is the same state of solicitude as referred to in E.Ns above. Obviously, forgiving and saving from Hell by itself amounts to admitting to Paradise. And then soliciting Allah for granting the believers the same Paradise which He Himself has promised them, seems to be unnecessary, but the angels are so earnest in their desire of well-being for the believers that they go on repeating their good wishes for them although they know that Allah will certainly bless them with these favors in the Hereafter.

11. That is. join with them their parents and their wives and children for the comfort of their eyes. This same thing Allah Himself has stated as among the blessings which the believers will be granted in Paradise. For this see (Surah Ar- Raad, Ayat 23) and (Surah At-Toor, Ayat 21). In the verse of Surah At-Toor, there is also the explanation that if a person will deserve a higher rank in Paradise, which his parents will not deserve, he will not be lowered in rank to be joined with them but Allah will raise them to join him in the higher station.

12. The word sayyiat (evils) is used in three different meanings and all three arc implied here: (1) False beliefs, perverted morals and evil deeds. (2) Consequences of deviation and evil deeds. (3) Calamities, disasters and suffering in this world, or in barzakh, or on the Day of Resurrection. The object of the angels’ prayer is that they be saved from everything which may be evil for them.

13. “Evils of that Day” implies the dread and terror of the Day. deprivation of the shade and every other comfort, severity of accountability, the ignominy of exposing every secret of life before all mankind, and other humiliations and hardships which the guilty ones will experience in the Hereafter.


10-20 A scene from the Day of Judgement and Furtive looks and the secret thoughts


(40:10) It will be announced to the unbelievers (on the Day of Resurrection): “Surely Allah’s abhorrence of you when you were called to believe but you disbelieved was greater than is your abhorrence of yourselves today.”14 (40:11) They will say: “Our Lord, twice have You caused us to die and twice have You given us life.15 We have now confessed our sins.16 Is there, then, any way out?”17 (40:12) (They will be told): “(The cause of your present state is that) when Allah alone was invoked, you disbelieved; and when others instead of Him were invoked, you believed. Today all judgement lies with Allah, the Most High, the All-Great.”18 (40:13) He it is Who shows you His Signs19 and sends down provision for you from the sky.20 Yet none takes heed except he who constantly turns to Allah.21 (40:14) So call upon Allah, consecrating all your devotion to Him,22 howsoever much the unbelievers may dislike it. (40:15) Exalted in Rank,23 Lord of the Throne:24 He causes the spirit to descend on whomsoever of His servants He pleases25 so as to warn them of the Day of Encounter;26 (40:16) the Day when they will emerge and nothing of them shall be hidden from Allah. (On that Day they will be asked): “Whose is the kingdom today?”27 (The whole world will cry out): “It is Allah’s, the One, the Overpowering.” (40:17) (It will then be said): “Today shall everyone be fully recompensed for his deeds. None shall be wronged today.28 Surely Allah is Swift in Reckoning.”29 (40:18) (O Prophet), then warn them of the Day that has drawn near,30 the Day when hearts full of suppressed grief will leap up to the throats and the wrong-doers shall neither have any sincere friend31 nor intercessor whose word will be heeded.32 (40:19) He knows even the most stealthy glance of the eyes and all the secrets that hearts conceal. (40:20) Allah will judge with justice, whereas those whom they call upon beside Him cannot judge at all. Indeed, Allah alone hears everything and sees everything.33


14. That is, when the disbelievers will see on the Day of Resurrection that they had committed a grave folly by founding their entire life-work on polytheism and atheism, denial of the Hereafter and opposition to the Messenger. And due to that folly they were now doomed to that evil end. They will bite at their fingers and will curse themselves fretfully. At that time the angels will proclaim to them: Today you are being angry with yourselves, but in the world when the Prophets of Allah and the other good people invited you to the right path to save you from this evil end, you turned down their invitation, Allah’s wrath against you then was even greater.

15. This same thing has already been mentioned in (Surah Al-Baqarah, Ayat 28). It implies this: How can you disbelieve in Allah? He granted you life when you were lifeless; then He will give you death and then will again raise you back to life. The disbelievers do not deny the first three of these conditions, because they are perceptible and therefore un-deniable. But they refuse to accept the occurrence of the fourth condition, for they have not yet experienced it, and only the Prophets have foretold it. On the Day of Resurrection when the fourth condition will also be practically experienced by them, then they will acknowledge that the same which the Prophets had foretold had actually happened.

16. That is, we confess that we made a grave mistake when we denied this after life; our life was filled with sins when we followed falsehood.

17. That is, is there any possibility now that our confession of sins be accepted and we be rescued from this state of torment in which we have been seized?

18. That is, the Judgment now rests entirely with that God alone, Whose Godhead you did not acknowledge, and those others whom you persistently regarded as associates and partners in the powers of Godhead, have no share whatsoever in the judgment. (For a full understanding of this point, please see (verse 45 of Surah Az-Zumar and its E.N. 64). This sentence by itself gives the meaning that there would be no possibility of any way out for the disbelievers from the state of torment, for they did not only deny the Hereafter but they had aversion to their Creator and Sustainer, and they were not satisfied until they had associated others with Him.

19. Signs imply those signs which point to the great truth that the Fashioner, Ruler and Administrator of the Universe is One and only One God.

20. Provision here implies the rain, for every kind of the sustenance that man gets in the world, depends ultimately on the rainfall. Allah presents this one single sign out of His countless signs, as if to draw the people’s attention to the fact: If you only consider and ponder over the arrangement of this one thing, you will understand that the concept being presented in the Quran of the administration of the Universe, is true. This arrangement could exist only if the Creator of the earth and its creatures and of water and air and the sun and the heat and cold was only One God, and this arrangement could continue to exist for millions and millions of years with perfect regularity only if the same Eternal God caused it to exist continually. And the One Who brought this arrangement into existence could only be an All-Wise and All-Merciful Lord, Who along with creating men, animals and vegetables in the earth, also created water precisely according to their needs and requirements, and then made these wonderful arrangements for transporting and spreading that water to different parts of the earth with perfect regularity. Now, who can be more unjust than the one who sees all this and yet denies God, or associates some other beings also with Him in Godhead?

21. That is, a person who has turned away from God and whose intellect has been clouded and corrupted by heedlessness or prejudice, cannot learn any lesson from any sign. He will see with his animal eyes that the winds blew, the clouds gathered, the lightning thundered and flashed and the rain fell; but his human eyes will never perceive why all this happened, who caused it, and what rights He has on him.

22. For the explanation of making one’s religion sincerely Allah’s, see (E.N. 3 of Surah Az-Zumar).

23. That is, He is exalted far above all the creations of the world. Anything that exists in the universe, whether an angel or a prophet or a saint, or borne other creation, may be very exalted and superior to other creations, but it cannot be imagined to have a station anywhere near the highest rank and position of Allah, not to speak of its being an associate in His attributes and powers and authority.

24. That is, He is King and Ruler of the whole universe, and Master of the Throne of the Kingdom of the universe. (For explanation, see (Surah Al-Aaraf, Ayat 54 and E.N. 41) thereof; (Surah Younus, Ayat 3); (Surah Ar-Raad, Ayat 2); (Surah TaHa, Ayat 5) and the E.Ns thereof).

25. “The inspiration” implies Revelation and Prophethood. (For explanation, see (Surah An-Nahl, Ayat 2); (Surah Bani- Israil, Ayat 85) and the E.Ns thereof). And the words: “He places the inspiration of His command upon whom He wills of His slaves” mean this: Nobody has a monopoly over the bounties of Allah. Just as no one has a right to object as to why was so and so given beauty, and so and so was given extraordinary powers of memory or intelligence, so also no one has the right to abject as to why so and so only was chosen to be a prophet and why a person of some one’s own choice was not made a prophet.

26. “The Day of Meeting”: The Day when all mankind, jinn and satans will be gathered together before their Lord simultaneously and the witnesses of their acts and deeds also will be present to bear the witness.

