Surah Al-Ahqaf (“The Sand Dunes”) is the 46th chapter of the Qur’an with 35 ayats. It is classified as a Meccan Surah.
In this Surah there is a reference to the people of ‘Ad and Allah’s punishment for their sins. The people of ‘Ad were a prosperous nations until they were destroyed by violent storm after having rejected the teachings of Tawhid.
“Say, “My Lord, enable me to be grateful for Your favor which You have bestowed upon me and upon my parents and to work righteousness of which You will approve and make righteous for me my offspring. Indeed, I have repented to You, and indeed, I am of the Muslims.”
Surah Al-Ahqaf Ayat 15
Read Surah Ahqaf with English Translation and Transliteration
Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Raheem
In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful
1. Ha, Meem.
تَنزِيلُ ٱلْكِتَـٰبِ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلْعَزِيزِ ٱلْحَكِيمِ
Tanzeelul Kitaabi minal laahil-‘Azeezil Hakeem
2. The revelation of the Book is from Allah, the Exalted in Might, the Wise.
مَا خَلَقْنَا ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَآ إِلَّا بِٱلْحَقِّ وَأَجَلٍۢ مُّسَمًّۭى ۚ وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ عَمَّآ أُنذِرُوا۟ مُعْرِضُونَ
Maa khalaqnas samaawaati wal arda wa maa bainahumaaa illaa bilhaqqi wa ajalim musammaa; wallazeena kafaroo ‘ammaaa unziroo mu’ridoon
3. We did not create the heavens and earth and what is between them except in truth and [for] a specified term. But those who disbelieve, from that of which they are warned, are turning away.
قُلْ أَرَءَيْتُم مَّا تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ أَرُونِى مَاذَا خَلَقُوا۟ مِنَ ٱلْأَرْضِ أَمْ لَهُمْ شِرْكٌۭ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ ۖ ٱئْتُونِى بِكِتَـٰبٍۢ مِّن قَبْلِ هَـٰذَآ أَوْ أَثَـٰرَةٍۢ مِّنْ عِلْمٍ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـٰدِقِينَ
Qul ara’aytum maa tad’oona min doonil laahi aroonee maazaa khalaqoo minal ardi am lahum shirkun fis samaawaati eetoonee bi kitaabim min qabli haazaaa aw asaaratim min ‘ilmin in kuntum saadiqeen
4. Say, [O Muhammad], “Have you considered that which you invoke besides Allah ? Show me what they have created of the earth; or did they have partnership in [creation of] the heavens? Bring me a scripture [revealed] before this or a [remaining] trace of knowledge, if you should be truthful.”
وَمَنْ أَضَلُّ مِمَّن يَدْعُوا۟ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ مَن لَّا يَسْتَجِيبُ لَهُۥٓ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ ٱلْقِيَـٰمَةِ وَهُمْ عَن دُعَآئِهِمْ غَـٰفِلُونَ
Wa man adallu mimmany yad’oo min doonil laahi mallaa yastajeebu lahooo ilaa Yawmil Qiyaamati wa hum’an du’aaa’ihim ghaafiloon
5. And who is more astray than he who invokes besides Allah those who will not respond to him until the Day of Resurrection, and they, of their invocation, are unaware.
وَإِذَا حُشِرَ ٱلنَّاسُ كَانُوا۟ لَهُمْ أَعْدَآءًۭ وَكَانُوا۟ بِعِبَادَتِهِمْ كَـٰفِرِينَ
Wa izaa hushiran naasu kaanoo lahum a’daaa’anw wa kaanoo bi’ibaadatihim kaafireen
6. And when the people are gathered [that Day], they [who were invoked] will be enemies to them, and they will be deniers of their worship.
وَإِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ ءَايَـٰتُنَا بَيِّنَـٰتٍۢ قَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ لِلْحَقِّ لَمَّا جَآءَهُمْ هَـٰذَا سِحْرٌۭ مُّبِينٌ
Wa izaa tutlaa ‘alaihim Aayaatunaa baiyinaatin qaalal lazeena kafaroo lilhaqqi lammaa jaaa’ahum haazaa sihrum mubeen
7. And when Our verses are recited to them as clear evidences, those who disbelieve say of the truth when it has come to them, “This is obvious magic.”
أَمْ يَقُولُونَ ٱفْتَرَىٰهُ ۖ قُلْ إِنِ ٱفْتَرَيْتُهُۥ فَلَا تَمْلِكُونَ لِى مِنَ ٱللَّهِ شَيْـًٔا ۖ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا تُفِيضُونَ فِيهِ ۖ كَفَىٰ بِهِۦ شَهِيدًۢا بَيْنِى وَبَيْنَكُمْ ۖ وَهُوَ ٱلْغَفُورُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ
Am yaqooloonaf taraahu qul inif taraituhoo falaa tamlikoona lee minal laahi shai’an Huwa a’lamu bimaa tufeedoona feehi kafaa bihee shaheedam bainee wa bainakum wa Huwal Ghafoorur Raheem
8. Or do they say, “He has invented it?” Say, “If I have invented it, you will not possess for me [the power of protection] from Allah at all. He is most knowing of that in which you are involved. Sufficient is He as Witness between me and you, and He is the Forgiving the Merciful.”
قُلْ مَا كُنتُ بِدْعًۭا مِّنَ ٱلرُّسُلِ وَمَآ أَدْرِى مَا يُفْعَلُ بِى وَلَا بِكُمْ ۖ إِنْ أَتَّبِعُ إِلَّا مَا يُوحَىٰٓ إِلَىَّ وَمَآ أَنَا۠ إِلَّا نَذِيرٌۭ مُّبِينٌۭ
Qul maa kuntu bid’am minal Rusuli wa maaa adreee ma yuf’alu bee wa laa bikum in attabi’u illaa maa yoohaaa ilaiya ya maaa ana illaa nazeerum mubeen
9. Say, “I am not something original among the messengers, nor do I know what will be done with me or with you. I only follow that which is revealed to me, and I am not but a clear warner.”
قُلْ أَرَءَيْتُمْ إِن كَانَ مِنْ عِندِ ٱللَّهِ وَكَفَرْتُم بِهِۦ وَشَهِدَ شَاهِدٌۭ مِّنۢ بَنِىٓ إِسْرَٰٓءِيلَ عَلَىٰ مِثْلِهِۦ فَـَٔامَنَ وَٱسْتَكْبَرْتُمْ ۖ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَهْدِى ٱلْقَوْمَ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
Qul ara’aytum in kaana min ‘indil laahi wa kafartum bihee wa shahida shaahidum mim Banee Israaa’eela ‘alaa mislihee fa aamana wastak bartum innal laaha laa yahdil qawmaz zaalimeen (section 1)
10. Say, “Have you considered: if the Qur’an was from Allah, and you disbelieved in it while a witness from the Children of Israel has testified to something similar and believed while you were arrogant… ?” Indeed, Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.
وَقَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ لَوْ كَانَ خَيْرًۭا مَّا سَبَقُونَآ إِلَيْهِ ۚ وَإِذْ لَمْ يَهْتَدُوا۟ بِهِۦ فَسَيَقُولُونَ هَـٰذَآ إِفْكٌۭ قَدِيمٌۭ
Wa qaalal lazeena kafaroo lillazeena aamanoo law kaana khairam maa sabaqoonaaa ilyh; wa iz lam yahtadoo bihee fasa yaqooloona haazaaa ifkun qadeem
11. And those who disbelieve say of those who believe, “If it had [truly] been good, they would not have preceded us to it.” And when they are not guided by it, they will say, “This is an ancient falsehood.”
وَمِن قَبْلِهِۦ كِتَـٰبُ مُوسَىٰٓ إِمَامًۭا وَرَحْمَةًۭ ۚ وَهَـٰذَا كِتَـٰبٌۭ مُّصَدِّقٌۭ لِّسَانًا عَرَبِيًّۭا لِّيُنذِرَ ٱلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا۟ وَبُشْرَىٰ لِلْمُحْسِنِينَ
Wa min qablihee kitaabu Moosaaa imaamanw-wa rahmah; wa haazaa Kitaabum musad diqul lisaanan ‘Arabiyyal liyunziral lazeena zalamoo wa bushraa lilmuhsineen
12. And before it was the scripture of Moses to lead and as a mercy. And this is a confirming Book in an Arabic tongue to warn those who have wronged and as good tidings to the doers of good.
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُوا۟ رَبُّنَا ٱللَّهُ ثُمَّ ٱسْتَقَـٰمُوا۟ فَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
Innal lazeena qaaloo Rabbunal laahu summas taqaamoo falaa khawfun ‘alaihim wa laahum yahzanoon
13. Indeed, those who have said, “Our Lord is Allah,” and then remained on a right course – there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve.
أُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ أَصْحَـٰبُ ٱلْجَنَّةِ خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيهَا جَزَآءًۢ بِمَا كَانُوا۟ يَعْمَلُونَ
Ulaaa’ika Ashabul Jannati khaalideena feehaa jazaaa’am bimaa kaano ya’maloon
14. Those are the companions of Paradise, abiding eternally therein as reward for what they used to do.
وَوَصَّيْنَا ٱلْإِنسَـٰنَ بِوَٰلِدَيْهِ إِحْسَـٰنًا ۖ حَمَلَتْهُ أُمُّهُۥ كُرْهًۭا وَوَضَعَتْهُ كُرْهًۭا ۖ وَحَمْلُهُۥ وَفِصَـٰلُهُۥ ثَلَـٰثُونَ شَهْرًا ۚ حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا بَلَغَ أَشُدَّهُۥ وَبَلَغَ أَرْبَعِينَ سَنَةًۭ قَالَ رَبِّ أَوْزِعْنِىٓ أَنْ أَشْكُرَ نِعْمَتَكَ ٱلَّتِىٓ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَىَّ وَعَلَىٰ وَٰلِدَىَّ وَأَنْ أَعْمَلَ صَـٰلِحًۭا تَرْضَىٰهُ وَأَصْلِحْ لِى فِى ذُرِّيَّتِىٓ ۖ إِنِّى تُبْتُ إِلَيْكَ وَإِنِّى مِنَ ٱلْمُسْلِمِينَ
Wa wassainal insaana biwaalidaihi ihsaanan hamalathu ummuhoo kurhanw-wa wada’athu kurhanw wa hamluhoo wa fisaaluhoo salaasoona shahraa; hattaaa izaa balagha ashuddahoo wa balagho arba’eena sanatan qaala Rabbi aqzi’neee an ashkura ni’matakal lateee an’amta ‘alaiya wa ‘alaa waalidaiya wa an a’mala saalihan tardaahu wa aslih lee fee zurriyyatee innee tubtu ilaika wa innee minal muslimeen
15. And We have enjoined upon man, to his parents, good treatment. His mother carried him with hardship and gave birth to him with hardship, and his gestation and weaning [period] is thirty months. [He grows] until, when he reaches maturity and reaches [the age of] forty years, he says, “My Lord, enable me to be grateful for Your favor which You have bestowed upon me and upon my parents and to work righteousness of which You will approve and make righteous for me my offspring. Indeed, I have repented to You, and indeed, I am of the Muslims.”
أُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ نَتَقَبَّلُ عَنْهُمْ أَحْسَنَ مَا عَمِلُوا۟ وَنَتَجَاوَزُ عَن سَيِّـَٔاتِهِمْ فِىٓ أَصْحَـٰبِ ٱلْجَنَّةِ ۖ وَعْدَ ٱلصِّدْقِ ٱلَّذِى كَانُوا۟ يُوعَدُونَ
Ulaaa’ikal lazeena nata qabbalu ‘anhum ahsana maa ‘amiloo wa natajaawazu ‘an saiyiaatihim feee Ashaabil jannati Wa’das sidqil lazee kaanoo yoo’adoon
16. Those are the ones from whom We will accept the best of what they did and overlook their misdeeds, [their being] among the companions of Paradise. [That is] the promise of truth which they had been promised.
وَٱلَّذِى قَالَ لِوَٰلِدَيْهِ أُفٍّۢ لَّكُمَآ أَتَعِدَانِنِىٓ أَنْ أُخْرَجَ وَقَدْ خَلَتِ ٱلْقُرُونُ مِن قَبْلِى وَهُمَا يَسْتَغِيثَانِ ٱللَّهَ وَيْلَكَ ءَامِنْ إِنَّ وَعْدَ ٱللَّهِ حَقٌّۭ فَيَقُولُ مَا هَـٰذَآ إِلَّآ أَسَـٰطِيرُ ٱلْأَوَّلِينَ
Wallazee qaala liwaali daihi uffil lakumaaa ata’idanineee an ukhraja wa qad khalatil quroonu min qablee wa humaa yastagheesaanil laaha wailaka aamin inna wa’dal laahi haqq, fa yaqoolu maa haazaaa illaaa asaateerul awwaleen
17. But one who says to his parents, “Uff to you; do you promise me that I will be brought forth [from the earth] when generations before me have already passed on [into oblivion]?” while they call to Allah for help [and to their son], “Woe to you! Believe! Indeed, the promise of Allah is truth.” But he says, “This is not but legends of the former people” –
أُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ حَقَّ عَلَيْهِمُ ٱلْقَوْلُ فِىٓ أُمَمٍۢ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلِهِم مِّنَ ٱلْجِنِّ وَٱلْإِنسِ ۖ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا۟ خَـٰسِرِينَ
Ulaaa’ikal lazeena haqqa ‘alaihimul qawlu feee umamin qad khalat min qablihim minal jinni wal insi innahum kaanoo khaasireen
18. Those are the ones upon whom the word has come into effect, [who will be] among nations which had passed on before them of jinn and men. Indeed, they [all] were losers.
وَلِكُلٍّۢ دَرَجَـٰتٌۭ مِّمَّا عَمِلُوا۟ ۖ وَلِيُوَفِّيَهُمْ أَعْمَـٰلَهُمْ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ
Wa likullin darajaatum mimmaa ‘amiloo wa liyuwaf fiyahum a’maalahum wa hum laa yuzlamoon
19. And for all there are degrees [of reward and punishment] for what they have done, and [it is] so that He may fully compensate them for their deeds, and they will not be wronged.
وَيَوْمَ يُعْرَضُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ عَلَى ٱلنَّارِ أَذْهَبْتُمْ طَيِّبَـٰتِكُمْ فِى حَيَاتِكُمُ ٱلدُّنْيَا وَٱسْتَمْتَعْتُم بِهَا فَٱلْيَوْمَ تُجْزَوْنَ عَذَابَ ٱلْهُونِ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَسْتَكْبِرُونَ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ بِغَيْرِ ٱلْحَقِّ وَبِمَا كُنتُمْ تَفْسُقُونَ
Wa Yawma yu’radul lazeena kafaroo ‘alan Naai azhabtum taiyibaatikum fee hayaatikumud dunyaa wastam ta’tum bihaa fal Yawma tujzawna ‘azaabal hooni bimaa kuntum tastakbiroona fil ardi bighairil haqqi wa bimaa kuntum tafsuqoon (section 2)
20. And the Day those who disbelieved are exposed to the Fire [it will be said], “You exhausted your pleasures during your worldly life and enjoyed them, so this Day you will be awarded the punishment of [extreme] humiliation because you were arrogant upon the earth without right and because you were defiantly disobedient.”
۞ وَٱذْكُرْ أَخَا عَادٍ إِذْ أَنذَرَ قَوْمَهُۥ بِٱلْأَحْقَافِ وَقَدْ خَلَتِ ٱلنُّذُرُ مِنۢ بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِۦٓ أَلَّا تَعْبُدُوٓا۟ إِلَّا ٱللَّهَ إِنِّىٓ أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ عَذَابَ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍۢ
Wazkur akhaa ‘Aad, iz anzara qawmahoo bil Ahqaafi wa qad khalatin nuzuru mim baini yadaihi wa min khalfiheee allaa ta’budooo illal laaha inneee akhaafu ‘alaikum ‘azaaba Yawmin ‘azeem
21. And mention, [O Muhammad], the brother of ‘Aad, when he warned his people in the [region of] al-Ahqaf – and warners had already passed on before him and after him – [saying], “Do not worship except Allah . Indeed, I fear for you the punishment of a terrible day.”
قَالُوٓا۟ أَجِئْتَنَا لِتَأْفِكَنَا عَنْ ءَالِهَتِنَا فَأْتِنَا بِمَا تَعِدُنَآ إِن كُنتَ مِنَ ٱلصَّـٰدِقِينَ
Qaaloo aji’tanaa litaa fikanaa ‘an aalihatinaa faatinaa bimaa ta’idunaaa in kunta minas saadiqeen
22. They said, “Have you come to delude us away from our gods? Then bring us what you promise us, if you should be of the truthful.”
قَالَ إِنَّمَا ٱلْعِلْمُ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ وَأُبَلِّغُكُم مَّآ أُرْسِلْتُ بِهِۦ وَلَـٰكِنِّىٓ أَرَىٰكُمْ قَوْمًۭا تَجْهَلُونَ
Qaala innamal ‘ilmu indal laahi wa uballighukum maaa uriltu bihee wa laakinneee araakum qawman tajhaloon
23. He said, “Knowledge [of its time] is only with Allah, and I convey to you that with which I was sent; but I see you [to be] a people behaving ignorantly.”
