Surah An Nahl (“The Bees”) is the 16th chapter of Holy Quran. It is classified as a Meccan Surah and consists of 128 ayat or verses. 

The Surah depicts Allah’s creative power.  Everything in the universe points to Allah and is in perfect balance. He also warns us against practicing polytheism, saying that the pagan gods can’t create anything (see ayat 20). 

Below you can read Surah Nahl in Arabic with transliteration but also understand every ayat with Sahih International translation.

Notable Quote: 

“On the Day when every soul will come disputing for itself, and every soul will be fully compensated for what it did, and they will not be wronged.” 
Surah Nahl Ayat 111

Skip To Tafsir by Ibn Kathir

Read Surah An Nahl English Transliteration and Translation

Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Raheem
In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful

أَتَىٰٓ أَمْرُ ٱللَّهِ فَلَا تَسْتَعْجِلُوهُ ۚ سُبْحَـٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَـٰلَىٰ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ

Ataaa amrullaahi falaa tasta’jilooh; Subhaanahoo wa Ta’aalaa ‘ammaa yushrikoon
1. The command of Allah is coming, so be not impatient for it. Exalted is He and high above what they associate with Him.

يُنَزِّلُ ٱلْمَلَـٰٓئِكَةَ بِٱلرُّوحِ مِنْ أَمْرِهِۦ عَلَىٰ مَن يَشَآءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِۦٓ أَنْ أَنذِرُوٓا۟ أَنَّهُۥ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّآ أَنَا۠ فَٱتَّقُونِ

Yunazzilul malaaa ‘ikata birroohi min amrihee ‘alaa mai yashaaa’u min ‘ibaadiheee an anzirooo annahoo laaa ilaaha illaaa ana fattaqoon
2. He sends down the angels, with the inspiration of His command, upon whom He wills of His servants, [telling them], “Warn that there is no deity except Me; so fear Me.”

خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَ‌ٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضَ بِٱلْحَقِّ ۚ تَعَـٰلَىٰ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ

Khalaqas samaawaati wal arda bilhaqq; Ta’aalaa ‘ammaa yushrikoon
3. He created the heavens and earth in truth. High is He above what they associate with Him.

خَلَقَ ٱلْإِنسَـٰنَ مِن نُّطْفَةٍۢ فَإِذَا هُوَ خَصِيمٌۭ مُّبِينٌۭ

Khalaqal insaana min nutfatin fa izaa huwa khaseemum mubeen
4. He created man from a sperm-drop; then at once, he is a clear adversary.

وَٱلْأَنْعَـٰمَ خَلَقَهَا ۗ لَكُمْ فِيهَا دِفْءٌۭ وَمَنَـٰفِعُ وَمِنْهَا تَأْكُلُونَ

Wal an ‘amaa khalaqahaa; lakum feehaa dif’unw wa manaafi’u wa minhaa taakuloon
5. And the grazing livestock He has created for you; in them is warmth and [numerous] benefits, and from them you eat.

وَلَكُمْ فِيهَا جَمَالٌ حِينَ تُرِيحُونَ وَحِينَ تَسْرَحُونَ

Wa lakum feehaa jamaalun heena tureehoona wa heena tasrahoon
6. And for you in them is [the enjoyment of] beauty when you bring them in [for the evening] and when you send them out [to pasture].

وَتَحْمِلُ أَثْقَالَكُمْ إِلَىٰ بَلَدٍۢ لَّمْ تَكُونُوا۟ بَـٰلِغِيهِ إِلَّا بِشِقِّ ٱلْأَنفُسِ ۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكُمْ لَرَءُوفٌۭ رَّحِيمٌۭ

Wa tahmilu asqaalakum ilaa baladil lam takoonoo baaligheehi illaa bishiqqil anfus; inna Rabbakum la Ra’oofur Raheem
7. And they carry your loads to a land you could not have reached except with difficulty to yourselves. Indeed, your Lord is Kind and Merciful.

وَٱلْخَيْلَ وَٱلْبِغَالَ وَٱلْحَمِيرَ لِتَرْكَبُوهَا وَزِينَةًۭ ۚ وَيَخْلُقُ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

Walkhaila wal bighaala wal hameera litarkaboohaa wa zeenah; wa yakhluqu maa laa ta’lamoon
8. And [He created] the horses, mules and donkeys for you to ride and [as] adornment. And He creates that which you do not know.

وَعَلَى ٱللَّهِ قَصْدُ ٱلسَّبِيلِ وَمِنْهَا جَآئِرٌۭ ۚ وَلَوْ شَآءَ لَهَدَىٰكُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ

Wa ‘alal laahi qasdus sabeeli wa minhaa jaaa’ir; wa law shaaa’a lahadaakum ajma’een (section 1)m
9. And upon Allah is the direction of the [right] way, and among the various paths are those deviating. And if He willed, He could have guided you all.

هُوَ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَنزَلَ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءًۭ ۖ لَّكُم مِّنْهُ شَرَابٌۭ وَمِنْهُ شَجَرٌۭ فِيهِ تُسِيمُونَ

Huwal lazeee anzala minas samaaa’i maaa’al lakum minhu sharaabunw wa minhu shajarun feehi tuseemoon
10. It is He who sends down rain from the sky; from it is drink and from it is foliage in which you pasture [animals].

يُنۢبِتُ لَكُم بِهِ ٱلزَّرْعَ وَٱلزَّيْتُونَ وَٱلنَّخِيلَ وَٱلْأَعْنَـٰبَ وَمِن كُلِّ ٱلثَّمَرَ‌ٰتِ ۗ إِنَّ فِى ذَ‌ٰلِكَ لَءَايَةًۭ لِّقَوْمٍۢ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

Yumbitu lakum bihiz zar’a wazzaitoona wanna kheela wal-a’naaba wa min kullis samaraat, inna fee zaalika la Aayatal liqawminy yatafakkaroon
11. He causes to grow for you thereby the crops, olives, palm trees, grapevines, and from all the fruits. Indeed in that is a sign for a people who give thought.

وَسَخَّرَ لَكُمُ ٱلَّيْلَ وَٱلنَّهَارَ وَٱلشَّمْسَ وَٱلْقَمَرَ ۖ وَٱلنُّجُومُ مُسَخَّرَ‌ٰتٌۢ بِأَمْرِهِۦٓ ۗ إِنَّ فِى ذَ‌ٰلِكَ لَءَايَـٰتٍۢ لِّقَوْمٍۢ يَعْقِلُونَ

Wa sakkhkhara lakumul laila wannahaara wash shamsa walqamara wannujoomu musakhkharaatum bi amrih; inna fee zaalika la Aayaatil liqawminy ya’qiloon
12. And He has subjected for you the night and day and the sun and moon, and the stars are subjected by His command. Indeed in that are signs for a people who reason.

وَمَا ذَرَأَ لَكُمْ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ مُخْتَلِفًا أَلْوَ‌ٰنُهُۥٓ ۗ إِنَّ فِى ذَ‌ٰلِكَ لَءَايَةًۭ لِّقَوْمٍۢ يَذَّكَّرُونَ

Wa maa zara a lakum fil ardi mukhtalifan alwaanuh; inna fee zaalika la Aayatal liqawminy yazakkaroon
13. And [He has subjected] whatever He multiplied for you on the earth of varying colors. Indeed in that is a sign for a people who remember.

وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى سَخَّرَ ٱلْبَحْرَ لِتَأْكُلُوا۟ مِنْهُ لَحْمًۭا طَرِيًّۭا وَتَسْتَخْرِجُوا۟ مِنْهُ حِلْيَةًۭ تَلْبَسُونَهَا وَتَرَى ٱلْفُلْكَ مَوَاخِرَ فِيهِ وَلِتَبْتَغُوا۟ مِن فَضْلِهِۦ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

Wa Huwal lazee sakhkharal bahra litaakuloo minhu lahman tariyyanw wa tastakhrijoo minhu hilyatan talbasoonahaa wa taral fulka mawaakhira feehi wa litabtaghoo min fadlihee wa la’allakum tashkuroon
14. And it is He who subjected the sea for you to eat from it tender meat and to extract from it ornaments which you wear. And you see the ships plowing through it, and [He subjected it] that you may seek of His bounty; and perhaps you will be grateful.

وَأَلْقَىٰ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ رَوَ‌ٰسِىَ أَن تَمِيدَ بِكُمْ وَأَنْهَـٰرًۭا وَسُبُلًۭا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ

Wa alqaa fil ardi rawaasiya an tameeda bikum wa anhaaranw wa sublulal la ‘allakum tahtadoon
15. And He has cast into the earth firmly set mountains, lest it shift with you, and [made] rivers and roads, that you may be guided,

وَعَلَـٰمَـٰتٍۢ ۚ وَبِٱلنَّجْمِ هُمْ يَهْتَدُونَ

Wa ‘alaamaat; wa bin najmi hum yahtadoon
16. And landmarks. And by the stars they are [also] guided.

أَفَمَن يَخْلُقُ كَمَن لَّا يَخْلُقُ ۗ أَفَلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ

Afamany yakhluqu kamallaa yakhluq; afalaa tazak karoon
17. Then is He who creates like one who does not create? So will you not be reminded?

وَإِن تَعُدُّوا۟ نِعْمَةَ ٱللَّهِ لَا تُحْصُوهَآ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَغَفُورٌۭ رَّحِيمٌۭ

Wa in ta’uddoo ni’matal laahi laa tuhsoohaa; innal laaha la Ghafoorur Raheem
18. And if you should count the favors of Allah, you could not enumerate them. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.

وَٱللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تُسِرُّونَ وَمَا تُعْلِنُونَ

Wallaahu ya’lamu maa tusirroona wa maa tu’linoonm
19. And Allah knows what you conceal and what you declare.

وَٱلَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ لَا يَخْلُقُونَ شَيْـًۭٔا وَهُمْ يُخْلَقُونَ

Wallazeena yad’oona min doonil laahi laa yakhluqoona shai’anw wa hum yukhlaqoon
20. And those they invoke other than Allah create nothing, and they [themselves] are created.

أَمْوَ‌ٰتٌ غَيْرُ أَحْيَآءٍۢ ۖ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ أَيَّانَ يُبْعَثُونَ

Amwaatun ghairu ahyaaa’inw wa maa yash’uroona aiyaana yub’asoon (section 2)
21. They are, [in fact], dead, not alive, and they do not perceive when they will be resurrected.

إِلَـٰهُكُمْ إِلَـٰهٌۭ وَ‌ٰحِدٌۭ ۚ فَٱلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِٱلْءَاخِرَةِ قُلُوبُهُم مُّنكِرَةٌۭ وَهُم مُّسْتَكْبِرُونَ

Illahukum Ilaahunw Waahid; fallazeena laa yu’minoona bil Aakhirati quloobuhum munkiratunw wa hum mustakbiroon
22. Your god is one God. But those who do not believe in the Hereafter – their hearts are disapproving, and they are arrogant.

لَا جَرَمَ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا يُسِرُّونَ وَمَا يُعْلِنُونَ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلْمُسْتَكْبِرِينَ

Laa jarama annal laaha ya’lamu maa yusirrona wa ma yu’linoon; innahoo laa yuhibbul mustakbireen
23. Assuredly, Allah knows what they conceal and what they declare. Indeed, He does not like the arrogant.

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُم مَّاذَآ أَنزَلَ رَبُّكُمْ ۙ قَالُوٓا۟ أَسَـٰطِيرُ ٱلْأَوَّلِينَ

Wa izaa qeela lahum maazaaa anzala Rabbukum qaaloo asaateerul awwaleen
24. And when it is said to them, “What has your Lord sent down?” They say, “Legends of the former peoples,”

لِيَحْمِلُوٓا۟ أَوْزَارَهُمْ كَامِلَةًۭ يَوْمَ ٱلْقِيَـٰمَةِ ۙ وَمِنْ أَوْزَارِ ٱلَّذِينَ يُضِلُّونَهُم بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ ۗ أَلَا سَآءَ مَا يَزِرُونَ

Liyahmilooo awzaarahum kaamilatany Yawmal Qiyaamati wa min awzaaril lazeena yudilloonahum bighairi ‘ilm; alaa saaa’a maa yaziroon (section 3)
25. That they may bear their own burdens in full on the Day of Resurrection and some of the burdens of those whom they misguide without knowledge. Unquestionably, evil is that which they bear.

قَدْ مَكَرَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ فَأَتَى ٱللَّهُ بُنْيَـٰنَهُم مِّنَ ٱلْقَوَاعِدِ فَخَرَّ عَلَيْهِمُ ٱلسَّقْفُ مِن فَوْقِهِمْ وَأَتَىٰهُمُ ٱلْعَذَابُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا يَشْعُرُونَ

Qad makaral lazeena min qablihim fa atal laahu bunyaa nahum minal qawaa’idi fakharra ‘alaihimus saqfu min fawqihim wa ataahumul ‘azaabu min haisu laa yash’uroon
26. Those before them had already plotted, but Allah came at their building from the foundations, so the roof fell upon them from above them, and the punishment came to them from where they did not perceive.

ثُمَّ يَوْمَ ٱلْقِيَـٰمَةِ يُخْزِيهِمْ وَيَقُولُ أَيْنَ شُرَكَآءِىَ ٱلَّذِينَ كُنتُمْ تُشَـٰٓقُّونَ فِيهِمْ ۚ قَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُوا۟ ٱلْعِلْمَ إِنَّ ٱلْخِزْىَ ٱلْيَوْمَ وَٱلسُّوٓءَ عَلَى ٱلْكَـٰفِرِينَ

Summa Yawmal Qiyaamati yukhzeehim wa yaqoolu aina shurakaaa’iyal lazeena kuntum tushaaaqqoona feehim; qaalal lazeena ootul ‘ilma innal khizyal Yawma wassooo’a ‘alal kaafireen
27. Then on the Day of Resurrection He will disgrace them and say, “Where are My ‘partners’ for whom you used to oppose [the believers]?” Those who were given knowledge will say, “Indeed disgrace, this Day, and evil are upon the disbelievers” –

ٱلَّذِينَ تَتَوَفَّىٰهُمُ ٱلْمَلَـٰٓئِكَةُ ظَالِمِىٓ أَنفُسِهِمْ ۖ فَأَلْقَوُا۟ ٱلسَّلَمَ مَا كُنَّا نَعْمَلُ مِن سُوٓءٍۭ ۚ بَلَىٰٓ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلِيمٌۢ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ

Allazeena tatawaf faahu mul malaaa’ikatu zaalimeee anfusihim fa alqawus salama maa kunnaa na’malu min sooo’; balaaa innal laaha ‘aleemum bimaa kuntum ta’maloon
28. The ones whom the angels take in death [while] wronging themselves, and [who] then offer submission, [saying], “We were not doing any evil.” But, yes! Indeed, Allah is Knowing of what you used to do.

فَٱدْخُلُوٓا۟ أَبْوَ‌ٰبَ جَهَنَّمَ خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيهَا ۖ فَلَبِئْسَ مَثْوَى ٱلْمُتَكَبِّرِينَ

Fadkhulooo abwaaba jahannama khaalideena feeha falabi’sa maswal mutakab bireen
29. So enter the gates of Hell to abide eternally therein, and how wretched is the residence of the arrogant.

۞ وَقِيلَ لِلَّذِينَ ٱتَّقَوْا۟ مَاذَآ أَنزَلَ رَبُّكُمْ ۚ قَالُوا۟ خَيْرًۭا ۗ لِّلَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا۟ فِى هَـٰذِهِ ٱلدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةٌۭ ۚ وَلَدَارُ ٱلْءَاخِرَةِ خَيْرٌۭ ۚ وَلَنِعْمَ دَارُ ٱلْمُتَّقِينَ

Wa qeela lillazeenat taqaw maazaaa anzala Rabbukum; qaaloo khairaa; lillazeena absanoo fee haazihid dunyaa hasanah; wa la Daarul Aakhirati khair; wa lani’ma daarul muttaqeen
30. And it will be said to those who feared Allah, “What did your Lord send down?” They will say, “[That which is] good.” For those who do good in this world is good; and the home of the Hereafter is better. And how excellent is the home of the righteous –

جَنَّـٰتُ عَدْنٍۢ يَدْخُلُونَهَا تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا ٱلْأَنْهَـٰرُ ۖ لَهُمْ فِيهَا مَا يَشَآءُونَ ۚ كَذَ‌ٰلِكَ يَجْزِى ٱللَّهُ ٱلْمُتَّقِينَ

Jannaatu ‘Adniny yadkhuloonahaa tajree min tahtihal anhaaru lahum feehaa maa yashaaa’oon; kazaalika yajzil laahul muttaqeen
31. Gardens of perpetual residence, which they will enter, beneath which rivers flow. They will have therein whatever they wish. Thus does Allah reward the righteous –

ٱلَّذِينَ تَتَوَفَّىٰهُمُ ٱلْمَلَـٰٓئِكَةُ طَيِّبِينَ ۙ يَقُولُونَ سَلَـٰمٌ عَلَيْكُمُ ٱدْخُلُوا۟ ٱلْجَنَّةَ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ

Allazeena tatawaf faahumul malaaa’ikatu taiyibeena yaqooloona salaamun ‘alai kumud khulul Jannata bimaa kuntum ta’maloon
32. The ones whom the angels take in death, [being] good and pure; [the angels] will say, “Peace be upon you. Enter Paradise for what you used to do.”

هَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّآ أَن تَأْتِيَهُمُ ٱلْمَلَـٰٓئِكَةُ أَوْ يَأْتِىَ أَمْرُ رَبِّكَ ۚ كَذَ‌ٰلِكَ فَعَلَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ وَمَا ظَلَمَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ وَلَـٰكِن كَانُوٓا۟ أَنفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ

Hal yanzuroona illaaa an taatiyahumul malaaa’ikatu aw yaatiya amru Rabbik; kazaalika fa’alal lazeena min qablihim; wa maa zalamahumul laahu wa laakin kaanoo anfusahum yazlimoon
33. Do the disbelievers await [anything] except that the angels should come to them or there comes the command of your Lord? Thus did those do before them. And Allah wronged them not, but they had been wronging themselves.

فَأَصَابَهُمْ سَيِّـَٔاتُ مَا عَمِلُوا۟ وَحَاقَ بِهِم مَّا كَانُوا۟ بِهِۦ يَسْتَهْزِءُونَ

Fa asaabahum saiyi aatu maa ‘amiloo wa haaqa bihim maa kaano bihee yastahzi’oon (section 4)
34. So they were struck by the evil consequences of what they did and were enveloped by what they used to ridicule.

وَقَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا۟ لَوْ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ مَا عَبَدْنَا مِن دُونِهِۦ مِن شَىْءٍۢ نَّحْنُ وَلَآ ءَابَآؤُنَا وَلَا حَرَّمْنَا مِن دُونِهِۦ مِن شَىْءٍۢ ۚ كَذَ‌ٰلِكَ فَعَلَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ فَهَلْ عَلَى ٱلرُّسُلِ إِلَّا ٱلْبَلَـٰغُ ٱلْمُبِينُ

Wa qaalal lazeena ashrakoo law shaaa’al laahu ma ‘abadnaa min doonihee min shai’in nahnu wa laaa aabaaa’unaa wa laa harramnaa min doonihee min shai’; kazaalika fa’alal lazeena min qablihim fahal ‘alar Rusuli illal balaaghul mubeen
35. And those who associate others with Allah say, “If Allah had willed, we would not have worshipped anything other than Him, neither we nor our fathers, nor would we have forbidden anything through other than Him.” Thus did those do before them. So is there upon the messengers except [the duty of] clear notification?

وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِى كُلِّ أُمَّةٍۢ رَّسُولًا أَنِ ٱعْبُدُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَٱجْتَنِبُوا۟ ٱلطَّـٰغُوتَ ۖ فَمِنْهُم مَّنْ هَدَى ٱللَّهُ وَمِنْهُم مَّنْ حَقَّتْ عَلَيْهِ ٱلضَّلَـٰلَةُ ۚ فَسِيرُوا۟ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ فَٱنظُرُوا۟ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَـٰقِبَةُ ٱلْمُكَذِّبِينَ

Wa laqad ba’asnaa fee kulli ummatir Rasoolan ani’budul laaha wajtanibut Taaghoota faminhum man hadal laahu wa minhum man haqqat ‘alaihid dalaalah; faseeroo fil ardi fanzuroo kaifa kaana ‘aaqibatul mukazzibeen
36. And We certainly sent into every nation a messenger, [saying], “Worship Allah and avoid Taghut.” And among them were those whom Allah guided, and among them were those upon whom error was [deservedly] decreed. So proceed through the earth and observe how was the end of the deniers.

إِن تَحْرِصْ عَلَىٰ هُدَىٰهُمْ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِى مَن يُضِلُّ ۖ وَمَا لَهُم مِّن نَّـٰصِرِينَ

In tahris ‘alaa hudaahum fa innal laaha laa yahdee mai yudillu wa maa lahum min naasireen
37.[Even] if you should strive for their guidance, [O Muhammad], indeed, Allah does not guide those He sends astray, and they will have no helpers.

وَأَقْسَمُوا۟ بِٱللَّهِ جَهْدَ أَيْمَـٰنِهِمْ ۙ لَا يَبْعَثُ ٱللَّهُ مَن يَمُوتُ ۚ بَلَىٰ وَعْدًا عَلَيْهِ حَقًّۭا وَلَـٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ ٱلنَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

Wa aqsamoo billaahi jahda aimaanihim laa yab’asul laahu mai yamoot; balaa wa’dan ‘alaihi haqqanw wa laakinna aksaran naasi laa ya’lamoon
38. And they swear by Allah their strongest oaths [that] Allah will not resurrect one who dies. But yes – [it is] a true promise [binding] upon Him, but most of the people do not know.

لِيُبَيِّنَ لَهُمُ ٱلَّذِى يَخْتَلِفُونَ فِيهِ وَلِيَعْلَمَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓا۟ أَنَّهُمْ كَانُوا۟ كَـٰذِبِينَ

Liyubaiyina lahumul lazee yakhtalifoona feehi wa liya’lamal lazeena kafarooo annahum kaanoo kaazibeen
39. [It is] so He will make clear to them [the truth of] that wherein they differ and so those who have disbelieved may know that they were liars.

إِنَّمَا قَوْلُنَا لِشَىْءٍ إِذَآ أَرَدْنَـٰهُ أَن نَّقُولَ لَهُۥ كُن فَيَكُونُ

Innamaa qawlunaa lisha y’in izaa aradnaahu an naqoola lahoo kun fa yakoon (section 5)
40. Indeed, Our word to a thing when We intend it is but that We say to it, “Be,” and it is.

وَٱلَّذِينَ هَاجَرُوا۟ فِى ٱللَّهِ مِنۢ بَعْدِ مَا ظُلِمُوا۟ لَنُبَوِّئَنَّهُمْ فِى ٱلدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةًۭ ۖ وَلَأَجْرُ ٱلْءَاخِرَةِ أَكْبَرُ ۚ لَوْ كَانُوا۟ يَعْلَمُونَ

Wallazeena haajaroo fil laahi mim ba’di maa zulimoo lanubawwi’ annahum fiddunyaa hasanatanw wa la ajrul Aakhirati akbar; law kaanoo ya’lamoon
41. And those who emigrated for [the cause of] Allah after they had been wronged – We will surely settle them in this world in a good place; but the reward of the Hereafter is greater, if only they could know.

ٱلَّذِينَ صَبَرُوا۟ وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ

Allazeena sabaroo wa ‘alaa Rabbihim yatawak kaloon
42. [They are] those who endured patiently and upon their Lord relied.

وَمَآ أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ إِلَّا رِجَالًۭا نُّوحِىٓ إِلَيْهِمْ ۚ فَسْـَٔلُوٓا۟ أَهْلَ ٱلذِّكْرِ إِن كُنتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

Wa maaa arsalnaa min qablika illaa rijaalan nooheee ilaihim; fas’alooo ahlaz zikri in kuntum laa ta’lamoon
43. And We sent not before you except men to whom We revealed [Our message]. So ask the people of the message if you do not know.

بِٱلْبَيِّنَـٰتِ وَٱلزُّبُرِ ۗ وَأَنزَلْنَآ إِلَيْكَ ٱلذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ مَا نُزِّلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

Bilbaiyinaati waz Zubur; wa anzalnaaa ilaikaz Zikra litubaiyina linnaasi maa nuzzila ilaihim wa la’allahum yatafakkaroon
44. [We sent them] with clear proofs and written ordinances. And We revealed to you the message that you may make clear to the people what was sent down to them and that they might give thought.

أَفَأَمِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ مَكَرُوا۟ ٱلسَّيِّـَٔاتِ أَن يَخْسِفَ ٱللَّهُ بِهِمُ ٱلْأَرْضَ أَوْ يَأْتِيَهُمُ ٱلْعَذَابُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا يَشْعُرُونَ

Afa aminal lazeena makarus saiyi aati ai yakhsifal laahu bihimul arda aw yaaa tiyahumul ‘azaabu min haisu laa yash’uroon
45. Then, do those who have planned evil deeds feel secure that Allah will not cause the earth to swallow them or that the punishment will not come upon them from where they do not perceive?

