Surah Taha, the 20th chapter of the Quran. It is classified as a Meccan surah with a total of 135 ayats or verses.
The main theme of the chapter is about the existence of God. It addresses this story of Moses in detail. The Prophet assures his followers that the message of the Qur’an will eventually succeed and live on.
“…every soul may be recompensed according to that for which it strives”
Surah Ta Ha Ayat 20
Read Surah Taha with Translation and Transliteration
Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Raheem
In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful
مَآ أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْكَ ٱلْقُرْءَانَ لِتَشْقَىٰٓ
Maaa anzalnaa ‘alaikal Qur-aana litashqaaam
2. We have not sent down to you the Qur’an that you be distressed
إِلَّا تَذْكِرَةًۭ لِّمَن يَخْشَىٰ
Illaa tazkiratal limany yakshaa
3. But only as a reminder for those who fear [ Allah ] –
تَنزِيلًۭا مِّمَّنْ خَلَقَ ٱلْأَرْضَ وَٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ ٱلْعُلَى
Tanzeelam mimman khalaqal arda was samaawaatil ‘ulaa
4. A revelation from He who created the earth and highest heavens,
ٱلرَّحْمَـٰنُ عَلَى ٱلْعَرْشِ ٱسْتَوَىٰ
Ar-Rahmaanu ‘alal ‘Arshis tawaam
5. The Most Merciful [who is] above the Throne established.
لَهُۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا وَمَا تَحْتَ ٱلثَّرَىٰ
Lahoo maa fis samaawaati wa maa fil ardi wa maa bainahumaa wa maa tahtassaraa
6. To Him belongs what is in the heavens and what is on the earth and what is between them and what is under the soil.
وَإِن تَجْهَرْ بِٱلْقَوْلِ فَإِنَّهُۥ يَعْلَمُ ٱلسِّرَّ وَأَخْفَى
Wa in tajhar bilqawli fainnahoo ya’lamus sirra wa akhfaa
7. And if you speak aloud – then indeed, He knows the secret and what is [even] more hidden.
ٱللَّهُ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ لَهُ ٱلْأَسْمَآءُ ٱلْحُسْنَىٰ
Allaahu laaa ilaaha illaaha Huwa lahul Asmaaa’ul Husnaa
8. Allah – there is no deity except Him. To Him belong the best names.
وَهَلْ أَتَىٰكَ حَدِيثُ مُوسَىٰٓ
Wa hal ataaka hadeesu Moosa
9. And has the story of Moses reached you? –
إِذْ رَءَا نَارًۭا فَقَالَ لِأَهْلِهِ ٱمْكُثُوٓا۟ إِنِّىٓ ءَانَسْتُ نَارًۭا لَّعَلِّىٓ ءَاتِيكُم مِّنْهَا بِقَبَسٍ أَوْ أَجِدُ عَلَى ٱلنَّارِ هُدًۭى
Iz ra aa naaran faqaala li alhlihim kusooo inneee aanastu naaral la’alleee aateekum minhaa biqabasin aw ajidu ‘alan naari hudaa
10. When he saw a fire and said to his family, “Stay here; indeed, I have perceived a fire; perhaps I can bring you a torch or find at the fire some guidance.”
فَلَمَّآ أَتَىٰهَا نُودِىَ يَـٰمُوسَىٰٓ
Falammaaa ataahaa noodiya yaa Moosaa
11. And when he came to it, he was called, “O Moses,
إِنِّىٓ أَنَا۠ رَبُّكَ فَٱخْلَعْ نَعْلَيْكَ ۖ إِنَّكَ بِٱلْوَادِ ٱلْمُقَدَّسِ طُوًۭى