فَلَمَّا رَأَوْهُ عَارِضًۭا مُّسْتَقْبِلَ أَوْدِيَتِهِمْ قَالُوا۟ هَـٰذَا عَارِضٌۭ مُّمْطِرُنَا ۚ بَلْ هُوَ مَا ٱسْتَعْجَلْتُم بِهِۦ ۖ رِيحٌۭ فِيهَا عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌۭ
Falammaa ra awhu ‘aaridam mustaqbila awdiyatihim qaaloo haazaa ‘aaridum mumtirunaa; bal huwa masta’jaltum bihee reehun feehaa ‘azaabun aleem
24. And when they saw it as a cloud approaching their valleys, they said, “This is a cloud bringing us rain!” Rather, it is that for which you were impatient: a wind, within it a painful punishment,
تُدَمِّرُ كُلَّ شَىْءٍۭ بِأَمْرِ رَبِّهَا فَأَصْبَحُوا۟ لَا يُرَىٰٓ إِلَّا مَسَـٰكِنُهُمْ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِى ٱلْقَوْمَ ٱلْمُجْرِمِينَ
Tudammiru kulla shai’im bi-amri Rabbihaa fa asbahoo laa yuraaa illaa masaakinuhum; kazaalika najzil qawmal mujrimeen
25. Destroying everything by command of its Lord. And they became so that nothing was seen [of them] except their dwellings. Thus do We recompense the criminal people.
وَلَقَدْ مَكَّنَّـٰهُمْ فِيمَآ إِن مَّكَّنَّـٰكُمْ فِيهِ وَجَعَلْنَا لَهُمْ سَمْعًۭا وَأَبْصَـٰرًۭا وَأَفْـِٔدَةًۭ فَمَآ أَغْنَىٰ عَنْهُمْ سَمْعُهُمْ وَلَآ أَبْصَـٰرُهُمْ وَلَآ أَفْـِٔدَتُهُم مِّن شَىْءٍ إِذْ كَانُوا۟ يَجْحَدُونَ بِـَٔايَـٰتِ ٱللَّهِ وَحَاقَ بِهِم مَّا كَانُوا۟ بِهِۦ يَسْتَهْزِءُونَ
Wa laqad makkannaahum feemaaa im makkannaakum feehi waj’alnaa lahum sam’anw wa absaaranw wa af’idatan famaaa aghnaa ‘anhum samu’uhum wa laaa absaaruhum wa laaa af’idatuhum min shai’in iz kaanoo yajhadoona bi Aayaatil laahi wa haaqa bihim maa kaanoo bihee yastahzi’oon (section 3)
26. And We had certainly established them in such as We have not established you, and We made for them hearing and vision and hearts. But their hearing and vision and hearts availed them not from anything [of the punishment] when they were [continually] rejecting the signs of Allah ; and they were enveloped by what they used to ridicule.
وَلَقَدْ أَهْلَكْنَا مَا حَوْلَكُم مِّنَ ٱلْقُرَىٰ وَصَرَّفْنَا ٱلْءَايَـٰتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ
Wa laqad ahlaknaa ma hawlakum minal quraa wa sarrafnal Aayaati la’allahum yarji’oon
27. And We have already destroyed what surrounds you of [those] cities, and We have diversified the signs [or verses] that perhaps they might return [from disbelief].
فَلَوْلَا نَصَرَهُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّخَذُوا۟ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ قُرْبَانًا ءَالِهَةًۢ ۖ بَلْ ضَلُّوا۟ عَنْهُمْ ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ إِفْكُهُمْ وَمَا كَانُوا۟ يَفْتَرُونَ
Falaw laa nasarahumul lazeenat takhazoo min doonil laahi qurbaanan aalihatam bal dalloo ‘anhum’ wa zaalika ifkuhum wa maa kaanoo yaftaroon
28. Then why did those they took besides Allah as deities by which to approach [Him] not aid them? But they had strayed from them. And that was their falsehood and what they were inventing.
وَإِذْ صَرَفْنَآ إِلَيْكَ نَفَرًۭا مِّنَ ٱلْجِنِّ يَسْتَمِعُونَ ٱلْقُرْءَانَ فَلَمَّا حَضَرُوهُ قَالُوٓا۟ أَنصِتُوا۟ ۖ فَلَمَّا قُضِىَ وَلَّوْا۟ إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِم مُّنذِرِينَ
Wa iz sarafinaaa ilaika nafaram minal jinni yastami’oonal Quraana falammaa hadaroohu qaalooo ansitoo falammaa qudiya wallaw ilaa qawmihim munzireen
29. And [mention, O Muhammad], when We directed to you a few of the jinn, listening to the Qur’an. And when they attended it, they said, “Listen quietly.” And when it was concluded, they went back to their people as warners.
قَالُوا۟ يَـٰقَوْمَنَآ إِنَّا سَمِعْنَا كِتَـٰبًا أُنزِلَ مِنۢ بَعْدِ مُوسَىٰ مُصَدِّقًۭا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ يَهْدِىٓ إِلَى ٱلْحَقِّ وَإِلَىٰ طَرِيقٍۢ مُّسْتَقِيمٍۢ
Qaaloo yaa qawmanaaa innaa sami’naa Kitaaban unzila mim ba’di Moosa musaddiqal limaa baina yadihi yahdeee ilal haqqi wa ilaa Tareeqim Mustaqeem
30. They said, “O our people, indeed we have heard a [recited] Book revealed after Moses confirming what was before it which guides to the truth and to a straight path.
يَـٰقَوْمَنَآ أَجِيبُوا۟ دَاعِىَ ٱللَّهِ وَءَامِنُوا۟ بِهِۦ يَغْفِرْ لَكُم مِّن ذُنُوبِكُمْ وَيُجِرْكُم مِّنْ عَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍۢ
Yaa qawmanaaa ajeeboo daa’iyal laahi wa aaminoo bihee yaghfir lakum min zunoobikum wa yujirkum min ‘azaabin aleem
31. O our people, respond to the Messenger of Allah and believe in him; Allah will forgive for you your sins and protect you from a painful punishment.
وَمَن لَّا يُجِبْ دَاعِىَ ٱللَّهِ فَلَيْسَ بِمُعْجِزٍۢ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ وَلَيْسَ لَهُۥ مِن دُونِهِۦٓ أَوْلِيَآءُ ۚ أُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ فِى ضَلَـٰلٍۢ مُّبِينٍ
Wa mal laa yujib daa’iyal laahi falaisa bimu’jizin fil ardi wa laisa lahoo min dooniheee awliyaaa’; ulaaa ika fee dalaalim mubeen
32. But he who does not respond to the Caller of Allah will not cause failure [to Him] upon earth, and he will not have besides Him any protectors. Those are in manifest error.”
أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْا۟ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضَ وَلَمْ يَعْىَ بِخَلْقِهِنَّ بِقَـٰدِرٍ عَلَىٰٓ أَن يُحْۦِىَ ٱلْمَوْتَىٰ ۚ بَلَىٰٓ إِنَّهُۥ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىْءٍۢ قَدِيرٌۭ
Awalam yaraw annal laahal lazee khalaqas samaawaati wal larda wa lam ya’ya bikhal qihinna biqaadirin ‘alaaa aiyuhyiyal mawtaa; balaaa innahoo ‘alaa kulli shai’in Qadeer
33. Do they not see that Allah, who created the heavens and earth and did not fail in their creation, is able to give life to the dead? Yes. Indeed, He is over all things competent.
وَيَوْمَ يُعْرَضُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ عَلَى ٱلنَّارِ أَلَيْسَ هَـٰذَا بِٱلْحَقِّ ۖ قَالُوا۟ بَلَىٰ وَرَبِّنَا ۚ قَالَ فَذُوقُوا۟ ٱلْعَذَابَ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَكْفُرُونَ
Wa Yawma yu’radul lazeena kafaroo ‘alan naari alaisa haaza bil haqq; qaaloo balaa wa Rabbinaa; qaala fazooqul ‘azaaba bimaa kuntum takfuroon
34. And the Day those who disbelieved are exposed to the Fire [it will be said], “Is this not the truth?” They will say, “Yes, by our Lord.” He will say, “Then taste the punishment because you used to disbelieve.”