أَوْ يَأْخُذَهُمْ فِى تَقَلُّبِهِمْ فَمَا هُم بِمُعْجِزِين

Aw yaakhuzahum fee taqallubihim famaa hum bi mu’jizeen
46. Or that He would not seize them during their [usual] activity, and they could not cause failure?

أَوْ يَأْخُذَهُمْ عَلَىٰ تَخَوُّفٍۢ فَإِنَّ رَبَّكُمْ لَرَءُوفٌۭ رَّحِيمٌ

Aw yaakhuzahum ‘alaa takhawwuf; fa inna Rabbakum la Ra’oofur Raheem
47. Or that He would not seize them gradually [in a state of dread]? But indeed, your Lord is Kind and Merciful.

أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْا۟ إِلَىٰ مَا خَلَقَ ٱللَّهُ مِن شَىْءٍۢ يَتَفَيَّؤُا۟ ظِلَـٰلُهُۥ عَنِ ٱلْيَمِينِ وَٱلشَّمَآئِلِ سُجَّدًۭا لِّلَّهِ وَهُمْ دَ‌ٰخِرُونَ

Awa lam yaraw ilaa maa khalaqal laahu min shai’iny-yatafaiya’u zilaaluhoo ‘anil yameeni washshamaaa’ ili sujjadal lillaahi wa hum daakhiroon
48. Have they not considered what things Allah has created? Their shadows incline to the right and to the left, prostrating to Allah, while they are humble.

وَلِلَّهِ يَسْجُدُ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَ‌ٰتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ مِن دَآبَّةٍۢ وَٱلْمَلَـٰٓئِكَةُ وَهُمْ لَا يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ

Wa lillaahi yasjudu maa fis samaawaati wa maa fil ardi min daaabbatinw walma laaa’ikatu wa hum laa yastakbiroon
49. And to Allah prostrates whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth of creatures, and the angels [as well], and they are not arrogant.

يَخَافُونَ رَبَّهُم مِّن فَوْقِهِمْ وَيَفْعَلُونَ مَا يُؤْمَرُونَ ۩

yakhaafoona Rabbahum min fawqihim wa yaf’aloona maa yu’maroon (section 6) (make sajda)
50. They fear their Lord above them, and they do what they are commanded.

۞ وَقَالَ ٱللَّهُ لَا تَتَّخِذُوٓا۟ إِلَـٰهَيْنِ ٱثْنَيْنِ ۖ إِنَّمَا هُوَ إِلَـٰهٌۭ وَ‌ٰحِدٌۭ ۖ فَإِيَّـٰىَ فَٱرْهَبُونِ

Wa qaalal laahu laa tatta khizooo ilaahainis naini innamaa Huwa Ilaahunw Waahid; fa iyyaaya farhaboon
51. And Allah has said, “Do not take for yourselves two deities. He is but one God, so fear only Me.”

وَلَهُۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَ‌ٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ وَلَهُ ٱلدِّينُ وَاصِبًا ۚ أَفَغَيْرَ ٱللَّهِ تَتَّقُونَ

Wa lahoo maa fis samaawaati wal ardi wa lahud deenu waasibaa; afaghairal laahi tattaqoon
52. And to Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth, and to Him is [due] worship constantly. Then is it other than Allah that you fear?

وَمَا بِكُم مِّن نِّعْمَةٍۢ فَمِنَ ٱللَّهِ ۖ ثُمَّ إِذَا مَسَّكُمُ ٱلضُّرُّ فَإِلَيْهِ تَجْـَٔرُونَ

Wa maa bikum minni’matin faminal laahi summa izaa massakumud durru fa ilaihi taj’aroon
53. And whatever you have of favor – it is from Allah . Then when adversity touches you, to Him you cry for help.

ثُمَّ إِذَا كَشَفَ ٱلضُّرَّ عَنكُمْ إِذَا فَرِيقٌۭ مِّنكُم بِرَبِّهِمْ يُشْرِكُونَ

Summaa izaa kashafad durra ‘ankum izaa fareequm minkum bi Rabbihim yushrikoon
54. Then when He removes the adversity from you, at once a party of you associates others with their Lord

لِيَكْفُرُوا۟ بِمَآ ءَاتَيْنَـٰهُمْ ۚ فَتَمَتَّعُوا۟ ۖ فَسَوْفَ تَعْلَمُونَ

Liyakfuroo bimaa aatainaahum; fatamatta’oo, faswfa ta’lamoon
55. So they will deny what We have given them. Then enjoy yourselves, for you are going to know.

وَيَجْعَلُونَ لِمَا لَا يَعْلَمُونَ نَصِيبًۭا مِّمَّا رَزَقْنَـٰهُمْ ۗ تَٱللَّهِ لَتُسْـَٔلُنَّ عَمَّا كُنتُمْ تَفْتَرُونَ

Wa yaj’aloona limaa laa ya’lamoona naseebam mimmaa razaqnnaahum; tallaahi latus’alunaa ‘ammaa kuntum taftaroon
56. And they assign to what they do not know a portion of that which We have provided them. By Allah, you will surely be questioned about what you used to invent.

وَيَجْعَلُونَ لِلَّهِ ٱلْبَنَـٰتِ سُبْحَـٰنَهُۥ ۙ وَلَهُم مَّا يَشْتَهُونَ

Wa yaj’aloona lillaahil banaati Subhaanahoo wa lahum maa yashtahoon
57. And they attribute to Allah daughters – exalted is He – and for them is what they desire.

وَإِذَا بُشِّرَ أَحَدُهُم بِٱلْأُنثَىٰ ظَلَّ وَجْهُهُۥ مُسْوَدًّۭا وَهُوَ كَظِيمٌۭ

Wa izaa bushshira ahaduhum bil unsaa zalla wajhuhoo muswaddanw wa huwa kazeem
58. And when one of them is informed of [the birth of] a female, his face becomes dark, and he suppresses grief.

يَتَوَ‌ٰرَىٰ مِنَ ٱلْقَوْمِ مِن سُوٓءِ مَا بُشِّرَ بِهِۦٓ ۚ أَيُمْسِكُهُۥ عَلَىٰ هُونٍ أَمْ يَدُسُّهُۥ فِى ٱلتُّرَابِ ۗ أَلَا سَآءَ مَا يَحْكُمُونَ

yatawaaraa minal qawmimin sooo’i maa bushshira bih; a-yumsikuhoo ‘alaa hoonin am yadussuhoo fit turaab; alaa saaa’a maa yahkumoon
59. He hides himself from the people because of the ill of which he has been informed. Should he keep it in humiliation or bury it in the ground? Unquestionably, evil is what they decide.

لِلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِٱلْءَاخِرَةِ مَثَلُ ٱلسَّوْءِ ۖ وَلِلَّهِ ٱلْمَثَلُ ٱلْأَعْلَىٰ ۚ وَهُوَ ٱلْعَزِيزُ ٱلْحَكِيمُ

Lillazeena laa yu’minoona bil Aakhirati masalus saw’i wa lillaahil masalul a’laa; wa Huwal ‘Azeezul Hakeem (section 7)
60. For those who do not believe in the Hereafter is the description of evil; and for Allah is the highest attribute. And He is Exalted in Might, the Wise.

وَلَوْ يُؤَاخِذُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلنَّاسَ بِظُلْمِهِم مَّا تَرَكَ عَلَيْهَا مِن دَآبَّةٍۢ وَلَـٰكِن يُؤَخِّرُهُمْ إِلَىٰٓ أَجَلٍۢ مُّسَمًّۭى ۖ فَإِذَا جَآءَ أَجَلُهُمْ لَا يَسْتَـْٔخِرُونَ سَاعَةًۭ ۖ وَلَا يَسْتَقْدِمُونَ

Wa law yu’aakhizul laahun naasa bizulminhim maa taraka ‘alaihaa min daaabbatinw wa laakiny yu’akhkhiruhum ilaaa ajalim musamman fa izaa jaaa’a ajaluhum laa yastaakhiroona saa’atanw wa laa yastaqdimoon
61. And if Allah were to impose blame on the people for their wrongdoing, He would not have left upon the earth any creature, but He defers them for a specified term. And when their term has come, they will not remain behind an hour, nor will they precede [it].

وَيَجْعَلُونَ لِلَّهِ مَا يَكْرَهُونَ وَتَصِفُ أَلْسِنَتُهُمُ ٱلْكَذِبَ أَنَّ لَهُمُ ٱلْحُسْنَىٰ ۖ لَا جَرَمَ أَنَّ لَهُمُ ٱلنَّارَ وَأَنَّهُم مُّفْرَطُونَ

Wa yaj’aloona lillaahi maa yakrahoona wa tasifu alsinatuhumul kaziba anna lahumul husnaa laa jarama anna lahumun Naara wa annahum mufratoon
62. And they attribute to Allah that which they dislike, and their tongues assert the lie that they will have the best [from Him]. Assuredly, they will have the Fire, and they will be [therein] neglected.

تَٱللَّهِ لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَآ إِلَىٰٓ أُمَمٍۢ مِّن قَبْلِكَ فَزَيَّنَ لَهُمُ ٱلشَّيْطَـٰنُ أَعْمَـٰلَهُمْ فَهُوَ وَلِيُّهُمُ ٱلْيَوْمَ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌۭ

Tallaahi laqad arsalnaaa ilaaa umamim min qablika fazayyana lahumush Shaitaanu a’maalahum fahuwa waliyyuhumul yawma wa lahum ‘azaabun aleem
63. By Allah, We did certainly send [messengers] to nations before you, but Satan made their deeds attractive to them. And he is the disbelievers’ ally today [as well], and they will have a painful punishment.

وَمَآ أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ ٱلْكِتَـٰبَ إِلَّا لِتُبَيِّنَ لَهُمُ ٱلَّذِى ٱخْتَلَفُوا۟ فِيهِ ۙ وَهُدًۭى وَرَحْمَةًۭ لِّقَوْمٍۢ يُؤْمِنُونَ

Wa maaa anzalnaa ‘alaikal Kitaaba illaa litubaiyina lahumul lazikh talafoo feehi wa hudanw wa rahmatal liqawminy yu’minoon
64. And We have not revealed to you the Book, [O Muhammad], except for you to make clear to them that wherein they have differed and as guidance and mercy for a people who believe.

وَٱللَّهُ أَنزَلَ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءًۭ فَأَحْيَا بِهِ ٱلْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَآ ۚ إِنَّ فِى ذَ‌ٰلِكَ لَءَايَةًۭ لِّقَوْمٍۢ يَسْمَعُونَ

Wallaahu anzala minas samaaa’i maaa’an fa ahyaa bihil arda ba’da mawtihaa; inna fee zaalika la aayatal liqaw miny yasma’oon (section 8)
65. And Allah has sent down rain from the sky and given life thereby to the earth after its lifelessness. Indeed in that is a sign for a people who listen.

وَإِنَّ لَكُمْ فِى ٱلْأَنْعَـٰمِ لَعِبْرَةًۭ ۖ نُّسْقِيكُم مِّمَّا فِى بُطُونِهِۦ مِنۢ بَيْنِ فَرْثٍۢ وَدَمٍۢ لَّبَنًا خَالِصًۭا سَآئِغًۭا لِّلشَّـٰرِبِينَ

Wa inna lakum fil an’aami la’ibrah; nusqeekum mimmmaa fee butoonihee mim baini farsinw wa damil labanann khaalisan saaa’ighallish shaaribeen
66. And indeed, for you in grazing livestock is a lesson. We give you drink from what is in their bellies – between excretion and blood – pure milk, palatable to drinkers.

وَمِن ثَمَرَ‌ٰتِ ٱلنَّخِيلِ وَٱلْأَعْنَـٰبِ تَتَّخِذُونَ مِنْهُ سَكَرًۭا وَرِزْقًا حَسَنًا ۗ إِنَّ فِى ذَ‌ٰلِكَ لَءَايَةًۭ لِّقَوْمٍۢ يَعْقِلُونَ

Wa min samaraatin nakheeli wal a’nnaabi tattakhizoona minhu sakaranw wa rizqann hasanaa; inna fee zaalika la Aayatal liqawminy ya’qiloon
67. And from the fruits of the palm trees and grapevines you take intoxicant and good provision. Indeed in that is a sign for a people who reason.

وَأَوْحَىٰ رَبُّكَ إِلَى ٱلنَّحْلِ أَنِ ٱتَّخِذِى مِنَ ٱلْجِبَالِ بُيُوتًۭا وَمِنَ ٱلشَّجَرِ وَمِمَّا يَعْرِشُونَ

Wa awhaa Rabbuka ilannnabli anit takhizee minal jabaali buyootanw wa minash shajari wa mimmaa ya’rishoon
68. And your Lord inspired to the bee, “Take for yourself among the mountains, houses, and among the trees and [in] that which they construct.

ثُمَّ كُلِى مِن كُلِّ ٱلثَّمَرَ‌ٰتِ فَٱسْلُكِى سُبُلَ رَبِّكِ ذُلُلًۭا ۚ يَخْرُجُ مِنۢ بُطُونِهَا شَرَابٌۭ مُّخْتَلِفٌ أَلْوَ‌ٰنُهُۥ فِيهِ شِفَآءٌۭ لِّلنَّاسِ ۗ إِنَّ فِى ذَ‌ٰلِكَ لَءَايَةًۭ لِّقَوْمٍۢ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

Summma kulee min kullis samaraati faslukee subula Rabbiki zululaa; yakhruju mim butoonihaa sharaabum mukh talifun alwaanuhoo feehi shifaaa’ul linnaas, innna fee zaalika la Aayatal liqawminy yatafakkaroon
69. Then eat from all the fruits and follow the ways of your Lord laid down [for you].” There emerges from their bellies a drink, varying in colors, in which there is healing for people. Indeed in that is a sign for a people who give thought.

وَٱللَّهُ خَلَقَكُمْ ثُمَّ يَتَوَفَّىٰكُمْ ۚ وَمِنكُم مَّن يُرَدُّ إِلَىٰٓ أَرْذَلِ ٱلْعُمُرِ لِكَىْ لَا يَعْلَمَ بَعْدَ عِلْمٍۢ شَيْـًٔا ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلِيمٌۭ قَدِيرٌۭ

Wallaahu khalaqakum suma tatawaffaakum; wa minkum many-yuradu ilaaa arzalil ‘umuri likai laa ya’lama ba’da ‘ilmin shai’aa; innal laaha ‘Aleemun Qadeer (section 9)
70. And Allah created you; then He will take you in death. And among you is he who is reversed to the most decrepit [old] age so that he will not know, after [having had] knowledge, a thing. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Competent.

وَٱللَّهُ فَضَّلَ بَعْضَكُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍۢ فِى ٱلرِّزْقِ ۚ فَمَا ٱلَّذِينَ فُضِّلُوا۟ بِرَآدِّى رِزْقِهِمْ عَلَىٰ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَـٰنُهُمْ فَهُمْ فِيهِ سَوَآءٌ ۚ أَفَبِنِعْمَةِ ٱللَّهِ يَجْحَدُونَ

Wallaahu faddala ba’dakum ‘alaa ba’din fir rizq; famal lazeena fuddiloo biraaaddee rizqihim ‘alaa maa malakat aimaanuhum fahum feehi sawaaa’; afabini’matil laahi yajhadoon
71. And Allah has favored some of you over others in provision. But those who were favored would not hand over their provision to those whom their right hands possess so they would be equal to them therein. Then is it the favor of Allah they reject?

وَٱللَّهُ جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ أَزْوَ‌ٰجًۭا وَجَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنْ أَزْوَ‌ٰجِكُم بَنِينَ وَحَفَدَةًۭ وَرَزَقَكُم مِّنَ ٱلطَّيِّبَـٰتِ ۚ أَفَبِٱلْبَـٰطِلِ يُؤْمِنُونَ وَبِنِعْمَتِ ٱللَّهِ هُمْ يَكْفُرُونَ

Wallaahu ja’ala lakum min anfusikum azwaajanw wa ja’ala lakum min azwaajikum baneena wa hafadatanw wa razaqakum minat taiyibaat; afabil baatili yu’minoona wa bini’matil laahi hum yakkfuroon
72. And Allah has made for you from yourselves mates and has made for you from your mates sons and grandchildren and has provided for you from the good things. Then in falsehood do they believe and in the favor of Allah they disbelieve?

وَيَعْبُدُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا يَمْلِكُ لَهُمْ رِزْقًۭا مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَ‌ٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ شَيْـًۭٔا وَلَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ

Wa ya’budoona min doonil laahi maa laa yamliku lahum rizqam minas samaawaati wal ardi shai’anw wa laa yastatee’oon
73. And they worship besides Allah that which does not possess for them [the power of] provision from the heavens and the earth at all, and [in fact], they are unable.

فَلَا تَضْرِبُوا۟ لِلَّهِ ٱلْأَمْثَالَ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

Falaa tadriboo lillaahil amsaal; innal laaha ya’lamu wa antum laa ta’lamoon
74. So do not assert similarities to Allah . Indeed, Allah knows and you do not know.

۞ ضَرَبَ ٱللَّهُ مَثَلًا عَبْدًۭا مَّمْلُوكًۭا لَّا يَقْدِرُ عَلَىٰ شَىْءٍۢ وَمَن رَّزَقْنَـٰهُ مِنَّا رِزْقًا حَسَنًۭا فَهُوَ يُنفِقُ مِنْهُ سِرًّۭا وَجَهْرًا ۖ هَلْ يَسْتَوُۥنَ ۚ ٱلْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ ۚ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

Darabal laahu masalan ‘abdam mammlookal laa yaqdiru ‘alaa shai’inw wa marrazaqnaahu mminnaa rizqan hasanan fahuwa yunfiqu minhu sirranw wa jahra; hal yasta-woon; alhamdu lillaah; bal aksaruhum laa ya’lamoon
75. Allah presents an example: a slave [who is] owned and unable to do a thing and he to whom We have provided from Us good provision, so he spends from it secretly and publicly. Can they be equal? Praise to Allah ! But most of them do not know.

وَضَرَبَ ٱللَّهُ مَثَلًۭا رَّجُلَيْنِ أَحَدُهُمَآ أَبْكَمُ لَا يَقْدِرُ عَلَىٰ شَىْءٍۢ وَهُوَ كَلٌّ عَلَىٰ مَوْلَىٰهُ أَيْنَمَا يُوَجِّههُّ لَا يَأْتِ بِخَيْرٍ ۖ هَلْ يَسْتَوِى هُوَ وَمَن يَأْمُرُ بِٱلْعَدْلِ ۙ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ صِرَ‌ٰطٍۢ مُّسْتَقِيمٍۢ

Wa darabal laahu masalar rajulaini ahaduhumaaa abkamu laa yaqdiru ‘alaa shai’inw wa huwa kallun ‘alaa mawlaahu ainamaa yuwajjihhu laa yaati bikhairin hal yastawee huwa wa many-yaamuru bil’adli wa huwa ‘alaa Siraatim MMustaqeem (section 10)
76. And Allah presents an example of two men, one of them dumb and unable to do a thing, while he is a burden to his guardian. Wherever he directs him, he brings no good. Is he equal to one who commands justice, while he is on a straight path?

وَلِلَّهِ غَيْبُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَ‌ٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ وَمَآ أَمْرُ ٱلسَّاعَةِ إِلَّا كَلَمْحِ ٱلْبَصَرِ أَوْ هُوَ أَقْرَبُ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىْءٍۢ قَدِيرٌۭ

Wa lillaahi ghaibus samaawaati wal ard; wa maaa amrus Saa’ati illaa kalamhil basari aw huwa aqrab; innal laaha ‘alaaa kulli shai’in Qadeer
77. And to Allah belongs the unseen [aspects] of the heavens and the earth. And the command for the Hour is not but as a glance of the eye or even nearer. Indeed, Allah is over all things competent.

وَٱللَّهُ أَخْرَجَكُم مِّنۢ بُطُونِ أُمَّهَـٰتِكُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ شَيْـًۭٔا وَجَعَلَ لَكُمُ ٱلسَّمْعَ وَٱلْأَبْصَـٰرَ وَٱلْأَفْـِٔدَةَ ۙ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

Wallaahu akhrajakum mim butooni ummahaatikum laa ta’lamoona shai’anw wa ja’ala lakumus sam’a wal absaara wal af’idata la’allakum tashkuroon
78. And Allah has extracted you from the wombs of your mothers not knowing a thing, and He made for you hearing and vision and intellect that perhaps you would be grateful.

أَلَمْ يَرَوْا۟ إِلَى ٱلطَّيْرِ مُسَخَّرَ‌ٰتٍۢ فِى جَوِّ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَا يُمْسِكُهُنَّ إِلَّا ٱللَّهُ ۗ إِنَّ فِى ذَ‌ٰلِكَ لَءَايَـٰتٍۢ لِّقَوْمٍۢ يُؤْمِنُونَ

Alam yaraw ilat tairi musakhkharaatin fee jawwis samaaa’i maa yumsikuhunna illal laah; inna fee zaalika la Aayaatil liqawminy yu’minoon
79. Do they not see the birds controlled in the atmosphere of the sky? None holds them up except Allah . Indeed in that are signs for a people who believe.

وَٱللَّهُ جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنۢ بُيُوتِكُمْ سَكَنًۭا وَجَعَلَ لَكُم مِّن جُلُودِ ٱلْأَنْعَـٰمِ بُيُوتًۭا تَسْتَخِفُّونَهَا يَوْمَ ظَعْنِكُمْ وَيَوْمَ إِقَامَتِكُمْ ۙ وَمِنْ أَصْوَافِهَا وَأَوْبَارِهَا وَأَشْعَارِهَآ أَثَـٰثًۭا وَمَتَـٰعًا إِلَىٰ حِينٍۢ

Wallaahu ja’ala lakum mim buyootikum sakananw wa ja’ala lakum min juloodil an’aami buyootan tastakhif foonahaa yawma za’nikum wa yawma iqaamatikum wa min aswaafihaa wa awbaarihaa wa ash’aarihaaa asaasanw wa mataa’an ilaa heen
80. And Allah has made for you from your homes a place of rest and made for you from the hides of the animals tents which you find light on your day of travel and your day of encampment; and from their wool, fur and hair is furnishing and enjoyment for a time.

وَٱللَّهُ جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّمَّا خَلَقَ ظِلَـٰلًۭا وَجَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنَ ٱلْجِبَالِ أَكْنَـٰنًۭا وَجَعَلَ لَكُمْ سَرَ‌ٰبِيلَ تَقِيكُمُ ٱلْحَرَّ وَسَرَ‌ٰبِيلَ تَقِيكُم بَأْسَكُمْ ۚ كَذَ‌ٰلِكَ يُتِمُّ نِعْمَتَهُۥ عَلَيْكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُسْلِمُونَ

Wallaahu ja’ala lakum mimmaa khalaqa zilaalanw wa ja’ala lakum minal jibaali aknaananw wa ja’ala lakum saraabeela taqeekumul harra wa saraabeela taqeekum baasakum; kazaalika yutimmu ni’matahoo alaikum la’allakum tuslimoon
81. And Allah has made for you, from that which He has created, shadows and has made for you from the mountains, shelters and has made for you garments which protect you from the heat and garments which protect you from your [enemy in] battle. Thus does He complete His favor upon you that you might submit [to Him].

فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا۟ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْكَ ٱلْبَلَـٰغُ ٱلْمُبِينُ

Fa in tawallaw fa innamaa ‘alaikal balaaghul mubeen
82. But if they turn away, [O Muhammad] – then only upon you is [responsibility for] clear notification.

يَعْرِفُونَ نِعْمَتَ ٱللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُنكِرُونَهَا وَأَكْثَرُهُمُ ٱلْكَـٰفِرُونَ

Ya’rifoona ni’matal laahi summa yunkiroonahaa wa aksaruhumul kaafiroon (section 11)
83. They recognize the favor of Allah ; then they deny it. And most of them are disbelievers.

وَيَوْمَ نَبْعَثُ مِن كُلِّ أُمَّةٍۢ شَهِيدًۭا ثُمَّ لَا يُؤْذَنُ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ وَلَا هُمْ يُسْتَعْتَبُونَ

Wa yawma nab’asu min kulli ummatin shaheedan summa laa yu’zanu lillazeena kafaroo wa laa hum yusta’taboon
84. And [mention] the Day when We will resurrect from every nation a witness. Then it will not be permitted to the disbelievers [to apologize or make excuses], nor will they be asked to appease [ Allah ].

وَإِذَا رَءَا ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا۟ ٱلْعَذَابَ فَلَا يُخَفَّفُ عَنْهُمْ وَلَا هُمْ يُنظَرُونَ

Wa izaa ra al lazeena zalamul ‘azaaba falaa yukhaf fafu ‘anhum wa laa hum yunzaroon
85. And when those who wronged see the punishment, it will not be lightened for them, nor will they be reprieved.