Inneee Ana Rabbuka fakhla’ na’laika innaka bilwaadil muqaddasi Tuwaa
12. Indeed, I am your Lord, so remove your sandals. Indeed, you are in the sacred valley of Tuwa.
وَأَنَا ٱخْتَرْتُكَ فَٱسْتَمِعْ لِمَا يُوحَىٰٓ
Wa anakhtartuka fastami’ limaa yoohaa
13. And I have chosen you, so listen to what is revealed [to you].
إِنَّنِىٓ أَنَا ٱللَّهُ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّآ أَنَا۠ فَٱعْبُدْنِى وَأَقِمِ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ لِذِكْرِىٓ
Innaneee Anal laahu laaa ilaaha illaa Ana fa’budnee wa aqimis-salaata lizikree
14. Indeed, I am Allah . There is no deity except Me, so worship Me and establish prayer for My remembrance.
إِنَّ ٱلسَّاعَةَ ءَاتِيَةٌ أَكَادُ أُخْفِيهَا لِتُجْزَىٰ كُلُّ نَفْسٍۭ بِمَا تَسْعَىٰ
Innas Saa’ata aatiyatun akaadu ukhfeehaa litujzaa kullu nafsim bimaa tas’aa
15. Indeed, the Hour is coming – I almost conceal it – so that every soul may be recompensed according to that for which it strives.
فَلَا يَصُدَّنَّكَ عَنْهَا مَن لَّا يُؤْمِنُ بِهَا وَٱتَّبَعَ هَوَىٰهُ فَتَرْدَىٰ
Falaa yasuddannnaka ‘anhaa mal laa yu’minu bihaa wattaba’a hawaahu fatardaa
16. So do not let one avert you from it who does not believe in it and follows his desire, for you [then] would perish.
وَمَا تِلْكَ بِيَمِينِكَ يَـٰمُوسَىٰ
Wa maa tilka bi yamee nika yaa Moosaa
17. And what is that in your right hand, O Moses?”
قَالَ هِىَ عَصَاىَ أَتَوَكَّؤُا۟ عَلَيْهَا وَأَهُشُّ بِهَا عَلَىٰ غَنَمِى وَلِىَ فِيهَا مَـَٔارِبُ أُخْرَىٰ
Qaala hiya ‘asaaya atawakka’u alaihaa wa ahushshu bihaa ‘alaa ghanamee wa liya feehaa ma aaribu ukhraa
18. He said, “It is my staff; I lean upon it, and I bring down leaves for my sheep and I have therein other uses.”
قَالَ أَلْقِهَا يَـٰمُوسَىٰ
Qaala alqihaa yaa Moosaa
19. [Allah] said, “Throw it down, O Moses.”
فَأَلْقَىٰهَا فَإِذَا هِىَ حَيَّةٌۭ تَسْعَىٰ
Fa-alqaahaa fa -izaa hiya haiyatun tas’aa
20. So he threw it down, and thereupon it was a snake, moving swiftly.
قَالَ خُذْهَا وَلَا تَخَفْ ۖ سَنُعِيدُهَا سِيرَتَهَا ٱلْأُولَىٰ
Qaala khuzhaa wa laa ta khaf sanu’eeduhaa seeratahal oolaa
21. [ Allah ] said, “Seize it and fear not; We will return it to its former condition.
وَٱضْمُمْ يَدَكَ إِلَىٰ جَنَاحِكَ تَخْرُجْ بَيْضَآءَ مِنْ غَيْرِ سُوٓءٍ ءَايَةً أُخْرَىٰ
Wadmum yadaka ilaa janaahika takhruj baidaaa’a min ghairi sooo’in Aayatan ukhraa
22. And draw in your hand to your side; it will come out white without disease – another sign,
لِنُرِيَكَ مِنْ ءَايَـٰتِنَا ٱلْكُبْرَى
Linuriyaka min Aayaatinal Kubra
23. That We may show you [some] of Our greater signs.
ٱذْهَبْ إِلَىٰ فِرْعَوْنَ إِنَّهُۥ طَغَىٰ
Izhab ilaa Fir’awna innahoo taghaa (section 1)
