Surah Ash-Shura >> Currently viewing Surah Ash-Shura Ayat 40 (42:40)

Surah Ash-Shura Ayat 40 in Arabic Text

وَجَزَٰٓؤُا۟ سَيِّئَةٍۢ سَيِّئَةٌۭ مِّثْلُهَا ۖ فَمَنْ عَفَا وَأَصْلَحَ فَأَجْرُهُۥ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
Wa jazaaa’u saiyi’atin saiyi’atum misluha faman ‘afaa wa aslaha fa ajruhoo ‘alal laah; innahoo laa yuhibbuz zaalimeen

English Translation

Here you can read various translations of verse 40

Sahih International
And the retribution for an evil act is an evil one like it, but whoever pardons and makes reconciliation – his reward is [due] from Allah. Indeed, He does not like wrongdoers.

Yusuf Ali
The recompense for an injury is an injury equal thereto (in degree): but if a person forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is due from Allah: for (Allah) loveth not those who do wrong.

Abul Ala Maududi
The recompense of evil is evil the like of it. But he who forgives and makes amends, his reward lies with Allah. Surely He does not love the wrong-doers.

Muhsin Khan
The recompense for an evil is an evil like thereof, but whoever forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is due from Allah. Verily, He likes not the Zalimun (oppressors, polytheists, and wrong-doers, etc.).

Pickthall
The guerdon of an ill-deed is an ill the like thereof. But whosoever pardoneth and amendeth, his wage is the affair of Allah. Lo! He loveth not wrong-doers.

Dr. Ghali
And the recompense of an odious deed is an odious deed the like of it; yet whoever is clement and acts righteously, then his reward is up to Allah. Surely He does not love the unjust.

Abdel Haleem
Let harm be requited by an equal harm, though anyone who forgives and puts things right will have his reward from God Himself––He does not like those who do wrong.

Quran 42 Verse 40 Explanation

For those looking for commentary to help with the understanding of Surah Ash-Shura ayat 40, we’ve provided two Tafseer works below. The first is the tafseer of Abul Ala Maududi, the second is of Ibn Kathir.

Ala-Maududi

(42:40) The recompense[64] of evil is evil the like of it.[65] But he who forgives and makes amends, his reward lies with Allah.[66]Surely He does not love the wrong-doers.[67]


64. The passage from here to the end of (verse 43) is an explanation of verse 39.

65. This is the first fundamental principle which must be borne in mind in retaliation. The right limit of retaliation is that one should return the same sort of ill treatment that he has received; he has no right to return a greater ill treatment.

66. This is the second principle. It means: Although it is permissible to retaliate against the one who has committed a violence, wherever pardoning can be conducive to reconcilement, pardoning is better for the sake of reconcilement than retaliation. And since man pardons the other by suppressing his own feelings, Allah says that the reward of such a one is with Him, for he has suppressed his own self for the sake of reforming the evil-doers.

67. In this warning allusion has been made to a third principle about retaliation, and it is this: One should not become a wrongdoer himself in the process of avenging a wrong done by the other. It is not permissible to do a greater wrong in retaliation for the wrong done. For example, if a person gives another a slap, the other can return only one slap; he cannot shower blows and kicks. Likewise, it is not right to commit a sin in retaliation for a sin. For example, if a wicked man has killed the son of someone, it is not right to go and kill the son of the former. Or, if a mean person has violated the chastity of a person’s sister or daughter, it is not lawful for him to commit rape on the former’s sister or daughter.

Ibn-Kathir

40. The recompense for an evil is an evil like thereof; but whoever forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is with Allah. Verily, He likes not the wrongdoers. 41. And indeed whosoever takes revenge after he has suffered wrong, for such there is no way (of blame) against them. 42. The way is only against those who oppress men and rebel in the earth without justification; for such there will be a painful torment. 43. And verily, whosoever shows patience and forgives, that would truly be from the things recommended by Allah.