فَٱصْبِرْ كَمَا صَبَرَ أُو۟لُوا۟ ٱلْعَزْمِ مِنَ ٱلرُّسُلِ وَلَا تَسْتَعْجِل لَّهُمْ ۚ كَأَنَّهُمْ يَوْمَ يَرَوْنَ مَا يُوعَدُونَ لَمْ يَلْبَثُوٓا۟ إِلَّا سَاعَةًۭ مِّن نَّهَارٍۭ ۚ بَلَـٰغٌۭ ۚ فَهَلْ يُهْلَكُ إِلَّا ٱلْقَوْمُ ٱلْفَـٰسِقُونَ
Fasbir kamaa sabara ulul ‘azmi minar Rusuli wa laa tasta’jil lahum; ka annahum Yawma yarawna maa yoo’adoona lam yalbasooo illaa saa’atam min nahaar; balaagh; fahal yuhlaku illal qawmul faasiqoon (section 4)
35. So be patient, [O Muhammad], as were those of determination among the messengers and do not be impatient for them. It will be – on the Day they see that which they are promised – as though they had not remained [in the world] except an hour of a day. [This is] notification. And will [any] be destroyed except the defiantly disobedient people?
The Tafsir of Surat Al-Ahqaf
Chapter – 46
Which was revealed in Makkah
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. Ha Mim.) (2. The revelation of the Book is from Allah, the Almighty, the All-Wise.) (3. We created not the heavens and the earth and all that is between them except with truth, and for a specified term. But those who disbelieve, turn away from that whereof they are warned.) (4. Say: “Think you about all that you invoke besides Allah Show me what have they created of the earth Or have they a share in (the creation of) the heavens Bring me a scripture prior to this or some trace of knowledge, if you are truthful!”) (5. And who is more astray than those who invoke besides Allah others who will not answer them until the Day of Resurrection, and who are unaware of their invocations to them) (6. And when mankind are gathered, they (false deities) will become their enemies and will deny their worship.)
The Qur’an is a Revelation from Allah and the Universe is His True Creation
Allah informs that He has revealed the Book to His servant and Messenger Muhammad — may Allah’s blessings be upon him until the Day of Judgement. Allah then describes Himself as being of unimaginable glory, possessing ultimate wisdom in His statements and actions. Allah then says,
(We created not the heavens and the earth and all that is between them except in truth,) meaning, not in idle play and falsehood.
(and for a specified term.) meaning, for a fixed and specified duration that will not increase or decrease. Allah continues,
(But those who disbelieve, turn away from that of which they are warned.) Meaning, the disbelievers are distracted from what is intended for them. Allah has indeed revealed to them a Book and sent to them a Messenger. Yet, they obstinately turn away from all of that. Therefore, they will soon realize the consequence of their behavior.
Refuting the Idolators
Allah then says,
(Say) meaning, to these idolators who worship others besides Allah.
(Think you about all that you invoke besides Allah Show me what they have created of the earth) (46:4) meaning, `show me the place that they have independently created from the earth.’
(Or have they a share in the heavens) which means that they are not partners in anything in the heavens, nor on earth. They do not own even the thin membrane covering a date’s pit. The dominion and control only belong to Allah, Exalted is He. `How then would you worship others or join them as partners with Him Who guided you to that Who called you to that Did He command you to do it, or is it something that you suggested yourselves’ Thus, He says,
(Bring me a scripture prior to this) meaning, `bring a book from among the Books of Allah that have been revealed to the Prophets, that commands you to worship these idols.’
(or some trace of knowledge,) meaning, `some clear evidence justifying this way you have chosen.’
(if you are truthful!) meaning, `you have absolutely no evidence for that — neither textual (from revelation) nor rational.’ For this reason, some recited it; (???? ???????? ???? ??????) “or something inherited from knowledge” meaning, `or true knowledge that you have inherited from anyone before you.’ This is similar to Mujahid’s statement when he said,
(or some trace of knowledge.) “Or anyone who has inherited any knowledge.” Allah then says,
(And who is more astray than those who invokes besides Allah others who will not answer them until the Day of Resurrection, and who are unaware of their invocations to them) meaning, no one is more misguided than those who invoke idols instead of Allah, asking them for things that they cannot give — until the Day of Judgment. They (the idols) are unaware of what he asks, they can neither hear, see, or act. This is because they are inanimate, senseless stones. Allah then says,
(And when mankind are gathered, they will become their enemies and will deny their worship.) This is similar to Allah’s saying:
(They have taken gods beside Allah, that they might give them dignity. No! They will deny their worship of them, and will be opponents to them.) (19:81, 82) meaning, they will betray them when they need them the most. (Ibrahim) Al-Khalil, peace be upon him, said:
(You have taken only idols besides Allah! The love between you is only in the life of this world. On the Day of Resurrection, you shall disown each other and curse each other, and your abode will be the Fire, and you shall have no helpers.)(29:25)
(7. And when Our Clear Ayat are recited to them, the disbelievers say of the truth when it reaches them: “This is plain magic!”) (8. Or say they: “He has fabricated it.” Say: “If I have fabricated it, still you have no power to support me against Allah. He knows best of what you say among yourselves concerning it! Sufficient is He as a witness between me and you! And He is the Oft–Forgiving, the Most Merciful.”) (9. Say: “I am not a new thing among the Messengers, nor do I know what will be done with me or you. I only follow that which is revealed to me, and I am but a plain warner.”)
Refuting Claims of the Idolators about the Qur’an and the Messenger
Concerning the disbelief and rebellion of the idolators, Allah says that when the clear Ayat of Allah are recited to them they say;
(This is plain magic!) meaning, simple magic. In this statement of theirs, they have lied, invented a falsehood, went astray and disbelieved.
(Or they say: “He has fabricated it.” ) They are referring to Muhammad . Allah responds saying,
(Say: “If I have fabricated it, you have no power to support me against Allah…”) which means, `if I lie against Allah and falsely claim that He sent me when He actually had not, then He would punish me with a severe punishment. No one on the earth — you or anyone else — would then be able to protect me from Him.’ It is similar to Allah’s saying,
(Say: “None can protect me from Allah, nor would I find a refuge except in Him. (My duty) is only to convey from Allah and (deliver) His Messages. ”) (72:22-23) Allah says,
(And if he made up a false saying concerning Us, We surely would have seized him by the right hand. Then we would have cut off his life artery. And none of you could withhold Us from (punishing) him.) (69:44-47) Thus, Allah says here,
(Say: “If I have fabricated it, still you have no power to support me against Allah. He knows best of what you say among yourselves concerning it (i.e. this Qur’an)! Sufficient is He as a witness between me and you!…”) This is a severe threat, intimidation and warning for them. Allah then says,
(And He is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.) This is an encouragement for them to repent and turn to Allah. It means, `despite all of this, if you turn back and repent, Allah will accept your repentance, pardon you, forgive you, and have mercy upon on.’ This is similar to Allah’s saying in Surat Al-Furqan,
(And they say: “(This Book is) legends of the ancients that he has written down, and they are dictated to him morning and afternoon.” Say: “It has been sent down by the One Who knows every secret within the heavens and the earth. Truly, He is ever Forgiving and Merciful.”) (25:5-6) Allah then says,
(Say: “I am not a new thing among the Messengers…”) which means, `I am not the first Messenger who ever came to the world. Rather, Messengers came before me. Therefore, I am not an unprecedented incident that should cause you all to reject me and doubt my being sent to you. Indeed, Allah has sent before me all of the Prophets to various nations.’ Allah then says,
(nor do I know what will be done with me or with you.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, “It (this Ayah) was followed in revelation by,
(That Allah may forgive for you your sins of the past and future). Similarly, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, and Qatadah all said that this Ayah was abrogated by the Ayah;
(That Allah may forgive for you your sins of the past and future). They said that when the latter Ayah was revealed, one of the Muslims said to Allah’s Messenger , “Allah has declared what He will do for you. But what will He do for us” Then Allah revealed;
(That He may admit the believing men and the believing women to Gardens under which rivers flow). This is what they said. That which has been confirmed in the Sahih is that the believers said, “May you enjoy that, O Allah’s Messenger! But what do we get” So Allah revealed this Ayah. Imam Ahmad recorded that Kharijah bin Zayd bin Thabit, reported that Umm Al-`Ala’ — a woman from the Ansar who had given her pledge of loyalty to Allah’s Messenger — said, “When the Ansar drew lots regarding taking in the Muhajirun to dwell with them, our lot was to have `Uthman bin Maz`un. Later, `Uthman fell sick in our house, so we nursed him until he died, and we wrapped him in his garments (for burial). Allah’s Messenger then came in, and I said, `O Abu As-Sa’ib! May Allah have mercy on you. I bear witness that Allah has indeed honored you.’ Allah’s Messenger asked,
(How do you know that Allah has honored him) I said, `I do not know — may my father and mother both be ransoms for you!’ Allah’s Messenger then said,
(As for him, certainty (death) has reached him from his Lord, and I surely wish well for him. But by Allah, even though I am Allah’s Messenger, I do not know what will happen to me (after death).) I then said, `Never will I claim a person to be pious after this.’ This incident caused me some distress, and I went to sleep thereafter. I saw in my dream that `Uthman owned a running water spring. I went to Allah’s Messenger and told him about that. Allah’s Messenger said,
(That was his (good) deeds.)” Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith but Muslim did not. In one of the narrations, Allah’s Messenger said,
(Even though I am Allah’s Messenger, I do not know what will happen to him.) This and similar texts indicate that it is not allowed to declare that a specific person will enter Jannah except for those who were distinctly indicated by Allah or his Messenger . Examples of those are the Ten, Ibn Sallam, Al-Ghumaysa’, Bilal, Suraqah, `Abdullah bin `Amr bin Haram (Jabir’s father), the Seventy Recitors (of Qur’an) who were assassinated near the Well of Ma`unah, Zayd bin Harithah, Ja`far, Ibn Rawahah, and other similar individuals, may Allah be pleased with them. Allah then says,
(I only follow that which is revealed to me, ) which means, `I only follow what Allah has revealed to me of the revelation.’