وَإِذَا رَءَا ٱلَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا۟ شُرَكَآءَهُمْ قَالُوا۟ رَبَّنَا هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ شُرَكَآؤُنَا ٱلَّذِينَ كُنَّا نَدْعُوا۟ مِن دُونِكَ ۖ فَأَلْقَوْا۟ إِلَيْهِمُ ٱلْقَوْلَ إِنَّكُمْ لَكَـٰذِبُونَ

Wa izaa ra al lazeena ashrakoo shurakaaa’ahum qaaloo Rabbana haaa’ulaaa’i shurakaaa’unal lazeena kunnaa nad’oo min doonika fa alqaw ilaihimul qawla innakum lakaaziboon
86. And when those who associated others with Allah see their “partners,” they will say,” Our Lord, these are our partners [to You] whom we used to invoke besides You.” But they will throw at them the statement, “Indeed, you are liars.”

وَأَلْقَوْا۟ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ يَوْمَئِذٍ ٱلسَّلَمَ ۖ وَضَلَّ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا۟ يَفْتَرُونَ

Wa alqaw ilal laahi yawma’izinis salama wa dalla ‘anhum maa kaanoo yaftaroon
87. And they will impart to Allah that Day [their] submission, and lost from them is what they used to invent.

ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ وَصَدُّوا۟ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ زِدْنَـٰهُمْ عَذَابًۭا فَوْقَ ٱلْعَذَابِ بِمَا كَانُوا۟ يُفْسِدُونَ

Allazeena kafaroo wa saddoo ‘an sabeelil laahi zidnaahum ‘azaaban fawqal ‘azaabi bimaa kaanoo yufsidoon
88. Those who disbelieved and averted [others] from the way of Allah – We will increase them in punishment over [their] punishment for what corruption they were causing.

وَيَوْمَ نَبْعَثُ فِى كُلِّ أُمَّةٍۢ شَهِيدًا عَلَيْهِم مِّنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ ۖ وَجِئْنَا بِكَ شَهِيدًا عَلَىٰ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ ۚ وَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكَ ٱلْكِتَـٰبَ تِبْيَـٰنًۭا لِّكُلِّ شَىْءٍۢ وَهُدًۭى وَرَحْمَةًۭ وَبُشْرَىٰ لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ

Wa yawma nab’asu fee kulli ummmatin shaheedan ‘alaihim min anfusihim wa ji’naa bika shaheedan ‘alaa haaa’ulaaa’; wa nazzalnaa ‘alaikal Kitaaba tibyaanal likulli shai’inw wa hudanw wa rahmatanw wa bushraa lilmuslimeen (section 12)
89. And [mention] the Day when We will resurrect among every nation a witness over them from themselves. And We will bring you, [O Muhammad], as a witness over your nation. And We have sent down to you the Book as clarification for all things and as guidance and mercy and good tidings for the Muslims.

۞ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَأْمُرُ بِٱلْعَدْلِ وَٱلْإِحْسَـٰنِ وَإِيتَآئِ ذِى ٱلْقُرْبَىٰ وَيَنْهَىٰ عَنِ ٱلْفَحْشَآءِ وَٱلْمُنكَرِ وَٱلْبَغْىِ ۚ يَعِظُكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ

Innal laaha yaamaru bil ‘adli wal ihsaani wa eetaaa’i zil qurbaa wa yanhaa ‘anil fahshaaa’i wal munkari walbagh-i’ ya’izukum la’allakum tazakkkaroon
90. Indeed, Allah orders justice and good conduct and giving to relatives and forbids immorality and bad conduct and oppression. He admonishes you that perhaps you will be reminded.

وَأَوْفُوا۟ بِعَهْدِ ٱللَّهِ إِذَا عَـٰهَدتُّمْ وَلَا تَنقُضُوا۟ ٱلْأَيْمَـٰنَ بَعْدَ تَوْكِيدِهَا وَقَدْ جَعَلْتُمُ ٱللَّهَ عَلَيْكُمْ كَفِيلًا ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَفْعَلُونَ

Wa awfoo bi Ahdil laahi izaa ‘aahattum wa laa tanqudul aimaana ba’da tawkeedihaa wa qad ja’altumul laaha ‘alaikum kafeelaa; innal laaha ya’lamu maa taf’aloon
91. And fulfill the covenant of Allah when you have taken it, [O believers], and do not break oaths after their confirmation while you have made Allah, over you, a witness. Indeed, Allah knows what you do.

وَلَا تَكُونُوا۟ كَٱلَّتِى نَقَضَتْ غَزْلَهَا مِنۢ بَعْدِ قُوَّةٍ أَنكَـٰثًۭا تَتَّخِذُونَ أَيْمَـٰنَكُمْ دَخَلًۢا بَيْنَكُمْ أَن تَكُونَ أُمَّةٌ هِىَ أَرْبَىٰ مِنْ أُمَّةٍ ۚ إِنَّمَا يَبْلُوكُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِهِۦ ۚ وَلَيُبَيِّنَنَّ لَكُمْ يَوْمَ ٱلْقِيَـٰمَةِ مَا كُنتُمْ فِيهِ تَخْتَلِفُونَ

Wa laa takoonoo kallatee naqadat ghazlahaa mim ba’di quwwatin ankaasaa; tattakhizoona aimaanakum dakhlalam bainakum an takoona ummatun hiya arbaa min ummah; innnamaa yablookumul laahu bih; wa la yubaiyinanna lakum yawmal Qiyaamati maa kuntum fee takhtalifoon
92. And do not be like she who untwisted her spun thread after it was strong [by] taking your oaths as [means of] deceit between you because one community is more plentiful [in number or wealth] than another community. Allah only tries you thereby. And He will surely make clear to you on the Day of Resurrection that over which you used to differ.

وَلَوْ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ لَجَعَلَكُمْ أُمَّةًۭ وَ‌ٰحِدَةًۭ وَلَـٰكِن يُضِلُّ مَن يَشَآءُ وَيَهْدِى مَن يَشَآءُ ۚ وَلَتُسْـَٔلُنَّ عَمَّا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ

Wa law shaaa’al laahu laja’alakum ummmatanw waahidatanw wa laakiny yudillu many-yashaaa’u wa yahdee many-yashaaa’; wa latus’alunna ‘ammaa kuntum ta’maloon
93. And if Allah had willed, He could have made you [of] one religion, but He causes to stray whom He wills and guides whom He wills. And you will surely be questioned about what you used to do.

وَلَا تَتَّخِذُوٓا۟ أَيْمَـٰنَكُمْ دَخَلًۢا بَيْنَكُمْ فَتَزِلَّ قَدَمٌۢ بَعْدَ ثُبُوتِهَا وَتَذُوقُوا۟ ٱلسُّوٓءَ بِمَا صَدَدتُّمْ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ ۖ وَلَكُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌۭ

Wa laa tattakhizooo aimaanakum dakhalam bainakum fatazilla qadamum ba’da subootihaa wa tazooqus sooo’a bimmaa sadattum ‘an sabeelil laahi wa lakum ‘azaabun ‘azeem
94. And do not take your oaths as [means of] deceit between you, lest a foot slip after it was [once] firm, and you would taste evil [in this world] for what [people] you diverted from the way of Allah, and you would have [in the Hereafter] a great punishment.

وَلَا تَشْتَرُوا۟ بِعَهْدِ ٱللَّهِ ثَمَنًۭا قَلِيلًا ۚ إِنَّمَا عِندَ ٱللَّهِ هُوَ خَيْرٌۭ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

Wa laa tashtaroo bi ‘ahdil laahi samanan qaleelaa; innamaa ‘indal laahi huwa khairul lakum in kuntum ta’lamoon
95. And do not exchange the covenant of Allah for a small price. Indeed, what is with Allah is best for you, if only you could know.

مَا عِندَكُمْ يَنفَدُ ۖ وَمَا عِندَ ٱللَّهِ بَاقٍۢ ۗ وَلَنَجْزِيَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ صَبَرُوٓا۟ أَجْرَهُم بِأَحْسَنِ مَا كَانُوا۟ يَعْمَلُونَ

maa ‘indakum yanfadu wa maa ‘indal laahi baaq; wa lanajziyannal lazeena sabarooo ajjrahum bi ahsani maa kaanoo ya’maloon
96. Whatever you have will end, but what Allah has is lasting. And We will surely give those who were patient their reward according to the best of what they used to do.

مَنْ عَمِلَ صَـٰلِحًۭا مِّن ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنثَىٰ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌۭ فَلَنُحْيِيَنَّهُۥ حَيَوٰةًۭ طَيِّبَةًۭ ۖ وَلَنَجْزِيَنَّهُمْ أَجْرَهُم بِأَحْسَنِ مَا كَانُوا۟ يَعْمَلُونَ

Man ‘amila saaliham min zakarin aw unsaa wa huwa mu’minun falanuhyiyannahoo hayaatan taiiyibatanw wa lanajzi yannnahum ajrahum bi ahsani maa kaanoo ya’maloon
97. Whoever does righteousness, whether male or female, while he is a believer – We will surely cause him to live a good life, and We will surely give them their reward [in the Hereafter] according to the best of what they used to do.

فَإِذَا قَرَأْتَ ٱلْقُرْءَانَ فَٱسْتَعِذْ بِٱللَّهِ مِنَ ٱلشَّيْطَـٰنِ ٱلرَّجِيمِ

Fa izaa qara tal Quraana fasta’iz billaahi minashh Shai taanir rajeem
98. So when you recite the Qur’an, [first] seek refuge in Allah from Satan, the expelled [from His mercy].

إِنَّهُۥ لَيْسَ لَهُۥ سُلْطَـٰنٌ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ

Innahoo laisa lahoo sultaanun ‘alal lazeena aamanoo wa ‘alaa Rabbihim yatawakkaloon
99. Indeed, there is for him no authority over those who have believed and rely upon their Lord.

إِنَّمَا سُلْطَـٰنُهُۥ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ يَتَوَلَّوْنَهُۥ وَٱلَّذِينَ هُم بِهِۦ مُشْرِكُونَ

Innnamaa sultaanuhoo ‘alal lazeena yatawallawnahoo wallazeena hum bihee mushrikoon (section 13)
100. His authority is only over those who take him as an ally and those who through him associate others with Allah .

وَإِذَا بَدَّلْنَآ ءَايَةًۭ مَّكَانَ ءَايَةٍۢ ۙ وَٱللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يُنَزِّلُ قَالُوٓا۟ إِنَّمَآ أَنتَ مُفْتَرٍۭ ۚ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

Wa izaa baddalnaaa Aayatam makaana Aayatinw wal laahu a’lamu bimaa yunazzilu qaalooo innamaa anta muftar; bal aksaruhum laa ya’lamoon
101. And when We substitute a verse in place of a verse – and Allah is most knowing of what He sends down – they say, “You, [O Muhammad], are but an inventor [of lies].” But most of them do not know.

قُلْ نَزَّلَهُۥ رُوحُ ٱلْقُدُسِ مِن رَّبِّكَ بِٱلْحَقِّ لِيُثَبِّتَ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَهُدًۭى وَبُشْرَىٰ لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ

Qul nazzalahoo Roohul Qudusi mir Rabbika bilhaqqi liyusabbital lazeena aamanoo wa hudanw wa bushraa lilmuslimeen
102. Say, [O Muhammad], “The Pure Spirit has brought it down from your Lord in truth to make firm those who believe and as guidance and good tidings to the Muslims.”

وَلَقَدْ نَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُمْ يَقُولُونَ إِنَّمَا يُعَلِّمُهُۥ بَشَرٌۭ ۗ لِّسَانُ ٱلَّذِى يُلْحِدُونَ إِلَيْهِ أَعْجَمِىٌّۭ وَهَـٰذَا لِسَانٌ عَرَبِىٌّۭ مُّبِينٌ

Wa laqad na’lamu annahum yaqooloona innamaa yu’allimuhoo bashar; lisaanul lazee yulhidoona ilaihi a’ja miyyunw wa haaza lisaanun ‘Arabiyyum mubeen
103. And We certainly know that they say, “It is only a human being who teaches the Prophet.” The tongue of the one they refer to is foreign, and this Qur’an is [in] a clear Arabic language.

إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِـَٔايَـٰتِ ٱللَّهِ لَا يَهْدِيهِمُ ٱللَّهُ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

Innal lazeena laa yu’minoona bi Aayaatil laahi laa yahdehimul laahu wa lahum ‘azaabun aleem
104. Indeed, those who do not believe in the verses of Allah – Allah will not guide them, and for them is a painful punishment.

إِنَّمَا يَفْتَرِى ٱلْكَذِبَ ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِـَٔايَـٰتِ ٱللَّهِ ۖ وَأُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلْكَـٰذِبُونَ

Innamaa yaftaril kazibal lazeena laa yu’minoona bi Aayaatil laahi wa ulaaa’ika humul kaaziboon
105. They only invent falsehood who do not believe in the verses of Allah, and it is those who are the liars.

مَن كَفَرَ بِٱللَّهِ مِنۢ بَعْدِ إِيمَـٰنِهِۦٓ إِلَّا مَنْ أُكْرِهَ وَقَلْبُهُۥ مُطْمَئِنٌّۢ بِٱلْإِيمَـٰنِ وَلَـٰكِن مَّن شَرَحَ بِٱلْكُفْرِ صَدْرًۭا فَعَلَيْهِمْ غَضَبٌۭ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌۭ

man kafara billaahi mim ba’di eemaanihee illaa man ukriha wa qalbuhoo mutmma’innum bil eemaani wa laakim man sharaha bilkufri sadran fa’alaihim ghadabum minal laahi wa lahum ‘azaabun ‘azeem
106. Whoever disbelieves in Allah after his belief… except for one who is forced [to renounce his religion] while his heart is secure in faith. But those who [willingly] open their breasts to disbelief, upon them is wrath from Allah, and for them is a great punishment;

ذَ‌ٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمُ ٱسْتَحَبُّوا۟ ٱلْحَيَوٰةَ ٱلدُّنْيَا عَلَى ٱلْءَاخِرَةِ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِى ٱلْقَوْمَ ٱلْكَـٰفِرِينَ

Zaalika bi annahumus tahabbul hayaatad dunyaa ‘alal Aakhirati wa annal laaha laa yahdil qawmal kaafireen
107. That is because they preferred the worldly life over the Hereafter and that Allah does not guide the disbelieving people.

أُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ طَبَعَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَسَمْعِهِمْ وَأَبْصَـٰرِهِمْ ۖ وَأُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلْغَـٰفِلُونَ

Ulaaa’ikal lazeena taba’al laahu ‘alaa quloobihim wa sam’ihim wa absaarihim wa ulaaa’ika humul ghaafiloon
108. Those are the ones over whose hearts and hearing and vision Allah has sealed, and it is those who are the heedless.

لَا جَرَمَ أَنَّهُمْ فِى ٱلْءَاخِرَةِ هُمُ ٱلْخَـٰسِرُونَ

Laa jarama annnahum fil Aakhirati humul khassiroon
109. Assuredly, it is they, in the Hereafter, who will be the losers.

ثُمَّ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لِلَّذِينَ هَاجَرُوا۟ مِنۢ بَعْدِ مَا فُتِنُوا۟ ثُمَّ جَـٰهَدُوا۟ وَصَبَرُوٓا۟ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ مِنۢ بَعْدِهَا لَغَفُورٌۭ رَّحِيمٌۭ

Summa inna Rabbaka lillazeena haajaroo mim ba’dimaa futinoo summma jaahadoo wa sabaroo inna Rabbaka mim ba’dihaa la Ghafoorur Raheem (section 14)
110. Then, indeed your Lord, to those who emigrated after they had been compelled [to renounce their religion] and thereafter fought [for the cause of Allah ] and were patient – indeed, your Lord, after that, is Forgiving and Merciful

۞ يَوْمَ تَأْتِى كُلُّ نَفْسٍۢ تُجَـٰدِلُ عَن نَّفْسِهَا وَتُوَفَّىٰ كُلُّ نَفْسٍۢ مَّا عَمِلَتْ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ

Yawma taatee kullu nafsin tujaadilu ‘an nafsihaa wa tuwaffaa kullu nafsim maa ‘amilat wa hum laa yuzlamoon
111. On the Day when every soul will come disputing for itself, and every soul will be fully compensated for what it did, and they will not be wronged.

وَضَرَبَ ٱللَّهُ مَثَلًۭا قَرْيَةًۭ كَانَتْ ءَامِنَةًۭ مُّطْمَئِنَّةًۭ يَأْتِيهَا رِزْقُهَا رَغَدًۭا مِّن كُلِّ مَكَانٍۢ فَكَفَرَتْ بِأَنْعُمِ ٱللَّهِ فَأَذَ‌ٰقَهَا ٱللَّهُ لِبَاسَ ٱلْجُوعِ وَٱلْخَوْفِ بِمَا كَانُوا۟ يَصْنَعُونَ

Wa darabal laahu masalan qaryatan kaanat aaminatam mutma’innatany yaaateehaa rizquhaa raghadam min kulli makaanin fakafarat bi an’umil laahi fa azaaqahal laahu libaasal joo’i walkhawfi bimaa kaanoo yasna’oon
112. And Allah presents an example: a city which was safe and secure, its provision coming to it in abundance from every location, but it denied the favors of Allah . So Allah made it taste the envelopment of hunger and fear for what they had been doing.

وَلَقَدْ جَآءَهُمْ رَسُولٌۭ مِّنْهُمْ فَكَذَّبُوهُ فَأَخَذَهُمُ ٱلْعَذَابُ وَهُمْ ظَـٰلِمُونَ

Wa laqad jaaa’ahum Rasoolum minhum fakazzaboohu fa akhazahumul ‘azaabu wa hum zaalimoon
113. And there had certainly come to them a Messenger from among themselves, but they denied him; so punishment overtook them while they were wrongdoers.

فَكُلُوا۟ مِمَّا رَزَقَكُمُ ٱللَّهُ حَلَـٰلًۭا طَيِّبًۭا وَٱشْكُرُوا۟ نِعْمَتَ ٱللَّهِ إِن كُنتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ

Fakuloo mimmaa razaqa kumul laahu halaalan taiyibanw washkuroo ni’matal laahi in kuntum iyyaahu ta’budoon
114. Then eat of what Allah has provided for you [which is] lawful and good. And be grateful for the favor of Allah, if it is [indeed] Him that you worship.

إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ عَلَيْكُمُ ٱلْمَيْتَةَ وَٱلدَّمَ وَلَحْمَ ٱلْخِنزِيرِ وَمَآ أُهِلَّ لِغَيْرِ ٱللَّهِ بِهِۦ ۖ فَمَنِ ٱضْطُرَّ غَيْرَ بَاغٍۢ وَلَا عَادٍۢ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٌۭ رَّحِيمٌۭ

Innamaa harama ‘alai kumul maitata waddama wa lahmal khinzeeri wa maaa uhilla lighairil laahi bihee famanid turra ghaira baaghinw wa laa ‘aadin fa innal laaha Ghafoorur Raheem
115. He has only forbidden to you dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah . But whoever is forced [by necessity], neither desiring [it] nor transgressing [its limit] – then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.

وَلَا تَقُولُوا۟ لِمَا تَصِفُ أَلْسِنَتُكُمُ ٱلْكَذِبَ هَـٰذَا حَلَـٰلٌۭ وَهَـٰذَا حَرَامٌۭ لِّتَفْتَرُوا۟ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ ٱلْكَذِبَ ۚ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ ٱلْكَذِبَ لَا يُفْلِحُونَ

Wa laa taqooloo limaa tasifu alsinatukumul kaziba haaza halaalunw wa haazaa haraamul litaftaroo ‘alal laahil kazib; innal lazeena yaftaroona ‘alal laahil kaziba laa yuflihoon
116. And do not say about what your tongues assert of untruth, “This is lawful and this is unlawful,” to invent falsehood about Allah . Indeed, those who invent falsehood about Allah will not succeed.

مَتَـٰعٌۭ قَلِيلٌۭ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌۭ

Mata’un qaleelunw wa lahum ‘azaabun aleem
117. [It is but] a brief enjoyment, and they will have a painful punishment.

وَعَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ هَادُوا۟ حَرَّمْنَا مَا قَصَصْنَا عَلَيْكَ مِن قَبْلُ ۖ وَمَا ظَلَمْنَـٰهُمْ وَلَـٰكِن كَانُوٓا۟ أَنفُسَهُمْ يَظْلِمُونَ

Wa ‘alal lazeena haadoo harramnaa ma qasasnaa ‘alaika min qablu wa maa zalamanaahum wa laakin kaanoo anfusahum wa laakin kaanoo anfusahum yazlimoon
118. And to those who are Jews We have prohibited that which We related to you before. And We did not wrong them [thereby], but they were wronging themselves.

ثُمَّ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لِلَّذِينَ عَمِلُوا۟ ٱلسُّوٓءَ بِجَهَـٰلَةٍۢ ثُمَّ تَابُوا۟ مِنۢ بَعْدِ ذَ‌ٰلِكَ وَأَصْلَحُوٓا۟ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ مِنۢ بَعْدِهَا لَغَفُورٌۭ رَّحِيمٌ

Summma inna Rabbaka lillazeena ‘amilus sooo’a bijahaalatin summa taaboo mim ba’di zaaalika wa aslahoo inna Rabbaka mim ba’dihaa la Ghafoorur Raheem (section 15)
119. Then, indeed your Lord, to those who have done wrong out of ignorance and then repent after that and correct themselves – indeed, your Lord, thereafter, is Forgiving and Merciful.

إِنَّ إِبْرَ‌ٰهِيمَ كَانَ أُمَّةًۭ قَانِتًۭا لِّلَّهِ حَنِيفًۭا وَلَمْ يَكُ مِنَ ٱلْمُشْرِكِينَ

Inna Ibraaheema kaana ummatan qaanital lillaahi Haneefanw wa lam yakuminal mushrikeen
120. Indeed, Abraham was a [comprehensive] leader, devoutly obedient to Allah, inclining toward truth, and he was not of those who associate others with Allah .

شَاكِرًۭا لِّأَنْعُمِهِ ۚ ٱجْتَبَىٰهُ وَهَدَىٰهُ إِلَىٰ صِرَ‌ٰطٍۢ مُّسْتَقِيمٍۢ

Shaakiral li an’umih; ijtabaahu wa hadaahu ilaa Siraatim Muustaqeem
121. [He was] grateful for His favors. Allah chose him and guided him to a straight path.

وَءَاتَيْنَـٰهُ فِى ٱلدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةًۭ ۖ وَإِنَّهُۥ فِى ٱلْءَاخِرَةِ لَمِنَ ٱلصَّـٰلِحِينَ

Wa aatainaahu fid dunyaa hasanah; wa innahoo fil Aakhirati laminas saaliheen
122. And We gave him good in this world, and indeed, in the Hereafter he will be among the righteous.

ثُمَّ أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَيْكَ أَنِ ٱتَّبِعْ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَ‌ٰهِيمَ حَنِيفًۭا ۖ وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ ٱلْمُشْرِكِينَ

Summma awhainaa ilaika anit tabi’ Millata Ibraaheema haneefaa; wa maa kaana minal mushrikeen
123. Then We revealed to you, [O Muhammad], to follow the religion of Abraham, inclining toward truth; and he was not of those who associate with Allah.

إِنَّمَا جُعِلَ ٱلسَّبْتُ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ ٱخْتَلَفُوا۟ فِيهِ ۚ وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَيَحْكُمُ بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ ٱلْقِيَـٰمَةِ فِيمَا كَانُوا۟ فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ

Innnamaa ju’ilas Sabtu ‘alal lazeenakhtalafoo feeh; wa inna Rabbaka la yahkumu bainahum Yawmal Qiyaamati feemaa kaanoo feehi yakhtalifoon
124. The sabbath was only appointed for those who differed over it. And indeed, your Lord will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection concerning that over which they used to differ.

ٱدْعُ إِلَىٰ سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ بِٱلْحِكْمَةِ وَٱلْمَوْعِظَةِ ٱلْحَسَنَةِ ۖ وَجَـٰدِلْهُم بِٱلَّتِى هِىَ أَحْسَنُ ۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن ضَلَّ عَن سَبِيلِهِۦ ۖ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِٱلْمُهْتَدِينَ

Ud’u ilaa sabeeli Rabbika bilhikmati walmaw ‘izatil hasanati wa jaadilhum billatee hiya ahsan; inna Rabbaka huwa a’almu biman dalla ‘an sabeelihee wa Huwa a’lamu bilmuhtadeen
125. Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good instruction, and argue with them in a way that is best. Indeed, your Lord is most knowing of who has strayed from His way, and He is most knowing of who is [rightly] guided.

وَإِنْ عَاقَبْتُمْ فَعَاقِبُوا۟ بِمِثْلِ مَا عُوقِبْتُم بِهِۦ ۖ وَلَئِن صَبَرْتُمْ لَهُوَ خَيْرٌۭ لِّلصَّـٰبِرِينَ

Wa in ‘aaqabtum fa’aaqiboo bimisli maa ‘ooqibtum bihee wa la’in sabartum lahuwa khairul lissaabireen
126. And if you punish [an enemy, O believers], punish with an equivalent of that with which you were harmed. But if you are patient – it is better for those who are patient.

وَٱصْبِرْ وَمَا صَبْرُكَ إِلَّا بِٱللَّهِ ۚ وَلَا تَحْزَنْ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا تَكُ فِى ضَيْقٍۢ مِّمَّا يَمْكُرُونَ

Wasbir wa maa sabruka illaa billaah; wa laa tahzan ‘alaihim wa laa taku fee daiqim mimmaa yamkuroon
127. And be patient, [O Muhammad], and your patience is not but through Allah . And do not grieve over them and do not be in distress over what they conspire.

إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ مَعَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّقَوا۟ وَّٱلَّذِينَ هُم مُّحْسِنُونَ

Innal laaha ma’al lazeenat taqaw wal lazeena hum muhsinoon (section 16) (End Juz 14)
128. Indeed, Allah is with those who fear Him and those who are doers of good.

The Tafsir of Surat An-Nahl

Chapter – 16
Which was revealed in Makkah

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

(1. The Event ordained by Allah has indeed come, so do not seek to hasten it. Glorified and Exalted be He above all that they associate as partners with Him.)

Warning about the approach of the Hour

Allah is informing about the approach of the Hour in the past tense ﴿in Arabic﴾ in order to confirm that it will undoubtedly come to pass. This is like the following Ayat, in which the verbs appear in the past tense in Arabic:

(Mankind’s reckoning has drawn near them, while they turn away in heedlessness.)﴿21:1﴾

(The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft.) ﴿54:1﴾

(so do not seek to hasten it.) means, what was far is now near, so do not try to rush it. As Allah said,

(And they ask you to hasten the torment (for them), and had it not been for a term appointed, the torment would certainly have come to them. And surely, it will come upon them suddenly while they are unaware! They ask you to hasten on the torment. And verily! Hell, of a surety, will encompass the disbelievers) (29:53-54). Ibn Abi Hatim reported from `Uqbah bin `Amir that the Messenger of Allah said:

(When the Hour approaches, a black cloud resembling a shield will emerge upon from the west. It will continue rising in the sky, then a voice will call out, `O mankind!’ The people will say to one another, `Did you hear that’ Some will say, `yes’, but others will doubt it. Then a second call will come, `O mankind!’ The people will say to one another, `Did you hear that’ And they will say, `Yes.’ Then a third call will come, `O mankind!’ The Event ordained by Allah has indeed come, so do not seek to hasten it.’) The Messenger of Allah said:

(By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, two men will spread out a cloth, but will never refold it; a man will prepare his trough, but will never water his animals from it; and a man will milk his camel, but will never drink the milk.” Then he said, “The people will be distracted.”) Then Allah tells us that He is free from their allegations of partners to their worship of idols, and making equals for Him. Glorified and exalted be He far above that. These are the people who deny the Hour, so He says:

(Glorified and Exalted be He above all that they associate as partners with Him. )

(2. He sends down the angels with the Ruh (revelation) of His command to those servants of His whom He wills (saying): “Warn mankind that none has the right to be worshipped but I, so have Taqwa of Me.”)

Allah sends Whomever He wills with the Message of Tawhid

(He sends down the angels with the Ruh) refers to the revelation. This is like the Ayat:

(And thus We have sent to you a Ruh (revelation) by Our command. You knew not what is the Book, nor what is the faith. But We have made it a light by which We guide whomever We will among Our servants.) ﴿43:52﴾

(to those servants of His whom He wills) meaning the Prophets, as Allah says:

(Allah best knows where to place His Message.) ﴿6:124﴾

(Allah chooses Messengers from angels and from men.) ﴿22:75﴾

(He sends the Ruh (revelation) by His command to whoever among His servants He wills to, that he may warn of the Day of Meeting. The Day when they will (all) come out, nothing about them will be hidden from Allah. Whose is the kingdom this Day: It is Allah’s, the One, the Irresistible!) (40:15-16)

((saying): “Warn…”) meaning that they should alert them.

(that none has the right to be worshipped but I, so have Taqwa of Me.) means, `fear My punishment, if you go against My commands and worship anything other than Me.’

(3. He has created the heavens and the earth with truth. High is He, Exalted above all that they associate as partners with Him.) (4. He has created man from a Nutfah, then behold, this same (man) becomes an open opponent.)

Allah is the One Who has created the Heavens, the Earth, and Man

Allah tells us about His creation of the upper realm, which is the heavens, and the lower realm, which is the earth, and everything in them. They have been created for a true purpose, not in vain, so that

(He may requite those who do evil with that which they have done (i.e. punish them in Hell), and reward those who do good, with what is best (i.e. Paradise).) ﴿53:31﴾ Then He declares Himself to be above the Shirk of those who worship others besides Him. He is independent of His creation, alone with no partner or associate. For this reason He deserves to be worshipped Alone, without partners. Then He mentions how man has been created from a Nutfah, i.e., something that is insignificant, weak and has no value – but when man becomes independent and is able to fend for himself – then he begins to dispute with his Lord, may He be exalted, and disbelieves in Him and fights His Messengers. But man was created to be a servant, not an opponent, as Allah says:

(And it is He Who has created man from water, and gave him descendants, and made Him kindred by marriage, and your Lord is capable (of all things). And they worship besides Allah, that which can neither profit them nor harm them; and the disbeliever is ever a helper (of Shaytan) against his Lord) (25: 54-55). And;

(Does not man see that We have created him from Nutfah. Yet, behold he stands as an open opponent. And he puts forth for Us a parable, and forgets his own creation. He says: “Who will give life to these bones after they are rotten and have become dust” Say: “He will give life to them Who created them the first time! And He is the knower of every creature!”) (36:77-79). Imam Ahmad and Ibn Majah reported that Busr bin Jahhash said: “The Messenger of Allah spat in his palm, then he said,

(Allah, may He be exalted, says: “O son of Adam, how could you be more powerful than I when I have created you from something like this, and when I have fashioned you perfectly and made you complete, you walk wearing your two garments and the earth makes a sound (beneath your feet). You collect money but do not give anything to anyone, then when the soul of a dying person reaches the throat, you say, `I want to give in charity’, but it is too late for charity.”)

(5. And the cattle, He has created them for you; in them there is warmth (warm clothing), and numerous benefits, and you eat from them.) (6. And there is beauty in them for you, when you bring them home in the evening, and as you lead them forth to pasture (in the morning).) (7. And they carry your loads to a land that you could not reach yourselves except with great trouble. Truly, your Lord is full of kindness, Most Merciful.)

The Cattle are part of the Creation of Allah and a Blessing from Him

Allah reminds His servants of the blessing in His creation of An`am, this term includes camels, cows and sheep, as was explained in detail in Surat Al-An`am where the “eight pairs” are mentioned. The blessings include the benefits derived from their wool and hair, from which clothes and furnishings are made, from their milk which is drunk, and their young which are eaten. Their beauty is a kind of adornment, thus Allah says,

(And there is beauty in them for you, when you bring them home in the evening.) which is when they are brought back from the pasture in the evening. This is a reference to how their flanks become fat, their udders fill with milk and their humps become bigger.

(and as you lead them forth to pasture (in the morning).) meaning when you send them out to the pasture in the morning.

(And they carry your loads) meaning the heavy burdens that you cannot move or carry by yourselves

(to a land that you could not reach except with great trouble to yourselves) meaning journeys for Hajj, `Umrah, military campaigns, and journeys for the purpose of trading, and so on. They use these animals for all kinds of purposes, for riding and for carrying loads, as Allah says:

(And verily, there is indeed a lesson for you in the An’am (cattle). We give you to drink (milk) of that which is in their bellies. And there are numerous (other) benefits in them for you. Of them you eat, and on them and on ships you are carried.) (23:21-22)

(Allah, it is He Who has made cattle for you, so that some you may ride, and some you may eat. And you find (many other) benefits in them; you may reach by their means a desire that is in your breasts (i.e. carry your goods, loads), and on them and on ships you are carried. And He shows you His Ayat. Which, then of the Ayat of Allah do you deny) (40:79-81). Thus here Allah says, after enumerating these blessings,

(Truly, your Lord is full of kindness, Most Merciful.) meaning, your Lord is the One Who has subjugated the An`am (cattle) to you. This is like the Ayat:

(Do they not see, that of what Our Hands have created, We created the An’am (cattle) for them, so that they may own them, and We subdued them so that they may ride some and they may eat some.)(36:71-72).

(And He made mounts for you out of ships and cattle. In order that you may ride on their backs, and may then remember the favor of your Lord when you mount upon them, and say: “Glory be to the One Who subjected this to us, and we could never have it (by our efforts). And verily, to Our Lord we indeed are to return!”) (43:12-14) Ibn `Abbas said,

(In them there is warmth) refers to clothing;

(and numerous benefits) refers to the ways in which they derive the benefits of food and drink from them.”

(8. And (He has created) horses, mules and donkeys for you to ride, and as an adornment. And He creates (other) things of which you have no knowledge.)

This refers to another category of animals that Allah has created as a blessing for His servants; horses, mules and donkeys, all of which He made for riding and adornment.

This is the main purpose for which these animals were created. It was reported in the Two Sahihs that Jabir bin `Abdullah said: “The Messenger of Allah forbade us to eat the meat of domestic donkeys, but he allowed us to eat the meat of horses.” Imam Ahmad and Abu Dawud reported with two chains of narration, each of which meet the conditions of Muslim, that Jabir said: “On the day of Khaybar we slaughtered horses, mules and donkeys. The Messenger of Allah forbade us from eating the mules and donkeys, but he did not forbid us from eating the horses.” According to Sahih Muslim, Asma’ bint Abi Bakr (may Allah be pleased with them both) said: “At the time of the Messenger of Allah we slaughtered a horse and ate it when we were in Al-Madinah.”

(9. And it is up to Allah to show the right way. But there are ways that stray. And had He willed, He would have guided you all.)

Explanation of the Different Religious Paths

When Allah mentioned the animals which may be used for the purpose of physical journeys, He also referred to the moral, religious routes that people may follow. Often in the Qur’an there is a shift from physical or tangible things to beneficial spiritual and religious matters, as when Allah says,

(And take a provision (with you) for the journey, but the best provision is Taqwa (piety, righteousness).) ﴿2:197﴾ And,

(O Children of Adam! We have granted clothing for you to cover yourselves, as well as for adornment; but the raiment of righteousness, that is better.) ﴿7:26﴾ Since Allah mentioned cattle and other such animals in this Surah, all of which are ridden or can be used in any way necessary, carrying people’s necessities for them to distant places and on difficult journeys – then He mentions the ways which people follow to try to reach Him, and explains that the right way is the one that does reach Him. He says:

(And it is up to Allah to show the right way.) This is like the Ayat,

(And verily, this is My straight path, so follow it, and do not follow the (other) paths, for they will separate you away from His path.) ﴿6:153﴾ and,

((Allah) said: “This is the way which will lead straight to Me.”) (15:41)

(And it is up to Allah to show the right way.) Mujahid said: “The true way is up to Allah.”

(And it is up to Allah to show the right way.) Al-`Awfi said that Ibn `Abbas said: “It is up to Allah to clarify, to explain the guidance and misguidance.” This was also reported by `Ali bin Abi Talhah, and was also the opinion of Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak. Hence Allah said:

(But there are ways that stray.) meaning they deviate from the truth. Ibn `Abbas and others said: “These are the different ways,” and various opinions and whims, such as Judaism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism. Ibn Mas`ud recited it as (?????????? ???????) “But among you are those who stray. ” Then Allah tells us that all of that happens by His will and decree. He says:

(And had He willed, He would have guided you all.) And Allah says:

(If your Lord had willed, then all who are in the earth would have believed.) ﴿10:99﴾

(And if your Lord had so willed, He could surely, have made humanity one Ummah, but they will not stop disagreeing. Except those for whom your Lord has granted mercy. And it is for this that He did create them; and the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled (i.e. His saying): “Surely, I shall fill Hell with Jinn and men all together.”) (11:118-119).

(10. He it is Who sends water down from the sky; from it you drink and from it (grows) the vegetation on which you send your cattle to pasture. ) (11. With it He causes crops to grow for you, the olives, the date palms, the grapes, and every kind of fruit. Verily, in this there is indeed an evident proof and a manifest sign for people who give thought.)

The Blessings of Rain, and explaining how it is one of the Signs

When Allah mentions the blessings of cattle and other animals that He has granted mankind, He then mentions how He has blessed them by sending rain down from the sky above, which has been fulfilling the needs and bringing joy to people and their cattle. Allah says:

(from it you drink) meaning, He made it fresh and pure so that they can drink it, not salty and undrinkable.

(and from it (grows) the vegetation on which you send your cattle to pasture.) meaning, from it He raised plants on which your cattle graze. Ibn `Abbas, `Ikrimah, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah and Ibn Zayd, all said that this refers to grazing animals including camels.

(With it He causes crops to grow for you, olives, date palms, grapes, and every kind of fruit.) meaning, with this one kind of water, He makes the earth sprout plants with different tastes, colors, scents and shapes. For this reason He says,

(Verily, in this there is indeed an evident proof and a manifest sign for people who give thought.) meaning, this is a sign and a proof that there is no god besides Allah, as He says:

(Is not He (better than your gods) Who created the heavens and the earth, and sends water down for you from the sky, from which We cause wonderful gardens full of beauty and delight to grow You are not able to cause the growth of their trees. Is there any ilah (god) with Allah Nay, but they are a people who make equals (to Him)!) (27:60).

(12. And He has subjected the night and the day for you, and the sun and the moon; and the stars are subjected by His command. Surely, in this are proofs for people who understand.) (13. And all He has created of varying colors on the earth for you. Verily, in this is a sign for people who reflect.)

Signs in the Subjection of Night and Day, the Sun and the Moon, and in that which grows on Earth

Allah mentions the mighty signs and immense blessings to be found in His subjection of night and day, which follow one another; the sun and moon, which revolve; the stars, both fixed and moving through the skies, offering light by which people may find their way in the darkness. Each of (these heavenly bodies) travels in its own orbit, which Allah has ordained for it, and travels in the manner prescribed for it, without deviating in any way. All of them are under His subjugation, His control and His decree, as Allah says:

(Indeed, your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He rose (Istawa) over the Throne. He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly, and (He created) the sun, the moon, the stars (all) subjected to His command. Surely, His is the creation and commandment. Blessed is Allah, the Lord of all that exists!) (7:54) Thus Allah says;

(Surely, in this are proofs for people who understand.) meaning, they are indications of His immense power and might, for those who think about Allah and understand His signs.

(And whatsoever He has created of varying colors on the earth for you. ) When Allah points out the features of the skies, He also points out the wondrous things that He has created on earth, the variety of its animals, minerals, plants and inanimate features, all having different colors and shapes, benefits and qualities.

(Verily, in this is a sign for people who reflect.) meaning (those who remember) the blessings of Allah and give thanks to Him for them.

(14. And He it is Who subjected the sea (to you), that you may eat from the fresh tender meat, and that you bring forth out of it ornaments to wear. And you see the ships plowing through it, that you may seek from His bounty and that you may perhaps be grateful.) (15. And He has driven firm standing mountains into the earth, lest it should shake with you; and rivers and roads, that you may guide yourselves. (16. And (by the) landmarks; and by the stars, they guide themselves.) (17. Is then He Who creates the same as one who creates, not Will you not then reflect) (18. And if you would try to count the favors of Allah, you would never be able to count them. Truly, Allah is Forgiving, Most Merciful.)

Signs in the Oceans, Mountains, Rivers, Roads and Stars

Allah tells us how He has subjected the seas, with their waves lapping the shores, and how He blesses His servants by subjecting the seas for them so that they may travel on them, and by putting fish and whales in them, by making their flesh permissible to eat – whether they are caught alive or dead – at all times, including when people are in a state of Ihram. He has created pearls and precious jewels in the oceans, and made it easy for His servants to recover ornaments that they can wear from the ocean floor. He made the sea such that it carries the ships which plow through it. He is the One Who taught mankind to make ships, which is the inheritance of their forefather Nuh. He was the first one to travel by ship, he was taught how to make them, then people took this knowledge from him and passed it down from generation to generation through the centuries, so that they could travel from country to country and from place to place, bringing goods from here to there and from there to here. Thus Allah says:

(that you may seek from His bounty and that you may perhaps be grateful.) – for His bounty and blessings. Then Allah mentions the earth and how He placed in it mountains standing firm, which make it stable and keep it from shaking in such a manner that the creatures dwelling on it would not be able to live. Hence Allah says,

(And the mountains He has fixed firmly.) (79: 32).

(and rivers and roads) meaning He has made rivers which flow from one place to another, bringing provision for His servants. The rivers arise in one place, and bring provision to people living in another place. They flow through lands and fields and wildernesses, through mountains and hills, until they reach the land whose people they are meant to benefit. They meander across the land, left and right, north and south, east and west – rivers great and small – flowing sometimes and ceasing sometimes, flowing from their sources to the places where the water gathers, flowing rapidly or moving slowly, as decreed by Allah. There is no god besides Him and no Lord except Him. He also made roads or routes along which people travel from one land or city to another, and He even made gaps in the mountains so that there would be routes between them, as He says:

(And We placed broad highways for them to pass through.) ﴿21:31﴾

(And landmarks) meaning, signs like great mountains and small hills, and so on, things that land and sea travelers use to find their way if they get lost.

(and by the stars (during the night), they (mankind) guide themselves.) meaning, in the darkness of the night. This was the opinion of Ibn `Abbas.

Worship is Allah’s Right

Then Allah tells us of His greatness, and that worship should be directed to Him alone, not to any of the idols which do not create but are rather themselves created. Thus He says

(Is then He, Who creates, the same as one who does not create Will you not then reflect)(16:17). Then He shows His servants some of the many blessings He granted for them, and the many kinds of things that He has done for them. He says;

(And if you would try to count the favors of Allah, you would never be able to count them. Truly, Allah is Forgiving, Most Merciful.) (16:18) meaning that He pardons and forgives them. If He were to ask you to thank Him for all of His blessings, you would not be able to do so, and if He were to command you to do so, you would be incapable of it. If He punishes you, He is never unjust in His punishment, but He is Forgiving and Most Merciful, He forgives much and rewards for little. Ibn Jarir said: “It means that Allah is Forgiving when you fail to thank Him properly, if you repent and turn to Him in obedience, and strive to do that which pleases Him. He is Merciful to you and does not punish you if you turn to Him and repent.”

(19. And Allah knows what you conceal and what you reveal.) (20. Those whom they invoke besides Allah have not created anything, but are themselves created.) (21. (They are) dead, not alive; and they do not know when they will be resurrected.) Allah tells us that He knows what is hidden in people’s hearts as well as what is apparent. He will reward or punish everyone for their deeds on the Day of Resurrection. If their deeds are good then they will be rewarded, and if their deeds are evil, then they will be punished.

The gods of the Idolators are Created, they do not create

Then Allah tells us that the idols which people call on instead of Him cannot create anything, they are themselves created, as Al-Khalil (Ibrahim) said:

(“Do you worship that which you (yourselves) carve While Allah has created you and what you make!”) (37:-96).

((They are) dead, not alive) means, they are inanimate and lifeless, they do not hear, see, or think.

(and they know not when they will be resurrected.) meaning, they do not know when the Hour will come, so how can anyone hope for any benefit or reward from these idols They should hope for it from the One Who knows all things and is the Creator of all things.

(22. Your god is one God. But for those who believe not in the Hereafter, their hearts are in denial, and they are proud.) (23. Certainly, Allah knows what they conceal and what they reveal. Truly, He does not like the proud.)

None is to be worshipped except Allah

Allah tells us that there is none to be worshipped besides Him, the One, the Unique, the Lone, the Self-Sufficient. He tells us that the hearts of the disbelievers deny that and are astonished by that:

(“Has he made the gods (all) into One God! Verily, this is a curious thing!”) (38:5).

(And when Allah alone is mentioned, the hearts of those who do not believe in the Hereafter are filled with disgust, and when those besides Him are mentioned, behold, they rejoice!) (39:45).

(and they are proud) meaning they are too proud to worship Allah, and their hearts reject the idea of singling Him out, as Allah says:

(Verily! Those who scorn My worship they will surely enter Hell in humiliation!) ﴿40:60﴾ So here, Allah says;

(Certainly), meaning truly,

(Allah knows what they conceal and what they reveal.) meaning He will requite them for that in full.

(Truly, He does not like the proud.)

(24. And when it is said to them: “What is it that your Lord has revealed” They say: “Tales of the men of old!”) (25. They will bear their own burdens in full on the Day of Resurrection, and also the burdens of those whom they misled without knowledge. Evil indeed is that which they shall bear!)

The Destruction of the Disbelievers and Intensification of their Punishment for rejecting the Revelation

Allah informs us that when it is said to those liars,

(“What is it that your Lord has revealed” They say,) not wanting to answer,

(“Tales of the men of old!”) meaning nothing is revealed to him, what he is reciting to us is just tales of the men of old, taken from the previous Books. As Allah says,

(And they say: “Tales of the ancients, which he has written down, and they are dictated to him morning and afternoon.”) (25:5) i.e., they tell lies against the Messenger and say things contradicting one another, but all of it is false, as Allah says,

(Look at the parables they make of you, so they have gone astray, and they are not able to find the right way.)(17:48) Once they have gone beyond the bounds of the truth, whatever they say will be in error. They used to say that he (the Prophet ) was a sorcerer, a poet, a soothsayer, or a madman, then they settled on an idea proposed by their leader, an individual known as Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah Al-Makhzumi, when:

(He thought, and plotted. So let him be cursed, how he plotted! And once more let him be cursed, how he plotted! Then he thought. Then he frowned and he looked in a bad tempered way; then he turned back, and was proud. Then he said: “This is nothing but the magic of old.”) (74:18-24) meaning something that had been transmitted and passed down. So they dispersed having agreed on this opinion, may Allah punish them.

(They will bear their own burdens in full on the Day of Resurrection, and also of the burdens of those whom they misled without knowledge.) meaning, `We decreed that they would say that, so they will carry the burden of their own sins and some of the burden of those who followed them and agreed with them,’ i.e., they will be held guilty not only for going astray themselves, but also for tempting others and having them follow them. As it says in a Hadith:

(Whoever invites people to guidance, he will receive a reward like that of those who follow him, without diminishing their reward in the least. And whoever invites people to misguidance, he will bear a burden of sin like that of those who follow him, without diminishing their burden in the least.) Allah says;

(They shall bear their own loads, and other loads besides their own; and they shall be questioned about their false allegations on the Day of Resurrection.) (29:13) Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas that it is like the Ayah:

(That they may bear their own burdens in full on the Day of Resurrection, and also of the burdens of those whom they misled without knowledge.) (16:25) Allah says,

(They shall bear their own loads, and other loads besides their own) (29:13). Mujahid said: “They will bear the burden of their own sins, and they will bear the sins of those who obeyed them, but that will not lessen the punishment of those who obeyed them at all.”

(26. Those before them indeed plotted, but Allah struck at the foundation of their building, the roof fell down upon them from above them, and the torment overtook them from directions they did not perceive.) (27. Then, on the Day of Resurrection, He will disgrace them and will say: “Where are My (so-called) partners, those over which you caused so much discord” Those who have been given the knowledge will say: “Indeed it is a Day of disgrace and misery for the disbelievers.”)

Discussion about what the previous Peoples did, and what was done to Them

(Those before them indeed plotted,) Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said: “This refers to Namrud (Nimrod), who built the tower.” Others said that it refers to Bukhtanassar (Nebuchadnezzar). The correct view is that this is said by way of example, to refute what was done by those who disbelieved in Allah and associated others in worship with Him. As Nuh said,

(“And they have hatched a mighty scheme.”) (71:22) meaning, they used all sorts of ploys to misguide their people, and tempted them to join them in their Shirk via all possible means. On the Day of Resurrection their followers will say to them:

(“Nay, but it was your plotting by night and day, when you ordered us to disbelieve in Allah and set up rivals to Him!”) (34:33)

(but Allah struck at the foundation of their building.) meaning, He uprooted it and brought their efforts to naught. This is like the Ayah:

(Every time they kindled the fire of war, Allah extinguished it.) ﴿5:64﴾ and

(But Allah’s (torment) reached them from a place where they were not expecting it, and He cast terror into their hearts so that they destroyed their own dwellings with their own hands and the hands of the believers. So then take admonition, O you with eyes (to see).) ﴿59:2﴾ Allah says here:

(but Allah struck at the foundation of their building, and then the roof fell down upon them, from above them, and the torment overtook them from directions they did not perceive. Then, on the Day of Resurrection, He will disgrace them) ﴿16:26-27﴾ meaning, He will expose their scandalous deeds and what they used to hide in their hearts, and He will bring it out in the open. As He says,

(The Day when all the secrets will be (exposed and) examined. ) (86:9) They will be displayed and made known, as found in the Two Sahihs, where Ibn `Umar reported that the Messenger of Allah said:

(On the Day of Resurrection a banner will be set up by his backside for every deceitful person, (whose size is) in accordance with the amount of his deceit. It be said, “This is the one who deceived so-and-so, the son of so-and-so.”) Thus, what they used to plot in secret will be made public. Allah will humiliate them before all of His creation, and the Lord will say to them, in rebuke and reprimand;

(Where are My (so-called) partners, those over which you caused so much discord) meaning, you fought and made enemies for their sake, so where are they now to help and save you

(Can they help you or (even) help themselves) ﴿26:93﴾

(Then will (man) have no power, nor any helper.) ﴿86:10﴾ When evidence and proof is established against them, and the Word (of Allah) is justified against them, and they will be unable to give any excuse, realizing that escape is impossible, then

(Those who have been given the knowledge will say) who are the leaders in this world and the Hereafter and who know about the truth in this world and the Hereafter – will say,

(Indeed it is a Day of disgrace and misery for the disbelievers.) meaning, today those who disbelieved in Allah and worshipped others who have no power either to benefit or to harm them are now surrounded by disgrace and punishment.