24. Go to Pharaoh. Indeed, he has transgressed.”
قَالَ رَبِّ ٱشْرَحْ لِى صَدْرِى
Qaala Rabbish rah lee sadree
25. [Moses] said, “My Lord, expand for me my breast [with assurance]
وَيَسِّرْ لِىٓ أَمْرِى
Wa yassir leee amree
26. And ease for me my task
وَٱحْلُلْ عُقْدَةًۭ مِّن لِّسَانِى
Wahlul ‘uqdatam milli saaneem
27. And untie the knot from my tongue
28. That they may understand my speech.
وَٱجْعَل لِّى وَزِيرًۭا مِّنْ أَهْلِى
Waj’al lee wazeeram min ahlee
29. And appoint for me a minister from my family –
30. Aaron, my brother.
ٱشْدُدْ بِهِۦٓ أَزْرِى
Ushdud biheee azree
31. Increase through him my strength
وَأَشْرِكْهُ فِىٓ أَمْرِى
Wa ashrik hu feee amree
32. And let him share my task
كَىْ نُسَبِّحَكَ كَثِيرًۭا
Kai nusabbihaka kaseeraa
33. That we may exalt You much
Wa nazkuraka kaseeraa
34. And remember You much.
إِنَّكَ كُنتَ بِنَا بَصِيرًۭا
Innaka kunta binaa baseeraa
35. Indeed, You are of us ever Seeing.”
قَالَ قَدْ أُوتِيتَ سُؤْلَكَ يَـٰمُوسَىٰ
Qaala qad ooteeta su’laka yaa Moosaa
36. [Allah] said, “You have been granted your request, O Moses.
وَلَقَدْ مَنَنَّا عَلَيْكَ مَرَّةً أُخْرَىٰٓ
Wa laqad manannaa ‘alaika marratan ukhraaa
37. And We had already conferred favor upon you another time,
إِذْ أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَىٰٓ أُمِّكَ مَا يُوحَىٰٓ
Iz awhainaaa ilaaa ummika maa yoohaaa
38. When We inspired to your mother what We inspired,
أَنِ ٱقْذِفِيهِ فِى ٱلتَّابُوتِ فَٱقْذِفِيهِ فِى ٱلْيَمِّ فَلْيُلْقِهِ ٱلْيَمُّ بِٱلسَّاحِلِ يَأْخُذْهُ عَدُوٌّۭ لِّى وَعَدُوٌّۭ لَّهُۥ ۚ وَأَلْقَيْتُ عَلَيْكَ مَحَبَّةًۭ مِّنِّى وَلِتُصْنَعَ عَلَىٰ عَيْنِىٓ
Aniqzifeehi fit Taabooti faqzifeehi fil yammi fal yul qihil yammu bis saahili yaakhuzhu ‘aduwwul lee wa ‘aduwwul lah; wa alqaitu ‘alaika mahabbatam minnee wa litusna’a ‘alaa ‘aineem
39. [Saying], ‘Cast him into the chest and cast it into the river, and the river will throw it onto the bank; there will take him an enemy to Me and an enemy to him.’ And I bestowed upon you love from Me that you would be brought up under My eye.
إِذْ تَمْشِىٓ أُخْتُكَ فَتَقُولُ هَلْ أَدُلُّكُمْ عَلَىٰ مَن يَكْفُلُهُۥ ۖ فَرَجَعْنَـٰكَ إِلَىٰٓ أُمِّكَ كَىْ تَقَرَّ عَيْنُهَا وَلَا تَحْزَنَ ۚ وَقَتَلْتَ نَفْسًۭا فَنَجَّيْنَـٰكَ مِنَ ٱلْغَمِّ وَفَتَنَّـٰكَ فُتُونًۭا ۚ فَلَبِثْتَ سِنِينَ فِىٓ أَهْلِ مَدْيَنَ ثُمَّ جِئْتَ عَلَىٰ قَدَرٍۢ يَـٰمُوسَىٰ
Iz tamsheee ukhtuka fataqoolu hal adullukum ‘alaa mai yakfuluhoo faraja ‘naaka ilaaa ummika kai taqarra ‘ainuhaa wa laa tahzan; wa qatalta nafsan fanajjainaaka minal ghammi wa fatannaaka futoonaa; falabista sineena feee ahli Madyana summa ji’ta ‘alaa qadariny yaa Moosa
40. [And We favored you] when your sister went and said, ‘Shall I direct you to someone who will be responsible for him?’ So We restored you to your mother that she might be content and not grieve. And you killed someone, but We saved you from retaliation and tried you with a [severe] trial. And you remained [some] years among the people of Madyan. Then you came [here] at the decreed time, O Moses.
