Surah Hashr >> Currently viewing Surah Hashr Ayat 6 (59:6)

Surah Hashr Ayat 6 in Arabic Text

وَمَآ أَفَآءَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِۦ مِنْهُمْ فَمَآ أَوْجَفْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ خَيْلٍۢ وَلَا رِكَابٍۢ وَلَـٰكِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُسَلِّطُ رُسُلَهُۥ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَآءُ ۚ وَٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىْءٍۢ قَدِيرٌۭ
Wa maaa afaaa’al laahu ‘alaaa Rasoolihee minhum famaaa awjaftum ‘alaihi min khailiinw wa laa rikaabinw wa laakinnal laaha yusallitu Rusulahoo ‘alaa many yashaaa’; wallaahu ‘alaa kulli shai’in Qadeer

English Translation

Here you can read various translations of verse 6

Sahih International
And what Allah restored [of property] to His Messenger from them – you did not spur for it [in an expedition] any horses or camels, but Allah gives His messengers power over whom He wills, and Allah is over all things competent.

Yusuf Ali
What Allah has bestowed on His Messenger (and taken away) from them – for this ye made no expedition with either cavalry or camelry: but Allah gives power to His messengers over any He pleases: and Allah has power over all things.

Abul Ala Maududi
Whatever Allah has taken away from them and bestowed (as spoils) on His Messenger for which you spurred neither horses nor camels; but Allah grants authority to His Messengers over whomsoever He pleases. Allah has power over everything.

Muhsin Khan
And what Allah gave as booty (Fai’) to His Messenger (Muhammad SAW) from them, for which you made no expedition with either cavalry or camelry. But Allah gives power to His Messengers over whomsoever He wills. And Allah is Able to do all things.

Pickthall
And that which Allah gave as spoil unto His messenger from them, ye urged not any horse or riding-camel for the sake thereof, but Allah giveth His messenger lordship over whom He will. Allah is Able to do all things.

Dr. Ghali
And whatever (spoils) Allah has conceded His Messenger from them, then in no way did you (The pronoun is plure) agitate either horses or riding beasts; (i.e., you did not use cavalry or comelry to take spoils) but Allah gives authority to His Messengers over whomever He decides; and Allah is EverDeterminer over everything.

Abdel Haleem
You [believers] did not have to spur on your horses or your camels for whatever gains God turned over to His Messenger from them. God gives authority to His messengers over whoever He will: God has power over all things.

Quran 59 Verse 6 Explanation

For those looking for commentary to help with the understanding of Surah Hashr ayat 6, we’ve provided two Tafseer works below. The first is the tafseer of Abul Ala Maududi, the second is of Ibn Kathir.

Ala-Maududi

(59:6) Whatever Allah has taken away from them and bestowed (as spoils) on His Messenger[11] for which you spurred neither horses nor camels; but Allah grants authority to His Messengers over whomsoever He pleases. Allah has power over everything.[12]


11. From here to the end of verse 10, Allah explains how the lands and properties that were restored to the Islamic State after the exile of the Bani an-Nadir, are to be managed and administered. As it was the first occasion that a land was conquered and included in the Islamic territory, and many more lands were destined to be conquered in the future, the law governing the conquered lands was enunciated at the outset. Here, a note-worthy point is that Allah at this place has used the words: Ma-afa-Allahu ala Rasuli-hi-min-hum: Whatever Allah restored to His Messenger from them. These words clearly imply that the rebels of Allah Almighty are not entitled to own the earth and things existing on it. If they have become their owners and are appropriating them, their ownership and appropriation of these things is, in fact, in the nature of usurpation of a master’s property by a dishonest servant. The real right of these properties is that these should be spent and used in the service and obedience of their real Master, Allah, Lord of the worlds, according to His will, and their this use is possible only through the agency of the righteous believers. Therefore, the true position of the properties which pass from the ownership of the disbelievers into the hands of the Muslims as the result of a lawful war, is that their real Owner has withdrawn them from His disobedient and disloyal servants, and restored them to His obedient and loyal servants. That is why, in the terminology of the Islamic Law such properties have been described as Fai (restored properties).

12. That is, the restoration of these properties to the Muslims is not the result of the effort of the actual fighting army so that the army on that basis may have the right that the properties may be distributed among the soldiers, but its real nature is that Allah by His bounty has given dominance to His Messengers and the system that they represent over them. In other words, the passing of these properties into the Muslims’ hands is not the direct result of the effort and struggle of the fighting army, but the result of the total strength that Allah has bestowed on His Messenger and his community and the system established by him. Therefore, these properties are quite different in nature from the spoils of war and so cannot be distributed among the soldiers as such.