27. That is, though in the world many vain and selfconceited people publicly proclaimed to be the kings and sovereigns, whose, in fact, is the Kingdom today? Who is the Owner of the powers and authority and Whose is the command? If a person hears these words in his right senses, he will be filled with terror, no matter how mighty a king or dictator he might be posing himself to be, and will immediately come to his senses. Here the mention of an historical event will not be out of place. When the Samanid ruler, Nasr bin Ahmad (301-331 A.H.), entered Nishapur, he held a court and after ascending the throne desired that the proceedings be started with recitation from the Quran. At this an elderly pious man came forward and recited this very section of this Surah. When he came to this verse, Nasr was struck with awe; he descended the throne trembling, took off the crown and fell down in prostration, saying: O my Lord, Kingdom is Thine, not mine!

28. That is, none shall be wronged in any way whatsoever today. It should be noted that in respect of recompense, injustice can have several forms: (1) A person may deserve a reward but he is not given it. (2) He is given a lesser reward than what was due to him. (3) He is given a punishment although he is not liable to any punishment. (4) The one who is liable to punishment is not given any punishment. (5) The one who is liable to a lesser punishment is given a greater punishment. (6) The oppressor goes free. (7) One is seized for the sin committed by another. What Allah means to say is that none of these different kinds of injustices will be allowed to take place in His Court.

29. It means: it will take Allah no time to do the reckoning. Just as He is providing for every creature of the universe simultaneously and He is not so occupied in providing for one that He may have no time to provide for others, and just as He is seeing everything in the universe simultaneously, and hearing everything simultaneously, is managing every small and big affair simultaneously, and nothing absorbs His attention so completely that He may be unable to give attention to others, at the same time, so He will subject to reckoning every single individual simultaneously and the hearing of one case will not make Him so occupied as to render Him unable to hear other countless cases at the same time. Then in His Court no delay will also be allowed to take place due to any difficulty in the investigation of the facts of the case and the availability of the witnesses. The Judge of the Court will Himself be aware of all the facts directly. Each party in every case will stand completely exposed before Him and clear undeniable evidence of the events and deeds, with each minor detail, will come forward without any delay. Therefore, each case will be settled and decided instantaneously.

30. In the Quran the people have been made to realize again and again that Resurrection is not far off but has approached near at hand, and can take place any moment. In (Surah An-Nahal, Ayat 1), it has been said: Allah’s judgment has come, so do not clamor for hastening it. In (Surah Al-Anbiya, Ayat 1): The time of the reckoning of the people has drawn near, and yet they are turning away in heedlessness. In (Surah Al-Qamar, Ayat 1): The Hour of Resurrection has drawn near and the moon has split asunder. And in (Surah An-Najm, Ayat 57): That which is coming is near at hand, none but Allah can avert it. All this is meant to warn the people to the effect that they should not become fearless of Resurrection thinking it to be yet far away, but should mend their ways and reform themselves at once.

31. The word hameem as used in the original implies such a friend of a person as is aroused to action when he sees him being beaten, and rushes forward to protect and save Him.

32. This thing has been said to refute the concept of intercession held by the disbelievers. As a matter of fact, the wicked people will have no intercessor at all, for permission to intercede, if at all granted, can be granted only to the righteous servants of Allah, and Allah’s righteous servants can never make friends with the disbelievers, polytheists and sinners so that they should even think of intruding on their behalf to save them. But as the disbelievers have generally held, and still hold, the belief that the saints, whose disciples they are, will not allow that they go to Hell, but will see that they are forgiven. Therefore, it has been said: There will be no such intercessor there who may have to be listened to, and whose recommendation Allah may have to accept necessarily.

33. That is, He is not a blind and deaf god like your deities that He may be unaware of the misdeeds of a person about whom He is passing judgment.


21-22 Those who denied the Prophets and Allah’s revelations were all destroyed


(40:21) Have they not journeyed in the land that they might observe the end of those who came before them? They were even greater in strength than they and left behind more splendid traces in the land. Then Allah seized them because of their sins and they had none who could protect them from Allah. (40:22) They came to this end because their Messengers would come to them with Clear Signs34 and yet they would refuse to believe. So Allah seized them. He is indeed Strong, Terrible in Retribution.


34. Bayyinat means three things:

(1) The clear signs which pointed to the Messengers’ being appointed by Allah.

(2) The convincing arguments which were a clear proof of their teachings being based on the truth.

(3) The clear guidance and instructions about the problems and affairs of life which could enable every reasonable person to see that such pure teachings could not be given by an impostor.


23-27 Prophet Musa was sent to Fir’on, Haman and Qarun and Fir’on intended to kill Prophet Musa


(40:23) Verily We sent Moses35 with Our Signs and a clear authority37 (40:24) to Pharaoh and Haman36 and Korah. They said: “(He is) a sorcerer, an utter liar.”38 (40:25) When Moses brought them the Truth from Us they said: “Kill the sons of all the believers who have joined him, but spare the women.”39 The guile of the unbelievers always ends in vain.40 (40:26) One day41 Pharaoh said: “Let me go and kill Moses;42 then let him invoke his Lord. I fear that he will change your religion or cause disruption in the land.”43 (40:27) Moses said: “I have taken refuge with my Lord and your Lord from everyone who waxes arrogant and does not believe in the Day of Reckoning.”44


35. For the other details of the story of the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him), see (Surah Al-Baqarah, Ayats 49-61); (Surah An-Nisa, Ayat 164); (Surah Al-Maidah, Ayats 20-26); (Surah Al-Aaraf, Ayats 103-162); (Surah Yunus, Ayats 7, 5- 92); (Surah Houd, Ayats 17, 96-97), 110); Introduction to Surah Yusuf; (Surah Ibrahim, Ayats 5-8); (Surah Bani-Israil, Ayats 101-104); (Surah Al-Kahf, Ayats 60-82); (Surah Maryam, Ayats 51-53); (Surah TaHa, Ayats 9-98); (Surah AlMuminun, Ayats 45-49); (Surah Ash-Shuara, Ayats 10-68); (Surah An-Naml, Ayats 7-14); Introduction to Surah Al- Qasas and (Surah Al-Qasas, Ayats 3-44); (Surah Al-Ahzab, Ayats 69); (Surah As-Saff, Ayats 114-122) and the E.Ns thereof.

36. “A manifest authority”: With such clear signs as left no doubt that he had been sent by Allah, and he had Allah, Lord of the worlds’ power at his back. From a careful study of the details of the Prophet Moses’ story, as given in the Quran, it becomes obvious as to what were those signs which are being described here as a clear authority of his appointment as a Prophet by Allah. In the first place, even this was strange that a person who, a few years earlier, had fled the country after killing a man of Pharaoh’s nation and whose warrants of arrest had been issued, should make a sudden appearance directly in the packed court of Pharaoh, with a staff in hand, and should boldly and fearlessly address the king and his nobles and demand that they should acknowledge him as the representative of Allah, Lord of the worlds, and should act according to what he says, and none dares to lay his hands on him. Whereas the nation to which Moses belonged, had been so suppressed under slavery that if he had been apprehended immediately on the charge of murder, no one would have voiced even a protest, not to speak of rising in rebellion. This shows that Pharaoh and his courtiers had been aweinspired just at the appearance of the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him), even before they witnessed the miracles of the staff and the shining hand, and they had realized in the very beginning that he had some greater power behind him, Then each of the wonderful miracles that he performed, one after the other, was enough to bring about the conviction that it was not a manifestation of magic but of divine power. After all, what power of magic could cause a staff to change into a serpent, or cause a whole country to suffer from famine, or cause different sorts of disasters to strike vast areas of the land on a sudden notice by Moses and be removed on a notice by him? That is why, according to the Quran, Pharaoh and all the responsible people of his kingdom had been convinced in their hearts, whether they might be refusing to profess with the tongue, that Moses had indeed been appointed a Prophet by Allah. (For details, see (Surah Al-Aaraf, Ayats 106-117); (Surah TaHa, Ayats 56 78); (Surah Ash-Shuara, Ayats 30-51); (Surah An-Naml, Ayats 10-13).

