Story of Prophet Dawud AS

The Story of Prophet Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ)

Prophet Saleh Calligraphy

The story of Prophet Dawud revolves around three significant figures:

1. Prophet Dawud, known in Judeo-Christian tradition as David.
2. King Talut, or Saul, who was the leader of the Israelites.
3. Then there was Jalut, known as Goliath.

The story of Dawud and Jalut is often more familiarly recognized as the story of David and Goliath.

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King Talut led the Israelite army, poised for battle against the formidable Jalut and his forces. Having endured severe losses to Jalut before, this impending battle stood as a pivotal moment in shaping the fate of Israel.

As they marched toward the battlefield, Talut earnestly cautioned his men:
“Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ) will test you with a river. Whoever drinks his fill from it is not with me, and whoever does not taste it—except a sip from the hollow of his hands—is definitely with me.”
— (Surah Al-Baqarah verse 249)

king talut

people drink from water

Despite their king’s clear warning, most among them drank freely from the river upon arrival.

Consequently, only a handful who remained faithful were allowed to cross the river and participate in the battle.

They began worrying:
“Now we are no match for Jalut and his warriors.”
— (Surah Al-Baqarah verse 249)

But the believers who were certain they would meet Allah سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ reasoned:
"How many times has a small force vanquished a mighty army by the will of Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ)! And Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ) is always with the steadfast."
— (Surah Al-Baqarah verse 249)

The army then prayed to Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ), seeking His aid to overcome their enemy. They made a du'a saying,
"Our Lord! Shower us with perseverance, make our steps firm, and give us victory over the disbelieving people."
— (Surah Al-Baqarah ayah 250)

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The two troops finally faced each other on the battlefield. The Israelites seemed puny in comparison to Jalut and his great army, but they stood their ground.


Jalut, a formidable and towering presence on the battlefield, exuded an aura of fear with his might and prowess as a warrior.

He was well aware that none dared to cross his path on the battleground, certainly not an army as pitiful as Talut's.

He was confident that fighting Talut's army would be an effortless win. To heighten the spectacle, Jalut challenged any soldier to a one-on-one combat against him.

The Israelites were terrified. The mere thought of volunteering for this challenge seemed tantamount to a death wish.

King Talut grew increasingly anxious as none of his men stepped forward. Driven by desperation, he went as far as offering the hand of his beloved daughter Michal (Miqel) in marriage to any soldier willing to confront Jalut. Nothing swayed the men to come forward, not even the prospect of a life filled with riches and royal status.

Then, to everyone’s surprise, a young boy, who had visibly not participated in many battles before, stepped forward for the fight. Laughter reverberated through the enemy battalion while Talut's soldiers shook their heads in disbelief.

This courageous youth was none other than Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ), hailing from the city of Bethlehem.

talut and dawud conversation

Talut was impressed by the young man’s bravery but did not wish to send the boy to his death.

“I admire your courage, but you are no match for that mighty warrior. Let the seasoned warriors come forth,” he told Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ).

Prophet Dawud stood firm in his resolve. He had already made up his mind to battle the giant. With unwavering pride, he told his king tales of how he had defeated a lion that had previously threatened his father's sheep and how he overcame a bear on a separate occasion.

Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) further implored his king not to judge him based on his appearance and reassured him that he was not afraid of any man or wild beast.

Touched by Dawud's determination, King Talut responded:
"My brave soldier, if you are willing, then may Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ) guard you and grant you strength."

The King himself took on the responsibility of preparing the warrior for battle. He dressed Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) in battle armor and placed a sword in his hand.

But Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) was used to doing things his way. He felt that the battle armor restrained his movements, so he removed it, along with his sword.

shield and sword

sling shot

With nothing but a few pebbles in a leather pouch slung over his shoulder, a sling, and a wooden staff, Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) was ready to face the giant.

Talut, filled with concern, questioned Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ):
"How on earth are you going to defend yourself against a giant with a sling and a couple of stones?"

In response, Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) affirmed:
"Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ), who protected me from the claws of the bear and the fangs of the lion, will surely safeguard me from this aggressor."

Jalut's laughter resounded through the battlefield when he finally set eyes on his opponent. He bellowed:
"Are you out to play war with one of your playmates, or are you tired of your life? I'll sever your head with one swipe of my sword!"

Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) replied in a shout:
“You may have armor, a shield, and a sword, but I face you in the name of Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ), the Lord of the Israelites, whose laws you have mocked. Today, you will see that it's not the sword that brings death, but the will and power of Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ)!”

dawud fights jalut

With faith in his Lord, Dawud (may peace be upon him) loaded a pebble into his sling, took aim at Jalut, and released his shot. Before Jalut could get his bearings, the pebble tore through the air, striking him. The force of the pebble pushed Jalut back, blood streaming from the spot where the pebble struck. In an instant, Jalut collapsed lifeless.