Thus, the Shariah has made a distinction between ghanimah (spoils of war) and fai (restored properties). The injunction in respect of the ghanimah has been given in Surah Al-Anfal, Ayat 41, and it is this: It should be divided in five parts, four parts of which be distributed among the fighting army and the fifth deposited in the Public Treasury (Bait al-Mal), and expended on the items mentioned in the verse. As for the fai, the injunction is that it should not be distributed among the army, but it should be reserved for the items of expenditure being stated in the following verse. The distinction between the two has been made plain by the words: You have not rushed your horses and camels on them, which imply the military operations. Thus, the properties which are taken as a direct result of such operations are the ghanimah and those which are not the result of these operations are the fai. The distinction between ghanimah and fai that has been mentioned in this verse, has been explained in greater detail by the jurists of Islam. Ghanimah are only those transferable properties which are taken from the enemy during military action; other than these things, e.g. lands, houses and other transferable and nontransferable properties of the enemy, are excluded from the definition of ghanimah and are fai. The source of this explanation is the letter that Umar had written to Saad bin Abi Waqqas after the conquest of Iraq. In that letter he wrote: Distribute the properties and goods which the soldiers of the army collected and brought to your camp among the Muslims who participated in the war, and leave the lands and the canals with those who work on them so that the proceeds thereof are used for the salaries of the Muslims. (Abu Yusuf, Kitab al-Kharaj, p. 24; Abu Ubaid, Kitab al-Amwal, p. 59; Yahya bin Adam, Kitab al-Kharaj, pp. 27-28, 48). On this very basis, Hasan Basri says: Whatever is taken from the enemy camp is the right of those who won victory over it, and the lands are for the Muslims. (Yahya bin Adam, p. 27). And Imam Abu Yusuf says: Whatever the Muslims take from the enemy troops, and whatever goods and arms and cattle they collect and bring to their camp is ghanimah; from this one-fifth will be deducted and the rest distributed among the soldiers. (Kitab al-Kharaj, p. 18). The same is the opinion of Yahya bin Adam, which he has expressed in his Kitab al- Kharaj (p. 27). Even more than this, what makes the distinction between ghanimah and fai is that after the Battle of Nahawand when the ghanimah had been distributed and the conquered lands had been included in the Islamic State, a man named Saib bin Aqra found two bags of jewels outside the fort. He was confused whether it was the ghanimah which should be distributed in the army, or the fai which should be deposited in the Bait al-Mal. Consequently, he came to Al-Madinah and put the matter before Umar, who decided that it should be sold and the price should be deposited in the Bait al-Mal. From this it becomes clear that ghanimah are only those transferable properties which are taken by the soldiers during the war. After the war is over, the transferable properties also, like the nontransferable properties, become fai. Imam Abu Ubaid relates this event and says: The properties that are seized from the enemy by the use of force, when the war is still in progress, are ghanimah and what is taken after the war is over, when the territory has become dar al-Islam (abode of Islam), is fai, which should be reserved for the common people of the dar al-Islam; the law of the one-fifth (khums) will not be applicable to it. (Kitab al-Amwal p. 254).

After defining ghanimah thus, the rest of the properties, wealth and lands, which pass from the disbelievers ownership to the Muslims may be divided into two main kinds, first those which are taken as a result of actual fighting (fanwatan in Fiqh terminology); second, those which are taken by the Muslims as a result of the peace terms whether peace is concluded because of the pressure of the military power of the Muslims, or their dread and awe, and in this are also included all those properties which pass into the Muslims ownership in every other way than as a result of actual fighting. The differences that have arisen among the jurists of Islam have been only concerning the first kind of the properties in order to determine their correct legal position, for they do not come under those upon which you have not rushed your horses and camels. As regards to the second kind of the properties, all agree that they are fai, for the Quran has explicitly laid down the injunction about them. Below we shall discuss in detail the legal position of the first kind of the properties.

Ibn-Kathir

6. And what Allah gave as booty (Fai’) to His Messenger from them — for this you made no expedition with either cavalry or camelry. But Allah gives power to His Messengers over whomsoever He wills. And Allah is Able to do all things. 7. What Allah gave as booty (Fai’) to His Messenger from the people of the townships — it is for Allah, His Messenger, the kindred, the orphans, the poor, and the wayfarer, in order that it may not become a fortune used by the rich among you. And whatsoever the Messenger gives you, take it; and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it). And have Taqwa of Allah, verily, Allah is Severe in punishment.