36. “A manifest authority”: With such clear signs as left no doubt that he had been sent by Allah, and he had Allah, Lord of the worlds’ power at his back. From a careful study of the details of the Prophet Moses’ story, as given in the Quran, it becomes obvious as to what were those signs which are being described here as a clear authority of his appointment as a Prophet by Allah. In the first place, even this was strange that a person who, a few years earlier, had fled the country after killing a man of Pharaoh’s nation and whose warrants of arrest had been issued, should make a sudden appearance directly in the packed court of Pharaoh, with a staff in hand, and should boldly and fearlessly address the king and his nobles and demand that they should acknowledge him as the representative of Allah, Lord of the worlds, and should act according to what he says, and none dares to lay his hands on him. Whereas the nation to which Moses belonged, had been so suppressed under slavery that if he had been apprehended immediately on the charge of murder, no one would have voiced even a protest, not to speak of rising in rebellion. This shows that Pharaoh and his courtiers had been aweinspired just at the appearance of the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him), even before they witnessed the miracles of the staff and the shining hand, and they had realized in the very beginning that he had some greater power behind him, Then each of the wonderful miracles that he performed, one after the other, was enough to bring about the conviction that it was not a manifestation of magic but of divine power. After all, what power of magic could cause a staff to change into a serpent, or cause a whole country to suffer from famine, or cause different sorts of disasters to strike vast areas of the land on a sudden notice by Moses and be removed on a notice by him? That is why, according to the Quran, Pharaoh and all the responsible people of his kingdom had been convinced in their hearts, whether they might be refusing to profess with the tongue, that Moses had indeed been appointed a Prophet by Allah. (For details, see (Surah Al-Aaraf, Ayats 106-117); (Surah TaHa, Ayats 56 78); (Surah Ash-Shuara, Ayats 30-51); (Surah An-Naml, Ayats 10-13).

37. For a reply to the critics’ objections about Haman, see (E.N. 8 of Surah Al-Qasas).

39. As already mentioned in (Surah Al-Aaraf, Ayat 127), Pharaoh’s courtiers had said to him: Will you leave Moses and his people free to spread disorder in the land? And he himself had said: I will have their sons slain and let their daughters live. This verse states that this order was at last issued from Pharaoh’s court. It was, in fact, meant to so terrify the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) himself and his supporters and followers that they should abandon him out of fear.

40. Another meaning of this sentence can be: Whatever the disbelievers had plotted, was aimed at deviation, tyranny and antagonism to the truth. That is, even after being convinced of the truth in their hearts, they continued to show stubbornness and did not hesitate to adopt any mean device whatsoever in order to defeat and frustrate the truth.

41. The event which is being related here is a very important event of the Israelite history, which the Israelites themselves have totally forgotten. Both the Bible and the Talmud are without it, and no mention of it is found in the other Israelite traditions either. Only through the Quran has the world come to know that during the conflict between Pharaoh and the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) this event had taken place at some time. Anybody who reads this story, provided that he has not been blinded by prejudice against Islam and the Quran, cannot but realize that from the viewpoint of the invitation to the truth this story is very valuable, and this thing by itself also is in no way against reason that a person from among the nobles of the kingdom of Pharaoh himself might have quietly believed in his heart, having been influenced by the personality of the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him), his preaching and the wonderful miracles shown by him, and might not have been able to restrain himself when he saw that Pharaoh was planning to kill him. But the way the Western orientalists, in spite of their tall claims to knowledge and research, try to repudiate the self-evident truths of the Quran, on account of prejudice, can be judged from this that the author of the article “Musa” in the Encyclopaedia of Islam writes in respect of this story:

“The Kuranic story of a believer at the court of Pharaoh who wants to save Musa is not quite clear (xl, 28). Ought we to compare Jethro in the Haggada who advises clemency at Pharaoh’s court?

In other words, these so called researchers have one thing settled with them: They must find fault with everything that the Quran presents. Now, if they do not find any ground for criticizing a statement of it, they should at least say this much out of mischief that the story is not entirely clear, and also should incidentally create this doubt in the reader’s mind that the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) might have heard from somewhere the story of Jethro mentioned in the Haggada taking place even before the birth of Prophet Moses (peace be upon him), and inserted it here in this form. This is the type of literary research which these people have adopted with regard to Islam and the Quran and the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).

42. In this sentence Pharaoh tries to give the impression as if some people were restraining him from killing the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him). Had they not stood in his way, he would have killed him long ago, whereas in fact there was no external power to restrain him; it was the fear of his own heart which was preventing him from laying his hands on the Messenger of Allah.

43. That is, I fear a revolution from him, and even if he is unable to bring it about, there is at least the danger that he will cause mischief to appear in the country by his activities. Therefore, even if he doesn’t commit a crime punishable with death, he should be put to death only for the sake of the maintenance of public order. As for this whether there is a real danger to the public order from him, the king’s satisfaction in this regard is enough. If his majesty is convinced that he is dangerous, it should be declared that he is really dangerous and punishable with death.

Here, the meaning of “changing the religion” also should be understood well, on account of which Pharaoh wanted to put the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) to death. Deen here implies the system of government, and what Pharaoh meant to say was this: I fear that he will change your king. (Ruhal-Maani, vol. xxiv, p. 56). In other words, the deen of the land was the religious, political, cultural and economic system that was prevalent in Egypt on the basis of Pharaoh’s and his family’s sovereignty, and Pharaoh was afraid that Moses’ message would change that very deen. But like the cunning and deceitful rulers of every age, he also did not say that he feared being deposed from his position of authority and, therefore, he wanted to kill Moses (peace be upon him), but he presented the case like this: O people, the danger is for you, not for me, for if Moses’ movement succeeded your deen would change. I am not worried for myself: I am worried for your sake as to what would become of you when you have been deprived of the protection of my authority. Therefore, the wicked man who poses such a danger should be put to death, for he is an enemy of the state.

44. Here, there are two equal probabilities and there is no ground for preferring one to the other. The first probability is that the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) might himself be present in the court at the time and Pharaoh might have expressed his intention to kill him in his presence, and the Prophet might have given this direct answer there and then, addressing him and his courtiers. The other probability is that Pharaoh might have expressed this intention in the absence of Moses in a meeting with the responsible people of his government and a report of this conversation might have been conveyed to the Prophet by some of the believers, whereupon he might have said these words in some gathering of his followers. Whatever be the case, it is apparent from the words that the threat of Pharaoh could not cause any state of fear in Moses’ heart and with trust in Allah he flung his threat back at Pharaoh. The context in which this event has been related in the Quran by itself shows that the same also was the reply from the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) to those wicked people who, being fearless of the Day of Reckoning, were devising plots to kill him.


28-37 And excellent speech of one of the relatives of Fir’on in the favor of Prophet Musa


(40:28) Then a man endowed with faith, from Pharaoh’s folk, who had kept his faith hidden, said: “Do you kill a person simply because he says: ‘My Lord is Allah’ even though he brought to you clear Signs from your Lord?45 If he is a liar, his lying will recoil upon him;46 but if he is truthful, you will be smitten with some of the awesome consequences of which he warns you. Allah does not guide to the Right Way any who exceeds the limits and is an utter liar.47 (40:29) My people, today the kingdom is yours, and you are supreme in the land. But if Allah’s chastisement were to come upon you, who will come to our help?”48 Pharaoh said: “I only counsel what I consider right; I only direct you to the Path of Rectitude.”49 (40:30) He who had faith said: “My people, I fear that you will confront a day like that which overtook many parties before you, (40:31) like the day that overtook the people of Noah and Ad and Thamud, and those who came after them. Allah does not wish to subject His servants to any injustice.50 (40:32) My people, I fear that you will encounter a day when there will be much wailing and you will cry out to one another for help, (40:33) the day when you will turn around to retreat, there will be none to protect you from Allah. He whom Allah lets go astray, none will be able to show him the Right Way. (40:34) Verily Joseph came to you with Clear Signs before, yet you continued to doubt his Message. Thereafter when he died, you said: ‘Allah shall send no Messenger after him.’”51 Thus Allah leads astray those who transgress the limits and are given to much doubting; (40:35) those52 who contend regarding Allah’s Signs without any evidence that might have come to them.53 That is exceedingly loathsome to Allah and to those that believe. Thus does Allah seal the heart of everyone who is proud and high-handed.54 (40:36) Pharaoh said: “Haman, build for me a lofty tower that I may scale the highways (40:37) the highways to the heavens and have a look at the God of Moses, although I am certain that Moses is a liar.”55 Thus Pharaoh’s evil deed was made to seem fair to him, and he was barred from the Right Path. Pharaoh’s guile only led him to his own perdition.