(28. Those whose lives the angels take while they are doing wrong to themselves. Then, they will (falsely) submit (saying): “We did not do any evil.” (The angels will reply): “Yes! Truly, Allah is Most Knowing of what you did.”) (29. “So enter the gates of Hell, to abide therein, and indeed, what an evil abode there is for the arrogant.”)

The Condition of the Disbeliever during and after Death

Allah informs us of the state of the idolators who are doing wrong to themselves when death approaches and the angels come to seize their evil souls.

(Then, they will (falsely) submit) meaning, they will make it appear as if they used to listen and obey by saying,

(We did not do any evil.) Similarly, on the Day of Resurrection, they will say,

(By Allah, our Lord, we were not idolators.) ﴿6:23﴾

(On the Day when Allah will resurrect them all together; then they will swear to Him as they swear to you.) ﴿58:18﴾ Allah says, rejecting what they say,

(“Yes! Truly, Allah is Most Knowing of what you did. So enter the gates of Hell, to abide therein, and indeed, what an evil abode there is for the arrogant.”) (16:28-29), meaning, a miserable position in the abode of humiliation for those who were too arrogant to pay atten- tion to the signs of Allah and follow His Messengers. They will enter Hell from the day they die with their souls, and their bodies will feel the heat and hot winds of their graves. When the Day of Resurrec- tion comes, their souls will be reunited with their bodies, to abide forever in the fire of Hell, and

(It will not be complete enough to kill them nor shall its torment be lightened for them.) (35:36) As Allah says,

(The Fire, they are exposed to it morning and afternoon. And on the Day when the Hour will be established (it will be said to the angels): “Cause Fir’awn’s people to enter the severest torment!”) (40:46).

(30. And (when) it is said to those who had Taqwa (piety and righteousness), ”What is it that your Lord has revealed” They say: “That which is good.” For those who do good in this world, there is good, and the home of the Hereafter will be better. And excellent indeed will be the home (i.e. Paradise) of those who have Taqwa.) (31. `Adn (Eden) Paradise (Gardens of Eternity) which they will enter, under which rivers flow, in it they will have all that they wish. Thus Allah rewards those who have Taqwa.) (32. Those whose lives the angels take while they are in a pious state saying (to them) “Salamun `Alaikum (peace be on you!). Enter Paradise because of what (good) you used to do (in the world).”)

What the Pious say about the Revelation, their Reward and their Condition during and after Death

Here we are told about the blessed, as opposed to the doomed, who, when they are asked,

(What is it that your Lord has revealed) they will reluctantly answer, “He did not reveal anything, these are just the fables of old.” But the blessed, on the other hand, will say, “That which is good,” meaning – He revealed something good, meaning mercy and blessings for those who followed it and believed in it. Then we are told about Allah’s promise to His servants which He revealed to His Messengers. He says:

(For those who do good in this world, there is good) This is like the Ayah,

(Whoever works righteousness – whether male or female – while being a true believer verily, to him We will give a good life, and We shall certainly reward them in proportion to the best of what they used to do.) (16:97), which means that whoever does good in this world, Allah will reward him for his good deeds in this world and in the next. Then we are told that the home of the Hereafter will be better, i.e., better than the life of this world, and that the reward in the Hereafter will be more complete than the reward in this life, as Allah says,

(But those who were given (religious) knowledge said: “Woe to you! The reward of Allah (in the Hereafter) is better) ﴿28:80﴾ and,

(and what is with Allah for the righteous is better.) ﴿3:198﴾ and;

(Although the Hereafter is better and enduring) (87:17). Allah said to His Messenger :

(And indeed the Hereafter is better for you than the present) (93:4). Then Allah describes the abode of the Hereafter, saying,

(And excellent indeed will be the home (i.e. Paradise) of those who have Taqwa.)

(`Adn (Eden) Paradise (Gardens of Eternity)) refers to the home of the Muttaqun, i.e., in the Hereafter they will have Gardens of Eternity in which they will dwell forever.

(under which rivers flow) meaning, between its trees and palaces.

(in it they will have all that they wish) this is like the Ayah:

(in it (there will be) all that souls could desire, and all that eyes could delight in, and in it you will live forever.) ﴿43:71﴾

(Thus Allah rewards those who have Taqwa.) meaning, this is how Allah rewards everyone who believes in Him, fears Him, and does good deeds. Then Allah tells us about their condition when death approaches them in a good state, i.e., free from Shirk, impurity and all evil. The angels greet them and give them the good news of Paradise, as Allah says:

(Verily, those who say: “Our Lord is Allah (alone),” and then behave righteously, on them the angels will descend (at the time of their death) (saying): “Fear not, nor grieve! But receive the good news of Paradise as you have been promised! We have been your friends in the life of this world and are (so) in the Hereafter. In it you shall have (all) that your souls desire, and in it you shall have (all) that you ask for. An entertainment from (Allah), the Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”)(41:30:32) We have already referred to the Hadiths that have been reported on the taking of the soul of the believer and the soul of the disbeliever, when we discussed the Ayah,

(Allah will keep firm those who believe, with the word that stands firm in this world (i.e. they will keep on worshipping Allah Alone and none else), and in the Hereafter. And Allah will cause the wrongdoers to stray, and Allah does as He wills.) (14:27)

(33. Are they but waiting for the angels to come to them, or there comes the command of your Lord Thus did those before them. And Allah did not wrong them, but they were wronging themselves.) (34. Then, they were afflicted by their evil deeds, and they were surrounded by that which they used to mock.)

The Disbelievers’ Refrain from Faith means that They were simply awaiting Punishment

Threatening the idolators for their persistence in falsehood and their conceited delusions about this world, Allah says: Are these people waiting only for the angels to come and take their souls Qatadah said:

(Or there comes the command of your Lord) means the Day of Resurrection and the terror that they will go through.”

(Thus did those before them.) means, thus did their predecessors and those who were like them among the idolators persist in their Shirk, until they tasted the wrath of Allah and experienced the punishment and torment that they suffered.

(And Allah did not wrong them.) because by sending His Messengers and revealing His Books He gave them enough warning and clearly demonstrated His proofs to them.

(but they were wronging themselves.) meaning, by opposing the Messengers and denying what they brought. For this reason Allah’s punishment tormented them.

(they were surrounded) meaning, they were overwhelmed by the painful torment.

(by that which they used to mock.) meaning, they used to make fun of the Messengers when they warned them Allah’s punishment, and for this it will be said to them on the Day of Resurrection:

(This is the Fire which you used to belie.) (52:14).

(35. And those who worshipped others with Allah said: “If Allah had so willed, neither we nor our fathers would have worshipped any but Him nor would we have forbidden anything without (a command from) Him.” Those before them did the same. Then! Are the Messengers charged with anything but to clearly convey the Message) (36. And We have indeed sent a Messenger to every Ummah (community, nation) (saying): “Worship Allah (Alone), and shun the Taghut (all false deities). ” Then among them were some whom Allah guided, and among them were some who deserved to be left to stray. So travel through the land and see the end of those who denied (the truth).) (37. ﴿Even﴾ if you desire that they be guided, then verily, Allah does not guide those whom He allowed to stray, and they will have no helpers.)

The Idolators Argument that their Shirk was Divinely decreed, and the Refutation of this Claim

Allah tells us about the idolators delusion over their Shirk, and the excuse they claimed for it based on the idea that it is ordained by divine decree. He says:

((They say:) “If Allah had so willed, neither we nor our fathers would have worshipped any but Him, nor would we have forbidden anything without (a command from) Him.”) They had superstitious customs dealing with certain animals, e.g. the Bahirah the Sa’ibah and the Wasilah and other things that they had invented and innovated by themselves, with no revealed authority. The essence of what they said was: “If Allah hated what we did, He would have stopped by punishing us, and He would not have enabled us to do it.” Rejecting their confusing ideas, Allah says:

(Are the Messengers charged with anything but to clearly convey the Message) meaning, the matter is not as you claim. It is not the case that Allah did not rebuke your behavior; rather, He did rebuke you, and in the strongest possible terms, and He emphatically forbade you from such behavior. To every nation – that is, to every generation, to every community of people – He sent a Messenger. All of the Messengers called their people to worship Allah (Alone) as well as forbidding them from worshipping anything or anybody except for Him.

(Worship Allah (Alone), and shun the Taghut (all false deities).) Allah continued sending Messengers to mankind with this Message, from the first incidence of Shirk that appeared among the Children of Adam, in the people to whom Nuh was sent – the first Messenger sent by Allah to the people of this earth – until He sent the final Messenger, Muhammad , whose call was addressed to both men and Jinn, in the east and in the west. All of the Messengers brought the same Message, as Allah says:

(And We did not send any Messenger before you (O Muhammad) but We revealed to him (saying): None has the right to be worshipped but I (Allah), so worship Me (alone and none else).”) (21:25)

(And ask (O Muhammad) those Messengers of Ours whom We sent before you: “Did We ever appointed to be worshipped besides the Most Gracious (Allah)”) (43:45) And in this Ayah, Allah says:

(And We have indeed sent a Messenger to every Ummah (community, nation) (saying): “Worship Allah (alone), and shun the Taghut (all false deities).”) So how could any of the idolators say,

(If Allah had so willed, we would not have worshipped any but Him,) The legislative will of Allah is clear and cannot be taken as an excuse by them, because He had forbidden them to do that upon the tongue of His Messengers, but by His universal will ﴿i.e., by which He allows things to occur even though they do not please Him﴾ He allowed them to do that as it was decreed for them. So there is no argument in that for them. Allah created Hell and its people both the Shayatin (devils) and disbelievers, but He does not like His servants to disbelieve. And this point constitutes the strongest proof and the most unquestionable wisdom. Then Allah informs us that He rebuked them with punishment in this world, after the Messengers issued their warning, thus He says:

(Then among them were some whom Allah guided, and among them were some who deserved to be left to stray. So travel through the land and see the end of those who denied (the truth).) This means: ask about what happened to those who went against the Messengers and rejected the truth, see how:

(Allah destroyed them completely, and a similar (end awaits) the disbelievers.) (47:10) and,

(And indeed those before them belied (the Messengers of Allah), so then how terrible was My denial (punishment)) (67:18) Then Allah told His Messenger that His eagerness to guide them will be of no benefit to them if Allah wills that they should be misguided, as He says:

(And for whoever Allah wills to try with error, you can do nothing for him against Allah) (5:41). Nuh said to his people:

(“And my advice will not profit you, even if I wish to give you good counsel, if Allah’s will is to keep you astray.”)(11:34). In this Ayah, Allah says:

((Even) if you desire that they be guided, then verily, Allah does not guide those whom He allowed to stray,) As Allah says:

(Whomsoever Allah allows to stray, then there is no guide for him; and He lets them wander blindly in their transgressions.) (7:186)

(Truly! Those deserving the Word (wrath) of your Lord will not believe, even if every sign should come to them – until they see the painful torment) (10:96-97).

(then verily, Allah) meaning, this is the way in which Allah does things. If He wills a thing, then it happens, and if He does not will a thing, then it does not happen. For this reason Allah says:

(Allah does not guide those whom He allowed to stray,) meaning the one whom He has caused to go astray, so who can guide him apart from Allah No one.

(And they will have no helpers.) means, they will have no one to save them from the punishment of Allah,

(Surely, His is the creation and commandment. Blessed is Allah, the Lord of all that exists!) (7:54).

(38. And they swear by Allah with their strongest oaths, that Allah will not raise up one who dies. Yes, (He will raise them up), a promise (binding) upon Him in truth, but most of mankind know not.) (39. In order that He may make clear to them what they differed over, and so that those who disbelieved may know that they were liars.) (40. Verily, Our Word to a thing when We intend it, is only that We say unto it: “Be!” – and it is.)

The Resurrection after Death is true, there is Wisdom behind it, and it is easy for Allah

Allah tells us that the idolators swore by Allah their strongest oaths, meaning that they made oaths swore fervently that Allah would not resurrect the one who died. They considered that to be improbable, and did not believe the Messengers when they told them about that, swearing that it could not happen. Allah said, refuting them:

(Yes), meaning it will indeed happen,

(a promise (binding) upon Him in truth,) – meaning it is inevitable,

(but most of mankind know not.) means, because of their ignorance they oppose the Messengers and fall into disbelief. Then Allah mentions His wisdom and the reason why He will resurrect mankind physically on the Day of Calling (between the people of Fire and of Paradise). He says,

(In order that He may make clear to them) means, to mankind,

(what they differed over,) means, every dispute.

(that He may requite those who do evil with that which they have done (i. e. punish them in Hell), and reward those who do good, with what is best (i.e. Paradise).) (53:31)

(and so that those who disbelieved may know that they were liars.) meaning that they lied in their oaths and their swearing that Allah would not resurrect those who die. Thus they will be pushed down by force to the Fire with horrible force on the Day of Resurrection, and the guards of Hell will say to them:

(This is the Fire which you used to belie. Is this magic or do you not see Taste its heat, and whether you are tolerant of it or intolerant of it – it is all the same. You are only being requited for what you have done.) (52:14-16). Then Allah tells us about His ability to do whatever He wills, and that nothing is impossible for Him on earth or in heaven. When He wants a thing, all He has to do is say to it “Be!” and it is. The Resurrection is one such thing, when He wants it to happen, all He will have to do is issue the command once, and it will happen as He wills, as He says:

(And Our commandment is but one as the twinkling of an eye) (54:50) and,

(The creation of you all and the resurrection of you all are only as (the creation and resurrection of) a single person. ) ﴿31:28﴾ And in this Ayah, Allah says:

(Verily, Our Word to a thing when We intend it, is only that We say to it: “Be!” – and it is.) meaning, We issue the command once, and then it happens. Allah does not need to repeat or confirm whatever He commands, because there is nothing that can stop Him or oppose Him. He is the One, the Compelling, the Almighty, whose power, might and dominion have subjected all things. None has the right to be worshipped except Him, and there is no Lord other than Him.

(41. And as for those who emigrated for the cause of Allah, after they had been wronged, We will certainly give them good residence in this world, but indeed the reward of the Hereafter will be greater; if they but knew!) (42. (They are) those who remained patient, and put their trust in their Lord.)

The Reward of the Muhajirin

Allah tells us about the reward of those who migrated for His sake, seeking His pleasure, those who left their homeland behind, brothers and friends, hoping for the reward of Allah. This may have been revealed concerning those who migrated to Ethiopia, those whose persecution at the hands of their own people in Makkah was so extreme that they left them and went to Ethiopia so that they would be able to worship their Lord. Among the most prominent of these migrants were `Uthman bin `Affan and his wife Ruqayyah, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah , Ja`far bin Abi Talib, the cousin of the Messenger , and Abu Salamah bin `Abdul-Asad, among a group of almost eighty sincere and faithful men and women, may Allah be pleased with them. Allah promised them a great reward in this world and the next. Allah said:

(We will certainly give them good residence in this world,) Ibn `Abbas, Ash-Sha`bi and Qatadah said: (this means) “Al-Madinah.” It was also said that it meant “good provision”. This was the opinion of Mujahid. There is no contradiction between these two opinions, for they left their homes and wealth, but Allah compensated them with something better in this world. Whoever gives up something for the sake of Allah, Allah compensates him with something that is better for him than that, and this is what happened. He gave them power throughout the land and caused them to rule over the people, so they became governors and rulers, and each of them became a leader of the pious. Allah tells us that His reward for the Muhajirin in the Hereafter is greater than that which He gave them in this world, as He says:

(but indeed the reward of the Hereafter will be greater) meaning, greater than that which We have given you in this world.

(if they but knew!) means, if those who stayed behind and did not migrate with them only knew what Allah prepared for those who obeyed Him and followed His Messenger . Then Allah describes them as:

(those who remained patient, and put their trust in their Lord.) (16:42), meaning, they bore their people’s persecution with patience, putting their trust in Allah Who made their end good in this world and the Hereafter.

(43. And We sent not (as Our Messengers) before you (O Muhammad) any but men, whom We sent revelation. So ask Ahl Adh-Dhikr, if you know not.) (44. With clear signs and Books (We sent the Messengers). And We have also revealed the Dhikr to you so that you may clearly explain to men what was revealed to them, and that perhaps they may reflect.)

Only Human Messengers have been Sent

Ad-Dahhak said, reporting from Ibn `Abbas: “When Allah sent Muhammad as a Messenger, the Arabs, or some of them, denied him and said, `Allah is too great to send a human being as a Messenger.’ Then Allah revealed:

(Is it a wonder to people that We have sent Our Inspiration to a man from among themselves (saying): “Warn mankind…”) and He said,

(And We sent not (as Our Messengers) before you (O Muhammad) any but men, whom We sent Revelation. So ask Ahl Adh-Dhikr, if you know not.). meaning, (ask) the people of the previous Books, were the Messengers that were sent to them humans or angels If they were angels, then you have the right to find this strange, but if they were human, then you have no grounds to deny that Muhammad is a Messenger. Allah says:

(And We sent not before you (as Messengers) any but men to whom We revealed, from among the people of townships. ) ﴿12:109﴾ and not from among the people of heaven as you say.” It was reported by Mujahid from Ibn `Abbas that what is meant by Ahl Adh-Dhikr is the People of the Book. This is as Allah says:

(Say: “Glorified be my Lord! Am I anything but a man, sent as a Messenger” And nothing prevented men from believing when the guidance came to them, except that they said: “Has Allah sent a man as (His) Messenger”) (17:93-94)

(And We never sent before you (O Muhammad) any of the Messengers but verily, they ate food and walked in the markets.) (25:20)

(And We did not create them (the Messengers, with) bodies that did not eat food, nor were they immortals.)(21:8)

(Say (O Muhammad ): “I am not a new thing among the Messengers. ”) ﴿46:9﴾,

(Say (O Muhammad): “I am only a man like you. It has been revealed to me.”) ﴿18:110﴾ Then Allah informs those who doubt that a Messenger can be a human to ask those who have knowledge of the previous Scriptures about the Prophets who came before: were their Prophets humans or angels Then Allah mentions that He has sent them,

(with clear signs), meaning proof and evidence, and

(and Books ﴿Zubur﴾), meaning Scriptures. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak and others said: Zubur is the plural of Zabur, and the Arabs say, Zaburtul-Kitab meaning, “I wrote the book.” Allah says:

(And everything they have done is noted in (their) Records (of deeds) ﴿Zubur﴾) (54:52)

(And indeed We have written in Az-Zabur after the Dhikr that My righteous servant shall inherit the land (i.e. the land of Paradise).) (21:105) Then Allah says:

(And We have also revealed the Dhikr to you), meaning the Qur’an,

(so that you may clearly explain to men what was revealed to them,) meaning, sent down from their Lord, because you know the meaning of what Allah has revealed to you, and because of your understanding and adherence to it, and because We know that you are the best of creation and the leader of the Children of Adam. So that you may explain in detail what has been mentioned in brief, and explain what is not clear.

(so that perhaps they may reflect.) meaning, they should examine themselves and be guided by it, so that they may attain the victory of salvation in this world and the next.

(45. Do then those who devise evil plots feel secure that Allah will not cause them to sink into the earth, or that torment will not seize them from where they do not perceive it) (46. Or that He may punish them in the midst of their going to and fro (in their livelihood), so that there be no escape for them (from Allah’s punishment)) (47. Or that He may punish them where they fear it most Indeed, Your Lord is full of kindness, Most Merciful.)

How the Guilty can feel Secure

Allah informs us about His patience, and how He delays the punishment for the sinners who do evil things and call others to do likewise, plotting to call others to do evil – even though He is able to make the earth swallow them or to bring His wrath upon them.

(from where they do not perceive it), meaning in such a way that they do not know where it comes from. As Allah says:

(Do you feel secure that He Who is over the heaven (Allah), will not cause you to sink into the earth, when it quakes Or do you feel secure that He Who is over the heaven (Allah), will not send a storm of stones upon you Then you shall know how My warning really is.) (67:16-17).

(Or that He may punish them in the midst of their going to and fro) meaning, when they are busy with their daily business, travel, and other distracting activities. Qatadah and As-Suddi said:

(Their going to and fro) means their journeys.” As Allah says:

(Did the people of the towns feel secure against the coming of Our punishment by night while they were asleep Or, did the people of the towns feel secure against the coming of Our punishment in the forenoon while they were playing) (7:97-98)

(so that there be no escape for them (from Allah’s punishment)) meaning, it is not impossible for Allah, no matter what their situation.

(Or that He may punish them where they fear it most) meaning, or Allah will take from them what they most fear, which is even more frightening, because when the thing you most fear to happen does happen, this is even worse. Hence Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said that,

(Or that He may punish them where they fear it most) means that Allah is saying: If I wish, I can take him after the death of his companion and after he has become frightened of that.’ This was also reported from Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah and others. Then Allah says:

(Indeed your Lord is full of kindness, Most Merciful.) meaning, because He does not hasten to punish, as was reported in the Two Sahihs:

(No one is more patient in the case of hearing offensive speech than Allah, for they attribute to Him a son, while He ﴿alone﴾ is giving them provision and good health.) And it is also recorded in Two Sahihs,

(Allah will let the wrongdoer continue until, when He begins to punish him, He will never let him go.) Then the Messenger of Allah recited:

(Such is the punishment of your Lord when He seizes the (population of) towns while they are doing wrong. Indeed, His punishment is painful, (and) severe) (11:102) And Allah says:

(And many a township did I give respite while it was given to wrongdoing. Then I punished it. And to Me is the (final) return (of all).) (22:48)

(48. Have they not observed things that Allah has created: (how) their shadows shift from right to left, prostrating to Allah while they are humble) (49. And to Allah prostrate all that are in the heavens and all that are in the earth, the moving creatures and the angels, and they are not proud ﴿i.e. they worship their Lord (Allah) with humility﴾.) (50. They fear their Lord above them, and they do what they are commanded.)

Everything prostrates to Allah

Allah informs us about His might, majesty and pride, meaning that all things submit themselves to Him and every created being – animate and inanimate, as well as the responsible – humans and Jinns, and the angels – all humble themselves before Him. He tells us that everything that has a shadow leaning to the right and the left, i.e., in the morning and the evening, is by its shadow, prostrating to Allah. Mujahid said, “When the sun passes its zenith, everything prostrates to Allah, may He be glorified.” This was also said by Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and others.

(while they are humble) means, they are in a state of humility. Mujahid also said: “The prostration of every thing is its shadow”, and he mentioned the mountains and said that their prostrations are their shadows. Abu Ghalib Ash-Shaybani said: “The waves of the sea are its prayers”. It is as if reason is attributed to these inanimate objects when they are described as prostrating, so Allah says:

(And to Allah prostrate all that are in the heavens and all that are in the earth, of the moving creatures) As Allah says:

(And to Allah (alone) all who are in the heavens and the earth fall in prostration, willingly or unwillingly, and so do their shadows in the mornings and in the afternoons.) (13:15)

(and the angels, and they are not proud.) means, they prostrate to Allah and are not too proud to worship Him.

(They fear their Lord above them) means, they prostrate out of fear of their Lord, may He be glorified.

(and they do what they are commanded.) meaning they continually obey Allah, doing what He tells them to do and avoiding that which He forbids.

(51. And Allah said “Do not worship two gods. Indeed, He (Allah) is only One God. Then fear Me Alone.) (52. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth and the religion. Will you then fear any other than Allah) (53. And whatever of blessings and good things you have, it is from Allah. Then, when harm touches you, unto Him you cry aloud for help.) (54. Then, when He has removed the harm from you, behold! some of you associate others in worship with their Lord (Allah).) (55. So they are ungrateful for that which We have given them! Then enjoy yourselves but you will soon come to know.)

Allah Alone is Deserving of Worship

Allah tells us that there is no god but He, and that no one else should be worshipped except Him, alone, without partners, for He is the Sovereign, Creator, and Lord of all things.

(His is the religion Wasiba) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Maymun bin Mahran, As-Suddi, Qatadah and others said that this means forever. It was also reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “It means obligatory.” Mujahid said: “It means purely for Him,” i.e., worship is due to Him Alone, from whoever is in the heavens and on earth. As Allah says:

(Do they seek other than the religion of Allah, while to Him submitted all creatures in the heavens and the earth, willingly or unwillingly. And to Him shall they all be returned.) (3:83) This is in accordance with the opinion of Ibn `Abbas and `Ikrimah, which is that this Ayah is merely stating the case. According to the opinion of Mujahid, it is by way of instruction, i.e., it is saying: You had better fear associating partners in worship with Me, and be sincere in your obedience to Me. As Allah says:

(Surely, the pure religion (sincere devotion) is for Allah only.) (39:3) Then Allah tells us that He is the One Who has the power to benefit and harm, and that the provisions, blessings, good health and help, His servants enjoy are from His bounty and graciousness towards them.