With a single pebble, Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) defeated the mighty Jalut, whom all warriors feared.

Jalut's army understood that their leader's defeat by a mere boy was no ordinary incident. Fearing for their lives, they began fleeing.

jalut striked dead

Fueled by years of anguish under Jalut's and his army's oppression, the Israelites followed the troops, slaying every soldier they could lay their hands on.

Thus, with Almighty Allah's (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ) help, the Israelites secured victory over their enemies and reclaimed their dignity. And overnight, Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) ascended to the status of a revered hero.

Honoring his word, King Talut gave his daughter in marriage to Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) and appointed him as a chief advisor. Thus, Dawud’s (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) path to kingship was paved.

Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ) says in the Quran:
“By Allah’s will they routed them; and Dawud slew Jalut; and Allah gave him power and wisdom and taught him whatever (else) He willed. And did not Allah Check one set of people by means of another, the earth would indeed be full of mischief: But Allah is full of bounty to all the worlds.”
— (Surah Al-Baqarah ayah 251)

Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ) is showing us that those with complete trust and reliance in Him can overcome the greatest of odds. Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) was so small, yet he toppled Jalut with such ease. A small force can overcome a much greater force. The story also teaches us a lesson in humility.

We should never be too proud and think of ourselves as too big, powerful, wealthy, or beautiful. Just as quickly as Jalut had fallen, we, too, can have it all taken away. Don't be so arrogant to think otherwise. Be grateful to Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ). If he has given you wealth, use it in a manner that pleases Him by serving the people around you and being righteous.

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Following his miraculous victory over the giant, Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) set out to the desert seeking solitude to reflect on the events of the day and to glorify Allah سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ. Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) was a humble servant of Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ) who did not allow pride to venture into his heart and forget the Almighty.

This is when Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ) bestowed Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) with Prophethood. The Lord also gifted Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) with many miracles which were not bestowed to any other Prophet before or after him.

Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ) also revealed to Prophet Dawud (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ) the Zaboor, also known as the Psalm or Songs of David.
“…And to Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) We gave the Psalms,”
— (Surah Al-Isra, ayah 55)

dawud psalms

When he began to sing the verses of Zaboor in his melodious voice, the mountains, trees, birds, and all other living creatures joined him in glorifying the Almighty.

Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ) says in the Quran:
“We truly subjected the mountains to hymn Our praises along with him in the evening and after sunrise. And We subjected the birds, flocking together. All turned to him echoing his hymns. We strengthened his kingship, and gave him wisdom and sound judgment.”
— (Surah As-Sad ayat 18-20)

Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ) also bestowed His Messenger Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) the ability to converse with animals.

Prophet Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) was a devout worshiper of his Lord (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ). He never missed an opportunity to glorify Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ) in his speech or actions.

Allah's Messenger (ﷺ) stated:
“The most beloved fasting to Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ) was the fasting of Prophet Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) who used to fast on alternate days. And the most beloved prayer to Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ) was the prayer of Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) who used to sleep for (the first) half of the night and pray for a third of it and (again) sleep for a sixth of it.”
— (Sahih Al-Bukhari 3420)

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Prophet Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) became a crucial and influential figure in warfare; he was widely consulted in matters related to it.

One day, some soldiers approached Prophet Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) and bemoaned that their iron armor was too heavy and severely restricted their movement during battle.

Prophet Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) was mulling over this issue one day while fiddling with a piece of iron when suddenly, to his great surprise, his finger sank through the iron. Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ) had endowed him with yet another gift – the ability to mold iron.

"We made iron mouldable for him,”
Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ) says in the Quran, verse 11 of Surah Saba.

Also, mentioned in Surah Al-Anbiya Ayat 80,
"It was We Who taught him the art of making coats of mail for your benefit so that it may protect you from each other’s violence. Do you, then, give thanks?"

dawud shapes iron

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Prophet Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) was widely praised and admired across the kingdom for his courage, piety, and wisdom. In the eyes of the people, he even surpassed King Talut. This shift in public opinion did not escape the king's notice.

One day, Prophet Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) found his father-in-law in distress and sensed a difference in his attitude. Concerned, he shared his thoughts with his wife Michal, who immediately began weeping and revealed her father's envy towards Dawud's (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) rising popularity. Michal cautioned her husband to be on guard at all times, fearing potential harm arising from her father's jealousy.

Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) was a devout and sincere man, deeply disturbed by the news of Talut's envy. He prayed that Talut's heart would be relieved of envy and that he would return to his former virtuous nature.

dawud and talut conversate

The next day, Talut informed Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) that their enemy, Canaan, had gathered his forces and was plotting to march on Talut's kingdom to overthrow him.