45. That is, He has shown such manifest signs to you as have made it absolutely clear that he is a Messenger sent by your Lord. The Believer, from among the people of Pharaoh, was obviously referring to the signs the details of which have already been given in (Surah Al-Aaraf, Ayats 107-117, 130-133); (Surah Bani-Israil, Ayats 101-102); (Surah TaHa, Ayats 56-73); (Surah Ash-Shuara, Ayats 30-51); (Surah An-Naml, Ayats 10-13).

46. That is, if in spite of such manifest signs as he has shown you, you regard him as a liar, you should leave him alone, for the alternative probability, and a very strong probability too, is that he is truthful, and therefore you may involve yourselves in God’s torment by laying your hands on him. Therefore, even if you think that he is a liar, you should leave him to himself. For if he is lying, in the name of Allah, Allah Himself will take him to task. Similar words had the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) himself said to Pharaoh before this: If you do not believe in me, do not harm me. (Surah Ad-Dukhan, Ayat 21).

Here one should keep in mind that the Believer of the people of Pharaoh had not openly disclosed in the beginning that he had affirmed faith in the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him), but he spoke as if he also belonged to Pharaoh’s side, and was only wishing his people well. But when Pharaoh and his courtiers did not seem to see reason and continued to behave stubbornly, he at last disclosed the secret of his faith, as becomes obvious from his speech in( verses 38-44).

47. This sentence can have two meanings and probably the Believer had intentionally employed it, because he did not yet want to express his belief openly. Its one meaning is: One and the same person cannot combine righteousness and lying and falsehood. You can clearly see that Moses is a man of very sublime and pure character. Therefore, how can you believe that, on the one hand, he should be such a liar as to lay a baseless claim to prophethood in the name of Allah. And on the other hand, Allah should bless him with such high morals? The other meaning is: If you are bent upon taking the life of Moses (peace be upon him) by transgressing all limits and will execute your evil designs by bringing false accusations against him, you should remember that Allah will never show you the way to success.

48. That is, why are you being ungrateful to Allah for His blessing of granting you domination in the land and are inviting His scourge to visit you?

49. From this answer of Pharaoh it appears that he had not yet found out that the noble of his court had become a Believer in his heart. That is why he did not show any displeasure at what he said, but made clear that he was not inclined to change his opinion even after hearing what he had to say.

50. That is, Allah has no enmity with His servants that He should destroy them without any reason. He sends calamities upon them only when they have transgressed all limits, and sending the torment then is the very demand of justice.

51. That is, your deviation, and then your stubbornness, is such that before Moses (peace be upon him), there came in your land the Prophet Joseph (peace be upon him) about whom you yourselves admit that he was a man of the highest morals, and you also admit that by giving the right interpretation of the king’s dream he saved you from the dreadful effects of the seven year long famine, which had struck Egypt in his time, and your entire nation also acknowledges that Egypt has never witnessed a period of greater justice and prosperity than the period of his rule. But in spite of knowing and recognizing all his merits and high qualities you did not believe in him during his life time, and when he died, you said: Never will the like of him came again! That is, you recognized his excellences only for an excuse to deny every prophet who came after him. This means that you would not accept guidance in any case.

52. It so appears that the next few sentences are an addition by Allah and an explanation of the words of the Believer of the people of Pharaoh.

53. That is, Allah allows only those people to go astray who possess the following three qualities:

(1) They transgress all limits in their evil doing, and then develop such a taste for it that they do not feel inclined to accept any invitation to reform their morals.

(2) Their permanent attitude in respect of the Prophets is characterized by doubt and suspicion. The Prophets of God may bring any clear signs before them, yet they doubt their Prophethood and view with suspicion those truths which they present with regard to Tauhid and the Hereafter.

(3) They try to resist the revelations of the Book of Allah with crooked arguments instead of considering them rationally, and these objections are neither based on any sound reason nor on the authority of a revealed Book, but from the beginning to the end their only basis is obstinacy and stubbornness.

When a group of the people develops these three evils, Allah hurls it into the deep pit of Hell fire where from no power can then rescue them.

54. That is, the seal is not set on the heart of anybody without a reason. This seal of curse is set only on the heart of the one who is filled with arrogance and spirit of violence and tyranny.

55. Pharaoh addresses these words to Haman, his minister, interposing in the speech of the Believer in a way as though he has no regard for what he was saying. Therefore, he turns away from him arrogantly and says to Haman: Build me a high tower so that I may climb it to see where the God of whom this Moses speaks, lives. (For explanation, see( Surah Al-Qasas, Ayat 38) and E.Ns thereof).


38-50 Allah saved that believer from the plots of Fir’on and destroyed the people of Fir’on, now they are presented before the fire of Hell morning and evening (punishment of the graves)


(40:38) The person endowed with faith said: “My people, follow me; I shall direct you to the Path of Rectitude. (40:39) My people, the life of this world is ephemeral,56 whereas the Hereafter, that is the permanent abode. (40:40) Whosoever does an evil deed will be requited only with the like of it; and whosoever acts righteously and has attained to faith be he a male or a female they shall enter Paradise and be provided sustenance beyond all reckoning. (40:41) My people, how is it that I call you to salvation while you call me to the Fire; (40:42) you call me to deny Allah and to associate with Him as His partners those regarding whom I have no knowledge (that they are Allah’s partners in His Divinity),57 whereas I call you to the Most Mighty, the Most Forgiving? (40:43) There is no doubt that those whom you call me to have no claim to be called upon in this world and in the Hereafter.58 Certainly to Allah shall be our return, and those who exceed the limits59 are destined to the Fire. (40:44) Soon you shall remember what I say to you. I entrust my affairs to Allah. Surely Allah is watchful over His servants.”60 (40:45) Eventually Allah saved the person endowed with faith from all the evils of their guile,61 and a woeful chastisement62 encompassed the Pharaonites. (40:46) They are exposed to the Fire every morning and evening; and when the Last Hour will come to pass, a command shall be given: “Admit the Pharaonites to an even more severe chastisement.”63 (40:47) Just imagine when they will remonstrate with one another in Hell. The weak ones will say to those who waxed proud: “We were your followers. Will you, then, lighten for us a part of our suffering of the Fire?”64 (40:48) Those who had waxed proud will reply: “All of us are in it. Allah has already passed His judgement among His servants.”65 (40:49) Those suffering in the Fire will say to the keepers of Hell: “Call upon your Lord to lighten the chastisement for us just for a day.” (40:50) The keepers of Hell will ask: “Did your Messengers not come to you with Clear Signs?” They will say: “Yes (they did).” The keepers of Hell will say: “Then you yourselves should call (upon the Lord). And the call of the unbelievers will end in vain.”66


56. That is, you are being forgetful of Allah on account of your pride in the transient wealth and prosperity of this world, this is your folly.

57. That is, about whom I have no scientific proof that they are God’s associates. Why should I then accept such a stupendous thing blindly that they also have a share in Godhead and that I have to serve them along with Allah?

58. This sentence can have several meanings:

(1) That they neither possess here nor in the Hereafter any right that the people should be invited to acknowledge their godhead.

(2) That they have been made gods by the people themselves without any reason, for they have neither claimed godhead for themselves in this world nor will they put forward any such claim in the Hereafter that they also were gods and should have been acknowledged as such.

(3) That it is of no use invoking them here nor in the Hereafter, for they are absolutely powerless and invoking them is of no avail at all.

59. A transgressor is every such person who recognizes the godhead of others than Allah, or assumes godhead for himself, or rebels against God and adopts an attitude of independence in the world, and then commits excesses against himself, against other creatures of God and against everything else with which he has to deal. Such a person, in fact, transgresses all limits of reason and justice.

60. This sentence clearly shows that while saying all this the Believer was certain that he would have to bear the brunt of the wrath of the entire kingdom of Pharaoh in consequence of his speaking the truth, and that he would have to lose all his honors and privileges, even his life. But in spite of knowing all this he performed his duty only with his trust in Allah, according to the call of his conscience, on this critical occasion.

61. This shows that the Believer was such an important man in the kingdom of Pharaoh that although he spoke out the truth in the face of Pharaoh, in the packed court, yet none could have the courage to punish him publicly. That is why, Pharaoh and his supporters had to make secret plans to kill him, but these plans also were frustrated by Allah.

