(The Knower of Subtleties)
The Subtle One, The Gracious, The One who is kind to His servants and endows upon them.
Allah is Al-Lateef. The most gentle and gracious to people and cares for them, although they may be oblivious to his acts. His nature is kind, affectionate, and understanding of the subtle details of individual circumstances. His actions are so subtle that they can not be observable or understood. He does things for you that you will never know. This is the name of Allah سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ to call when asking for help through hardship.
From the root lam-ta-fa (ل ط ف), which has the following classical Arabic connotations: to be thin, delicate, refined, elegant, graceful, gentle, gracious, courteous, kindly, subtle, to know the obscurities of all affairs, to treat with regard for circumstances, to be most soothing and refined in manner, to treat with kindness, goodness, gentleness, benevolence, and affection.
All the names of Allah سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ are beautiful and complete. But Al-Lateef often holds a special place in a believer's heart as it resonates deeply with the human spirit. It carries with it many meanings depending on the context it is used. But generally, this name refers to the attribute of "gentleness."
Imam al-Ghazali writes of Al-Latif as being the only one "deserving of this name if one knows the subtleties of those things which are beneficial, as well as their hidden aspects, along with what is subtle about them and what is benevolent." Allah سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ knows where the most subtle and hidden benefit lies, and He knows how to use it for whomever He has destined it for. This gentleness and subtlety manifest themselves in many ways. For example, attending a khutbah, watching a random video online, or reading a book a friend recommended, al-Latif delivers a message that gives you exactly what you need to hear. It would appear like that message was directly written or spoken for you. The timing could not have been any better. Al-Ghazali continues, "Moreover, in conveying them to those who are deserving, he is committed to the path of gentleness rather than harshness."
The knower of subtleties:
Just as Allah سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ is subtle in His kindness and giving, He is aware of all nuances or things trying to remain inconspicuous. Nothing is neglected. Everything has its place and will be accounted for.
Ya bunaiya innahaaa in taku misqaala habbatim min khardalin fatakun fee sakhratin aw fis samaawaati aw fil ardi yaati bi Allah; innal laaha lateefun Khabeer
" [And Luqman said], "O my son, indeed if wrong should be the weight of a mustard seed and should be within a rock or [anywhere] in the heavens or in the earth, Allah will bring it forth. Indeed, Allah is Subtle and Acquainted." — (Qur'an 31:16)
Alam tara annal laaha anzala minas samaaa’i maaa’an fatusbihul ardu mukhdarrah; innal laaha Lateefun Khabeer
"Do you not see that Allah has sent down rain from the sky and the earth becomes green? Indeed, Allah is Subtle and Acquainted." — (Qur'an 22:63)
Allah سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ is the creator, subtle in design. Imam al-Ghazali writes, "In sum, He is wise insofar as He plans things, generous insofar as He creates them, fashioner insofar as He orders them, just insofar as He puts each thing in its proper place, and benevolent insofar as He does not overlook subtleties and qualities of gentleness concerning them." The level of sophistication, the attention to detail of the minutiae, none can be overlooked in order to understand His name.
