Surah Mumtahanah Ayat 12 in Arabic Text
Here you can read various translations of verse 12
O Prophet, when the believing women come to you pledging to you that they will not associate anything with Allah, nor will they steal, nor will they commit unlawful sexual intercourse, nor will they kill their children, nor will they bring forth a slander they have invented between their arms and legs, nor will they disobey you in what is right – then accept their pledge and ask forgiveness for them of Allah. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.
O Prophet! When believing women come to thee to take the oath of fealty to thee, that they will not associate in worship any other thing whatever with Allah, that they will not steal, that they will not commit adultery (or fornication), that they will not kill their children, that they will not utter slander, intentionally forging falsehood, and that they will not disobey thee in any just matter,- then do thou receive their fealty, and pray to Allah for the forgiveness (of their sins): for Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
O Prophet, when believing women come to you and pledge to you that they will not associate aught with Allah in His Divinity, that they will not steal, that they will not commit illicit sexual intercourse, that they will not kill their children, that they will not bring forth a calumny between their hands and feet, and that they will not disobey you in anything known to be good, then accept their allegiance and ask Allah to forgive them. Surely Allah is Most Forgiving, Most Compassionate.
O Prophet! When believing women come to you to give you the Bai’a (pledge), that they will not associate anything in worship with Allah, that they will not steal, that they will not commit illegal sexual intercourse, that they will not kill their children, that they will not utter slander, intentionally forging falsehood (i.e. by making illegal children belonging to their husbands), and that they will not disobey you in any Ma’ruf (Islamic Monotheism and all that which Islam ordains) then accept their Bai’a (pledge), and ask Allah to forgive them, Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
O Prophet! If believing women come unto thee, taking oath of allegiance unto thee that they will ascribe no thing as partner unto Allah, and will neither steal nor commit adultery nor kill their children, nor produce any lie that they have devised between their hands and feet, nor disobey thee in what is right, then accept their allegiance and ask Allah to forgive them. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
O you Prophet, when female believers come to you, swearing allegiance to you that they will not associate with Allah anything, and will not steal, nor commit adultery, nor kill their children, nor come up with (i.e., bring) all-evident calumny they fabricate between their hands and their legs, nor disobey you in anything beneficent, then accept their allegiance and ask the forgiveness of Allah for them. Surely Allah is Ever-Forgiving, Ever-Merciful.
Prophet, when believing women come and pledge to you that they will not ascribe any partner to God, nor steal, nor commit adultery, nor kill their children, nor lie about who has fathered their children, nor disobey you in any righteous thing, then you should accept their pledge of allegiance and pray to God to forgive them: God is most forgiving and merciful.
Quran 60 Verse 12 Explanation
For those looking for commentary to help with the understanding of Surah Mumtahanah ayat 12, we’ve provided two Tafseer works below. The first is the tafseer of Abul Ala Maududi, the second is of Ibn Kathir.
(60:12) O Prophet, when believing women come to you and pledge to you that they will not associate aught with Allah in His Divinity, that they will not steal, that they will not commit illicit sexual intercourse, that they will not kill their children, that they will not bring forth a calumny between their hands and feet, and that they will not disobey you in anything known to be good, then accept their allegiance and ask Allah to forgive them. Surely Allah is Most Forgiving, Most Compassionate.
18. As we have explained above, this verse was sent downsome time before the conquest of Makkah. After theconquest the Quraish started coming to the Prophet (peacebe upon him) in large numbers to take the oath ofallegiance. From the men he took the oath himself onMount Safa. As for the women he appointed Umar toadminister the oath to them on his behalf and to ask themto pledge that they would refrain from the thingsmentioned in this verse. (Ibn Jarir, on the authority of IbnAbbas; Ibn Abi Hatim, on the authority of Qatadah). Then,on his return to Al-Madinah he ordered the Muslim womenof Al-Madinah to be gathered together in a house and hesent Umar to take the oath from them. (Ibn Jarir, IbnMarduyah, Bazzar, Ibn Hibban, on the authority of UmmAtiyyah Ansariah). On the Eid day also, after his address tomen, he went to the assembly of women and in his sermonto them, he recited this verse and asked them to pledge thatthey would refrain from the things mentioned in it.(Bukhari on the authority of Ibn Abbas’s tradition). Apartfrom these occasions, at different other times also, thewomen came before the Prophet (peace be upon him)individually as well as collectively to take the oath ofallegiance, as mentioned in several Ahadith.
19. In Makkah, when the oath of allegiance was beingadministered, Hind bint Utbah, wife of Abu Sufyan, askedthe Prophet (peace be upon him) its explanation and said:Messenger of Allah, Abu Sufyan is rather stingy. Will it besinful if I take out something from his wealth without hispermission to meet my own and my children’s needs. TheProphet (peace be upon him) replied: Nay, but only, justlyand lawfully; i.e. take only that much as may actuallysuffice for your needs. (Ibn al-Arabi, Ahkam al-Quran).
20. This also includes abortion, whether it is abortion ofthe legitimate or of the illegitimate fetus.
21. This implies two kinds of calumny:
(1) A woman’s accusing other women of having illicitrelations with other men and her spreading such storiesamong the people, for the women are generally prone tospreading such things.