Wastana’ tuka linafsee
41. And I produced you for Myself.
ٱذْهَبْ أَنتَ وَأَخُوكَ بِـَٔايَـٰتِى وَلَا تَنِيَا فِى ذِكْرِى
Izhab anta wa akhooka bi Aayaatee wa laa taniyaa fee zikree
42. Go, you and your brother, with My signs and do not slacken in My remembrance.
ٱذْهَبَآ إِلَىٰ فِرْعَوْنَ إِنَّهُۥ طَغَىٰ
Izhabaaa ilaa Fir’awna innahoo taghaa
43. Go, both of you, to Pharaoh. Indeed, he has transgressed.
فَقُولَا لَهُۥ قَوْلًۭا لَّيِّنًۭا لَّعَلَّهُۥ يَتَذَكَّرُ أَوْ يَخْشَىٰ
Faqoolaa lahoo qawlal laiyinal la allahoo yatazakkkaru ‘aw yakhshaa
44. And speak to him with gentle speech that perhaps he may be reminded or fear [Allah].”
قَالَا رَبَّنَآ إِنَّنَا نَخَافُ أَن يَفْرُطَ عَلَيْنَآ أَوْ أَن يَطْغَى
Qaalaa Rabbanaaa innanaa nakhaafu ai yafruta ‘alainaaa aw ai yatghaa
45. They said, “Our Lord, indeed we are afraid that he will hasten [punishment] against us or that he will transgress.”
قَالَ لَا تَخَافَآ ۖ إِنَّنِى مَعَكُمَآ أَسْمَعُ وَأَرَىٰ
Qaala laa takhaafaaa innanee ma’akumaa asma’u wa araa
46. [ Allah ] said, “Fear not. Indeed, I am with you both; I hear and I see.
فَأْتِيَاهُ فَقُولَآ إِنَّا رَسُولَا رَبِّكَ فَأَرْسِلْ مَعَنَا بَنِىٓ إِسْرَٰٓءِيلَ وَلَا تُعَذِّبْهُمْ ۖ قَدْ جِئْنَـٰكَ بِـَٔايَةٍۢ مِّن رَّبِّكَ ۖ وَٱلسَّلَـٰمُ عَلَىٰ مَنِ ٱتَّبَعَ ٱلْهُدَىٰٓ
Faatiyaahu faqoolaaa innaa Rasoolaa Rabbika fa arsil ma’anaa Banee Israaa’eela wa laa tu’azzibhum qad ji’naaka bi Aayatim mir Rabbika wassa laamu ‘alaa manit taba’al hudaa
47. So go to him and say, ‘Indeed, we are messengers of your Lord, so send with us the Children of Israel and do not torment them. We have come to you with a sign from your Lord. And peace will be upon he who follows the guidance.
إِنَّا قَدْ أُوحِىَ إِلَيْنَآ أَنَّ ٱلْعَذَابَ عَلَىٰ مَن كَذَّبَ وَتَوَلَّىٰ
Innaa qad oohiya ilainaaa annnal ‘azaaba ‘alaa man kaz zaba wa tawalla
48. Indeed, it has been revealed to us that the punishment will be upon whoever denies and turns away.’ “
قَالَ فَمَن رَّبُّكُمَا يَـٰمُوسَىٰ
Qaala famar Rabbu kumaa yaa Moosa
49. [Pharaoh] said, “So who is the Lord of you two, O Moses?”