The Fai’ and how it is spent

Allah the Exalted explains the regulations for Fai’, the booty that the Muslims acquire from the disbelievers, without fighting them or using cavalry and camelry in war against them. For instance, the booty collected from Bani An-Nadir was not acquired because of fighting them using horses and camels. The Muslims did not fight Bani An-Nadir in battle, but Allah forced them out of their forts on account of the fear that He placed in their hearts for Allah’s Messenger . Therefore, it was Fai’ that Allah awarded His Messenger, with his discretion to spend it however he sees fit. Indeed, the Prophet spent the Fai’ on righteous causes and for the benefit of Muslims in the areas that Allah mentioned in this Ayat,

﴿وَمَآ أَفَآءَ اللَّهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ مِنْهُمْ﴾

(And what Allah gave as booty (Fai’) to His Messenger from them) meaning, from Bani An-Nadir,

﴿فَمَآ أَوْجَفْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ خَيْلٍ وَلاَ رِكَابٍ﴾

(for this you made no expedition with either cavalry or camelry.) refering to using camels,

﴿وَلَـكِنَّ اللَّهَ يُسَلِّطُ رُسُلَهُ عَلَى مَن يَشَآءُ وَاللَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ﴾

(But Allah gives power to His Messengers over whomsoever He wills. And Allah is Able to do all things.) mean, Allah is powerful and cannot be resisted or opposed; He is the Compeller over all things. Allah the Exalted said,

﴿مَّآ أَفَآءَ اللَّهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْقُرَى﴾

(What Allah gave as booty (Fai’) to His Messenger from the people of the townships) meaning, from all the villages and areas that are conquered in this manner; the booty collected from them falls under the same ruling as the booty acquired from Bani An-Nadir. This is why Allah the Exalted said,

﴿فَلِلَّهِ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِى الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَـكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ﴾

(it is for Allah, His Messenger, the kindred, the orphans, the poor, and the wayfarer,) until its end and the following Ayah. mentioning the ways the Fai’ should be spent. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Umar said, “The wealth of Bani An-Nadir was of the Fai’ type that Allah awarded His Messenger and for which the Muslims did not have to use cavalry or camelry. Therefore, it was for the Messenger of Allah , and he used it for the needs of his family for a year at a time, and the rest was used to buy armors and weapons used in the cause of Allah the Exalted and Most Honored.” Ahmad collected the short form of this story. The Group, with the exception of Ibn Majah, collected this Hadith. Abu Dawud recorded that Malik bin `Aws said,”While I was at home, the sun rose high and it got hot. Suddenly the messenger of `Umar bin Al-Khattab came to me and I went along with him and entered the place where `Umar was sitting on a bedstead made of date-palm leaves and without a mattress. He said when I went in, `O Malik! Some of your people’s families came to me due to their famine, and I have ordered that relief aid should be given to them, so take it and distribute it among them.’ I said, `I wish that you ordered someone else to do it.’ He said, `Take it.’ Then Yarfa (the servant of `Umar) came saying, `O Commander of the faithful! May I admit `Uthman bin `Affan, `Abdur-Rahman bin `Awf, Az-Zubayr bin Al-`Awwam and Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas’ `Umar said, `Yes,’ and they came in. After a while Yarfa came again and said, `O Commander of the faithful! May I admit Al-`Abbas and `Ali’ `Umar said, `Yes.’ So, they were admitted and Al-`Abbas said, `O Chief of the believers! Judge between me and this one (i.e., `Ali).’ The group (being `Uthman and his companions) said, `O Chief of the believers! Judge between them and relieve both of them from each other.’ I (Malik bin Aws) thought that they asked the four men to come in before them for this purpose. `Umar said, `Be patient!’ He then asked the group (`Uthman and his companions), `I ask you by Allah by Whose permission the heaven and the earth exist, do you know that Allah’s Messenger said,

«لَا نُورَثُ، مَا تَرَكْنَا صَدَقَة»

(Our (the Prophet’s) property will not be inherited. Whatever we leave, is charity)’ The group said, `He said so.’ `Umar then turned to `Ali and Al-`Abbas and said, `I beseech you by Allah by Whose permission the heaven and the earth exist, do you know both that Allah’s Messenger said,

«لَا نُورَثُ، مَا تَرَكْنَا صَدَقَة»

(Our (the Prophets`) property will not be inherited. Whatever we leave, is charity)’ They replied, `He said so.’ `Umar then said, `Allah bestowed on His Messenger a special favor unlike what he gave all other people. Allah the Exalted said,

﴿وَمَآ أَفَآءَ اللَّهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ مِنْهُمْ فَمَآ أَوْجَفْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ خَيْلٍ وَلاَ رِكَابٍ وَلَـكِنَّ اللَّهَ يُسَلِّطُ رُسُلَهُ عَلَى مَن يَشَآءُ وَاللَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرٌ ﴾