62. It so appears from the style that this event of the Believer’s speaking out the truth had taken place in the last stage of the conflict between the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) and Pharaoh. Probably being fed up and disgusted with the long drawn out conflict, Pharaoh might have at last made up his mind to kill the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him). But he might have felt from the truthfulness of that influential person of his kingdom that the Prophet Moses’ (peace be upon him) influence had even reached the higher circles of his government. Therefore, he might have decided that before taking the extreme step against Moses (peace be upon him) he should find out who among the chiefs and nobles and higher officials of the kingdom had been influenced by the movement, and should seize Moses (peace be upon him) after having punished them. But while he was still busy devising his plans, Allah commanded the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) and his companions to migrate, and it was while pursuing them that Pharaoh was drowned in the sea along with his hosts.

63. This verse is an express proof of the torment of barzakh, which has often been mentioned in the traditions as the torment of the grave. Allah here has in clear words mentioned two stages of the torment, a lesser torment, which is being given now to Pharaoh and his people before the coming of Resurrection, and it is, this that they are presented before the fire of Hell morning and evening, which strikes terror in their hearts and they see the Hell which they will have to enter ultimately. After this when Resurrection comes, they will be given the real and greater punishment which is destined for them, i.e. they will be hurled into the same Hell, which they are being made to witness since the time they were drowned till today, and will continue to witness it till the Hour of Resurrection. And such a treatment is not especially meant for Pharaoh and his people. All the culprits continue to witness the evil end, from the hour of death till Resurrection, which is awaiting them. On the other hand, the righteous people are made to see continually the pleasant picture of the good end, which Allah has gotten ready for them. A tradition has been related in Bukhari, Muslim, and Musnad Ahmad on the authority of Abdullah bin Umar, saying that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Whoever from among you dies is shown his final resting place morning and evening continually, whether he be a dweller of Paradise or of Hell. It is said to him: This is the place which you will enter when Allah will raise you back to life on the Day of Resurrection and will call you into His presence. (For further details, see (Surah Al-Anfaal, Ayats 50-51); (Surah An-Nahal, Ayats 28-32); (Surah Al-Mominoon, Ayats 99-100 )and the E.Ns thereof, and (E.Ns 22, 23 of Surah YaSeen).

64. This they will not say in any hope that their previous guides or rulers or leaders would actually be able to save them from the torment, or would have it reduced. At that time they will have fully realized that those people could not avail them anything there. But they will say this in order to humiliate them, as if to say: In the world you ruled over us with great show of power and authority, now save us also from this disaster which has befallen us only because of you.

65. That is, both you and we have already been sentenced and Allah has passed His judgment regarding each of us. Now it does not lie in anyone’s power to change the sentence of Allah, or to make any increase or decrease in the punishment awarded by Him.

66. That is, when the fact is this that the Messengers had come to you with the clear signs, and you have already been sentenced to suffer punishment here, because you had refused to believe in them, it is not possible for us to pray for you to Allah. For obviously there should be some plea for such a prayer, and you have exhausted every plea by your misconduct. So, you pray for yourselves if you so like, but we would tell you beforehand that the prayers of the people who had disbelieved in the world like you have been of no avail.


51-60 Allah does help His Rasools and the believers in this world’s life and will help them in the life Hereafter and Your Rabb says, “Call on Me, I will answer your prayers”


(40:51) Surely We shall help Our Messengers and the believers in the life of this world67 and on the Day when witnesses will rise to testify,68 (40:52) the Day when the excuses offered by the wrong-doers shall not avail them. They shall be victims of the curse and a woeful abode. (40:53) We surely guided Moses69 and made the Children of Israel the heirs of the Book (40:54) which was a guidance and good counsel to people endowed with understanding and wisdom.70 (40:55) Be steadfast,71 then, (O Prophet), Allah’s promise is true.72 Seek forgiveness for your shortcomings,73 and celebrate the praise of your Lord, evening and morning.74 (40:56) Verily those who dispute regarding the Signs of Allah without any evidence that might have come to them, nothing but vain pride fills their hearts. Yet they shall never be able to satisfy the pride75 with which they are puffed up.76 So seek refuge with Allah.77 Verily He is All-Hearing, All-Seeing. (40:57) Surely78 the creation of the heavens and the earth is a greater act than the creation of human beings. But most people do not know.79 (40:58) Never can the blind and the seeing be equal; nor those that believe and act righteously and those that do evil. Little do you understand.80 (40:59) The Hour will indeed come; there is no doubt about that. Yet most people do not believe.81 (40:60) Your82 Lord said: “Pray to Me, and I will accept your prayers.83 Surely those who wax too proud to worship Me shall enter Hell, utterly abased.”84


67. For explanation, see (E.N. 93 of Surah As-Saaffat).

68. That is, when Allah’s Court will be established and the witnesses will be produced before Him.

69. That is, We did not just leave Moses alone when We sent him against Pharaoh, but We gave him guidance at every step till success. This contains a subtle allusion to the effect: O Muhammad, We shall help you too in the same manner. We have neither left you alone after raising you as a Prophet in the city of Makkah and the tribe of Quraish so that these wicked people may treat you as they like, but We Ourselves are with you and are giving you guidance at every step.

70. That is just as those who disbelieved in Moses (peace be upon him) were deprived of this blessing and the Israelites who believed in him were made heirs to the Book, so will also those who deny you be deprived and only those who believe in you will have the good fortune to inherit the Quran and rise in the world as the standard bearers of guidance.

71. “Have patience”: Bear up with a cool mind against these hardships through which you are passing.

72. The allusion is to the promise made above in the sentence: We do help Our Messengers and the believers in the life of this world.

73. A study of the context shows that here “sin” implies the state of impatience that was being caused to the Prophet (peace be upon him) on account of the severe antagonism, especially the persecution of his followers. He earnestly desired that either some miracle should be shown, which should convince the disbelievers or something else should soon come down from Allah, which should quell the storm of opposition. Though this desire in itself was not a sin, which should have called for repentance, the high rank with which Allah had blessed the Prophet (peace be upon him) demanded great grit and will power; so the little impatience shown by him was regarded as inconsistent with his high rank. Therefore, he was required to ask Allah’s forgiveness for showing the weakness and was told to hold his ground like a rock as a man of a high rank like him should.

74. That is, Glorification of Allah with His praises is the only means by which those who work for the sake of Allah can get the strength to resist and overcome the hardships faced in the way of Allah. Glorifying the Lord morning and evening can have two meanings:

(1) Remembering Allah constantly and perpetually.

(2) Performing the Prayers at the specific times.

And in this second case, the allusion is to the five times of the Prayers, which were enjoined on all the believers as a duty some time after the revelation of this Surah. For the word ashiyy in Arabic is used for the time from the declining of the sun till the early part of nigh, which covers the times of the four Prayers from Zuhr to Isha, and ibkar is the time from dawn to the rising of the sun, which is the time of the Fajr Prayer. (For further details, see (Surah Al- Baqarah, Ayats 3, 43, 45, 238); (Surah Houd, Ayat 114); (Surah Al-Hijr, Ayats 98-99); Introduction to (Surah Bani Israil and Ayats 78-79); (Surah TaHa, Ayat 130); (Surah An- Noor, Ayats 56-58); (Surah Al-Ankabut, Ayat 45); (Surah Ar- Rum, Ayats 17-18, 31) and the E.Ns thereof).

75. That is, the real cause for their opposition without any argument and their irrational crooked argumentation is not that they do not understand the thruth and the themes of goodness and reform being presented before them in the form of the revelations of Allah; therefore, they dispute about them in good faith in order to understand them. But the actual reason for their wrong attitude is that their selfconceit does not permit any tolerance. They do not want that in Arabia the guidance and leadership of Muhammad (peace be upon him) should be accepted and acknowledged. And ultimately one day they themselves should have to accept the leadership of the person against whom they think they have a greater right to be the chiefs and leaders. That is why they are straining every nerve not to let Muhammad (peace be upon him) have his way, and they do not hesitate to use any mean device whatsoever for the purpose.

76. In other words it means: He whom Allah has made great, will remain great, and the efforts of the small people who are trying to establish their superiority will ultimately end in failure.

77. That is, just as Moses (peace be upon him) had become free from fear and anxiety after invoking Allah Almighty’s help and refuge against Pharaoh’s threats, so should you also seek His help and refuge against the threats and conspiracies of the chiefs of the Quraish, then should busy yourself in raising His word being free from every anxiety.