قَالَ رَبُّنَا ٱلَّذِىٓ أَعْطَىٰ كُلَّ شَىْءٍ خَلْقَهُۥ ثُمَّ هَدَىٰ
Qaala Rabbunal lazeee a’taa kulla shai’in khalqahoo summa hadaa
50. He said, “Our Lord is He who gave each thing its form and then guided [it].”
قَالَ فَمَا بَالُ ٱلْقُرُونِ ٱلْأُولَىٰ
Qaala famaa baalul quroonil oolaa
51. [Pharaoh] said, “Then what is the case of the former generations?”
قَالَ عِلْمُهَا عِندَ رَبِّى فِى كِتَـٰبٍۢ ۖ لَّا يَضِلُّ رَبِّى وَلَا يَنسَى
Qaala ‘ilmuhaa ‘inda Rabee fee kitaab, laa yadillu Rabbee wa laa yansaa
52. [Moses] said, “The knowledge thereof is with my Lord in a record. My Lord neither errs nor forgets.”
ٱلَّذِى جَعَلَ لَكُمُ ٱلْأَرْضَ مَهْدًۭا وَسَلَكَ لَكُمْ فِيهَا سُبُلًۭا وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءًۭ فَأَخْرَجْنَا بِهِۦٓ أَزْوَٰجًۭا مِّن نَّبَاتٍۢ شَتَّىٰ
Allazee ja’ala lakumul arda mahdanw wa salaka lakum feehaa subulanw wa anzala minas samaaa’i maaa’an fa akhrajnaa biheee azwaajam min nabaatin shatta
53. [It is He] who has made for you the earth as a bed [spread out] and inserted therein for you roadways and sent down from the sky, rain and produced thereby categories of various plants.
كُلُوا۟ وَٱرْعَوْا۟ أَنْعَـٰمَكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ فِى ذَٰلِكَ لَءَايَـٰتٍۢ لِّأُو۟لِى ٱلنُّهَىٰ
Kuloo war’aw an’aamakum; inna fee zaalika la Aayaatil li ulin nuhaa
54. Eat [therefrom] and pasture your livestock. Indeed, in that are signs for those of intelligence.
۞ مِنْهَا خَلَقْنَـٰكُمْ وَفِيهَا نُعِيدُكُمْ وَمِنْهَا نُخْرِجُكُمْ تَارَةً أُخْرَىٰ
Minhaa khalaqnaakum wa feehaa nu’eedukum wa minhaa nukhrijukum taaratan ukhraa
55. From the earth We created you, and into it We will return you, and from it We will extract you another time.
وَلَقَدْ أَرَيْنَـٰهُ ءَايَـٰتِنَا كُلَّهَا فَكَذَّبَ وَأَبَىٰ
Wa laqad arainaahu Aayaatinaa kullahaa fakaz zaba wa abaa
56. And We certainly showed Pharaoh Our signs – all of them – but he denied and refused.
قَالَ أَجِئْتَنَا لِتُخْرِجَنَا مِنْ أَرْضِنَا بِسِحْرِكَ يَـٰمُوسَىٰ
Qaala aji’tanaa litukhri janaa min ardinaa bisihrika yaa Moosa
57. He said, “Have you come to us to drive us out of our land with your magic, O Moses?
فَلَنَأْتِيَنَّكَ بِسِحْرٍۢ مِّثْلِهِۦ فَٱجْعَلْ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكَ مَوْعِدًۭا لَّا نُخْلِفُهُۥ نَحْنُ وَلَآ أَنتَ مَكَانًۭا سُوًۭى
Falanaatiyannaka bisihrim mislihee faj’al bainanaa wa bainaka maw’idal laa nukhlifuhoo nahnu wa laaa anta makaanan suwaa
58. Then we will surely bring you magic like it, so make between us and you an appointment, which we will not fail to keep and neither will you, in a place assigned.”
