Surah Mumtahanah Ayat 1 in Arabic Text
Here you can read various translations of verse 1
O you who have believed, do not take My enemies and your enemies as allies, extending to them affection while they have disbelieved in what came to you of the truth, having driven out the Prophet and yourselves [only] because you believe in Allah, your Lord. If you have come out for jihad in My cause and seeking means to My approval, [take them not as friends]. You confide to them affection, but I am most knowing of what you have concealed and what you have declared. And whoever does it among you has certainly strayed from the soundness of the way.
O ye who believe! Take not my enemies and yours as friends (or protectors),- offering them (your) love, even though they have rejected the Truth that has come to you, and have (on the contrary) driven out the Prophet and yourselves (from your homes), (simply) because ye believe in Allah your Lord! If ye have come out to strive in My Way and to seek My Good Pleasure, (take them not as friends), holding secret converse of love (and friendship) with them: for I know full well all that ye conceal and all that ye reveal. And any of you that does this has strayed from the Straight Path.
Believers, if you have left (your homes and) have come forth to struggle in My Way and to seek My good pleasure, do not make friends with My enemies and your enemies. You befriend them whereas they have spurned the Truth that has come to you; and (such is their enmity that) they expel the Messenger and yourselves for no other reason than that you believe in Allah, your Lord. You send to them messages of friendship in secrecy, although I know well whatever you do, be it secretly or publicly. And whosoever of you does so has indeed strayed far away from the Straight Path.
O you who believe! Take not My enemies and your enemies (i.e. disbelievers and polytheists, etc.) as friends, showing affection towards them, while they have disbelieved in what has come to you of the truth (i.e. Islamic Monotheism, this Quran, and Muhammad SAW), and have driven out the Messenger (Muhammad SAW) and yourselves (from your homeland) because you believe in Allah your Lord! If you have come forth to strive in My Cause and to seek My Good Pleasure, (then take not these disbelievers and polytheists, etc., as your friends). You show friendship to them in secret, while I am All-Aware of what you conceal and what you reveal. And whosoever of you (Muslims) does that, then indeed he has gone (far) astray, (away) from the Straight Path.
O ye who believe! Choose not My enemy and your enemy for allies. Do ye give them friendship when they disbelieve in that truth which hath come unto you, driving out the messenger and you because ye believe in Allah, your Lord? If ye have come forth to strive in My way and seeking My good pleasure, (show them not friendship). Do ye show friendship unto them in secret, when I am Best Aware of what ye hide and what ye proclaim? And whosoever doeth it among you, he verily hath strayed from the right way.
O you who have believed, do not take to yourselves My enemy and your enemy for patrons, casting forth to them (your) amity, and they have already disbelieved in what has come to you of the Truth, driving the Messenger and you (too) for that you believe in Allah, your Lord, in case you have gone out striving in My way and seeking My Supreme Satisfaction, secretly having amity towards them. And I know best whatever you conceal and whatever you make public; and whoever of you performs it, then he has already erred away from the level way.
You who believe, do not take My enemies and yours as your allies, showing them friendship when they have rejected the truth you have received, and have driven you and the Messenger out simply because you believe in God, your Lord––not if you truly emigrated in order to strive for My cause and seek My good pleasure. You secretly show them friendship––I know all you conceal and all you reveal–– but any of you who do this are straying from the right path.
Quran 60 Verse 1 Explanation
For those looking for commentary to help with the understanding of Surah Mumtahanah ayat 1, we’ve provided two Tafseer works below. The first is the tafseer of Abul Ala Maududi, the second is of Ibn Kathir.
(60:1) Believers, if you have left (your homes and) have come forth to struggle in My Way and to seek My good pleasure, do not make friends with My enemies and your enemies. You befriend them whereas they have spurned the Truth that has come to you; and (such is their enmity that) they expel the Messenger and yourselves for no other reason than that you believe in Allah, your Lord. You send to them messages of friendship in secrecy, although I know well whatever you do, be it secretly or publicly. And whosoever of you does so has indeed strayed far away from the Straight Path.