(Then, when harm touches you, to Him you cry aloud for help.) meaning because you know that none has the power to remove that harm except for Him, so when you are harmed, you turn to ask Him for help and beg Him for aid. As Allah says:

(And when harm touches you at sea, those that you call upon vanish, except for Him. But when He brings you safe to land, you turn away. And man is ever ungrateful.)(17:67) Here, Allah tells us:

(Then, when He has removed the harm from you, behold! some of you associate others in worship with their Lord (Allah). So they are ungrateful for that which We have given them!) (16:54-55) It was said that the Lam here (translated as “So”) is an indicator of sequence, or that it serves an explanatory function, meaning, `We decreed that they would conceal the truth and deny the blessings that Allah has bestowed upon them. He is the One Who bestows blessings and the One Who removes distress.’ Then Allah threatens them, saying:

(Then enjoy yourselves) meaning, do what you like and enjoy what you have for a little while.

(but you will soon come to know.) meaning the consequences of that.

(56. And they assign a portion of that which We have provided them with, to what they have no knowledge of (false deities). By Allah, you shall certainly be questioned about (all) that you used to fabricate.) (57. And they assign daughters to Allah! Glorified (and Exalted) is He (above all that they associate with Him!). And for themselves (they assign) what they desire;) (58. And when the news of (the birth of) a female (child) is brought to any of them, his face becomes dark, and he is filled with inner grief!) (59. He hides himself from the people because of the evil of what he has been informed. Shall he keep her with dishonor or bury her in the earth Certainly, evil is their decision.) (60. For those who do not believe in the Hereafter is an evil description, and for Allah is the highest description. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.)

Among the Behavior of the Idolators was vowing to Things that Allah had provided for Them to their gods

Allah tells us about some of the heinous deeds of those who used to perform baseless worship of other gods besides Him, such as idols and statues, with no grounds for doing so. They gave their idols a share of that which Allah had provided for them,

(They say: “This is for Allah,” according to their claim, “and this is for our partners.” But the share of their “partners” is not directed to Allah, while the share of Allah is directed to their “partners”! How evil is that with which they judge) (6:136) That is they assigned a share for their idols as well as Allah, but they gave preference to their gods over Him, so Allah swore by His Almighty Self to question them about these lies and fabrications. He will most certainly call them to account for it and give them the unrelenting punishment in the fire of Hell. So He says,

(By Allah, you shall certainly be questioned about (all) that you used to fabricate.) Then Allah tells us how they used to regard the angels, who are servants of the Most Merciful, as being female, and that they considered them to be Allah’s daughters, and they worshipped them with Him. In all of the above, they made very serious errors. They attributed offspring to Him when He has no offspring, then they assigned Him the kind of offspring they regarded as inferior, namely daughters, which they did not even want for themselves, as He said:

(Are the males for you and the females for Him That is indeed an unfair division!) (53:21-22) And Allah says here:

(And they assign daughters unto Allah! Glorified (and Exalted) is He.) meaning, above their claims and fabrications.

(But no! It is from their falsehood that they say: “Allah has begotten.” They are certainly liars! Has He (then) chosen daughters rather than sons What is the matter with you How do you decide) (37:151-154)

(And for themselves, what they desire;) meaning they choose the males for themselves, rejecting the daughters that they assign to Allah. Exalted be Allah far above what they say!

The Idolators’ Abhorrence for Daughters

(And when the news of (the birth of) a female (child) is brought to any of them, his face becomes dark) meaning with distress and grief.

(and he is filled with inner grief!) meaning he is silent because of the intensity of the grief he feels.

(He hides himself from the people) meaning he does not want anyone to see him.

(because of the evil of that whereof he has been informed. Shall he keep her with dishonor or bury her in the earth) meaning should he keep her, humiliating her, not letting her inherit from him and not taking care of her, preferring his male children over her

(or bury her in the earth) meaning bury her alive, as they used to do during the days of ignorance. How could they dislike something so intensely, yet attribute it to Allah

(Certainly, evil is their decision.) meaning how evil are the words they say, the way they want to share things out and the things they attribute to Him. As Allah says:

(And if one of them is informed of the news of (the birth of a girl) that which he sets forth as a parable to the Most Gracious (Allah), his face becomes dark, and he is filled with grief!) (43:17). Here, Allah says:

(For those who do not believe in the Hereafter there is an evil description,) meaning, only imperfection is to be attributed to

(and for Allah is the highest description) meaning He is absolutely perfect in all ways and this absolute perfection is His Alone.

(And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.)

(61. And if Allah were to punish (all) mankind for their wrongdoing, He would not leave on it (the earth) a single moving creature, but He defers them to an appointed term; and when their term comes, they can neither delay nor advance it an hour (or a moment).) (62. They assign to Allah that which they dislike (for themselves), and their tongues assert the lie that the better things will be theirs. No doubt the Fire is for them, and they will be forsaken.)

Allah does not immediately punish for Disobedience

Allah tells us about His patience with His creatures, even though they do wrong. If He were to punish them for what they have done, there would be no living creature left on the face of the earth, i.e., He would have destroyed every animal on earth after destroying the sons of Adam. But the Lord – magnificent is His glory – is forbearing and He covers people’s faults. He waits until the appointed time, i.e., He does not rush to punish them. If He did, then there would be no one left. Ibn Jarir reported that Abu Salamah said: “Abu Hurayrah heard a man saying, `The wrongdoer harms no one but himself.’ He turned to him and said, `That is not true, by Allah! Even the buzzard dies in its nest because of the sins of the wrongdoer.”’

They attribute to Allah what They Themselves dislike

(They assign to Allah that which they dislike (for themselves),) meaning, daughters, and partners, who are merely His servants, yet none of them would like to have someone sharing in his wealth.

(and their tongues assert the lie that the better things will be theirs.) This is a denunciation of their claims that better things will be theirs in this world, and in the Hereafter. Allah tells us about what some of them said, as in the Ayat:

(And if We give man a taste of mercy from Us, and then take it from him, verily! He is hopelessly, ungrateful. But if We let him taste of goodness after harm has touched him, he is sure to say: “Ills have departed from me.” Surely, he is cheerful, and boastful (ungrateful to Allah).) (11:9-10)

(And if We give him a taste of mercy from Us, after some adversity has touched him, he is sure to say: “This is due to me; I do not think that the Hour will occur. But if I am brought back to my Lord, then , with Him, there will surely be the best for me.” Then, We will certainly show the disbelievers what they have done, and We shall make them taste severe torment.) (41:50)

(Have you seen the one who disbelieved in Our Ayat and said: “I shall certainly be given wealth and children (if I came back to life).”) (19:77) Allah tells us about one of the two men:

(He went into his garden while wronging himself. He said: “I do not think that this will ever perish. And I do not think that the Hour will ever come, and if indeed I am brought back to my Lord, (on the Day of Resurrection), then surely, I shall find better than this when I return to Him.”) (18:35-36) These people combined bad deeds with the false hopes of being rewarded with good for those bad deeds, which is impossible. Thus Allah refuted their false hopes, when He said:

(No doubt), meaning, truly it is inevitable that

(for them is the Fire), meaning, on the Day of Resurrection.

(and they will be forsaken). Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Qatadah and others said: “This means they will be forgotten and neglected there.” This is like the Ayah:

(So today We forget them just as they forgot meeting on this day of theirs.) (7:51). It was also reported from Qatadah that,

(they will be forsaken) means `they are hastened into the Fire.’ There is no contradiction between the two, because they will be hastened into the Fire on the Day of Resurrection, then they will be forgotten there, i.e., left to dwell there for eternity.

(63. By Allah, We indeed sent (Messengers) to the nations before you, but Shaytan made their deeds seeming fair to them. So today he is their helper, and theirs will be a painful torment. ) (64. And We have not revealed the Book to you, except that you may clearly explain to them those things in which they differ, and (as) a guidance and a mercy for a people who believe.) (65. And Allah sends water down from the sky, then He revives the earth with it after its death. Surely that is a sign for people who listen.)

Finding Consolation in the Reminder of Those Who came before

Allah says, `He sent Messengers to the nations of the past, and they were rejected. You, O Muhammad, have an example in your brothers among the Messengers, so do not be distressed by your people’s rejection. As for the idolators’ rejection of the Messengers, the reason for this is that the Shaytan made their deeds attractive to them.’

(So today he (Shaytan) is their helper,) meaning they will be suffering punishment while Shaytan is their only helper, and he cannot save them, so they have no one to answer their calls for help, and theirs is a painful punishment.

The Reason why the Qur’an was revealed

Then Allah says to His Messenger that He has revealed the Book to him to explain the truth to mankind in matters which they dispute over. So the Qur’an is a decisive arbitrator for every issue that they argue about.

(and (as) a guidance) meaning, for their hearts.

(and a mercy) meaning, for the one who adheres to it.

(for a people who believe.) Just as Allah causes the Qur’an to bring life to hearts that were dead from disbelief, so He brings the earth to life after it has died, by sending down water from the sky.

(Surely that is a sign for people who listen.) meaning those who understand the words and their meanings.

(66. And there is indeed a lesson for you in the An’am (cattle). We have made a drink for you out of what is in its belly, from between excretions and blood, pure milk; palatable to the drinkers.) (67. And from the fruits of date palms and grapes, you derive strong drink and a goodly provision. There is indeed a sign in this for those of reason.)

Lessons and Blessings in Cattle and the Fruit of the Date-palm and Grapevine

(there is for you) – O mankind –

(in the cattle) – meaning camels, cows and sheep,

(a lesson) meaning a sign and an evidence of the wisdom, power, mercy and kindness of the Creator.

(We have made a drink for you out of what is in its belly) meaning its singular forms refers to one cattle, or it could refer to the whole species. For cattle are the creatures which provide a drink from what is in their bellies and in another Ayah it is `in their bellies.’ Either way is plausible. He said,

(from between excretions and blood, pure milk;) meaning it is free of blood, and is pure in its whiteness, taste and sweetness. It is between excrement and blood in the belly of the animal, but each of them goes its own way after the food has been fully digested in its stomach. The blood goes to the veins, the milk goes to the udder, the urine goes to the bladder and the feces goes to the anus. None of them gets mixed with another after separating, and none of them is affected by the other.

(pure milk; palatable to the drinkers.) meaning nothing to cause one to choke on it. When Allah mentions milk and how He has made it a palatable drink for mankind, He follows this with a reference to the drinks that people make from the fruits of the date palm and grapevine, and what they used to do with intoxicating Nabidh (drink made from dates) before it was forbidden. Thus He reminds them of His blessings, and says:

(And from the fruits of date palms and grapes, you derive strong drink) This indicates that it was permissible to drink it before it was forbidden. It also indicates that strong drink (i.e., intoxicating drink) derived from dates is the same as strong drink derived from grapes. Also forbidden are strong drinks derived from wheat, barley, corn and honey, as is explained in detail in the Sunnah.

(strong drink and a goodly provision.) Ibn `Abbas said: “Strong drink is the product of these two fruits that is forbidden, and the good provision is what is permitted of them.” According to another report: “Strong drink is its unlawful, and the goodly provision is its lawful,” referring to the fruits when they are dried, like dates and raisins, or products derived from them such as molasses, vinegar and wine (of grapes, dates) which are permissible to drink before they become strong (becomes alcoholic), as was stated in the Sunnah.

(There is indeed a sign in this for those of reason.) It is appropriate to mention reason here, because it is the noblest feature of man. Hence Allah forbade this Ummah from drinking intoxicants, in order to protect their ability to reason. Allah says:

(And We placed gardens of date palms and grapes in it, and We caused springs of water to gush forth in it. So that they may eat of its fruit – while their hands did not make it. Will they not then give thanks Glory be to Him Who created all the pairs of that which the earth produces, as well as their own (human) kind (male and female), and of that which they know not.) (36:34-36)

(68. And your Lord inspired the bee, saying: “Take you habitations in the mountains and in the trees and in what they (humans) erect.”) (69. “Then, eat of all fruits, and follow the routes that your Lord made easy (for you).” There comes forth from their bellies, a drink of varying colors, in which there is a cure for men. There is indeed a sign in that for people who reflect.)

In the Bee and its Honey there is Blessing and a Lesson

What is meant by inspiration here is guidance. The bee is guided to make its home in the mountains, in trees and in structures erected by man. The bee’s home is a solid structure, with its hexagonal shapes and interlocking forms there is no looseness in its combs. Then Allah decrees that the bee will have permission to eat from all fruits and to follow the ways which Allah has made easy for it, wherever it wants to go in the vast spaces of the wilderness, valleys and high mountains. Then each bee comes back to its hive without swerving to the right or left, it comes straight back to its home where its offspring and honey are. It makes wax from its wings, and regurgitates honey from its mouth, and lays eggs from its rear, then the next morning it goes out to the fields again.

(and follow the routes of your Lord made easy (for you)) Qatadah and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said: “This means, in an obedient way”, understanding it to be a description of the route of migration. Ibn Zayd said that this is like the Ayah:

(And We have subdued them for them so that some they may ride and some they may eat.) (36:72) He said: “Do you not see that they move the bees’ home from one land to another, and the bees follow them” The first opinion is clearly the more likely, as it describes the routes that the bees follow, i.e., `follow these routes as they are easy for you.’ This was stated by Mujahid. Ibn Jarir said that both opinions are correct.

(There comes forth from their bellies, a drink of varying colors, wherein is healing for men.) ﴿meaning, honey, that is﴾ white, yellow, red, or of other good colors, depending on the different things that the bees eat.

(in which there is a cure for men.) meaning there is a cure in honey for diseases that people suffer from. Some of those who spoke about the study of Prophetic medicine said that if ﴿Allah﴾ had said, `in which there is the cure for men’, then it would be the remedy for all diseases, but He said, `in which there is a cure for men’, meaning that it is the right treatment for every “cold” disease, because it is “hot”, and a disease should be treated with its opposite. Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded in their Sahihs from Qatadah from Abu Al-Mutawakkil `Ali bin Dawud An-Naji from Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri that a man came to the Messenger of Allah and said, “My brother is suffering from diarrhea”. He said,

(Give him honey to drink.) The man went and gave him honey, then he came back and said, “O Messenger of Allah! I gave him honey to drink, and he only got worse.” The Prophet said,

(Go and give him honey to drink.) So he went and gave him honey, then he came back and said, “O Messenger of Allah! it only made him worse. ” The Prophet said,

(Allah speaks the truth and your brother’s stomach is lying. Go and give him honey to drink.) So he went and gave him honey, and he recovered.” It is reported in the Two Sahihs from `A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, that the Messenger of Allah used to like sweet things and honey. This is the wording of Al-Bukhari, who also reported in his Sahih from Ibn `Abbas that the Messenger of Allah said:

(Healing is to be found in three things: the cut made by the cupper, or drinking honey, or in branding with fire (cauterizing), but I have forbidden my Ummah to use branding.)

(There is indeed a sign in that for people who reflect.) meaning in the fact that Allah inspires this weak little creature to travel through the vast fields and feed from every kind of fruit, then gather it for wax and honey, which are some of the best things, in this is a sign for people who think about the might and power of the bee’s Creator Who causes all of this to happen. From this they learn that He is the Initiator, the All-Powerful, the All-Wise, the All-Knowing, the Most Generous, the Most Merciful.

(70. And Allah created you and then He will cause you to die; and among you there are some who are sent back to senility, so that they know nothing after having known (much). Truly, Allah is Knowing, capable of all things.)

In Man there is a Lesson

Allah tells us that He is controlling the affairs of His servants. He is the One Who created them out of nothing, then He will cause them to die. But there are some of them that He allows to grow old, which is a physical weakness, as Allah says:

(Allah is He Who created you in (a state of) weakness, then gave you strength after weakness, then after strength gave (you) weakness) (30:54)

(so that they know nothing after having known.) meaning, after he knew things, he will reach a stage where he knows nothing because of weakness of mind due to old age and senility. Thus Al-Bukhari, when commenting on this Ayah, reported a narration from Anas bin Malik that the Messenger of Allah used to pray:

(I seek refuge with You from miserliness, laziness, old age, senility, the punishment of the grave, the Fitnah of the Dajjal and the trials of life and death.) Zuhayr bin Abi Sulma said, in his famous Mu`allaqah: “I became exhausted from the responsibilities of life. Whoever lives for eighty years, no wonder he is tired. I saw death hitting people like a crazed camel, and whoever it hit dies, but whoever is not hit lives until he grows old.”

(71. And Allah honored some of you over others with wealth and properties. Then, those who are so honored will by no means hand over their wealth and properties to those (captives of war) whom their right hands possess, so that they may be equal with them in that. Do they then deny the favor of Allah)

There is a Sign and a Blessing in Matters of People’s Livelihood

Allah explains to the idolators the ignorance and disbelief involved in their claim that Allah has partners while also admitting that these partners are His servants. In their Talbiyah for Hajj, they used to say, “Here I am, there are no partners for You except Your own partner, You own him and everything he owns.” Allah says, denouncing them: `You would not accept for your servant to have an equal share in your wealth, so how is it that Allah would accept His servant to be His equal in divinity and glory As Allah says elsewhere:

(He sets forth a parable for you from yourselves: Do you have partners among those whom your right hands possess (i.e. your servant) to share as equals in the wealth We have granted you, those whom you fear as you fear each other) (30:28) Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas mentioned this Ayah, saying, “Allah is saying – `If they did not want their servant to have a share with them in their wealth and wives, how can My servant have a share with Me in My power’ Thus Allah says:

(Do they then deny the favor of Allah)” According to another report, Ibn `Abbas said: “How can they accept for Me that which they do not accept for themselves”

(Do they then deny the favor of Allah) meaning, they assign to Allah a share of the tilth and cattle which He has created. They denied His blessings and associated others in worship with Him. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said: “Umar bin Al-Khattab wrote this letter to Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari: `Be content with your provision in this world, for the Most Merciful has honored some of His servants over others in terms of provision as a test of both. The one who has been given plenty is being tested to see if he will give thanks to Allah and fulfill the duties which are his by virtue of his wealth…”’ It was reported by Ibn Abi Hatim.

(72. And Allah has made for you mates of your own kind, and has made for you, from your mates, sons and grandsons, and has granted you good provisions. Do they then believe in false deities and deny favor of Allah)

Among His Blessings and Signs are Mates, Children and Grandchildren

Allah mentions the blessing He has bestowed upon His servant by giving them mates from among themselves, mates of their own kind. If He had given them mates of another kind, there would be no harmony, love and mercy between them. But out of His mercy He has made the Children of Adam male and female, and has made the females wives or mates for the males. Then Allah mentions that from these wives He creates children and grandchildren, one’s children’s children. This was the opinion of Ibn `Abbas, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak and Ibn Zayd. Shu`bah said, narrating from Abu Bishr from Sa`id bin Jubayr from Ibn `Abbas: “Children and grandchildren, who are one’s children and one’s children’s children.” It was also said that this means servants and helpers, or it means sons-in-law or in-laws. I say: if we understand

(grandsons) to refer back to wives, then it must mean children, children’s children, and sons-in-law, because they are the husbands of one’s daughter or the children of one’s wife.

(and has granted you good provisions.) meaning your food and drink. Then Allah denounces those who associate others in worship with the One Who bestows blessings on them:

(Do they then believe in false deities), meaning idols and rivals to Allah

(and deny the favor of Allah) meaning, by concealing the blessings that Allah has given them and attributing them to others. According to a Sahih Hadith, the Prophet said:

(Allah will say to His servant on the Day of Resurrection, reminding him of His blessings: “Did I not give you a wife Did I not honor you Did I not subject horses and camels to your use, and cause you to occupy a position of leadership and honor”)

(73. And they worship others besides Allah such as do not have power to grant them any provision from the heavens or the earth nor the ability to do so.) (74. So do not give examples on behalf of Allah. Truly, Allah knows and you know not.)

Denouncing the Worship of anything besides Allah

Allah tells us about the Mushrikin who worship others besides Him, even though He alone is the bountiful Provider, the Creator and Sustainer, without partners or associates, but they still worship idols and make rivals for Him. He says:

(such as do not have power to grant them any provision from the heavens or the earth) meaning, nobody can cause rain to fall, or make plants and trees grow. They cannot do these things for them- selves, even if they wanted to. Thus Allah says:

(So do not give examples on behalf of Allah.) meaning, do not set up rivals to Him or describe anything as being like Him.

(Truly, Allah knows and you know not.) meaning, He knows and bears witness that there is no god but Him, but you are ignorant and associate others in worship with Him.

(75. Allah gives the example of a servant under the possession of another, he has no power of any sort, and a man on whom We have bestowed good provisions from Us, and he spends from that secretly and openly. Can they be equal (By no means). All the praises and thanks are to Allah. Nay! (But) most of them know not.)

The Example of the Believer and the Disbeliever, or the Idol and the True God

Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said: “This is the example which Allah gives of the disbeliever and the believer.” This was also the view of Qatadah and Ibn Jarir. The servant who has no power over anything is like the disbeliever, and the one who is given good provisions and spends of them secretly and openly is like the believer. Ibn Abi Najih reported that Mujahid said: “This is an example given of the idol and the True God – can they be the same” Once the difference between them is so clear and so obvious, no one can be unaware of it except the one who is foolish. Allah says:

(All the praises and thanks are to Allah. Nay! (But) most of them know not.)

(76. And Allah gives an example of two men, one of them dumb, who has no power over anything, and he is a burden on his master; whichever way he directs him, he brings no good. Is such a man equal to one who commands justice, and is himself on the straight path)

Another Example

Mujahid said, “This also refers to idols and the True God, may He be exalted.” Meaning that the idol is dumb and cannot speak or say anything, good or otherwise. It cannot do anything at all, no words, no action, it is dependent and is a burden on its master.

(whichever way he directs him,) meaning, wherever he sends him

(he brings no good.) meaning, he does not succeed in what he wants.

(Is such a man equal) meaning, a man who has these attributes

(to one who commands justice) meaning fairness, one whose words are true and whose deeds are righteous.

(and is himself on the straight path) Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said: “This is also an example of the disbeliever and the believer”, as in the previous Ayah.

(77. And to Allah belongs the Unseen of the heavens and the earth. And the matter of the Hour is not but as a twinkling of the eye, or even nearer. Truly, Allah is able to do all things.) (78. And Allah has brought you out from the wombs of your mothers while you knew nothing. And He gave you hearing, sight, and hearts, that you might give thanks.) (79. Do they not see the birds held (flying) in the midst of the sky None holds them up but Allah. Verily, in this are clear signs for people who believe.)

The Unseen belongs to Allah and only He has Knowledge of the Hour

Allah tells us of the perfection of His knowledge and ability to do all things, by telling us that He alone knows the Unseen of the heavens and the earth. No one knows anything about such things except for what Allah informs about as He wills. His complete power, which no one can oppose or resist, means that when He wants a thing, He only has to say to it “Be!” and it is, as Allah says:

(And Our commandment is but one as the twinkling of an eye.) (54:50) meaning, whatever He wills happens in blinking. Thus Allah says here:

(And the matter of the Hour is not but as a twinkling of the eye, or even nearer. Truly, Allah is Able to do all things.) iElsewhere, Allah says:

(The processes of creating you all and resurrecting you all are but like that of (the creation and resurrection of) a single person.) (31:28)

Among the Favors Allah has granted People are Hearing, Sight and the Heart

Then Allah mentions His blessings to His servants in that He brought them from their mothers’ wombs not knowing a thing, then He gives them hearing to recognize voices, sight to see visible things and hearts – meaning reason – whose seat, according to the correct view, is the heart, although it was also said that its seat is the brain. With his reason, a person can distinguish between what is harmful and what is beneficial. These abilities and senses develop gradually in man. The more he grows, the more his hearing, vision and reason increase, until they reach their peak. Allah has created these faculties in man to enable him to worship his Lord, so he uses all these organs, abilities and strengths to obey his Master. Al-Bukhari reported in his Sahih from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said:

(Allah says: “Whoever takes My friend as an enemy, has declared war on Me. My servant does not draw near to Me with anything better than his doing that which I have enjoined upon him, and My servant keeps drawing near to Me by doing Nawafil (supererogatory) deeds until I love him. And when I love him, I am his hearing with which he hears, his vision with which he sees, his hand with which he strikes and his foot with which he walks. Were he to ask Me for anything, I would give it to him, if he were to call on Me, I would respond, if he were to seek Me for refuge I would surely grant him it. I do not hesitate to do anything as I hesitate to take the soul of My believing servant, because he hates death and I hate to upset him, but it is inevitable.”) The meaning of the Hadith is that when a person is sincere in his obedience towards Allah, all his deeds are done for the sake of Allah, so he only hears for the sake of Allah, he only sees for the sake of Allah – meaning he only listens to or looks at what has been allowed by Allah. He does not strike or walk except in obedience to Allah, seeking Allah’s help in all of these things. Thus in some versions of the Hadith, narrated outside the Sahih, after the phrase “his foot with which he walks”, there is added:

(So through Me he hears, through Me he sees, through Me he strikes and through Me he walks.) Thus Allah says:

(And He gave you hearing, sight, and hearts that you might give thanks.) Elsewhere, He says:

(Say it is He Who has created you, and endowed you with hearing and seeing, and hearts. Little thanks you give. Say: “It is He Who has created you on the earth, and to Him shall you be gathered (in the Hereafter).”) (67:23-24)

In the Subjection of the Birds in the Sky there is a Sign

Then Allah tells His servants to look at the birds held (flying) in the sky, between heaven and earth, and how He has caused them to fly with their wings in the sky. They are held up only by Him, it is He Who gave them the strength to do that, subjecting the air to carry them and support them. As Allah says in Surat Al-Mulk:

(Do they not see the birds above them, spreading their wings out and folding them in None holds them up except the Most Gracious (Allah). Verily, He is the All-Seer of everything.) (67:19) And here Allah says:

(Verily, in this are clear signs for people who believe.)