Forgiving or exacting Revenge on Wrongdoers

﴿وَجَزَآءُ سَيِّئَةٍ سَيِّئَةٌ مِّثْلُهَا﴾

(The recompense for an evil is an evil like thereof). This is like the Ayat:

﴿فَمَنِ اعْتَدَى عَلَيْكُمْ فَاعْتَدُواْ عَلَيْهِ بِمِثْلِ مَا اعْتَدَى عَلَيْكُمْ﴾

(Then whoever transgresses the prohibition against you, you transgress likewise against him) (2:194), and

﴿وَإِنْ عَاقَبْتُمْ فَعَاقِبُواْ بِمِثْلِ مَا عُوقِبْتُمْ بِهِ﴾

(And if you punish, then punish them with the like of that with which you were afflicted) (16:126). Justice, has been prescribed, in the form of the prescribed laws of equality in punishment (Al-Qisas), but the better way, which means forgiving, is recommended, as Allah says:

﴿وَالْجُرُوحَ قِصَاصٌ فَمَن تَصَدَّقَ بِهِ فَهُوَ كَفَّارَةٌ لَّهُ﴾

(and wounds equal for equal. But if anyone remits the retaliation by way of charity, it shall be for him an expiation) (5:45). Allah says here:

﴿فَمَنْ عَفَا وَأَصْلَحَ فَأَجْرُهُ عَلَى اللَّهِ﴾

(but whoever forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is with Allah. ) means, that will not be wasted with Allah. As it says in a Sahih Hadith:

«وَمَا زَادَ اللهُ تَعَالَى عَبْدًا بِعَفْوٍ إِلَّا عِزًّا»

(Allah does not increase the person who forgives except in honor.)”

﴿إِنَّهُ لاَ يُحِبُّ الظَّـلِمِينَ﴾

(Verily, He likes not the wrongdoers.) means, the aggressors, i.e., those who initiate the evil actions.

﴿وَلَمَنِ انتَصَرَ بَعْدَ ظُلْمِهِ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ مَا عَلَيْهِمْ مِّن سَبِيلٍ ﴾

(And indeed whosoever takes revenge after he has suffered wrong, for such there is no way (of blame) against them.) means, there is no sin on him for taking revenge against the one who wronged him.

﴿إِنَّمَا السَّبِيلُ﴾

(The way) means, the burden of sin,

﴿عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَظْلِمُونَ النَّاسَ وَيَبْغُونَ فِى الاٌّرْضِ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ﴾

(is only against those who oppress men and rebel in the earth without justification;) means, those who initiate wrongful actions against others, as it says in the Sahih Hadith:

«الْمُسْتَبَّانِ مَا قَالَا فَعَلَى الْبَادِىءِ، مَا لَمْ يَعْتَدِ الْمَظْلُوم»

(When two persons indulge in abusing each other, the one who initiated the wrongful action is to blame, unless the one who was wronged oversteps the mark in retaliation.)

﴿أُوْلَـئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ﴾

(for such there will be a painful torment.) means, intense and agonizing. It was reported that Muhammad bin Wasi` said, “I came to Makkah and there was a security out post over the trench whose guards took me to Marwan bin Al-Muhallab, who was the governor of Basrah. He said, `What do you need, O Abu `Abdullah’ I said, `If you can do it, I need you to be like the brother of Banu `Adiy.’ He said, `Who is the brother of Banu `Adiy’ He said, `Al-`Ala’ bin Ziyad; he once appointed a friend of his to a position of authority, and he wrote to him: If you can, only go to sleep after you make sure that there is nothing on your back ﴿i.e., you do not owe anything to anyone﴾, your stomach is empty and your hands are untainted by the blood or wealth of the Muslims. If you do that, then there will be no way (of blame) against you —

﴿إِنَّمَا السَّبِيلُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَظْلِمُونَ النَّاسَ وَيَبْغُونَ فِى الاٌّرْضِ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ أُوْلَـئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ ﴾

(The way is only against those who oppress men and rebel in the earth without justification; for such there will be a painful torment.)’ Marwan said, `He spoke the truth, by Allah, and gave sincere advice. ‘ Then he said, `What do you need, O Abu `Abdullah’ I said, `I need you to let me join my family.’ He said, `Yes ﴿I will do that﴾.”’ This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim. When Allah condemned wrongdoing and the people who do it, and prescribed Al-Qisas, He encouraged forgiveness:

﴿وَلَمَن صَبَرَ وَغَفَرَ﴾

(And verily, whosoever shows patience and forgives,) meaning, whoever bears the insult with patience and conceals the evil action,

﴿إِنَّ ذَلِكَ لَمِنْ عَزْمِ الاٍّمُورِ﴾

(that would truly be from the things recommended by Allah.) Sa`id bin Jubayr said, “This means, one of the things enjoined by Allah,” i.e., good actions for which there will be a great reward and much praise.

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