78. After reviewing the conspiracies and plots of the chiefs of the Quraish in (verses 21-56), the address is now being directed towards the common people, and they are being made to understand that the truths to which Muhammad (peace be upon him) is inviting them, are absolutely rational, as if to say: Your own good and well-being lies in accepting them, and rejecting them is ruinous for your own selves. In this connection, first of all arguments have been given for the doctrine of the Hereafter, for the disbelievers regarded this very doctrine as most bewildering and incomprehensible.

79. This is an argument for the possibility of the Hereafter. The disbelievers thought it was impossible for man to be resurrected after death. In answer to this, it is being said: Those who talk like this are, in fact, ignorant. If they use their common sense, they will easily understand that for that God Who has created this wonderful Universe it cannot at all be difficult to create men once again.

80. This is an argument for the necessity of the Hereafter. In the preceding sentence it was said that the Hereafter can take place, and its occurrence is not impossible. In this it is being said that the Hereafter should take place. It is the demand of both reason and justice that it should occur, and its nonoccurrence is against reason and justice. After all, how can a reasonable man believe it to be right that those who live like the blind in the world and fill God’s earth with mischief by their immoral and wicked deeds, should not see the evil end of their misdeeds and wrong conduct. Likewise, those people who pass their lives in the world with open eyes, and believe and do good works, should be deprived of seeing a good result of their righteousness? If this is expressly against reason and justice, then the belief of denying the Hereafter also should be against reason and justice, for the non-occurrence of the Hereafter means that the good and the bad should both become dust after death and meet with one and the same end. For in this case, not only are reason and justice destroyed but morality also is proved to be meaningless and absurd. For if good and evil have one and the same end and destiny, then the evildoer would be highly wise, because he gratified all his desires before his death, and the good man highly foolish because he kept himself subjected to every sort of moral restoration without any reason.

81. This is the absolute assertion about the occurrence of the Hereafter, which can be made only on the basis of knowledge and not on the basis of reasoning, and in no other discourse than of revelation this assertion can be made with such absoluteness. That which can be said without revelation only on the basis of intellectual reasoning is that Resurrection can take place and it should take place. Beyond this, to assert that Resurrection will certainly take place, can be said only by that Being Who knows that Resurrection will occur, and that Being is none but Allah. It is here that it becomes explicit and evident that if religion can be based on pure knowledge, instead of speculation and reasoning, it can only be on the knowledge obtained through divine revelation.

82. After the Hereafter, the discourse now turns to Tauhid which was the second point of dispute between the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the disbelievers.

83. That is, all the powers to answer our prayers rest in Me only; so you should not pray to others but pray to Me. To understand the spirit of this verse well, three points should be comprehended properly:

First, man prays only to that being whom he regards as All- Hearing and All-Seeing and Possessor of supernatural powers. And the real motive of prayer for man is the internal feeling that the natural means and resources of the material world are not enough to remove any of his troubles and to fulfill any of his needs, or are not proving to be enough. Therefore, it is inevitable that he should turn to a being who is possessor of supernatural powers and authority. Man invokes that Being even without having seen Him; he invokes Him at all times, at all places, and under all circumstances; he invokes Him in solitude, aloud as well as in a low voice, and even in the depths of his heart. He does so inevitably on the basis of the belief that that Being is watching him everywhere, is also hearing whatever he has in his heart, and possesses such absolute powers that, it can come to the help of the supplicant wherever he is, and can help him out of every trouble and difficulty. After having known this truth about the prayer, it remains no longer difficult for man to understand that the one who invokes another than Allah for help, commits shirk absolutely and purely and clearly, for he believes those attributes to be belonging to the other being, which only belong to Allah. Had he not believed the other being to be an associate of Allah in the divine attributes, he would never have even thought of invoking it for help.

Second, one should fully understand that man’s merely thinking about a being that it is the possessor of powers and authority, does not necessitate that it should actually become possessor of the powers and authority. Being possessor of powers and authority is a factual matter, which is not dependent on somebody’s understanding or not understanding it. The one who is actually the Possessor of the powers will in any case remain the Possessor whether man regards Him so or not. And the one who is not in reality the possessor, will not be able to have any share whatever in the powers only because man has believed it to be possessing the powers. Now, the fact of the matter is that the Being Who is All-Powerful, All-Hearing, All-Seeing, and Who is actually controlling the whole Universe is only Allah, and He alone is Possessor of all powers and authority. There is none else in this Universe, who may have any power to hear the prayers and to answer them or reject them. As against this factual matter, if some people of themselves start entertaining the belief that some prophets, saints, angels, jinns, planets or imaginary gods also are share-holders in the powers, the reality will not change in any way whatsoever. The Owner will remain the Owner and the helpless servants will remain the servants.

Thirdly, the one who invokes others than Allah behaves like the supplicant who takes his petition to a government office, but leaving aside the real officer who has authority, presents it before one of the other supplicants who may be present there with his petition, and then starts imploring him humbly, saying: you possess all the powers, and yours is the only authority here; so, you alone can fulfill my needs. Such a conduct, in the first place, is in itself highly foolish, but in a case like this it also amounts to high insolence, because the real officer who has the authority, is present and before his very eyes applications and petitions are being made before another, apart from him. Then this ignorance and folly reaches its height when the person before whom the petition is being presented makes the petitioner understand over and over again that he himself is a petitioner like him and possesses no power at all, and that the real officer who has the powers is present, and he should make his petition before him. But in spite of this counsel and warning, the foolish person goes on saying: You are my lord, you alone can fulfill my need.

Keeping these three things in view, one should try to understand what Allah has said here: Call upon Me, I shall answer your prayers, it is for Me to accept them.

84. Two things deserve special attention in this verse:

(1) Dua (prayer) and ibadat (worship) have been used as synonyms here. The prayer of the first sentence has been called worship in the second. This makes it explicit that prayer itself is worship, rather the essence of worship.

(2) The words “Who disdain My worship” have been used for those who do not pray to Allah. This shows that praying to Allah is the very requirement of one’s servitude to Him, and turning away from Him amounts to being vain and arrogant.

According to Numan bin Bashir, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: The prayer is the very essence of worship. Then he recited this verse. (Ahmad, Tirmidhi, Abu Daud, Nasai, Ibn Majah, Ibn Abu Hatim, Ibn Jarir). According to Anas, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Prayer is the marrow of worship. (Trimidhi). Abu Hurairah says that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Allah becomes angry with him who does not ask Him for anything. (Tirmidhi).

In the light of the above, the enigma that often causes confusion in the minds is also resolved. In connection with prayer, people say that when the evil or the good destiny is in the control of Allah and whatever He has already decreed in accordance with His dominant wisdom and expedience has to take place inevitably. What is then the use of the prayer? This is a serious misunderstanding which destroys the importance of prayer from the heart of man, and with this false notion even if man prays, his prayer would be soulless. The above verse of the Quran removes this misunderstanding in two ways:

In the first place, Allah says in clear words: Call upon Me: I will answer your prayers. This proves that fate or destiny is not something which, God forbid, might have tied the hands of Allah Himself also, and the powers to answer the prayer might have been withdrawn from Him. The creatures have no power to avert or change the decrees of Allah: but Allah Himself certainly has the power to change His decrees and decisions on hearing a servant’s prayer and petition. The other thing that has been stated in this verse is that whether a prayer is accepted or not, it is never without an advantage. The servant by presenting his petition before his Lord and by praying to Him acknowledges His Lordship and Supremacy and admits his own servitude and helplessness before Him. This expression of servitude is in itself worship, rather the essence of worship of whose reward the servant will in no case be deprived, irrespective of whether he is granted the particular thing for which he had prayed or not.

We get a full explanation of these two themes in the sayings of the Prophet (peace be upon him). The following traditions throw light on the first theme. Salman Farsi relates that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Nothing can avert destiny but the prayer. (Tirmidhi). That is, no one has the power to change the decisions of Allah but Allah Himself can change His decisions, and this happens when the servant prays to Him.