(80. And Allah had made your homes a place of rest for you, and made dwellings for you out of the hides of the cattle which you find so light when you travel and when you camp; and furnishings and articles of convenience out of their wool, fur, and hair – comfort for a while.) (81. And Allah has made shade for you out of that which He has created, and He has made places of refuge in the mountains for you, and He has made garments for you to protect you from the heat, and coats of mail to protect you from your violence. Thus does He perfect His favor for you, that you may submit yourselves to His will.) (82. Then, if they turn away, your duty (O Muhammad) is only to convey (the Message) in a clear way.) (83. They recognize the grace of Allah, yet they deny it (by worshipping others besides Allah) and most of them are disbelievers.)

Homes, Furnishings and Clothing are also Blessings from Allah

Allah mentions His great blessings for His servant in that He has given them homes to dwell in and protect themselves with, in which they find all kinds of benefits. He has also given them homes from the hides of cattle, i.e., leather, which are light and easy to carry on journeys and can be erected wherever they stop, whether they are traveling or are settled. Thus Allah says:

(which you find so light when you travel and when you camp;)

(out of their wool, fur and hair) refers to sheep, camels and goats respectively.

(furnishings) meaning what you take from them, i.e., wealth. It was also said that it means articles of convenience, or clothing. The correct view is more general in meaning than this; it means that you make carpets, clothing and other things from their wool, hair etc., which you use as wealth and for trade. Ibn `Abbas said: `Al-Athath means articles of convenience and comfort.” This was also the view of Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan, `Atiyah Al-`Awfi, `Ata’ Al-Khurasani, Ad-Dahhak and Qatadah. The phrase,

(for a while) means, until the appointed time.

Shade, Places of Refuge in the Mountains, Garments and Coats of Mail are also Blessings from Allah

(And Allah has made shade for you out of that which He has created,) Qatadah said: “This means trees.”

(and He has made places of refuge in the mountains for you,) meaning fortresses and strongholds.

(and He has made garments for you to protect you from the heat,) meaning clothing of cotton, linen and wool.

(and coats of mail to protect you from your violence.) such as shields made of layers of sheet iron, coats of mail and so on.

(Thus does He perfect His favor for you,) meaning, thus He gives you what you need to go about your business, so that this will help you to worship and obey Him.

(that you may submit yourselves to His will). This is interpreted by the majority to mean submitting to Allah or becoming Muslim.

All the Messenger has to do is convey the Message

(Then, if they turn away,) meaning, after this declaration and reminder, do not worry about them.

(your duty (O Muhammad) is only to convey (the Message) in a clear way), and you have delivered the Message to them.

(They recognize the grace of Allah, yet they deny it) meaning they know that Allah is the One Who grants these blessings to them, and that He is Bountiful towards them, but they still deny this by worshipping others besides Him and thinking that their help and provisions come from others besides Him.

(and most of them are disbelievers.)

(84. And on the Day when We resurrect a witness from each nation, then those who disbelieve will not be given leave, nor will they be allowed (to return to the world) to repent and ask for Allah’s forgiveness.) 85. And once those who did wrong see the torment, it will not decrease for them, nor will they be given respite.) (86. And when those who associated partners with Allah see their partners, they will say: “Our Lord! These are our partners whom we used to call upon besides you.” But they will throw back their statement at them (saying): “You indeed are liars!”) (87. And they will offer (their full) submission to Allah on that Day, and what they falsely invented will wander away from them.) (88. Those who disbelieved and tried to obstruct the path of Allah, for them We will add torment on top of the torment because of the corruption they spread.)

The Plight of the Idolators on the Day of Judgement

Allah tells us about the predicament of the idolators on the Day when they will be resurrected in the realm of the Hereafter. He will raise a witness from every nation – that is – their Prophet, to testify about their response to the Message he conveyed from Allah.

(then, those who disbelieved will not be given leave.) meaning, they will not be allowed to offer any excuse, as Allah says:

(That will be a Day when they do not speak. And they will not be permitted to present any excuse) (77:35-36). Hence, Allah says:

(nor will they be allowed (to return to the world) to repent and ask for Allah’s forgiveness. And once those who did wrong see) meaning those who associated others in worship with Allah,

(the torment, it will not decrease for them,) meaning it will not be reduced for them even for a moment.

(nor will they be given respite. ) meaning, it will not be delayed for them, rather they will be taken quickly from the place of gathering, with no calling to account. Then Hell will be brought forth, pulled by seventy thousand ropes, each of which is held by seventy thousand angels, and a neck will stretch forth from Hell towards the people, and it will expel a gust of hot air. No one will be left but will fall to his knees. Then it (the neck that is stretched forth) will say, “I have been entrusted to deal with every stubborn, arrogant one who joined another god with Allah,” and so and so, mentioning different types of people, as was reported in the Hadith. Then it will come down upon them and pick them up from where they are standing as a bird picks up a seed. Allah says:

(When it (Hell) sees them from a far place, they will hear its raging and its roaring. And when they are thrown into a narrow part of it, chained together, they will cry for destruction. Today, do not scream for one destruction, but scream repeatedly for destruction.) (25:12-14)

(And the guilty shall see the Fire and apprehend that they are about to fall into it. And they will find no way to avoid it.) (18:53)

(If only those who disbelieved knew (about the time) when they will not be able to protect their faces nor their backs from the Fire, and they have no help. Nay, it (the Fire) will come upon them all of a sudden and will perplex them, and they will have no power to avert it nor will they have any respite.) (21:39-40)

The gods of the Idolators will disown Them at the Time when They need them most

Then Allah tells us that their gods will disown them when they need them most. He says:

(And when those who associated partners with Allah see their partners) meaning, those whom they used to worship in this world.’

(they will say: “Our Lord! These are our partners whom we used to call upon besides you.” But they will throw their statements back at them (saying): “You are indeed liars!”) i.e., those gods will say to them, `you are lying. We never commanded you to worship us.’ Allah says:

(And who is more astray than one who calls upon others besides Allah, such as will not answer him till the Day of Resurrection, and who are (even) unaware of their invocations to them And when the people are gathered (on the Day of Resurrection), they (false deities) will become their enemies and will deny their worship,) (46:5-6)

(And they have taken gods besides Allah, that they might give them honor, power and glory. Nay, but they will deny their worship, and become their adversaries (on the Day of Resurrection).) (19:81-82) Al-Khalil ﴿Ibrahim﴾ said:

(but on the Day of Resurrection, you will disown each other) ﴿29:25﴾ And Allah says:

(And it will be said (to them): “Call upon your partners”) ﴿28:64﴾ And there are many other similar Ayat.

Everything will surrender to Allah on the Day of Resurrection

(And they will offer (their full) submission to Allah on that Day,) Qatadah and `Ikrimah said: “They will humble themselves and surrender on that Day,” i.e., they will all surrender to Allah, there will not be anyone who does not hear and obey. As Allah says:

(How clearly will they see and hear, the Day when they will appear before Us!) ﴿19:38﴾ meaning, they will see and hear better than they have ever seen and heard before. And Allah says:

(And if you only could see when the guilty hang their heads before their Lord (saying): “Our Lord! We have now seen and heard.”) ﴿32:12﴾

(And (all) faces shall be humbled before the Ever Living, the Sustainer.) ﴿20:111﴾ meaning, they will humble and submit themselves.

(And they will offer (their full) submission to Allah on that Day, and what they falsely invented will wander away from them.) The things that they used to worship which were all based on fabrications and lies, will all disappear, and they will have no helper or supporter, and no one to turn to.

Those among the Idolators who corrupted Others will receive a Greater Punishment

Then Allah tells us:

(Those who disbelieved and tried to obstruct the path of Allah, for them We will add torment) meaning one punishment for their disbelief and another punishment for turning others away from following the truth, as Allah says:

(And they prevent others from him and they themselves keep away from him) ﴿6:26﴾ meaning they forbade others to follow him and they themselves shunned him, but:

(they destroyed only themselves, while they do not realize it.) This is evidence that there will be varying levels of punishment for the disbelievers, just as there will be varying degrees of Paradise for the believers, as Allah says:

(For each one there is double (torment), but you know not.) ﴿7:38﴾

(89. And on the Day when We resurrect a witness from each nation from among themselves, and We bring you (O Muhammad) as a witness against these. And We have revealed the Book (the Qur’an) to you as an explanation of everything, a guidance, a mercy, and good news for the Muslims.)

Every Prophet will bear Witness against his Nation on the Day of Resurrection

Allah addressed His servant and Messenger Muhammad , saying:

(And on the Day when We resurrect a witness from each nation from among themselves, and We bring you (O Muhammad) as a witness against these.), meaning, your Ummah. The Ayah means: remember that Day and its terrors, and the great honor and high position that Allah has bestowed upon you. This Ayah is like the Ayah with which `Abdullah bin Mas`ud ended when he recited to the Messenger of Allah from the beginning of Surat An-Nisa’. When he reached the Ayah:

(How (will it be) then, when We bring from each nation a witness and We bring you (O Muhammad) as a witness against these) ﴿4:41﴾ the Messenger of Allah said to him:

(Enough.) Ibn Mas`ud said: “I turned to him and saw his eyes streaming with tears.”

The Qur’an explains Everything

(And We revealed the Book (the Qur’an) to you as an explanation of everything,) Ibn Mas`ud said: “﴿Allah﴾ made it clear that in this Qur’an there is complete knowledge and about everything.” The Qur’an contains all kinds of beneficial knowledge, such as reports of what happened in the past, information about what is yet to come, what is lawful and unlawful, and what people need to know about their worldly affairs, their religion, their livelihood in this world, and their destiny in the Hereafter.

(a guidance) means, for their hearts.

(a mercy, and good news for the Muslims.) Al-Awza`i said:

(And We have revealed the Book (the Qur’an) as an explanation of everything,) meaning, with the Sunnah. The is the reason why the phrase,

(And We have revealed the Book to you) is mentioned immediately after the phrase,

(And We shall bring you (O Muhammad) as a witness against these. ) the meaning – and Allah knows best – is that the One Who obligated you to convey the Book which He revealed to you, will also ask you about that on the Day of Resurrection.

(Then We shall indeed question those (people) to whom it (the Book) was sent and We shall indeed question the Messengers.) (7:6)

(So by your Lord We question them all about what they did.) (15:92-92)

(On the Day when Allah gathers the Messengers together and says to them: “What was the response you received (to your Message)” They will say: “We have no knowledge, indeed only You are the Knower of all that is hidden.”) (5:109) And Allah says:

(Verily, He Who obligated the Qur’an upon you (O Muhammad) will surely bring you back to the return.) ﴿28:85﴾ meaning, the One Who gave you the obligation of conveying the Qur’an will bring you back to Him, and your return will be on the Day of Resurrection, and He will question you about you commission of the duty He gave you. This is one of the opinions, and it presents a good understanding of it.

(90. Verily, Allah orders justice and kindness, and giving (help) to the relatives, and He forbids immoral sins, and evil and tyranny. He admonishes you, so that perhaps you may take heed.)

The Command to be Fair and Kind

Allah tells us that He commands His servant to be just, i.e., fair and moderate, and that He encourages kindness and good treatment. As He says:

(And if you punish them, then punish them with the like of that with which you were afflicted. But if you have patience with them, then it is better for those who are patient.) (16:126)

(The recompense for an offense is an offense the like thereof; but whoever forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is with Allah.) ﴿42:40﴾

(and wounds equal for equal. But if anyone remits the retaliation by way of charity, it shall count as atonement for him.) ﴿5:45﴾ And there are other Ayat which support the institution of justice in Islam, as well as encouraging a fair and generous attitude.

The Command to maintain the Ties of Kinship and the prohibition of Immoral Sins, Evil and Tyranny

(and giving (help) to relatives,) meaning that Allah is commanding us to uphold the ties of kinship, as He says:

(And give the relative his due and to the poor and to the wayfarer. But do not spend wastefully in the manner of a spendthrift.) (17:26)

(and He forbids immoral sins, and evil) Fahsha’ refers to all things that are forbidden, and Munkar refers to those forbidden deeds that are committed openly by the one who does them. Hence Allah says elsewhere:

(Say (O Muhammad): “(But) the things that my Lord has indeed forbidden are the indecencies, whether committed openly or secretly) (7:33) Baghy refers to aggression towards people. In a Hadith, the Prophet said:

(There is no sin more deserving of having its punishment hastened in this world, as well as what is reserved in the Hereafter for the one who does it, than tyrannical aggression and cutting the ties of kinship.)

(He admonishes you,) meaning, He commands what He commands you of good and He forbids what He forbids you of evil;

(so that perhaps you may take heed) Ash-Sha`bi reported that Shatiyr bin Shakl said: “I heard Ibn Mas`ud say: `The most comprehensive Ayah in the Qur’an is in Surat An-Nahl:

(Verily, Allah enjoins justice and kindness…)”’ It was reported by Ibn Jarir.

The Eyewitness Account of `Uthman

Concerning the revelation of this Ayah, Imam Ahmad reported a Hasan Hadith from `Abdullah bin `Abbas who said: “While the Messenger of Allah was sitting in the courtyard of his house, `Uthman bin Maz`un passed by and smiled at the Messenger of Allah . The Messenger of Allah said to him,

(Won’t you sit down) He said, `Certainly.’ So the Messenger of Allah sat facing him, and while they were talking, the Messenger of Allah began looking up at the sky, looking at it for a while, then he brought his gaze down until he was looking at the ground to his right. Then the Messenger of Allah turned slightly away from his companion `Uthman to where he was looking. Then he began to tilt his head as if trying to understand something, and Ibn Maz`un was looking on. When the matter was finished and he had understood what had been said to him, the Messenger of Allah stared at the sky again as he had the first time, looking at whatever he could see until it disappeared. Then he turned back to face `Uthman again. `Uthman said, `O Muhammad, I have never seen you do anything like you did today while I was sitting with you.’ The Messenger of Allah said:

(What did you see me do) `Uthman said: `I saw you staring at the sky, then you lowered your gaze until you were looking to your right, then you turned to him and left me. Then you tilted your head as if you were trying to understand something that was being said to you.’ The Messenger of Allah said,

(Did you notice that) `Uthman said, `Yes’. The Messenger of Allah said:

(A messenger from Allah came to me just now, when you were sitting here.) `Uthman said, `A messenger from Allah’ The Messenger of Allah said,

(Yes.) `Uthman said, `And what did he say to you’ The Messenger of Allah said:

(Verily, Allah orders justice and kindness…) `Uthman said: `That was when faith was established in my heart and I began to love Muhammad .” It is a Hasan Hadith having a good connected chain of narrators in which their hearing it from each other is clear.

(91. And fulfill the covenants (taken in the Name of) Allah when you have taken them, and do not break the oaths after you have confirmed them – and indeed you have appointed Allah as your guarantor. Verily, Allah knows what you do.) (92. And do not be like the one who undoes the thread which she has spun, after it has become strong, by taking your oaths as a means of deception among yourselves when one group is more numerous than another group. Allah only tests you by this, and on the Day of Resurrection, He will certainly clarify that which used to differ over.)

The Command to fulfill the Covenant

This is one of the commands of Allah, to fulfill covenants, keep promises and to fulfill oaths after confirming them. Thus Allah says:

(and do not break the oaths after you have confirmed them) There is no conflict between this and the Ayat:

(And do not use Allah as an excuse in your oaths) ﴿2:224﴾

(That is the expiation for oaths when you have sworn. And protect your oaths.) ﴿5:89﴾ meaning, do not forgo your oaths without offering the penance. There is also no conflict between this Ayah (16:91) and the Hadith reported in the Two Sahihs according to which the Prophet said:

(By Allah, if Allah wills, I will not swear an oath and then realize that something else is better, but I do that which is better and find a way to free myself from the oath. According to another report he said: “and I offer penance for my oath. ”) There is no contradiction at all between all of these texts and the Ayah under discussion here, which is:

(and do not break the oaths after you have confirmed them) because these are the kinds of oaths that have to do with covenants and promises, not the kind that have to do with urging oneself to do something or preventing him from doing something. Therefore Mujahid said concerning this Ayah:

(and do not break the oaths after you have confirmed them) “The oath here refers to oaths made during Jahiliyyah.” This supports the Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad from Jubayr bin Mut`im, who said that the Messenger of Allah said:

(There is no oath in Islam, and any oath made during the Jahiliyyah is only reinforced by Islam.) This was also reported by Muslim. The meaning is that Islam does not need oaths as they were used by the people of the Jahiliyyah; adherence to Islam is sufficient to do away with any need for what they used to customarily give oaths for. In the Two Sahihs it was reported that Anas said: “The Messenger of Allah () swore the treaty of allegiance between the Muhajirin (emigrants) and the Ansar (helpers) in our house. ” This means that he established brotherhood between them, and they used to inherit from one another, until Allah abrogated that. And Allah knows best.

(Verily, Allah knows what you do.) This is a warning and a threat to those who break their oaths after confirming them.

(And do not be like the one who undoes the thread which she has spun, after it has become strong,) `Abdullah bin Kathir and As-Suddi said: “This was a foolish woman in Makkah. Everytime she spun thread and made it strong, she would undo it again.” Mujahid, Qatadah and Ibn Zayd said: “This is like the one who breaks a covenant after confirming it.” This view is more correct and more apparent, whether or not there was a woman in Makkah who undid her thread after spinning it. The word Ankathan could be referring back to the word translated as “undoes”, reinforcing the meaning, or it could be the predicate of the verb “to be”, meaning, do not be Ankathan, the plural of Nakth (breach, violation), from the word Nakith (perfidious). Hence after this, Allah says:

(by taking your oaths as a means of deception among yourselves) meaning for the purposes of cheating and tricking one another.

(when one group is more numerous than another group. ) meaning, you swear an oath with some people if they are more in number than you, so that they can trust you, but when you are able to betray them you do so. Allah forbids that, by showing a case where treachery might be expected or excused, but He forbids it. If treachery is forbidden in such a case, then in cases where one is in a position of strength it is forbidden more emphatically. Mujahid said: “They used to enter into alliances and covenants, then find other parties who were more powerful and more numerous, so they would cancel the alliance with the first group and make an alliance with the second who were more powerful and more numerous. This is what they were forbidden to do.” Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah and Ibn Zayd said something similar.

(Allah only tests you by this) Sa`id bin Jubayr said: “This means (you are tested) by the large numbers.” This was reported by Ibn Abi Hatim. Ibn Jarir said: “It means (you are being tested) by His command to you to adhere to your covenants.”

(And on the Day of Resurrection, He will certainly clarify that which you differed over.) Everyone will be rewarded or punished in accordance with his deeds, good or evil.

(93. And had Allah willed, He would have made you (all) one nation, but He allows whom He wills to stray and He guides whom He wills. But you shall certainly be called to account for what you used to do.) (94. And do not make your oaths a means of deception among yourselves, resulting in the slip of a foot after it was firmly planted, and you taste the evil of having hindered from the path of Allah, and you will suffer a terrible punishment.) (95. And do not use an oath by Allah for the purchase of little value, what is with Allah is better for you if you only knew.) (96. Whatever you have will be exhausted, and what is with Allah will remain. And to those who are patient, We will certainly grant them their rewards in proportion to the best of what they used to do.)

If Allah had willed, He would have made all of Humanity one Nation

Allah says:

(And had Allah willed, He would have made you) meaning – O mankind,

((all) one nation,) This is like the Ayah:

(And had your Lord willed, all of those on earth would have believed together.) ﴿10:99﴾, meaning, He could have created harmony among them, and there would not be any differences, conflicts or hatred between them.

(And if your Lord had so willed, He would surely, have made mankind one Ummah ﴿nation or community﴾, but they will not cease to disagree. Except him on whom your Lord has bestowed His mercy, and for that did He create them.) (11:118-119) Similarly, Allah says here:

(but He allows whom He wills to stray and He guides whom He wills. ) Then on the Day of Resurrection, He will ask them all about their deeds, and will reward or punish them even equal to a scalish thread in the long slit of a date stone or the size of a speck on the back of a date stone, or even a thin membrane of the date stone.

The Prohibition on taking an Oath for Purposes of Treachery

Then Allah warns His servant against taking oaths as means of deception, i.e., using them for treacherous purposes, lest a foot should slip after being firmly planted. This is an analogy describing one who was on the right path but then deviated and slipped from the path of guidance because of an unfulfilled oath that involved hindering people from the path of Allah. This is because if a disbeliever were to find that after having agreed to a covenant, then the believer betrayed him, then the believer will have hindered him from entering Islam. Thus Allah says:

(and you taste the evil of having hindered from the path of Allah, and you will suffer a terrible punishment.)

Do not break Oaths for the sake of Worldly Gain

Then Allah says:

(And do not use an oath by Allah for the purchase of little value.) meaning, do not neglect an oath sworn in the Name of Allah for the sake of this world and its attractions, for they are few, and even if the son of Adam were to gain this world and all that is in it, that which is with Allah is better for him, i.e., the reward of Allah is better for the one who puts his hope in Him, believes in Him, seeks Him and fulfills his oaths in the hope of that which Allah has promised. This is why Allah says:

(if you only knew. Whatever you have will be exhausted,) meaning, it will come to an end and will vanish, because it is only there for a certain, limited time.

(and what is with Allah will remain.) meaning, His reward for you in Paradise will remain, without interruption or end, because it is eternal and will never change nor disappear.

(And to those who are patient, We will certainly grant them their rewards in proportion to the best of what they used to do. ) Here the Lord swears, with the Lam of affirmation, that He will reward the patient for the best of their deeds, i.e., He will forgive them for their bad deeds.

(97. Whoever does righteous deeds – whether male or female – while he (or she) is a believer; then We will certainly give them a good life, and We will certainly grant them their rewards in proportion to the best of what they used to do.)

Righteous Deeds and their Reward

This is a promise from Allah to those Children of Adam, male or female, who do righteous deeds – deeds in accordance with the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Prophet , with a heart that believes in Allah and His Messenger , while believing that these deeds are commanded and enjoined by Allah. Allah promises that He will give them a good life in this world and that He will reward them according to the best of their deeds in the Hereafter. The good life includes feeling tranquillity in all aspects of life. It has been reported that Ibn `Abbas and a group (of scholars) interpreted it to mean good, lawful provisions. It was reported that `Ali bin Abi Talib interpreted as contentment. This was also the opinion of Ibn `Abbas, `Ikrimah and Wahb bin Munabbih. `Ali bin Abi Talhah recorded from Ibn `Abbas that it meant happiness. Al-Hasan, Mujahid and Qatadah said: “None gets ﴿this﴾ good life ﴿mentioned﴾ except in Paradise.” Ad-Dahhak said: “It means lawful provisions and worship in this life”. Ad-Dahhak also said: “It means working to obey Allah and finding joy in that.” The correct view is that a good life includes all of these things. as found in the Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad from `Abdullah bin `Amr that the Messenger of Allah said:

(He who submits ﴿becomes a Muslim﴾ has succeeded, is given sufficient provisions, and is content with Allah for what he is given.) It was also recorded by Muslim.

(98. So when you recite the Qur’an, seek refuge with Allah from Shaytan, the outcast.) (99. Verily, he has no power over those who believe and put their trust only in their Lord.) (100. His power is only over those who obey and follow him (Shaytan), and those who join partners with Him (Allah).)

The Command to seek Refuge with Allah before reciting the Qur’an

This is a command from Allah to His servants upon the tongue of His Prophet , telling them that when they want to read Qur’an, they should seek refuge with Allah from the cursed Shaytan. The Hadiths mentioned about seeking refuge with Allah (Isti`adhah), were quoted in our discussion at the beginning of this Tafsir, praise be to Allah. The reason for seeking refuge with Allah before reading is that the reader should not get confused or mixed up, and that the Shaytan would not confuse him or stop him from thinking about and pondering over the meaning of what he reads. Hence the majority of scholars said that refuge should be sought with Allah before starting to read.

(Verily, he has no power over those who believe and put their trust only in their Lord.) Ath-Thawri said: “He has no power to make them commit a sin they will not repent from.” Others said: it means that he has no argument for them. Others said it is like the Ayah:

(Except Your chosen servants amongst them.) ﴿15:40﴾

(His power is only over those who obey and follow him (Shaytan), ) Mujahid said: “Those who obey him.” Others said, “Those who take him as their protector instead of Allah.”

(and those who join partners with Him.) means, those who associate others in worship with Allah.

(101. And when We change a verse in place of another – and Allah knows best what He reveals – they (the disbelievers) say: “You (O Muhammad) are but a forger.” Rather, most of them know not.) (102. Say (O Muhammad); “Ruh-ul-Qudus has brought it (the Qur’an) down from your Lord with truth.” for the conviction of those who believe, and as a guide and good news for the Muslims.)