Story of Prophet Yusuf (as):
The story of Prophet Yusuf, may peace be upon him, is also very instructive in getting to understand how Allah سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ is Al-Lateef:
Wa raf’a abawaihi ‘alal ‘arshi wa kharroo lahoo sujjadaa; wa qaala yaaa abati haaza taaweelu ru’yaaya min qablu qad ja’alahaa Rabbee haqqaa; wa qad ahsana beee iz akhrajanee minas sijni wa jaaa’a bikum minal badwi mim ba’di an nazaghash Shaitaanu bainee wa baina ikhwatee; inna Rabbee lateeful limaa yashaaa’; innahoo Huwal Aleemul Hakeem
" And he raised his parents upon the throne, and they bowed to him in prostration. And he said, "O my father, this is the explanation of my vision of before. My Lord has made it reality. And He was certainly good to me when He took me out of prison and brought you [here] from bedouin life after Satan had induced [estrangement] between me and my brothers. Indeed, my Lord is Subtle in what He wills. Indeed, it is He who is the Knowing, the Wise." — ( Qur'an 12:100)
In the story of Yusuf (as), we know he has a vision in his dream where "eleven stars and the sun and the moon; I saw them prostrating to me." (Qur'an 12:4). He does not know exactly when, where, and how this will happen. But Allah سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ had decreed this and shown him his destiny in a dream. The path was unclear and unknown to Yusuf (as). In fact, from the outside looking in, it would seem like a delusional vision as nothing seemed to go right for Yusuf (as). In his home, his older brothers were envious of Yusuf (as) and plotted to kill him, but before this plan was put into action, someone spoke up and said, "Do not kill Joseph [Yusuf] but throw him into the bottom of the well" (Qur'an 12:10)
Once abandoned in a well, a caravan passing by finds him detains him, and pawns him as a slave to the highest bidder. Another stroke of 'luck' is out of all the people, Yusuf (as) was purchased by a man named Azeez - a pious, wealthy, and respectful man. Finally, Yusuf (as) could breathe and had a place to mature, but the coast was not clear. Eventually, problems between Yusuf (as) and Zulaikha (Azeez's wife) transpired. It wasn't before long this situation led to Yusuf (as) being falsely imprisoned. In jail, he developed a reputation as being the interpreter for dreams. The security guard picks up on this talent and shares this information with the King, who is troubled by a recurring dream. This access and opportunity then granted Yusuf (as) to be recognized, released, and promoted by the King. This leads to the inevitable conclusion of the story, where Yusuf sees the dream he had as a kid come true. As this verse above states, "this is the explanation of my vision of before. My Lord has made it reality."
From the story of Prophet Yusuf (as), we can see how Allah سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ is Al-Lateef and guides us without our knowledge. It is subtle in ways we cannot connect the dots moving forward, only looking back. Even then, we may not understand all of its intricacies. A wrong turn can lead to a disastrous outcome. Imagine the person who did not inspire the brothers to throw Yusuf (as) in the well. What if he was sold as a slave to someone other than Azeez? Would Yusuf (as) have met the King without being falsely imprisoned?
We can learn from this story just how the quality of Allah سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ being Al-Lateef manifests. Perhaps there's a blessing in not being accepted into that prestigious university you wanted. Instead, you being forced to "settle" for a local college, you meet a professor by "happenstance" who inspires you in a way no other could have. Perhaps you meet your spouse, make life-long friends, or land an internship giving you exposure to a new field you otherwise would've never explored. In not attending that prestigious university you wanted, you may have dodged some tragedy or difficulty. Allah سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ may have protected you from being led astray. Nothing which happens in your life is good or bad as you may perceive it. Only Allah سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ who is Al-Aleem (Knower) of all things, knows what's best. All we can do is move forward, trying to connect the dots looking back - but even then, our story is still being written, and we don't know how this story ends.
In a hadith narration, Prophet Muhammad ﷺ says to Aisha (ra): "show gentleness, for if gentleness is found in anything, it beautifies it and when it is taken out from anything it damages it."  and in Sahih Muslim, "A'isha, verily Allah is kind and He loves kindness and confers upon kindness which he does not confer upon severity and does not confer upon anything else besides it (kindness)." 
Here are the remaining four verses that metion Allah سُبْحَٰنَهُۥ وَتَعَٰلَىٰ as Al-Lateef in the Qur'an:
Laa tudrikuhul absaaru wa Huwa yudrikul absaara wa huwal Lateeful Khabeer
"Vision perceives Him not, but He perceives [all] vision; and He is the Subtle, the Acquainted." — (Qur'an 6:103)
Wazkurna maa yutlaa fee bu yootikunna min aayaatil laahi wal Hikmah; innal laaha kaana lateefan Khabeera (section 4)
"And remember what is recited in your houses of the verses of Allah and wisdom. Indeed, Allah is ever Subtle and Acquainted [with all things]." — (Qur'an 33:34)
Allahu lateefum bi'ibaadihee yarzuqu mai yashaaa'u wa Huwal Qawiyyul 'Azeez (Section 2)
"Allah is Subtle with His servants; He gives provisions to whom He wills. And He is the Powerful, the Exalted in Might." — (Qur'an 42:19)
Alaa ya’lamu man khalaqa wa huwal lateeful khabeer
"Does He who created not know, while He is the Subtle, the Acquainted?" — (Qur'an 67:14)
 Sahih (Al-Albani) Sunan Abi Dawud 4808
 Sahih Muslim 2593