(and I am but a plain warner.) meaning, `my warnings are obvious to every person with sound intellect and reason.’ And Allah knows best.
(10. Say: “Tell me! If it was from Allah and you disbelieved it, (at the same time), a witness from among the Children of Israel has testified to something similar and believed while you rejected (the truth)!” Verily, Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.) (11. And those who disbelieve say of those who believe: “Had it been a good thing, they (the poor believers) would not have preceded us to it!” And when they have not been guided by it, they say: “This is ancient falsehood!”) (12. And before this was the Scripture of Musa as a guide and a mercy. And this is a Book confirming in the Arabic tongue, to warn those who do wrong, and as glad tidings for the doers of good.) (13. Verily, those who say: “Our Lord is (only) Allah,” and thereafter stand firm, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.) (14. Such shall be the dwellers of Paradise, abiding therein (forever) — a reward for what they used to do.)
The Qur’an is Allah’s True Speech and the Position of the Disbelievers and the Muslims towards it
(Say) meaning, `O Muhammad to these idolators who disbelieve in the Qur’an.’
(Tell me! If it was) meaning, this Qur’an.
(from Allah, and you disbelieved in it) meaning, `what do you think that Allah will do to you if this Book that I have come to you with is actually revealed to me from Him in order that I convey it to you, and yet you disbelieve in it and deny it
((at the same time), a witness from among the Children of Israel has testified to something similar) meaning, `the previous Scriptures that were revealed to the Prophets before me all testify to its truthfulness and authenticity. They have prophecied, well in advance, about things similar to that which this Qur’an informs of.’ Concerning Allah’s statement,
(and believed) `this person who testified to its truthfulness from the Children of Israel, due to his realization that it was the truth.’
(while you rejected (the truth)!) `whereas you have arrogantly refused to follow it.’ Masruq said: “That witness believed in his Prophet and Book, while you disbelieved in your Prophet and Book.”
(Verily, Allah does not guide the wrongdoing people.) The witness here refers to any witness in general. It includes `Abdullah bin Salam and other from them as well. For indeed, this Ayah was revealed in Makkah before `Abdullah bin Salam had accepted Islam. This is similar to the statement of Allah,
(And when it is recited to them, they say: “We believe in it. Verily, it is the truth from our Lord. Indeed, even before it we have been Muslims.”) (28:53) It is also similar to Allah’s saying,
(Verily! Those who were given knowledge before it — when it is recited to them, they fall upon their faces in prostration, and they say: “Exalted is our Lord! Truly, the promise of our Lord has been fulfilled.”) (17:107-108) It has been narrated from Sa`d, may Allah be pleased with him, that he said, “I have not heard Allah’s Messenger say about anyone walking on the surface of the earth that he is of the people of Jannah — except for `Abdullah bin Salam. Concerning him the following Ayah was revealed,
((at the same time), a witness from among the Children of Israel has testified to something similar)” This has been recorded in the Two Sahihs and An-Nasa’i. Similarly, Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, `Ikrimah, Yusuf bin `Abdullah bin Salam, Hilal bin Yasaf, As-Suddi, Ath-Thawri, Malik bin Anas and Ibn Zayd all said that this refers to `Abdullah bin Salam. Allah then says,
(And those who disbelieve say of those who believe: “Had it been good, they (the weak and poor) would not have preceded us to it!”) which means that those who disbelieve say of those who believe in the Qur’an: “Had it (the Qur’an) been any good, they (the weak and poor) would not have preceded us to it!” By that, they meant Bilal, `Ammar, Suhayb, Khabbab, may Allah be pleased with them, and others like them of the weak, the male servants, and female servants. The pagans said this only because they thought that they held a high status with Allah, and that He took special care of them. By that, they made a great and obvious error, as Allah says:
(Thus have We tried some of them with others, that they might say: “Is it these whom Allah has favored from among us”) (6:53) meaning, they wonder how could those weaklings be the ones who were guided from among them. Thus, Allah says,
(Had it been good, they (the weak and poor) would not have preceded us to it!) Contrary to this is the position of Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah: They say about any act or saying that has not been reported from the Companions: “It is an innovation. If there was any good in it, they would have preceded us in doing it, because they have not left off any of the good characteristics except that they hurried to perform them.” Allah continues,
(And when they have not been guided by it,) meaning, the Qur’an.
(they say: “This is an ancient falsehood!”) meaning, an old lie. They mean by this that the Qur’an has been quoted and taken from the ancient people, thereby belittling the Qur’an and its followers. This is clear arrogance, as Allah’s Messenger said:
((Arrogance is) rejecting the truth and belittling the people.) Allah then says,
(And before this was the Scripture of Musa) and it was the Tawrah.
(as a guide and mercy. And this is a Book) meaning, the Qur’an.
(confirming) meaning, that which came before it of the previous Books.
(in the Arabic tongue,) means that it is eloquent and clear.
(to warn those who do wrong, and as glad tidings for the doers of good.) meaning, it contains a warning to the dis- believers and glad tidings for the belie- vers. Allah then says:
(Verily, those who say: “Our Lord is (only) Allah,” and thereafter stand firm,) The explanation of this has been dis- cussed earlier in Surat As-Sajdah. ﴿See 41:30﴾ Allah then says,
(on them shall be no fear,) meaning, con- cening their future.
(nor shall they grieve.) meaning, over what they have left behind. Allah continues,
(Such shall be the dwellers of Paradise, abiding therein (forever) — a reward for what they used to do.) meaning, the deeds are a cause for their attaining the mercy and their being engulfed by it — and Allah knows best.
(15. And We have enjoined on man to be dutiful and kind to his parents. His mother bears him with hardship. And she delivers him with hardship. And (the period of) his gestation and the weaning of him is thirty months, till when he attains full strength and reaches forty years, he says: “My Lord! Grant me the power and ability that I may be grateful for Your favor which You have bestowed upon me and upon my parents, and that I may do righteous good deeds, such as please You, and make my offspring good. Truly, I have turned to You in repentance, and truly, I am one of the Muslims.”) (16. They are those from whom We shall accept the best of their deeds and overlook their evil deeds. (They shall be) among the dwellers of Paradise. That is a promise of truth that they had been promised.)
Allah’s Advice about the Parents
After mentioning that one must confess His Oneness, worship Him with sincerity, and remain upright in obeying Him, Allah follows that by giving instructions regarding the parents. These appear together in many places of the Qur’an, such as Allah’s saying,
(Your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him, and that you be dutiful to your parents.) (17:23) Allah says,
(Be grateful to Me and to your parents. Unto Me is the final destination.) (31:14) There are many other Ayat like this as well. Here Allah says,
(And We have enjoined on man to be dutiful and kind to his parents.) (46:15) meaning, `We have commanded him to treat them well and show compassion towards them. Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded from Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas, may Allah be pleased with him, that his mother said to him: “Hasn’t Allah commanded that you obey your parents Then I will not eat any food or drink any drink until you disbelieve in Allah.” Thus she stubbornly abstained from eating and drinking, until they had to open her mouth with a stick. Then this Ayah was revealed,
(And We have enjoined on man to be dutiful and kind to his parents. ) This was also recorded by Muslim and the Sunan compilers, except for Ibn Majah. Allah continues,
(His mother bears him with hardship.) which means that the mother suffers hardship because of her child, such as fatigue, sickness, vomiting, heaviness, distress, and other forms of hardship that the pregnant women suffer.
(And she delivers him with hardship.) meaning, she also delivers him with hardship, suffering the pains of labor and their severity.