The Idolators’ Accusation that the Prophet was a Liar since some Ayat were abrogated, and the Refutation of their Claim

Allah tells us of the weak minds of the idolators, and their lack of faith and conviction. He explains that it is impossible for them to have faith when He has decreed that they are doomed. When they saw that some rulings had been changed by being abrogated, they said to the Messenger of Allah :

(You are but a forger) meaning one who tells lies. But Allah is the Lord Who does whatever He wills, and rules as He wants.

(And when We change a verse (of the Qur’an) in place of another) Mujahid said: this means, “We remove one and put another in its place.” Qatadah said: this is like the Ayah:

(Whatever verse We change ﴿abrogate﴾ or omit ﴿the abrogated﴾…)” (2:106). Allah said, in response to them:

(Say: “Ruh-ul-Qudus has brought it…”) meaning, Jibril,

(from your Lord with truth, ) meaning, with truthfulness and justice

(for the conviction of those who believe,) so that they will believe what was revealed earlier and what was revealed later, and humble themselves towards Allah.

(and as a guide and good news for the Muslims.) meaning He has made it a guide and good news to the Muslims who believe in Allah and His Messengers.

(103. And indeed We know that they (polytheists and pagans) say: “It is only a human being who teaches him.” The tongue of the man they refer to is foreign, while this (the Qur’an) is (in) a clear Arabic tongue.)

The Idolators’ Claim that the Qur’an was taught by a Human, and the Refutation of their Claim

Allah tells us about the idolators’ lies, allegations, and slander when they claimed that this Qur’an which Muhammad had recited for them, was actually taught to him by a human. They referred to a foreign (i.e., non-Arab) man who lived among them as the servant of some of the clans of Quraysh and who used to sell goods by As-Safa. Maybe the Messenger of Allah used to sit with him sometimes and talk to him a little, but he was a foreigner who did not know much Arabic, only enough simple phrases to answer questions when he had to. So in refutation of their claims of fabrication, Allah said:

(The tongue of the man they refer to is foreign, while this (the Qur’an) is a (in) clear Arabic tongue.) meaning, how could it be that this Qur’an with its eloquent style and perfect meanings, which is more perfect than any Book revealed to any previously sent Prophet, have been learnt from a foreigner who hardly speaks the language No one with the slightest amount of common sense would say such a thing.

(104. Verily, those who do not believe in Allah’s Ayat (signs, or revelation), Allah will not guide them, and theirs will be a painful punishment.) (105. It is only those who do not believe in Allah’s Ayat who fabricate the falsehood, and it is they who are liars.) Allah tells us that He does not guide those who turn away from remembering Him and who are heedless of that which He revealed to His Messenger , those who have no intention of believing in that which he has brought from Allah. This kind of people will never be guided to faith by the signs of Allah and the Message which He sent His Messengers in this world, and they will suffer a painful and severe punishment in the Hereafter. Then Allah informs us that His Messenger is not a forger nor a liar, because the one who fabricates falsehood about Allah and His Messenger is the most evil of creatures.

(Verily, those who do not believe in Allah’s Ayat,) Allah will not guide them, and theirs will be a painful punishment, meaning, the disbelievers and heretics who are known to the people as liars. The Messenger Muhammad , on the other hand, was the most honest and righteous of people, the most perfect in knowledge, deeds, faith and conviction. He was known among his people for his truthfulness and no one among them had any doubts about that – to such an extent that they always addressed him as Al-Amin (the Trustworthy) Muhammad. Thus when Heraclius, the king of the Romans, asked Abu Sufyan about the attributes of the Messenger of Allah , one of the things he said to him was, “Did you ever accuse him of lying before he made his claim” Abu Sufyan said, “No”. Heraclius said, “He would refrain from lying about people and then go and fabricate lies about Allah”

(106. Whoever disbelieves in Allah after his belief – except one who was forced while his heart is at peace with the faith – but whoever opens their breasts to disbelief, on them is wrath from Allah, and theirs will be a terrible torment.) (107. That is because they preferred the life of this world over that of the Hereafter. And Allah does not guide the people who disbelieve.) (108. They are those upon whose hearts, hearing (ears) and sight (eyes) Allah has set a seal over. And they are the heedless!) (109. No doubt, in the Hereafter they will be the losers.)

Allah’s Wrath against the Apostate, except for the One Who is forced into Disbelief

Allah tells us that He is angry with them who willingly disbelieve in Him after clearly believing in Him, who open their hearts to disbelief finding peace in that, because they understood the faith yet they still turned away from it. They will suffer severe punishment in the Hereafter, because they preferred this life to the Hereafter, and they left the faith for the sake of this world and Allah did not guide their hearts and help them to stand firm in the true religion. He put a seal on their hearts so that they would not be able to understand what is beneficial for them, and He sealed their ears and eyes so that they would not benefit from them. Their faculties did not help them at all, so they are unaware of what is going to happen to them.

(No doubt) means, it is inevitable, and no wonder that those who are like this –

(in the Hereafter, they will be the losers.) meaning, they will lose themselves and their families on the Day of Resurrection.

(except one who was forced while his heart is at peace with the faith) This is an exception in the case of one who utters statements of disbelief and verbally agrees with the Mushrikin because he is forced to do so by the beatings and abuse to which he is subjected, but his heart refuses to accept what he is saying, and he is, in reality, at peace with his faith in Allah and His Messenger . The scholars agreed that if a person is forced into disbelief, it is permissible for him to either go along with them in the interests of self-preservation, or to refuse, as Bilal did when they were inflicting all sorts of torture on him, even placing a huge rock on his chest in the intense heat and telling him to admit others as partners with Allah. He refused, saying, “Alone, Alone.” And he said, “By Allah, if I knew any word more annoying to you than this, I would say it.” May Allah be pleased with him. Similarly, when the Liar Musaylimah asked Habib bin Zayd Al-Ansari, “Do you bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah” He said, “Yes.” Then Musaylimah asked, “Do you bear witness that I am the messenger of Allah” Habib said, “I do not hear you.” Musaylimah kept cutting him, piece by piece, but he remained steadfast insisting on his words. It is better and preferable for the Muslim to remain steadfast in his religion, even if that leads to him being killed, as was mentioned by Al-Hafiz Ibn `Asakir in his biography of `Abdullah bin Hudhafah Al-Sahmi, one of the Companions. He said that he was taken prisoner by the Romans, who brought him to their king. The king said, “Become a Christian, and I will give you a share of my kingdom and my daughter in marriage.” `Abdullah said: “If you were to give me all that you possess and all that Arabs possess to make me give up the religion of Muhammad even for an instant, I would not do it.” The king said, “Then I will kill you.” `Abdullah said, “It is up to you.” The king gave orders that he should be crucified, and commanded his archers to shoot near his hands and feet while ordering him to become a Christian, but he still refused. Then the king gave orders that he should be brought down, and that a big vessel made of copper be brought and heated up. Then, while `Abdullah was watching, one of the Muslim prisoners was brought out and thrown into it, until all that was left of him was scorched bones. The king ordered him to become a Christian, but he still refused. Then he ordered that `Abdullah be thrown into the vessel, and he was brought back to the pulley to be thrown in. `Abdullah wept, and the king hoped that he would respond to him, so he called him, but `Abdullah said, “I only weep because I have only one soul with which to be thrown into this vessel at this moment for the sake of Allah; I wish that I had as many souls as there are hairs on my body with which I could undergo this torture for the sake of Allah.” According to some reports, the king imprisoned him and deprived him of food and drink for several days, then he sent him wine and pork, and he did not come near them. Then the king called him and asked him, “What stopped you from eating” `Abdullah said, “It is permissible for me ﴿under these circumstances﴾, but I did not want to give you the opportunity to gloat.” The king said to him, “Kiss my head and I will let you go.” `Abdullah said, “And will you release all the Muslim prisoners with me” The king said, “Yes.” So `Abdullah kissed his head and he released him and all the other Muslim prisoners he was holding. When he came back, `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, “Every Muslim should kiss the head of `Abdullah bin Hudhafah, and I will be the first to do so.” And he stood up and kissed his head. May Allah be pleased with them both.

(110. Then, verily, your Lord for those who emigrated after they were put to trials and then performed Jihad, and were patient, – after this, your Lord is indeed Forgiving, Most Merciful.) (111. (Remember) the Day when every person will come pleading for himself, and every one will be paid in full for what he did, and they will not be dealt with unjustly.)

The One who is forced to renounce Islam will be forgiven if He does Righteous Deeds afterwards

This refers to another group of people who were oppressed in Makkah and whose position with their own people was weak, so they went along with them when they were tried by them. Then they managed to escape by emigrating, leaving their homeland, families and wealth behind, seeking the pleasure and forgiveness of Allah. They joined the believers and fought with them against the disbelievers, bearing hardship with patience. Allah tells them that after this, meaning after their giving in when put to the test, He will forgive them and show mercy to them when they are resurrected.

((Remember) the Day when every person will come pleading) meaning making a case in his own defence.

(for himself.) means, no one else will plead on his behalf; not his father, not his son, nor his brother, nor his wife.

(and every one will be paid in full for what he did,) meaning whatever he did, good or evil.

(and they will not be dealt with unjustly.) meaning there will be no decrease in the reward for good, and no increase in the punishment for evil. They will not be dealt with unjustly in the slightest way.

(112. And Allah gives the example of a township (Makkah), it was secure and peaceful: its provision coming to it in abundance from every place, but it (its people) denied the favors of Allah. So Allah made it taste extreme hunger (famine) and fear, because of what they did.) (113. There has come to them a Messenger from among themselves, but they denied him, so the torment seized them while they were wrongdoers.)

The Example of Makkah

This example refers to the people of Makkah, which had been secure, peaceful and stable, a secure sanctuary while men were being snatched away from everywhere outside of it. Whoever entered Makkah, he was safe, and he had no need to fear, as Allah said:

(And they say: “If we follow the guidance with you, we would be snatched away from our land.” Have We not established a secure sanctuary (Makkah) for them, to which are brought fruits of all kinds, a provision from Ourselves.) ﴿28:57﴾ Similarly, Allah says here:

(its provision coming to it in abundance) meaning, with ease and in plenty,

(from every place, but it (its people) denied the favors of Allah.) meaning, they denied the blessings of Allah towards them, the greatest of which was Muhammad being sent to them, as Allah said:

(Have you not seen those who have changed the favors of Allah into disbelief, and caused their people to dwell in the abode of destruction; Hell, in which they will burn, – and what an evil place to settle in!) (14:28-29). Hence Allah replaced their former blessings with the opposite, and said:

(So Allah made it taste extreme hunger (famine) and fear,) meaning, He inflicted it and made them taste of hunger after fruits of all kinds and provision in abundance from every place had been brought to it. This was when they defied the Messenger of Allah and insisted on opposing him, so he supplicated against them, asking Allah to send them seven years like the seven years of Yusuf (i.e., seven years of famine), and they were stricken with a year in which everything that they had was destroyed, and they ate `Alhaz’, which is the hair of the camel mixed with its blood when it is slaughtered.

(and fear). This refers to the fact that their sense of security was replaced with fear of the Messenger of Allah and his Companions after they had migrated to Al-Madinah. They feared the power and the attack of his armies, and they started to lose and face the destruction of everything that belonged to them, until Allah made it possible for His Messenger to conquer Makkah. This happened because of their evil deeds, their wrongdoing and their rejection of the Messenger that Allah sent to them from among themselves. He reminded them of this blessing in the Ayah:

(Indeed, Allah blessed the believers when He sent Messenger from among themselves to them.) (3:164) and,

(So have Taqwa of Allah! O men of understanding who have believed, Allah has indeed revealed to you a reminder (this Qur’an). (And has also sent to you) a Messenger.) ﴿65:10-11﴾ and:

(Similarly (as a blessing), We have sent a Messenger to you from among you, reciting Our Ayat to you, and purifying you, and teaching you the Book (the Qur’an) and the Hikmah (i.e. Sunnah).) Until

(and do not be ungrateful.) ﴿2:151-152﴾ Allah changed the situation of the disbelievers and made it the opposite of what it had been, so they lived in fear after being secure, they were hungry after having plenty of provisions. After the believers lived in fear, Allah granted them security, giving them ample provisions after they lived in poverty, making them rulers, governors and leaders of mankind. This is what we say about the example that was given of the people of Makkah. It was also the opinion of Al-`Awfi and Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah, `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam, and Malik narrated it from Az-Zuhri as well. May Allah have mercy on them all.

(114. So eat of the lawful and good food which Allah has provided for you. And be grateful for Allah’s favor, if it is He Whom you worship.) (115. He has only forbidden dead flesh, blood, the flesh of swine, and any animal which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for other than Allah. But if one is forced by necessity, without willful disobedience, nor transgressing, then, Allah is Pardoning, Most Merciful.) (116. And do not describe what your tongues have lied about, saying: “This is lawful and this is forbidden,” to invent lies against Allah. Verily, those who invent lies against Allah, will never succeed.) (117. A passing brief enjoyment (will be theirs), but they will suffer a painful torment.)

The Command to eat Lawful Provisions and to be Thankful, and an Explanation of what is Unlawful

Allah orders His believing servants to eat the good and lawful things that He has provided, and to give thanks to Him for that, for He is the Giver and Originator of all favors, Who alone deserves to be worshipped, having no partners or associate. Then Allah mentions what He has forbidden things which harm them in both religious and worldly affairs, i.,e., dead meat, blood and the flesh of pigs.

(and any animal which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for other than Allah.) meaning, it was slaughtered with the mention of a name other than that of Allah. Nevertheless,

(But if one is forced by necessity.) meaning, if one needs to do it, without deliberately disobeying or transgressing, then,

(Allah is Pardoning, Most Merciful.) We have already discussed a similar Ayah in Surat Al-Baqarah, and there is no need to repeat it here. And to Allah be praise. Then Allah forbids us to follow the ways of the idolators who declare things to be permitted or forbidden based upon their own whims and whatever names they agree on, such as the Bahirah (a she-camel whose milk was spared for the idols and nobody was allowed to milk it), the Sa’ibah (a she-camel let loose for free pasture for their false gods, idols, etc., and nothing was allowed to be carried on it), the Wasilah (a she-camel set free for idols because it has given birth to a she-camel at its first delivery and then again gives birth to a she-camel at its second delivery) and the Ham (a stallion camel freed from work for the sake of their idols, after it had finished a number of acts of copulation assigned for it), and so on. All of these were laws and customs that were invented during jahiliyyah. Then Allah says:

(And do not describe what your tongues have lied about, saying: “This is lawful and this is forbidden,” to invent lies against Allah.) This includes everyone who comes up with an innovation (Bid`ah) for which he has no evidence from the Shari`ah, or whoever declares something lawful that Allah has forbidden, or whoever declares something unlawful that Allah has permitted, only because it suits his opinions or whim to do so.

(describe what…) meaning, do not speak lies because of what your tongues put forth. Then Allah warns against that by saying:

(Verily, those who invent lies against Allah, will never succeed.) meaning, either in this world or the Hereafter. As for this world, it is transient pleasure, and in the Hereafter, theirs will be a severe punishment, as Allah says:

(We let them enjoy for a little while, then in the end We will drive them into an unrelenting punishment.) (31:24) and

(Verily, those who invent a lie against Allah, will never be successful. (A brief) enjoyment in this world! and then to Us will be their return, then We shall make them taste the severest torment because they disbelieved.) (10:69-70)

(118. And for those who are Jews, We have forbidden such things as We have mentioned to you before. And We did not wrong them, but they wronged themselves.) (119. Then, your Lord for those who did evil out of ignorance and afterward repent and do righteous deeds – verily, after that, your Lord is Pardoning, Most Merciful.)

Some Good Things were Forbidden for the Jews

After mentioning that He has forbidden us to eat dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and any animal which is slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than Allah, and after making allowances for cases of necessity – which is part of making things easy for this Ummah, because Allah desires ease for us, not hardship – Allah then mentions what He forbade for the Jews in their laws before they were abrogated, and the restrictions, limitations and difficulties involved therein. He tells us:

(And for those who are Jews, We have forbidden such things as We have mentioned to you before.) meaning in Surat Al-An`am, where Allah says:

(And unto those who are Jews, We forbade every (animal) with undivided hoof, and We forbade them the fat of the ox and the sheep except what adheres to their backs) Until,

(We are indeed truthful) ﴿6:146﴾ Hence Allah says here:

(And We did not wrong them,) meaning, in the restrictions that We imposed upon them.

(but they wronged themselves. ) meaning, they deserved that. This is like the Ayah:

(Because of the wrong committed of those who were Jews, We prohibited certain good foods which had been lawful for them – and (also) for their hindering many from Allah’s way.) (4:160) Then Allah tells us, honoring and remin- ding believers who have sinned of His blessings, that who- ever among them repents, He will accept his repentance, as He says:

(Then, your Lord for those who did evil out of ignorance) Some of the Salaf said that this means that everyone who disobeys Allah is ignorant.

(and afterward repent and do righteous deeds) meaning, they give up the sins they used to commit and turn to doing acts of obedience to Allah.

(verily, after that, your Lord is…) means, after that mistake

(…Pardoning, Most Merciful.)

(120. Verily, Ibrahim was (himself) an Ummah, obedient to Allah, a Hanif (monotheist), and he was not one of the idolators.) (121. (He was) thankful for His favors. He (Allah) chose him and guided him to a straight path.) (122. And We gave him good in this world, and in the Hereafter he shall be of the righteous.) (123. Then, We have sent the revelation to you: “Follow the religion of Ibrahim (he was a) Hanif, and he was not one of the idolators.”)

He selected him, as Allah says :

(And before, We indeed gave Ibrahim his integrity, and We were indeed most knowledgeable about him)(21:51). Then Allah says:

(and guided him to a straight path.) which means to worship Allah alone, without partners or associate, in the manner that He prescribed and which pleases Him.

(And We gave him good in this world,) meaning, `We granted him all that a believer may require for a good and complete life in this world.’

(and in the Hereafter he shall be of the righteous.) Concerning the Ayah:

(And We gave him good in this world,) Mujahid said: “This means a truthful tongue.”

(Then, We have sent the revelation to you: “Follow the religion of Ibrahim (he was a) Hanif. ..) meaning, `because of his perfection, greatness, and the soundness of his Tawhid and his way, We revealed to you, O Seal of the Messengers and Leader of the Prophets ,’

(Follow the religion of Ibrahim (he was a) Hanif and he was not of the idolators.) This is like the Ayah in Surat Al-An`am:

(Say: “Truly, my Lord has guided me to a straight path, a right religion, the religion of Ibrahim, (he was a) Hanif and he was not of the idolators.”) (6:161). Then Allah rebukes the Jews,

(124. The Sabbath was only prescribed for those who differed concerning it, and verily, your Lord will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection about what they differed over.)

The Prescription of the Sabbath for the Jews

There is no doubt that for every nation, Allah prescribed one day of the week for people to gather to worship Him. For this Ummah He prescribed Friday, because it is the sixth day, on which Allah completed and perfected His creation. On this day He gathered and completed His blessings for His servants. It was said that Allah prescribed this day for the Children of Israel through His Prophet Musa, but they changed it and chose Saturday because it was the day on which the Creator did not create anything, as He had completed His creation on Friday. Allah made observance of the Sabbath obligatory for them in the laws of the Tawrah (Torah), telling them to keep the Sabbath. At the same time, He told them to follow Muhammad when he was sent, and took their promises and covenant to that effect. Hence Allah says:

(The Sabbath was only prescribed for those who differed concerning it,) Mujahid said: “They observed the Sabbath (Saturday) and ignored Friday.” Then they continued to observe Saturday until Allah sent `Isa bin Maryam. It was said that he told them to change it to Sunday, and it was also said that he did not forsake the laws of the Tawrah except for a few rulings which were abrogated, and he continued to observe the Sabbath until he was taken up (into heaven). Afterwards, the Christians at the time of Constantine were the ones who changed it to Sunday in order to be different from the Jews, and they started to pray towards the east instead of facing the Dome (i.e., Jerusalem). And Allah knows best. It was reported in the Two Sahihs that Abu Hurayrah heard the Messenger of Allah say:

(We are the last, but we will be the first on the Day of Resurrection, even though they were given the Book before us. This is the day that Allah obligated upon them, but they differed concerning it. Allah guided us to this day, and the people observe their days after us, the Jews on the following day and the Christians on the day after that.) This version was recorded by Al-Bukhari. It was reported that Abu Hurayrah and Hudhayfah said that the Messenger of Allah said:

(Allah let the people who came before us stray from Friday, so the Jews had Saturday and the Christians had Sunday. Then Allah brought us and guided us to Friday. So now there are Friday, Saturday and Sunday, thus they will follow us on the Day of Resurrection. We are the last of the people of this world, but will be the first on the Day of Resurrection, and will be the first to be judged, before all of creation.) It was reported by Muslim.

(125. Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and fair preaching, and argue with them with that which is best. Truly, your Lord best knows who has strayed from His path, and He best knows those who are guided.)

The Command to invite people to Allah with Wisdom and Good Preaching

Allah commands His Messenger Muhammad to invite the people to Allah with Hikmah (wisdom). Ibn Jarir said: “That is what was revealed to him from the Book and the Sunnah.”

(and fair preaching) meaning, with exhortation and stories of the events that happened to people that are mentioned in the Qur’an, which he is to tell them about in order to warn them of the punishment of Allah.

(and argue with them with that which is best.) meaning, if any of them want to debate and argue, then let that be in the best manner, with kindness, gentleness and good speech, as Allah says elsewhere:

(And do not argue with the People of the Book, unless it be with that which is best, except for those who purposefully do wrong.) ﴿29:46﴾ Allah commanded him to speak gently, as He commanded Musa and Harun to do when he sent them to Pharaoh, as He said:

(And speak to him mildly, perhaps he may accept admonition or fear (Allah))(20: 44).

(Truly, your Lord best knows who has strayed from His path,) meaning, Allah already knows who is doomed (destined for Hell) and who is blessed (destined for Paradise). This has already been written with Him and the matter is finished, so call them to Allah, but do not exhaust yourself with regret over those who go astray, for it is not your task to guide them. You are just a warner, and all you have to do is convey the Message, and it is He Who will bring them to account.

(You cannot guide whom you love) ﴿28:56﴾

(It is not up to you to guide them, but Allah guides whom He wills.) ﴿2:72﴾

(126. And if you punish them, then punish them with the like of that with which you were afflicted. But if you have patience with them, then it is better for those who are patient.) (127. And be patient, and your patience will not be, but by the help of Allah. And do not grieve over them, and do not be distressed by their plots.) (128. Truly, Allah is with those who have Taqwa, and the doers of good.)

The Command for Equality in Punishment

Allah commands justice in punishment and equity in settling the cases of rights. `Abdur-Razzaq recorded that, concerning the Ayah,

(then punish them with the like of that with which you were afflicted.) Ibn Sirin said, “If a man among you takes something from you, then you should take something similar from him.” This was also the opinion of Mujahid, Ibrahim, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, and others. Ibn Jarir also favored this opinion. Ibn Zayd said: “They had been commanded to forgive the idolators, then some men became Muslim who were strong and powerful. They said, `O Messenger of Allah, if only Allah would give us permission, we would sort out these dogs!’ Then this Ayah was revealed, then it was latter abrogated by the command to engage in Jihad.”

(And be patient, and your patience will not be but by the help of Allah.) This emphasizes the command to be patient and tells us that patience cannot be acquired except by the will, help, decree and power of Allah. Then Allah says:

(And do not grieve over them,) meaning, those who oppose you, for Allah has decreed that this should happen.

(and do not be distressed) means do not be worried or upset.

(by their plots.) meaning; because of the efforts they are putting into opposing you and causing you harm, for Allah is protecting, helping, and supporting you, and He will cause you to prevail and defeat them.

(Truly, Allah is with those who have Taqwa, and the doers of good.) meaning; He is with them in the sense of supporting them, helping them and guiding them. This is a special kind of “being with”, as Allah says elsewhere:

((Remember) when your Lord revealed to the angels, “Verily, I am with you, so support those who believe.”) ﴿8:12﴾ And Allah said to Musa and Harun:

(Fear not, verily I am with you both, hearing and seeing.) ﴿20:46﴾ The Prophet said to (Abu Bakr) As-Siddiq when they were in the cave:

(Do not worry, Allah is with us.”) The general kind of “being with” some one, or something is by means of seeing, hearing and knowing, as Allah says:

(And He is with you wherever you may be. And Allah sees whatever you do.) ﴿57:4﴾

(Have you not seen that Allah knows whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth There is no secret counsel of three but He is their fourth, – nor of five but He is their sixth, – nor of less than that or more, but He is with them wherever they may be.) ﴿58:7﴾

(You will not be in any circumstance, nor recite any portion of the Qur’an, nor having done any deeds, but We are witnessing you.) ﴿10:61﴾

(those who have Taqwa) means, they keep away from that which is forbidden.

(and the doers of good. ) meaning they do deeds of obedience to Allah. These are the ones whom Allah takes care of, He gives them support, and helps them to prevail over their enemies and opponents.

This is end of the Tafsir of Surat An-Nahl. To Allah be praise and blessings, and peace and blessings be upon Muhammad and his family and Companions.