(And what Allah gave as booty (Fai’) to His Messenger from them — for this you made no expedition with either cavalry or camelry. But Allah gives power to His Messengers over whomsoever He wills. And Allah is Able to do all things.) Therefore, this property, the booty collected from Bani An-Nadir, was especially given to Allah’s Messenger . However, by Allah, neither did he take possession of it and leave you, nor did he favor himself with it to your exclusion. Allah’s Messenger took the yearly expenses from it for himself and his family and left the rest in the Muslim Treasury.’ He then asked the group, `I ask you by Allah with Whose permission the heavens and earth exist, do you know this’ They replied, `Yes.’ `Umar then said to `Ali and Al-`Abbas, `I ask you by Allah, with Whose permission that heavens and earth exist, do you know this’ They said, `Yes.’ `Umar added, `When Allah took His Prophet unto Him, Abu Bakr said: I am the successor of Allah’s Messenger ! Then you both came to Abu Bakr asking for your (Al-`Abbas’) share of inheritance from your nephew, and he (`Ali) asked for his wife’s share from her father’s inheritance. Abu Bakr said: Allah’s Messenger said,

«لَا نُورَثُ، مَا تَرَكْنَا صَدَقَة»

(Our (the Prophets’) property will not be inherited. Whatever we leave, is charity.)” Allah knows that Abu Bakr was true, pious, rightly guided and a follower of what was right. So, Abu Bakr assumed the responsibility of that property. When Abu Bakr died, I said: I am the successor of Allah’s Messenger and the successor of Abu Bakr. So I managed it as long as Allah allowed me to manage it. Then you both (`Ali and Al-`Abbas) came to talk to me, bearing the same claim and presenting the same case, asking for that property. I said to you: I am ready to hand over this property to you if you wish. I will do so on the condition that you will take a pledge before Allah’s that you will manage it in the same way as Allah’s Messenger used to. So, both of you agreed and on that condition I handed it over to you. Now you come to me to render a different judgement over the property than the one I made before. By Allah, I will never give any decision other than what I have already given, until the Last Hour begins. If you are unable to manage it, then return it to me, and I will do the job on your behalf.,” They recorded this from the Hadith of Az-Zuhri. Allah said,

﴿كَى لاَ يَكُونَ دُولَةً بَيْنَ الاٌّغْنِيَآءِ مِنكُمْ﴾

(in order that it may not become a fortune used by the rich among you.) means, `We made the expenditures for the Fai’ like this, so that the wealth does not remain among the wealthy, who would spend it as they wish and desire and give none of it to the poor.’

Ordering Obedience of the Messenger in All Commands and Prohibitions

Allah the Exalted said,

﴿وَمَآ ءَاتَـكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَـكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانتَهُواْ﴾

(And whatsoever the Messenger gives you, take it; and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it).) meaning, `whatever the Messenger commands you, then do it and whatever he forbids you, then avoid it. Surely, He only commands righteousness and forbids evil.’ Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, “Allah curses women who practice tattooing and those who get themselves tattooed, and the women who remove the hair from their eyebrows and faces and those who make artificial spaces between their teeth in order to look more beautiful, whereby changing Allah’s creation.” His statement reached a woman from Bani Asad called, Umm Ya`qub, who came to `Abdullah and said, “I have come to know that you have cursed such and such” He replied, “Why should I not curse those whom Allah’s Messenger has cursed and who are cursed in Allah’s Book!” Umm Ya`qub said, “I have read the whole Qur’an, but did not find in it what you say.” He said, “Verily, if you have read the Qur’an, you have found it. Didn’t you read,

﴿وَمَآ ءَاتَـكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَـكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانتَهُواْ﴾

(And whatsoever the Messenger gives you take it and whatsoever he forbids you, you abstain (from it).)” She replied, “Yes, I did.” He said, “Verily, Allah’s Messenger forbade such things. ” “She said, “But I think that your wife does these things” He said, “Go and look at her.” She went and watched her, but could not see anything in support of her claim. She went back to `Abdullah bin Mas`ud and said that she did not notice anything on his wife. On that he said, “If my wife was as you thought, I would not keep her with me.” The Two Sahihs recorded this from the Hadith of Sufyan Ath-Thawri. As well as a Hadith of Abu Hurayrah, who said that the Messenger of Allah said,

«إِذَا أَمَرْتُكُمْ بِأَمْرٍ فَائْتُوا مِنْهُ مَا اسْتَطَعْتُمْ، وَمَا نَهَيْتُكُمْ عَنْهُ فَاجْتَنِبُوه»

(When I order you to do something, then do as much as you can of it. If I forbid something for you, then shun it.) Allah’s statement,

﴿وَاتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ آلْعِقَابِ﴾

(Have Taqwa of Allah; verily, Allah is Severe in punishment.) means, fear Allah by obeying His orders and refraining from His prohibitions. Surely, Allah is severe in punishment for those who defy Him and reject and disobey His commands as well as, those who commit what He forbids and prohibits.

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