He commanded Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) to battle Canaan and his men and to avoid returning unless victory was achieved.

Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) was astute, sensing a potential trap for his demise in this directive—fearing either the enemy's attack or betrayal from Talut's men. Despite his suspicions, Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) placed his life in Allah's (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ) hands and proceeded as instructed. His army met with the enemy troops and fought bravely, emerging victorious. Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) returned to the kingdom unscathed.

michael conversation

Consumed by fear and finding no other escape, Talut plotted his son-in-law's murder.

Michal, discovering her father's intentions, rushed to forewarn her husband.

That very night, Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) gathered essential supplies and fled Talut's kingdom, where he spent several days hiding in a cave.

Days later, Dawud’s brothers and a few other loyal followers of the Prophet rallied to support him. Each passing day weakened the stability of Talut’s reign as king.

With Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) gone, Talut aggressively tried to consolidate the power that he lost. He began ruling his kingdom like a dictator. He persecuted the learned, oppressed those who observed the Talmud, and terrorized his army. This further eroded his popularity with the people. Furious, Talut resolved to battle Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ). So, gathering his army, Talut left his kingdom to fight his son-in-law.

Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) got wind of the approaching army and decided to confront them. He discovered Talut’s army resting in a valley a great distance from home.

talut in a cave

Stealthily, Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) made his way toward Talut’s camp and found him asleep. Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) removed his sword and cut off a piece of Talut’s garment.

Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) awakened Talut and spoke:
“Oh king, you come out seeking me, but I do not hate you, and I do not want to kill you. If I did, I would have killed you when you were asleep. Here is a piece of your garment. I could have hacked your neck instead, but I did not. My mission is that of love, not malice.”

dawud holding torn garment

Talut then came to his senses, realizing the enormity of his actions, and sought Prophet Dawud’s (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) forgiveness.

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Years passed, and King Talut died in battle. Prophet Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) was elected as king by the people.

Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) was a just, humble, and righteous king whose governance ensured peace and prosperity in the kingdom. Despite his new role as King, Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) was not remiss in his duty of preaching the religion of Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ). His melodious recitation of the Zaboor captivated all who heard it, drawing not just people, but also birds, animals, and trees, entrancing listeners with its divine verses.

Balancing the roles of a King and a Prophet was no simple task. But Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) was dedicated and took on the responsibility with determination. He did not fall back on any of his duties and divided his day into four parts:

dawud divides day into four parts

The first, to earn a living and rest; the second, for religious observations; the third, for his people; and the final, for delivering his sermons.

Prophet Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) also empowered deputies to represent him in attending to people’s issues during his absence.

Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ) blessed Dawud’s (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) reign. His kingdom was a testament to Dawud’s competence. He was also greatly feared by his enemies.

Despite his royal status as king, Prophet Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) did not rely on the kingdom for his income. His sustenance was secured through the selling of weapons crafted by himself.

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The Bible tells many false stories about the Prophets, and the Qur'an often has to set the record straight. A story in 2 Samuel 12 speaks very disparagingly about Prophet Dawud (as). It accuses Prophet Dawud (as) of many immoral acts such as theft, adultery, and plotting a murder. It paints the Prophet as an undisciplined man who lacks judgment and is not in control of his desires.

Nathan chose an indirect approach to confront Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ), sharing a story about a rich man who unjustly took a poor man's sheep. This story served as a parallel to the accusation against Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) of orchestrating the death of a man named Uriah to claim his wife, Bathsheba. It then cites how Dawud's guilty conscience took over, causing him to make the rash judicial decision of sentencing the sheep thief to death even though the offense wasn't a capital crime. Only when confronted by Nathan that he knew the truth did he apologize and was given pardon. This depiction is rather offensive for a Prophet whose character and lapse of judgment are unbefitting of a person meant to serve as a role model to guide all of humanity.

In Surah Saad, verses 17-26, the Qur'an recounts the story of Prophet Dawud in a different light compared to the narrative found in the Biblical accounts. Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ) often provided Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) with stories of past prophets, offering lessons to guide him in managing contemporary challenges.

In Surah Sad Ayat 17, Allah instructs Prophet Muhammad to,
"Be patient over what they say and remember Our servant, David, the possessor of strength; indeed, he was one who repeatedly turned back [to Allah]."

Prophet Dawud (as) was hailed in the Qur'an for his strength and unwavering repentance, showcasing his continuous devotion and submission to Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَالَىٰ). Despite his piety, he faced a test from Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَالَىٰ).