1. It would be appropriate to give at the outset the detailsof the incident concerning which these verses were revealedso that the subject that follows is understood easily. Thecommentators agree, and Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah,Urwah bin Zubair and others also have unanimouslyreported that these verses were revealed at the time when aletter of Hatib bin Abi Baltaa to the pagans of Makkah wasintercepted.
It so happened that, when the Quraish broke the treaty ofHudaibiyah, the Prophet (peace be upon him) startedmaking preparations for an invasion of Makkah, but he didnot tell anyone, except a few close companions, about thegoal of the expedition. At about the same time a womanarrived from Makkah, who had been a slave-girl of theBani Abdul Muttalib, and then after her freedom hadadopted singing as her profession. She complained ofpoverty to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and requestedfor financial help. The Prophet (peace be upon him)appealed to Bani Abdul Muttalib and he satisfied her need.When she was about to leave for Makkah, Hatib bin AbiBaltaa met her and quietly gave her a letter addressed tosome of the Makkah chiefs and paid her ten dinars so thatshe kept the secret and carried the letter to the addresseessecretly. When she had just left Al-Madinah, Allahinformed the Prophet (peace be upon him) of it. TheProphet (peace be upon him) immediately sent Ali, Zubairand Miqdad bin Aswad after her with the instruction:Make haste. At Raudah khaki (12 miles from Al-Madinahon the road to Makkah) you will meet a woman, whocarries a letter from Hatib to the pagans of Makkah. Seizethat letter by any means you like. If she delivers the letterwillingly, let her go; if she refuses to deliver it, kill her.When these companions reached the place, they found thewoman there. They demanded the letter from her. Shereplied that she had a letter. They searched her but couldfind no letter. At last, they told her to deliver the letter,otherwise they would strip her and search her. When shesaw that there was no way of escape, she took out the letterfrom her hair-plait and delivered it to them, and theybrought it to the Prophet (peace be upon him). When theletter was opened and read, it was found to containinformation to the Quraish that the Prophet (peace be uponhim) was making preparations to attack them. (In differenttraditions different wordings of the letter have beenreported but the purport of all is one and the same). TheProphet (peace be upon him) asked Hatib what inducedhim to act thus. He replied: Do not make haste in thismatter of mine. I have not done this because I have becomea disbeliever or an apostate, and have started preferringdisbelief to Islam. But the truth is that my near and dearones are still in Makkah. I do not belong to the tribe of theQuraish, but had settled there under the guardianship ofsome of them. The families of the Emigrants, which are stillin Makkah, will be defended and protected by their tribesand clans, but I have no tribe which could give protectionto my family. Therefore, I sent this letter in order to keepthe Quraish under obligation so that they did not harm mychildren. (According to Hatib’s son Abdur Rahman, Habithad his children and brother still in Makkah at that time,and according to Hatib’s own report his mother was alsothere). Hearing what Hatib had to say, the Prophet (peacebe upon him) said to the people: Hatib has told you thetruth. That is, the real motive of his action was this and notany treachery against Islam or any intention to supportdisbelief. Umar rose and said: Permit me, O Messenger ofAllah, that I should cut off this hypocrite’s head. He hasbeen treacherous to Allah and His Messenger and theMuslims. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: This manhas participated in the Battle of Badr. You may not know,O Umar, Allah may have looked favorably at the people ofBadr and said: Do as you please, I have forgiven you. (Thewords in the last sentence are different in differenttraditions. In some these are to the effect: I have grantedyou forgiveness; in some other: I am your forgiver; and instill an other: I will forgive you). Hearing this Umar weptand said: Allah and His Messenger have the bestknowledge. This is a resume of those many traditions whichBukhari, Muslim, Ahmad, Abu Daud, Timidhi, Nasai, IbnJarir Tabari, Ibn Hisham, Ibn Hibban and Ibn Abi Hatimhave related on the authority of several reliabletransmitters. The most authentic of these is the traditionwhich Ali’s secretary, Ubaidullah bin Abu Rafi, heard fromAli himself, and from him Ali’s grandson, Hasan binMuhammad bin Hanafiyah, heard and conveyed to thelater reporters. In none of these there is any mention thatHatib was pardoned when he presented this excuse. Butthere is no hint either to show that he was awarded somepunishment. That is why the Muslim scholars haveconcluded that Hatib’s excuse was accepted and he waspardoned.
1. Whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is on the earth glorifies Allah. And He is the Almighty, the All-Wise. 2. O you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not do 3. Most hateful it is with Allah that you say that which you do not do. 4. Verily, Allah loves those who fight in His cause in rows as if they were a solid structure.
We mentioned in many a places before the meaning of Allah’s statement,
(Whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is on the earth glorifies Allah. And He is the Almighty, the All-Wise.) Therefore, we do not need to repeat its meaning here. Allah’s statement,
(O you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not do) This refutes those who neglect to fulfill their promises. This honorable Ayah supports the view that several scholars of the Salaf held, that it is necessary to fulfill the promise, regardless of whether the promise includes some type of wealth for the person receiving the promise or otherwise. They also argue from the Sunnah, with the Hadith recorded in the Two Sahihs in which Allah’s Messenger said,
(There are three signs for a hypocrite: when he promises, he breaks his promise; when speaks, he lies; and when he is entrusted, he betrays.) And in another Hadith in the Sahih,
(There are four characteristics which if one has all of them, he is the pure hypocrite, and if anyone has any of them, he has a characteristic of hypocrisy, until he abandons it.) So he mentioned breaking the promise among these four characteristics. We mentioned the meaning of these two Hadiths in the beginning of the explanation of Sahih Al-Bukhari, and to Allah is the praise and the thanks. Therefore Allah implied this meaning, when He continued His admonishment by saying,
(Most hateful it is with Allah that you say that which you do not do.) Imam Ahmad and Abu Dawud recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amir bin Rabi`ah said, “Allah’s Messenger came to us while I was a young boy, and I went out to play. My mother said, `O `Abdullah! Come, I want to give you something.’ Allah’s Messenger said to her,
(What did you want to give him) She said, `Dates.’ He said,
(If you had not given them to him, it would have been written as a lie in your record.)” Muqatil bin Hayyan said, “The faithful believers said, `If we only knew the dearest good actions to Allah, we would perform them.’ Thus, Allah told them about the dearest actions to Him,saying,
(Verily, Allah loves those who fight in His cause in rows) Allah stated what He likes, and they were tested on the day of Uhud. However, they retreated and fled, leaving the Prophet behind. It was about their case that Allah revealed this Ayah:
(O you who believe! Why do you say that which you do not do) Allah says here, `The dearest of you to Me, is he who fights in My cause.”’ Some said that it was revealed about the gravity of fighting in battle, when one says that he fought and endured the battle, even though he did not do so. Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak said that this Ayah was sent down to admonish some people who used to say that they killed, fought, stabbed, and did such and such during battle, even though they did not do any of it. Sa`id bin Jubayr said about Allah’s statement,
(Verily, Allah loves those who fight in His cause in rows (ranks)) “Before Allah’s Messenger began the battle against the enemy, he liked to line up his forces in rows; in this Surah, Allah teaches the believers to do the same.” He also said that Allah’s statement,
(as if they were a solid structure.) means, its parts are firmly connected to each other; in rows for battle. Muqatil bin Hayyan said, “Firmly connected to each other.” Ibn `Abbas commented on the meaning of the Ayah,
(as if they were a solid structure.) by saying, “They are like a firm structure that does not move, because its parts are cemented to each other.”
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