Jabir bin Abdullah says that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Whenever man prays to Allah, Allah either gives him the same which he prayed for, or prevents a calamity of the same degree from befalling him provided that he does not pray for a sin or for severing relations with the kindred. (Tirmidhi). Another Hadith on the same subject has been reported by Abu Saeed Khudri in which the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Whenever a Muslim prays, unless it be a prayer for a sin or for severing relations with a kindred, Allah grants it in one of the three ways: Either his prayer is granted in this very world, or it is preserved for rewarding him in the Hereafter, or a disaster of the same degree is prevented from befalling him. (Musnad Ahmad).

Abu Hurairah says that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Whenever one of you prays, he should not say: O God, forgive me if You so please, show me mercy if You so please, grant me provisions if You so please, but he should say definitely: O God, fulfill my such and such need. (Bukhari). According to another tradition from Abu Hurairah, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Pray to Allah with the certainty that He will answer it. (Tirmidhi). In still another tradition Abu Hurairah has reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: The servant’s prayer is granted provided that he does not pray for a sin or for severing connections with the kindred, and is not hasty. It was asked: What is being hasty, O Messenger of Allah? He replied: Being hasty is that man should say: I have prayed much, too much, but I see that my prayer is nor being answered. Then he should be tired of it and give up praying. (Muslim). The other theme is explained by the following traditions:

Abu Hurairah relates that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Nothing is as praiseworthy in the sight of Allah as the prayer. (Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah).

Ibn Masud says that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Ask of Allah His bounty, because Allah likes that He should be asked. (Tirmidhi).

Ibn Umar and Muadh bin Jabal state that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: The prayer is in any case beneficial, both with respect to those calamities which have descended and with respect to those which have not yet descended. So, O servants of Allah, you must always pray. (Tirmidhi, Musnad Ahmad). Anas says that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Each one of you should ask his every need of Allah; so much so that even if his shoe-lace breaks, he should pray for it to Allah. (Tirmidhi). That is, even in matters which man feels are in his own power, he should invoke Allah’s help for it before planning his own devices for it, for in no matter can man succeed only on the basis of his own devices without the help and succor of Allah, and praying before devising plans means that the servant is at all times acknowledging the supremacy of Allah and admitting his own helplessness.


62-68 No one has the right to be worshipped except Allah, the Creator and the Rabb of the worlds


(40:62) Allah (Who bestowed all these favours upon you) is your Lord, the Creator of everything. There is no god but He.86 Whence are you, then, being led astray?87 (40:63) Thus it is only those who had denied Allah’s Signs that were led astray.88 (40:64) Allah it is Who made the earth a dwelling place for you89 and made the sky a canopy,90 Who shaped you and shaped you exceedingly well
and gave you good things as sustenance.91 That is Allah, your Lord; blessed be Allah, the Lord of the Universe. (40:65) He is the Ever-Living:92 there is no god but He. So call upon Him, consecrating to Him all your devotion.93 All praise and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of the whole Universe.94 (40:66) Say, (O Prophet): “I have been forbidden to worship those beside Allah whom you call upon.95 (How can I worship any beside Allah) when clear Signs have come to me from my Lord and I have been commanded to surrender to Allah, the Lord of the Universe?” (40:67) He it is Who created you from dust, then from a sperm-drop, then from a clot; then He brings you out as an infant, then causes you to grow into full maturity, and then causes you to grow further so that you may reach old age, while some of you He recalls earlier.96 All this is in order that you may reach an appointed term97 and that you may understand (the Truth).98 (40:68) He it is Who gives life and causes death. Whenever He decrees a thing, He only commands to it “Be”, and it is.


86. That is, the alternation of the night and day has proved that Allah alone is your Creator as well as of everything else, and the great advantage and benefits that accrue from this alternation for your life, prove that He is your highly Beneficent Lord. After this, it automatically follows that He is your real Deity too. For, it would be entirely against reason and justice that your Creator and Provider should be Allah and your deities others.

87. That is, who is misleading you to think that those who are neither the creators nor providers should deserve to be worshiped by you.

88. That is, in every age the common people have been deluded by the misguides only because the people did not believe in the revelations that Allah sent down through His Messengers to make them understand the truth. Consequently; they were trapped by the selfish, dishonest people, who had set up shrines of false gods as a business.

89. For explanation, see (Surah An-Naml, Ayat 61 and E.N. 74 )on it.

90. That is, you have not been exposed to outer space so that heavenly calamities should rain on you and annihilate you completely, but We have built over the earth a fully fortified celestial system (which appears like a dome to the eye), which does not allow any destructive element to reach you; so much so that even the destructive cosmic rays cannot reach you and that is how you are living peacefully on the earth.

91. That is, We had provided for you such a safe and peaceful place of rest even before your creation. Then We created you and gave you a fine body with most appropriate limbs and physical and mental powers of a high caliber. You did not create this erect stature, these hands and feet, these eyes and nose and ears, this talking tongue and this brain, which is a treasure-house of great capabilities, nor were these created by your mother and father, nor a prophet, or a saint, or a god had the power to create them. Their Maker and Creator was the All-Wise, All-Merciful, All-Mighty Sovereign, Who created Man with this wonderful body to function in the world, when He decided to bring him into being. Then as soon as you were created, you found by His beneficence a vast table laid out with pure provisions containing items of pure food which is not poisonous but health-giving, which is not bitter and tasteless but tasty, which is not rotten and stale and stinking but good smelling, which is not lifeless dregs but rich in vitamins and useful organic substances, so essential for the proper development and nourishment of yew body. Who has provided in such abundance this water, and corn, vegetables, fruits, milk, honey, meat and condiments, which not only add relish to your food but also provide you vitality and pleasures of life? And who has made the arrangements that these measureless granaries of food should go on coming out from the earth endlessly and their supply should never fail? Just consider this: What would have become of life if there had been no arrangement of food and man had been brought into existence suddenly? Is this not a clear proof that Your Creator is not merely a Creator but is an All-Wise Creator and All-Merciful Lord? (For further explanation, see (Surah Houd, Ayat 6); (Surah An-Naml, Ayats 60-66) and the E.Ns thereof):

92. That is, His is the real and true life. He only is living by virtue of His own power. No one else has the eternal and everlasting lift but Him. All others have borrowed and temporary life, which is destined to death and perishable.

93. For explanation, see (E.Ns 3, 4 of Surah Az-Zumar).

94. That is, there is none else the hymns of whose praise may be sung and who may be thanked.

95. Here again ibadat (worship) and dua (prayer) have been used as synonyms.

96. That is, someone dies before birth, and someone before attaining youth, and someone before reaching old age.

97. “An appointed term” may either imply the time of death, or the time when all human beings will be resurrected and presented before their Lord. In the first case, the meaning would be: Allah passes every man through different stages of life and takes him to the specific time which He has appointed for everyone’s return. Before that time even if the whole world joins to kill him, it cannot kill him; and when that time has arrived, none can keep him alive even if all the powers of the world join together to do so. In the second case, it would mean: This gamut of life has not been brought about so that man may end up in the dust and be completely annihilated, but Allah passes him through different stages of life so that all human beings may present themselves before Him at the time which He has appointed for the purpose.

98. That is, you are not being passed through these different stages of lift so that you may live as the animals live and die as they die, but for the purpose that you may use your common sense which Allah has granted you and then understand the system in which you are living. The creation of a wonderful thing like life from the lifeless substances of the earth, then the coming into being of a marvelous creation like man from the microscopic germ of the sperm, then its developing inside the mother’s womb, from the time of conception till delivery, in such a manner that its sex, its form and appearance, its bodily structure, its mental qualifications and characteristics, and its faculties and capabilities should be determined therein, uninfluenced by any external factor or agency. Then the one who is to be eliminated by abortion does fall a prey to abortion. The one who is to die in infancy, does die in infancy, whether he be the child of a king. And the one who is to reach maturity or old age, does reach that age, even through highly dangerous conditions, in which death should be certain. And the one who is to die in a particular stage of life, does die in that stage even if he is given the best medical attention and treatment in the best hospitals by the best doctors. Are not all these things pointing to the truth that the ultimate control of life and death is in the hand of an all-Mighty Sovereign? And when the reality is this that an All-Powerful Being is controlling the life and death, then how did a prophet or a saint or an angel or a star or planet become worthy of worship and service? When did a creature attain the rank that we should pray to it, and accept it as the maker and un-maker of our destiny? And how did a human power have the status that we should obey its commands and prohibitions and its self-made law about the lawful and the unlawful, without question? (For further explanation, see (Surah Al-Hajj, Ayats 5-7) and the E.Ns on it).