One day, while Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) was praying in his private chamber, two men scaled the walls and entered his room seeking arbitration.

When Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) saw the two men, he immediately became fearful.
“Have no fear,” the men reassured,

“We are merely two in a dispute: one of us has wronged the other. So, judge between us with truth — do not go beyond it — and guide us to the right way.”

Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ), taken aback, endeavored to regain his composure and asked the men to explain their grievances.

One of the men presented his case,
"Behold, this is my brother; he has ninety-nine ewes and I have only one ewe.” And yet he said: “Give her into my charge,” and he got the better of me in argument.
— (Surah Sad Ayah 23)

Without fully considering the other side, Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) swiftly intervened, asserting,
"He has wronged you in demanding your ewe in addition to his ewes. And, verily, many partners oppress one another, except those who believe and do righteous good deeds, and they are few."

prophet dawud talks to two men

One of the men presented his case,
"Behold, this is my brother; he has ninety-nine ewes and I have only one ewe.” And yet he said: “Give her into my charge,” and he got the better of me in argument.
— (Surah Sad Ayah 23)

Without fully considering the other side, Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) swiftly intervened, asserting,
"He has wronged you in demanding your ewe in addition to his ewes. And, verily, many partners oppress one another, except those who believe and do righteous good deeds, and they are few."

The two men then vanished, and Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) recognized this as a test from Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَالَىٰ). Overcome with this realization, he prostrated in repentance before Allah (سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَىٰ).

Some Qur'an exegetes link the story of him falling into sujood in repentance as being connected to the story of guilt found in the bible. But the accurate understanding is that the Prophet Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) feared that he had not acted justly. He judged prematurely between the two people and failed to consider all perspectives.

The man with the ninety-nine sheep might have held a legitimate claim over the man with one. The poor man owning a single sheep might have gained sympathy due to his meekness, potentially influencing the situation. His eloquence or persuasive skills might have allowed him to overpower the others in speech. Hence, justice might not have been duly served, and this perceived oversight was an error on Dawud's part, leading him to seek taubah (forgiveness).

This incident teaches us not to hastily judge situations driven by strong emotions. It emphasizes the need for patience, letting the dust settle, and gathering evidence before passing judgment.

In Surah Sad, verse 26, it is stated, " judge between the people in truth and do not follow [your own] desire, as it will lead you astray from the way of Allah." Indeed, those who go astray from the way of Allah will have a severe punishment for having forgotten the Day of Account."
— (Surah Sad ayah 26)

In these verses Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ) preserves the integrity of our beloved Prophet and imparts a significant leadership lesson: the importance of objectivity, truth-seeking, and not being swayed by appearances.

We'll all face moments where we must discern right from wrong, be it in family disputes, work environments, or among friends. Striving for fairness is crucial, as there will be a Day of Account when Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ) will be a judge over us.

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Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَالَىٰ) bestowed wisdom and sound judgment not only upon Prophet Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) but also upon his beloved son, Sulaiman (may peace be upon him).

It is narrated that one day, when Prophet Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) was listening to the issues of his people with Sulaiman (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ), who was then eleven years old, two men approached him.

two men and sheep

One, who was an owner of a field, accused:
“O dear Prophet, this man's sheep came to my field at night and ate up the grapes and I have come to ask for compensation.”

Turning to the other man, the owner of the sheep, Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) inquired,
'Is this true?'"

"Yes, sir,"
came the response.

Prophet Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) then ruled:
"I have decided that you give him your sheep in exchange for the field."

prophet sulaiman solution to sheep

At that moment, Prophet Sulaiman (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) stepped in, offering an alternative view. He suggested,
"The owner of the sheep should take the field to cultivate until the grapes grow, while the other man should take the sheep and make use of their wool and milk until his field is repaired. If the grapes grow, and the field returns to its former state, then the field owner should take his field and give back the sheep to their owner."

Impressed by his son's intellect,
Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) remarked,

"This judgment is wise. Praise be to Allah سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ for granting you wisdom. You are truly Sulaiman the Wise."

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Prophet Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) was among the most influential Prophets of Allah (سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ) who devoutly worshiped Him until his last breath. He was sent as a prophet, as the people of Israel needed a guide after the passing of prophets Musa (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) and Harun (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ).

Prophet Dawud’s sudden passing was mourned by thousands, including four thousand priests. On the day of his death, scorching heat prevailed. Prophet Sulaiman (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) - who was gifted with the ability to converse with animals - summoned the birds to shield the mourners from the blazing sun until Dawud (عَلَيْهِ ٱلسَّلَامُ) was laid to rest.

This event marked the first glimpse of Prophet Sulaiman's dominion witnessed by the people.

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