(And (the period of) his gestation and weaning is thirty months,) `Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, used this Ayah along with the following two Ayat to prove that the minimum period of pregnancy (gestation) is six months:
(And his weaning is in two years.) (31:14) and
(The mothers suckle their children two complete years — for those who desire to complete the term of suckling. ) (2:233) This is a strong and valid conclusion, and it was approved by `Uthman and a number of the Companions. Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar narrated from Ba`jah bin `Abdullah Al-Juhani that a man from his tribe (Juhaynah) married a woman from Juhaynah. She delivered a baby after six months. So her husband went to `Uthman, may Allah be pleased with him, and told him about that. Thus, `Uthman summoned her. When she was getting dressed, her sister started crying. She asked her: “Why do you cry By Allah, no one has ever approached me (for sexual relations) of Allah’s creation except him (my husband). So let Allah decree (for me) as He wills.” When she was brought before `Uthman, he commanded that she be stoned to death (for adultery). `Ali heard of this, came to `Uthman, and said: “What are you doing” He (`Uthman) said: “She delivered after six months! Can this ever happen” `Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “Don’t you read the Qur’an” He said: “Yes, of course!” He (`Ali) then said: `Haven’t you heard Allah’s saying,
(and his gestation and weaning is thirty months), and;
( two complete years) (2:233) (Subtracting the two numbers) we are only left with six months.” `Uthman, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “By Allah, I did not see that! Bring the woman back.” But they found that she had already been killed. Ba`jah continued: “By Allah, no two crows and no two eggs are more similar than that child turned out to be to his father! When his father saw that he said, `By Allah! This is my son without any doubt.’ Later on, Allah afflicted him with a skin abscess in his face (because of his false accusation to his wife). It kept eating him up until he died.” Ibn Abi Hatim related from his father that Farwah bin Abi Al-Maghra’ told them that `Ali bin Mushir narrated to them from Dawud bin Abi Hind, who narrated from `Ikrimah that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “When a woman delivers after nine months, the baby will only need twenty-one months of suckling. When she delivers after seven months, the baby will need twenty-three months of suckling. When she delivers after six months, the baby will need two full years of suckling, because Allah says,
(and his gestation and weaning is thirty months, till when he attains full strength).” meaning, he becomes strong, youthful, and attains full ability.
(and reaches forty years,) meaning, his complete intellect, understanding, and patience reach the level of maturity. It has also been said that usually one will not change his ways once he reaches the age of forty.
(he says: “My Lord! Grant me the power and ability) meaning, `inspire me.’
(that I may be grateful for Your favor which You have bestowed upon me and upon my parents, and that I may do righteous good deeds, such as please You,) meaning, in the future.
(and make my offspring good.) meaning, my offspring and descendants.
(Truly, I have turned to You in repentance, and truly, I am one of the Muslims.) This contains an instruction for anyone who reaches forty years of age to renew his repentance and turn to Allah with strong resolution. Allah then says,
(Those are the ones from whom We shall accept the best of what they did and overlook their evil deeds. (They shall be) among the dwellers of Paradise.) meaning, those to whom applies the above description — those who repent to Allah, turn back to Him, and rectify their shortcomings through repentance and seeking forgiveness – those are the ones from whom We will accept the best of what they did and overlook their evil deeds. Many of their errors will be forgiven and Allah will accept from them a modest amount of deeds.
(among the dwellers of Paradise.) which means that they will be among the dwellers of Paradise. That is Allah’s ruling concerning them, as He has promised for those who repent and turn to Him. Thus, He says,
(That is the promise of truth that they had been promised.)
(17. But he who says to his parents: “Uff to you! Do you promise me that I will be raised up when generations before me have passed” While they invoke Allah for help: “Woe to you! Believe! Verily, the promise of Allah is true.” But he says: “This is nothing but the legends of the ancient.”) (18. They are those against whom the Word (of torment) has justified among the previous generations of Jinn and mankind that have passed away. Verily, they are ever the losers.) (19. And for all, there will be degrees according to that which they did, so that He might fully recompense for their deeds. And they will not be wronged.) (20. On the Day when those who disbelieve will be exposed to the Fire (it will be said): “You received your good things in the life of the world, and you took your pleasure therein. Today, you will be recompensed with the torment of extreme humiliation, because you were arrogant upon the earth without a right, and because you used to rebel against Allah’s command.)
Mention of the Undutiful Children and Their End
In the previous Ayat, Allah mentions the dutiful offspring who supplicate for their parents and treat them with kindness. He describes the success and salvation He has prepared for them. Here He connects to that discussion the situation of the wretched offspring who are undutiful toward their parents. Allah says,
(But he who says to his parents: “Uff to you! …”) As for the saying “Uff” in this Ayah, it is a general description applying to anyone who says it to his parents. Some people claim that it was revealed about `Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Bakr. But this claim is weak and rejected, because `Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Bakr embraced Islam after this was revealed. His adherence to Islam was excellent, and he was among the best of his contemporaries. Al-Bukhari recorded from Yusuf bin Mahak that Marwan (bin Al-Hakam) was governor of Hijaz (Western Arabia), appointed by Mu`awiyah bin Abi Sufyan. He (Marwan) delivered a speech in which he mentioned Yazid bin Mu`awiyah and urged the people to give a pledge of allegiance after his father. `Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Bakr said something to him in response to that, upon which Marwan commanded his men: “Arrest him!” But he entered `Aishah’s house, and they were not able to capture him. Marwan then said: “This is the one about whom Allah revealed:
(But he who says to his parents: “Uff to you! Do you promise me that I will be raised — when generations before me have passed”)” From behind the curtain, `Aishah responded: “Allah did not reveal any Qur’an in our regard (i.e. the children of Abu Bakr), except for the declaration of my innocence.” In another report recorded by An-Nasa’i, Muhammad bin Ziyad reported that when Mu`awiyah was soliciting people to pledge allegiance to his son, and Marwan declared: “This follows the tradition of Abu Bakr and `Umar.” On hearing this, `Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Bakr said: “Rather, this is the tradition of Heraclius and Caesar.” Marwan responded: “This is the one about whom Allah revealed,
(But he who says to his parents: “Uff to you!”)” When that was conveyed to `A’ishah, she said: “Marwan is lying! By Allah, that was not revealed about him. If I wish to name the person meant by it, I could. On the other hand, Allah’s Messenger placed a curse on Marwan’s father (Al- Hakam bin Abi Al-`As when Marwan was still in his loins, so Marwan (bin Al-Hakam) is an outcome of Allah’s curse.” As for Allah’s statement:
(Do you promise me that I will be raised) meaning, resurrected.
(when generations before me have passed) meaning, generations of people have already passed away, and none of them has ever returned to tell (what happened to them)
(While they invoke Allah for help) meaning, they ask Allah to guide him, and they say to their son,
(“Woe to you! Believe! Verily, the promise of Allah is true.” But he says: “This is nothing but the legends of the ancient.”) Allah then says,
(They are those against whom the Word (of torment) has justified among the previous generations of Jinn and mankind that have passed away.Verily, they are ever the losers.) This indicates that all such people will be among their likes and their peers among the disbelievers, who will lose themselves and their families on the Day of Resurrection. Allah’s saying,
(Those are) after He said,
(But he who says ) confirms what we have mentioned above that the latter is a general description of a type of people including all those who fall under that description. Al-Hasan and Qatadah both said, “This applies to the disbelieving, sinful person who is undutiful to his parents and who denies resurrection.” Allah then says,
(And for all, there will be degrees according to that which they did,) meaning that there will be degrees of punishment for each of them according to what they did.
(so that He might fully recompense them for their deeds, and they will not be wronged.) which means Allah will not be unjust to them even in the amount of a speck of dust or less. `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said: “The levels of the Fire descend, and those of Paradise ascend.” Allah then says,
(On the Day when those who disbelieve will be exposed to the Fire (it will be said): “You received your good things in the life of the world, and you took your pleasure therein…”) which means that this will be said to them by way of blame and reprimand. The Commander of the faithful, `Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, gave up many of the joys of food and drink and refrained from them while saying, “I am afraid of being like those whom Allah has reproached and condemned by saying,
(You received your good things in the life of the world, and you took your pleasure therein).” Abu Mijlaz said: “Some people will lose good deeds that they had in the worldly life, and they will be told,
(You received your good things in the life of the world).” Then Allah says,
(Today, you will be recompensed with the torment of extreme humiliation, because you were arrogant upon the earth without a right, and because you used to rebel against Allah’s command.) which indicates that their punishment will be of a type comparable to their deeds. They enjoyed themselves, were arrogant in their denial of the truth, and were involved in sinning and disobedience. Thus, Allah punishes them with extreme humiliation, disgrace, severe pains, continued sorrow, and positions in the terrible depths of Hell — may Allah protect us from all of that.
(21. And remember the brother of `Ad, when he warned his people in Al-Ahqaf. And surely, warners had already passed on before him and after him (saying): “Worship none but Allah; truly, I fear for you the torment of a mighty Day.”) (22. They said: “Have you come to delude us from our gods Then bring us that with which you threaten us, if you are one of the truthful!”) (23. He said: “The knowledge (of that) is only with Allah. And I convey to you that wherewith I have been sent, but I see that you are a people given to ignorance!”) (24. Then, when they saw it as a dense cloud approaching their valleys, they said: “This is a cloud bringing us rain!” Nay, but it is that which you were asking to be hastened – a wind wherein is a painful torment!) (25. Destroying everything by the command of its Lord! So they became such that nothing could be seen except their dwellings! Thus do We recompense the criminal people!)