(2) A woman’s delivering a child by somebody else andmaking her husband believe that it is his. Abu Daud hasrelated a tradition from Abu Hurairah saying that he heardthe Prophet say: The woman who brings such a child into afamily as does not actually belong to it, has no connectionwith Allah, and Allah will never admit her to Paradise.
22. In this brief sentence two important points of the lawhave been stated:
First, that obedience even to the Prophet (peace be uponhim) has been restricted to “in what is good”, althoughabout the Prophet (peace be upon him) no one couldimagine that he would order somebody to do an evil. Fromthis it automatically follows that no one in the world can beobeyed outside the bounds of divine law. For whenobedience to Allah’s Messenger himself is conditional upon”in what is good”, who else can have a position to demandunconditional obedience and require the people to obey andfollow each of his commands, laws, rules or customs, whichare opposed to the law of Allah? The Prophet (peace beupon him) has stated this principle, thus: There is noobedience in the disobedience of Allah; obedience is only inwhat is good and right. (Muslim, Abu Daud, Nasai). Ourgreat doctors have derived this very theme from this verse,Abdur Rehman bin Zaid bin Aslam says:
Allah has not said that they should not disobey you (theProphet) but that they should not disobey you in what isgood.
Then, when Allah Almighty has made obedience even to theProphet himself conditional upon this, how can anotherperson have the right that he should be obeyed in anythingbut what is good? (Ibn Jarir).
Imam Abu Bakr al-Jassas writes:
Allah knew that His Prophet (peace be upon him) neverenjoined anything but what was good. Still He restrictedobedience to him only in what is good, so that no one evermay find a provision to obey the kings when they enjoinedsomething outside the obedience of Allah. The Prophet(peace be upon him) has said: He who obeys a creature indisobedience to the Creator, Allah appoints the samecreature over him in power. (Ahkam al-Quran).
Allama Alusi says:
This command refutes the view of those ignorant peoplewho think that obedience to the ruler is absolutelynecessary. Allah has restricted even obedience to HisMessenger (peace be upon him) only in what is good,whereas the Messenger (peace be upon him) never enjoinsanything but what is good. This is meant to warn the peoplethat obedience to no one is lawful in disobedience to theCreator. (Ruh al-Maani).
Thus, this command in fact, is the foundation stone of therule of law in Islam. The rule is that anything which isopposed to the law of Islam is a crime, and no one has theright to enjoin any such thing on any one. Anyone whoenjoins anything against the law, is a culprit; and the onewho obeys such a command is also a culprit. Nosubordinate can escape the punishment on the basis of theexcuse that his superior officer had ordered him to dosomething which was a crime in the law.
The other thing which has great legal import is that in thisverse after enjoining five prohibitions only one positivecommand has been given, namely that the Prophet (peacebe upon him) will be obeyed in all good things. As for theevils, the major evils in which women of the pre-Islamicdays were generally involved, have been mentioned and apledge taken from them to refrain from them. But as forthe good works, they have neither been mentioned nor anypledge taken to observe them. The only pledge that hasbeen taken is that they will have to obey the Prophet (peacebe upon him) in every good work that he enjoins. Nowobviously, if the good works be only those which AllahAlmighty has enjoined in the Quran, the pledge shouldhave been to the effect: You will not disobey Allah, or Youwill not disobey the injunctions of the Quran. But when thepledge taken was to the effect: You will not disobey anygood work that is enjoined by the Messenger (peace beupon him) of Allah, it automatically leads to the conclusionthat the Prophet (peace be upon him) has been given vastpowers for the reformation of society, and it is obligatory toobey all his commands, whether they are found in theQuran or not.
On the basis of this very legal authority the Prophet (peacebe upon him) asked the women to pledge that they wouldrefrain from all those evils which were prevalent among thewomen of the Arabian society at that time, and gave severalsuch commands as have not been mentioned in the Quran.One may study the following Ahadith in this connection:
Ibn Abbas, Umm Salamah, Umm Atiyyah Ansariah andothers have reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him)while administering the oath of allegiance to the womenasked them to pledge that they would refrain frommourning over the dead. These traditions have been relatedby Bukhari, Muslim, Nasai and Ibn Jarir.
A tradition reported by Ibn Abbas contains this detail: TheHoly Prophet appointed Umar to administer the oath ofallegiance to the women and commanded that he shouldforbid them to mourn over the dead, for in the days of pre-Islamic ignorance women used to tear their clothes andhair, scratched their faces and bewailed in aloud voice. (IbnJarir).
Zaid bin Aslam has reported that the Prophet (peace beupon him), while administering the oath of allegianceforbade the women to scratch their faces, tear theirgarments, bewail and sing verses while mourning over thedead. (Ibn Jarir). Another tradition bearing on the samesubject has been reported by Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarirfrom a woman who was among the women taking the oathof allegiance.Qatadah and Hasan Basri say that one of the things thatthe Prophet (peace be upon him) had made the women topledge also was that they would refain from talking withthe other men freely. Ibn Abbas has explained it in atradition, thus: That they would not talk with the othermen in private.
Qatadah has further explained it thus:Hearing this command Abdur Rahman bin Auf said: OMessenger (peace be upon him) of Allah, some
The tafsir of Surah As-Saff verse 12 by Ibn Kathir is unavailable here.
Please refer to Surah Saff ayat 11 which provides the complete commentary from verse 11 through 13.
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