69-78 Those who argue about the revelations of Allah, will soon find out the Truth and Allah has sent many Rasools before Muhammad; some are mentioned in AL-Quran and some are not


(40:69) Did you not see those who dispute concerning Allah’s Signs? Whence are they, then, being turned astray?99 (40:70) Those who gave the lie to this Book and all the Books which We had sent with Our Messengers100 shall soon come to know the Truth (40:71) when fetters and chains shall be on their necks, and they shall be dragged into (40:72) boiling water, and cast into the Fire.101 (40:73) It will then be said to them: “Where are those whom you (40:74) associated with Allah in His Divinity?”102 They will say: “We have lost them; rather, we never used to call upon anyone before.”103 Thus will Allah cause them to stumble in error. (40:75) (They will be told): “This is because while you were on earth you took delight in untruth and exulted in it.104 (40:76) Enter Hell now to abide in it. How woeful is the abode of those who wax proud! (40:77) So be patient,105 (O Prophet). Surely Allah’s promise is true. Whether We show them a part of the woeful consequences against which We warn them (while you are still in their midst) or We recall you (from this world) before that, eventually it is to Us that they shall be brought back.106 (40:78) Indeed We sent many Messengers before you: of them there are some whose account We have narrated to you and there are others whose account We have not narrated to you.107 It did not lie in any Messenger’s power to bring any Sign108 except with Allah’s leave. So when Allah’s decree came, the matter was decided with justice, and those steeped in error courted utter loss,109 then and there.


99. That is, have you not understood even after the above discourse what is the real source of these people’s misunderstanding and misconduct, and what has caused them to go astray? (One should note that the addressee here is not the Prophet (peace be upon him) but every such person who reads these verses or hears them read).

100. This is the real cause of their going astray. Their denial of the Quran and the teachings brought by the Messenger (peace be upon him) of Allah and their resisting by disputation the revelations of Allah instead of pondering over them seriously, was the basic cause, which has led them astray and exhausted all possibilities of their adopting the right way.

101. That is, when compelled by the intensity of thirst they will ask for water, the keepers of Hell will drag them by the chains towards the springs of boiling water, and when they will have drunk from them, they will drag them back to be cast into the fire of Hell.

102. That is, if they really were gods or associates in Godhead, and you worshiped them in the hope that they would help you in the evil time, then why don’t they come to rescue you now?

103. They do not mean to say, we did not associate them with God in the world, but they mean: Now we have understood well that those whom we invoked in the world were nothing and mere nonentities.

104. That is, you not only followed that which was untrue and false, but you became so enamored of the untruth that when the truth was presented before you, you paid no heed to it, but continued to exult in your worship of the falsehood.

105. That is, you should have patience at what those people say and do, who are opposing you by disputation and wrangling and want to defeat you by mean devices.

106. That is, it is not necessary that We should punish every such person who has tried to harm you, in this world and during yow lifetime. Whether a person receives his punishment here or not, he cannot in any case escape our grasp: He has to return to Us after death. Then he will receive full punishment of his misdeeds.

107. A new theme starts from here. The disbelievers of Makkah said to the Prophet (peace be upon him): We would not believe you to be Allah’s Messenger unless you showed us the miracle that we ask you to show us. In the following verses an answer is being given to this very demand without mentioning it. (For the type of the miracles they demanded, see (Surah Houd, Ayat 12); (Surah Al-Hijr, Ayat 7); (Surah Bani Israil, Ayats 90-93); (Surah Al-Furqan, Ayat 21) and the E.Ns thereof).

108. That is, no Prophet ever showed a miracle by his own will and desire, nor had any Prophet the power to show a miracle by himself. Whenever a miracle was shown through a Prophet, it was shown when Allah willed it to be shown through him to the disbelievers. This is the first answer to the disbelievers’ demand.

109. That is, a miracle has never been shown for the mere fun of it. It is a decisive thing. If a nation does not believe even after a miracle has been shown, it is destroyed. You are demanding a miracle only for the sake of fun, but you have no idea that by making such a demand you are, in fact, inviting your own doom. This is the second answer to their demand. (For details, please see (Surah Al-Hijr, Ayats 8, 58-60); (Surah Bani Israil, Ayat 59); (Surah Al-Anbiya, Ayats 5-9); (Surah Al-Furqan, Ayats 22-23); (Surah Ash- Shuara, Ayats 66-67) and the E.Ns thereof).


79-85 Cattle are the signs of Allah for the people of understanding and Belief after seeing the scourge of Allah is of no avail to the disbelievers


(40:79) Allah it is Who has made cattle for you so that you ride some of them and from some of them you derive food. (40:80) In them there are also other benefits for you, and through them you fulfil your heartfelt need (to reach places), and you are borne along upon them as upon the ships. (40:81) Allah shows His Signs to you; then which of Allah’s Signs will you deny?110 (40:82) Did111 they not journey in the land that they may behold the end of those who had gone before them? They were more numerous and greater in strength and left behind more splendid traces in the land. Yet their attainments did not avail them. (40:83) When their Messengers came to them with Clear Signs, they arrogantly exulted in whatever knowledge they had.112 They were then encompassed by what they had mocked. (40:84) When they saw Our chastisement, they said: “We have come to believe in Allah, the Only One, and we reject all what we had associated (with Allah in His Divinity).” (40:85) But their believing after they had seen Our chastisement did not avail them. That has been Allah’s Way concerning His servants.113 And the unbelievers courted utter loss, then and there.


110. It means this: If you are not demanding a miracle only for the sake of fun and amusement but want to have the satisfaction whether that to which Muhammad (peace be upon him) is inviting you (i.e. Tauhid and the Hereafter) is true or not, then God’s those signs which you are observing and experiencing at all times, are quite enough. For there remains no need for other signs when there are these signs to help you understand the truth. This is the third answer to their demand of the miracles. This answer also has been given at several places in the Quran and we have given detailed commentary on it. ( (See Surah Al-Anaam, Ayats 37-39); (Surah Younus, Ayat 101); (Surah Ar-Raad, Ayats 7- 13); (Surah Ash-Shuara, Ayats 4-9) and the E.Ns thereof).

The animals which serve man on the earth, especially the cow, ox, buffalo, sheep, goat, camel and horse, have been created with such nature by the Creator that they easily become man’s domestic pet servants and he uses them to fulfill countless of his needs. He rides on them, employs them for carrying loads and in agriculture, get milk from them which he drinks and also uses it for making curd, butter, oil, condensed milk, cheese and different sorts of confectioneries; eats their flesh, uses their fat, and puts to good uses their wool and hair and skin and intestines and bones, even their blood and dung. Is it not a manifest proof that the Creator of man has created these animals even before creating him in view of his countless needs, on a special pattern so that he may use them to advantage?

The three-fourths of the earth’s surface is under water and only one-fourth is dry land. In the dry parts also there are small and wide tracts of land which are separated by water. The spreading of human populations on the dry lands and the establishment of commercial and other relations between them could not be possible unless water and oceans and winds were made subject to such laws as would make navigation possible, and such materials were made available on the earth, which man could employ for building ships. Is it not an express sign that there is One God and only One All-Powerful, All-Merciful and All-Wise Lord, Who has made man and earth and water and oceans and winds and everything on the earth according to His own special scheme? Rather, if man only considers from the viewpoint of navigation, how the positions of the stars and regular movements of the planets are helpful in it, he will have the testimony that not only of the earth but of the heavens also that the Creator is the same One Bountiful Lord.

Then, consider also this: Can you in your right senses imagine that the All-Wise God, Who has given His countless things in the control of man and has granted him all these provisions for his well-being, will be, God forbid, so blind of the eye and so thoughtless as would never call man to account after giving him all this?

111. This is the conclusion to the discourse. While studying this please also keep in view( verses 4-5) and( verse 21) of this Surah.

112. That is, they took their philosophy and their science, their law, their secular sciences and their mythology and theology invented by their religious guides as the real knowledge, and regarded the Knowledge brought by the Prophets of Allah as worthless and therefore paid no heed to it.

113. “Allah’s established way”: the Law that repentance and faith are beneficial only till the time man is not seized by the torment of Allah or death. Believing or repenting after the torment has arrived or the signs of death have appeared, is not acceptable to Allah.