The Story of `Ad
Allah says, consoling His Prophet in regard to the rejection of those who opposed him among his people,
(And remember the brother of `Ad,) This refers to Hud, peace be upon in him. Allah sent him to the first people of `Ad who inhabited Al-Ahqaf. Ahqaf is plural of Haqf. According to Ibn Zayd, it means a sand dune; and according to `Ikrimah, it means a mountain or a cave. Qatadah said: “We were informed that `Ad was a tribe in Yemen. They dwelt among sand (hills), and overlooked the sea in a land called Ash-Shihr.” Under the chapter, “He Who supplicates should first mention Himself,” Ibn Majah recorded that Ibn `Abbas narrated that the Prophet said:
(May Allah have mercy on us and the Brother of `Ad.) Allah then says,
(And surely, warners had already passed on before him and after him.) meaning, Allah had sent Messengers and warners to the towns surrounding the land of `Ad. This is similar to Allah’s saying,
(And We made it a deterrent punishment for those who were present and those who succeeded them. ) (2:66) And it is also similar to Allah’s saying,
(But if they turn away, then say: “I have warned you of a thunderbolt like the thunderbolt that struck `Ad and Thamud. (That occurred) when the Messengers had come to them from before them and after them (saying): “Worship none but Allah.”) (41:13-14) Allah then says,
(truly, I fear for you the torment of a mighty Day.) meaning, Hud said this to them (his people), and they responded to him saying,
(Have you come to delude us from our gods) meaning, to prevent us.
(from our gods)
(Then bring us that with which you threaten us, if you are one of the truthful!) They sought to hasten Allah’s torment and punishment, believing that it will not happen. This is similar to Allah’s saying,
(Those who do not believe in it (the Last Hour) seek to hasten it) (42:18). Hud’s response was,
(He said: “The knowledge (of that) is only with Allah.”) which means, `Allah knows best about you. If you deserve the punishment to be hastened, He will do that to you. As for me, my duty is to deliver my message to you.’
(But I see that you are a people given to ignorance!) which means, `you have no comprehension or understanding.’ Allah then says,
(Then, when they saw it as a dense cloud approaching their valleys,) meaning, when they saw the punishment coming towards them, they thought it to be clouds full of rain. That made them happy and joyful, because they had a drought and needed rain. Allah then said,
(Nay, but it is that which you were asking to be hastened — a wind wherein is a painful torment!) meaning, this is the torment that you called for saying, “Bring to us what you promise us if you should be of the truthful.”
(Destroying every thing) meaning, destroying every part of their land that could normally be destroyed.
(by the command of its Lord!) meaning, it had Allah’s permission to do that. This is similar to Allah’s saying,
d(It spared nothing that it reached, but blew it into broken spreads of rotten ruins.) (51:42) meaning, like something dilapidated (or decrepit). Because of this, Allah says,
(So they became such that nothing could be seen except their dwellings!) means, all of them were destroyed, and none of them were spared. Allah then says:
(Thus do We recompense the criminal people!) which means that this is Our judgement regarding those who reject Our Messengers and disobey Our commands. Imam Ahmad recorded from `A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, that she said, “I never saw Allah’s Messenger fully laughing so that I would see his uvula. He would only smile.” She added that when Allah’s Messenger saw clouds or wind, that would reflect on his face (as discomfort). She asked him: “O Allah’s Messenger! When the people see clouds, they become happy, hoping that they bring them rain. But I notice that when you see them, displeasure appears on your face.” Allah’s Messenger replied,
(O `A’ishah! What would guarantee to me that they do not bring punishment Some nations had been punished with wind. On seeing the punishment approaching them, a nation once said: “This is a cloud bringing us rain.”) This is also recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim. Imam Ahmad recorded that `A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said that when Allah’s Messenger saw clouds on any of the horizons, he would leave whatever he was doing — even if he was in prayer — and say:
(O Allah! I seek refuge with you from any harm that it (the cloud) contains.) If Allah removed those clouds, the Prophet would praise Allah, and if rain fell, he would say:
(O Allah! Make it pouring and beneficent.) Muslim also recorded in his Sahih from `A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, that when the wind blew, Allah’s Messenger would say,
(O Allah! I ask You of its good, the good that it contains, and the good with which it has been sent. And I seek refuge in You from its evil, the evil that it contains, and the evil with which it has been sent.) She added that if the sky became cloudy, his color would change; he would exit, enter, come, and go. When it rained, his anxiety would be relieved. When `A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, noticed that, she asked him about it and he said:
(O `A’ishah! It could be like what the people of `Ad said, (Then, when they saw it as a dense cloud approaching their valleys, they said: “This is a cloud bringing us rain!”)) We have previously mentioned the story of the destruction of the people of `Ad in both Surat Al-A`raf and Surah Hud. Thus, there is no need to repeat it here; and verily Allah is worthy of all praise and gratitude.
(26. And indeed We had firmly established them with that wherewith We have not established you! We also gave them hearing, vision, and hearts. But their hearing, vision, and hearts availed them nothing since they used to deny the Ayat of Allah, and they were completely encircled by that which they used to ridicule!) (27. And indeed We have destroyed towns round about you, and We have shown (them) the signs in various ways so that they might return.) (28. As for those whom they had taken for gods besides Allah, as the means of approach to Him, why then did they not aid them Nay, but they vanished completely from them. And that was their falsehood, and what they were fabricating.) Allah says, `We have granted the earlier nations wealth and offspring in the worldly life. That which We granted them, we did not give you anything similar or close to it.’ Furthermore,
(We also gave them hearing, vision, and hearts. But their hearing, vision, and hearts availed them nothing when they used to deny Allah’s signs, and they were completely encircled by that which they used to ridicule!) meaning, they were encircled by the torment and exemplary punishment that they denied and whose occurrence they doubted. This means, you listeners must beware of being like them lest a punishment similar to theirs strikes you in this life and the Hereafter. Allah then says,
(And indeed We have destroyed towns round about you, ) This is addressed to the people of Makkah. Allah destroyed the nations who disbelieved in the Messengers who lived around Makkah, such as `Ad who were at Al-Ahqaf in Hadramawt near Yemen, Thamud whose dwellings were between Makkah and Ash-Sham (Greater Syria), Saba’ who were in Yemen, the people of Madyan who were on the route and passage to Ghazzah (Western Palestine), and the people of Lut who dwelt by the lake (the Dead Sea) which they used to pass by (on the way to Jordan) as well. Allah then says,
(and We have shown (them) the signs in various ways) meaning, `We explained and clarified them.’
(so that perhaps they might return. As for those whom they had taken for gods besides Allah, as the means of approach to Him, why then did they not aid them) meaning, did they help them when they were in the greatest need for them
(but they vanished completely from them.) Rather, they completely left them alone when they needed them the most.
(And that was their falsehood, ) meaning, their lie.
(and what they were fabricating.) which means that they fabricated lies by taking them as gods, and they lost and failed in their worship of them and their reliance upon them — and Allah knows best.
(29. And (remember) when We sent toward you a group of the Jinn, to listen to the Qur’an. When they attended it, they said: “Listen quietly!” And when it was concluded, they returned to their people, as warners.) (30. They said: “O our people! Verily, we have heard a Book sent down after Musa, confirming what came before it, it guides to the truth and to the straight path.”) (31. “O our people! Respond to Allah’s Caller, and believe in him. He (Allah) will forgive you some of your sins, and protect you from a painful torment.”) (32. “And whosoever does not respond to Allah’s Caller, he cannot escape on earth, and he will not have besides Allah any protectors. Those are in manifest error.”)
The Story of the Jinns listening to the Qur’an
Imam Ahmad recorded from Az-Zubayr that he commented on the Ayah;
(And (remember) when We sent towards you a group of the Jinn, to listen to the Qur’an.) “They were at a place called Nakhlah while Allah’s Messenger was performing the `Isha’ prayer, and
(they crowded on top of each other to hear him.) (72:19)” Sufyan said, “They stood on top of each other like piled wool.” Ahmad was alone in recording this. Imam Ahmad and the famous Imam, Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bayhaqi in his book Dala’il An-Nubuwwah, both recorded that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “Allah’s Messenger never recited Qur’an to the Jinns, nor did he see them. Allah’s Messenger was heading with a group of his Companions towards the `Ukaz market. At that time, the devils had been prevented from eavesdropping on the news of the heavens, and they were being attacked by burning flames (whenever they tried to listen). When the devils went back to their people, they asked them what happened to them, and they answered, `We have been prevented from eavesdropping on the news of the heavens, and burning flames now attack us.’ Their people told them, `You have only been prevented from eavesdropping on the information of the heavens because of something (major) that has happened. So go all over the earth, east and west, and see what is it that has obstructed you from eavesdropping on the news of the heavens.’ Thus they traveled all over the earth, east and west, seeking that which had obstructed them from eavesdropping on the news of the heavens. A group of them went towards Tihamah, and found Allah’s Messenger while he was at a place called Nakhlah along the way to the `Ukaz market. He was leading his Companions in the Fajr prayer. When the Jinns heard the recitation of the Qur’an, they stopped to listen to it, and then they said: `By Allah! This is what has prevented you from eavesdropping on the news of the heavens.’ Then they returned to their people and told them: `Our people! We certainly have heard an amazing recitation (the Qur’an), it guides to the right path. So we have believed in it, and we will join none in worship with our Lord.’ So Allah revealed to His Prophet ,
(Say: It has been revealed to me that a group of Jinns have listened (to the Qur’an).) (72:19) Thus, what was revealed to him was only the saying of the Jinns.” Al-Bukhari recorded a similar narration, and Muslim recorded it (as it is here). At-Tirmidhi also recorded it, as did An-Nasa’i in his Tafsir. `Abdullah bin Mas`ud reported that the Jinns came down upon the Prophet while he was reciting the Qur’an at a place called Nakhlah. When they heard him,
(They said: “Listen quietly.”) meaning, hush! They were nine in number, and one of them was called Zawba`ah. So Allah revealed,
(And when We sent toward you a group of Jinns, to listen to the Qur’an. When they attended it, they said: “Listen quietly!” And when it was concluded, they returned to their people as warners.) until His saying:
( manifest error.) Thus, this report along with the above one by Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, indicate that Allah’s Messenger was not aware of the presence of the Jinns at that time. They only listened to his recitation and went back to their people. Later on, they came to him in groups, one party after another, and one group after another. As for Allah’s saying,
(they returned to their people as warners.) It means that they went back to their people and warned them about what they heard from Allah’s Messenger . This is similar to Allah’s saying,
(…that they may obtain understanding in religion and warn their people when they return to them, so that they might be cautious (of evil).) (9:122) This Ayah has been used as evidence that the Jinns have warners from among themselves, but no Messengers. There is no doubt that Allah did not send Messengers from among the Jinns, because He says,
(And We did not send before you as Messengers any but men, to whom We revealed from among the people of cities.) (12:109) And Allah says,
(And We never sent before you any of the Messengers but verily they ate food and walked in the markets.) (25:20) And He says about Ibrahim Al-Khalil, upon him be peace,
(…And We placed in his descendants prophethood and Scripture.)(29:27) Thus, every Prophet whom Allah sent after Ibrahim was from his offspring and progeny. As for Allah’s saying in Surat Al-An`am,
(O company of Jinns and human beings! Did there not come to you Messengers from among you) (6:130) It only applies to the two kinds collectively, but specifically pertains to just one of them, which is the human. This is like Allah’s saying,
(From both of them (salty and fresh waters) emerge pearl and Marjan.) (55:22) Although He said “both of them” this applies to only one of the two types of water (the salty water). Allah then explains how the Jinns warned their people. He says,
(They said: “O our people! Verily, we have heard a Book sent down after Musa…”) They did not mention `Isa, peace be upon him, because the Injil that was revealed to him contained admonitions and exhortations, but very few permissions or prohibitions. Thus, it was in reality like a complement to the legislation of the Tawrah, the Tawrah being the reference. That is why they said, “Sent down after Musa.” This is also the way that Waraqah bin Nawfal spoke when the Prophet told him about his first meeting with Jibril, An-Namus, peace be upon him. He said: “Very good, very good! This is (the angel) that used to come to Musa. I wish that I was still a young man (to support you).”
(confirming what came before it,) meaning, the Scriptures that were revealed before it to the previous Prophets. They then said,
(it guides to the truth) means in belief and information.
(and to the straight path.) which means, in deeds. For verily, the Qur’an contains two things: information and commandments. Its information is true, and its commandments are all just, as Allah says,
(And the Word of Your Lord has been fulfilled in truth and in justice.) (6:115) Allah says,
(It is He Who has sent His Messenger with the guidance and the religion of truth.) (9:122) The guidance is the beneficent knowledge, and the religion of truth means the righteous good deeds. Thus, the Jinns said,
(it guides to the truth) in matters of belief,
(and to the straight path.) meaning, in regard to actions.
(O our people! Respond to Allah’s Caller,) This is proof that Muhammad has been sent to both the human beings and the Jinns. Thus, Allah says,
(Respond to Allah’s Caller and believe in him.) Then Allah says,
(He will then forgive you some of your sins,) Some scholars say that “some” here is auxiliary, but this is questionable since it is rarely used to strengthen an affirmative meaning. Others say that it means partial forgiveness.
(and protect you from a painful torment.) meaning, He will protect you from His painful punishment. Then Allah informs that they said,
(And whosoever does not respond to Allah’s Caller, he cannot escape on earth,) meaning, Allah’s power encompasses him and surrounds him.
(and he will not have besides Allah any protectors.) meaning, no one can protect him against Allah.
(Those are in manifest error. ) This is a threat and warning. Thus, those Jinns called their people with encouragement and warning. Because of this, many of the Jinns took heed and came to Allah’s Messenger in successive delegations; and verily, Allah is worthy of all praise and gratitude, and Allah knows best.
(33. Do they not see that Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth, and was not wearied by their creation, is Able to give life to the dead Yes, He surely is Able to do all things.) (34. And on the Day when those who disbelieve will be exposed to the Fire (it will be said to them): “Is this not the truth” They will say: “Yes, by our Lord!” He will say: “Then taste the torment, because you used to disbelieve!”) (35. Therefore be patient as did those of determination among the Messengers and be in no hurry for them. On the Day when they will see what they are promised, it will be as though they had not remained (in the world) except an hour in a day. (This is) a clear Message. But will any be destroyed except the defiantly rebellious people)
Evidence for Life after Death
Allah says, those who deny resurrection on Judgement Day, and doubt that the bodies will be raised on that Last Day — Do they not see,
(that Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth, and was not wearied by their creation,) meaning, the creation of the heavens and earth did not exhaust Him.’ Rather, He commanded them: “Be,” and they were, without any refusal or delay. They obeyed and responded to Him with submission and fear. Is He not then able to revive the dead This is similar to what Allah said elsewhere,
(Verily, the creation of the heavens and earth is greater than the creation of the people. But most people do not know.) (40:57) Allah responds to the above question by saying,
(Yes, He surely is Able to do all things.) Then Allah says, as a threat and a warning to whoever disbelieves in Him,
(And on the Day when those who disbelieve will be exposed to the Fire (it will be said to them): “Is this not the truth” ) meaning, it will be said to them, “Isn’t this the truth Is this magic, or do you not see”
(They will say: “Yes, by our Lord!”) meaning, they will have no choice but to confess.
(He will say: “Then taste the torment, because you used to disbelieve!”)
Commanding the Prophet to persevere
Allah then commands His Messenger to observe patience with those who rejected him among his people. He says,
(Therefore be patient as did those of determination among the Messengers.) meaning, as they were patient with their people’s rejection of them. “Those of determination” among the Messengers are Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa, `Isa and the last of all of the Prophets, Muhammad . Allah has specifically mentioned their names in two Ayat: Surat Al-Ahzab (33:7) and Surat Ash-Shura (42:13).
(and be in no hurry for them.) which means, `do not rush the punishment for them.’ This is similar to Allah’s saying:
(And leave Me alone to deal with the rejectors, those who are in possession of good things of life. And give them respite for a little while.) (73:11)
(So allow time for the disbelievers, and leave them for a while.) (86:17) Then Allah says:
(On the Day when they will see that which they are promised, it will be as though they had not remained (in the world) except an hour in a day.) Which is similar to Allah’s saying,
(On the Day they see it (the Hour), it will be as though they had not remained (in the world) except for a day’s afternoon or its morning.) (79:46) and as He says,
(And on the Day when He shall gather them together, (it will be) as if they had not stayed but an hour of a day. They will recognize each other.)(10:45) Then Allah says,
(A clear message.) meaning, this Qur’an provides a clear concept.
(But will any be destroyed except the defiantly rebellious people) Which means that Allah does not destroy anyone except those who choose the way of destruction. It is part of Allah’s justice that He does not punish anyone except those who deserve the punishment — and Allah knows best. This concludes the explanation of Surat Al-Ahqaf. And all praise and blessings are due to Allah. Both success and protection from faults are by His help.