قَالَ مَوْعِدُكُمْ يَوْمُ ٱلزِّينَةِ وَأَن يُحْشَرَ ٱلنَّاسُ ضُحًۭى
Qaala maw’idukum yawmuz zeenati wa ai yuhsharan naasu duhaa
59. [Moses] said, “Your appointment is on the day of the festival when the people assemble at mid-morning.”
فَتَوَلَّىٰ فِرْعَوْنُ فَجَمَعَ كَيْدَهُۥ ثُمَّ أَتَىٰ
Fatawallaa Fir’awnu fajjama’a kaidahoo summa ataa
60. So Pharaoh went away, put together his plan, and then came [to Moses].
قَالَ لَهُم مُّوسَىٰ وَيْلَكُمْ لَا تَفْتَرُوا۟ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ كَذِبًۭا فَيُسْحِتَكُم بِعَذَابٍۢ ۖ وَقَدْ خَابَ مَنِ ٱفْتَرَىٰ
Qaala lahum Moosaa wailakum laa taftaroo ‘alal laahi kaziban fa yus hitakum bi ‘azaab, wa qad khaaba manif taraa
61. Moses said to the magicians summoned by Pharaoh, “Woe to you! Do not invent a lie against Allah or He will exterminate you with a punishment; and he has failed who invents [such falsehood].”
فَتَنَـٰزَعُوٓا۟ أَمْرَهُم بَيْنَهُمْ وَأَسَرُّوا۟ ٱلنَّجْوَىٰ
Fatanaaza’ooo amrahum bainahum wa asarrun najwaa
62. So they disputed over their affair among themselves and concealed their private conversation.
قَالُوٓا۟ إِنْ هَـٰذَٰنِ لَسَـٰحِرَٰنِ يُرِيدَانِ أَن يُخْرِجَاكُم مِّنْ أَرْضِكُم بِسِحْرِهِمَا وَيَذْهَبَا بِطَرِيقَتِكُمُ ٱلْمُثْلَىٰ
Qaalooo in haaazaani lasaahiraani yureedaani ai yukhrijaakum min ardikum bisihrihimaa wa yazhabaa bitareeqatikumul muslaa
63. They said, “Indeed, these are two magicians who want to drive you out of your land with their magic and do away with your most exemplary way.
فَأَجْمِعُوا۟ كَيْدَكُمْ ثُمَّ ٱئْتُوا۟ صَفًّۭا ۚ وَقَدْ أَفْلَحَ ٱلْيَوْمَ مَنِ ٱسْتَعْلَىٰ
Fa ajmi’oo kaidakum summma’too saffaa; wa qad aflahal yawma manis ta’laa
64. So resolve upon your plan and then come [forward] in line. And he has succeeded today who overcomes.”
قَالُوا۟ يَـٰمُوسَىٰٓ إِمَّآ أَن تُلْقِىَ وَإِمَّآ أَن نَّكُونَ أَوَّلَ مَنْ أَلْقَىٰ
Qaaloo yaa Moosaaa immaaa an tulqiya wa immaaa an nakoona awala man alqaa
65. They said, “O Moses, either you throw or we will be the first to throw.”
قَالَ بَلْ أَلْقُوا۟ ۖ فَإِذَا حِبَالُهُمْ وَعِصِيُّهُمْ يُخَيَّلُ إِلَيْهِ مِن سِحْرِهِمْ أَنَّهَا تَسْعَىٰ
Qaala bal alqoo fa izaa hibaaluhum wa ‘isiyyuhum yuhaiyalu ilaihi min sihrihim annahaa tas’aa
66. He said, “Rather, you throw.” And suddenly their ropes and staffs seemed to him from their magic that they were moving [like snakes].
فَأَوْجَسَ فِى نَفْسِهِۦ خِيفَةًۭ مُّوسَىٰ
Fa awjasa fee nafsihee kheefatam Moosa
67. And he sensed within himself apprehension, did Moses.
قُلْنَا لَا تَخَفْ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ ٱلْأَعْلَىٰ
Qulnaa laa takhaf innaka antal a’laa
68. Allah said, “Fear not. Indeed, it is you who are superior.
وَأَلْقِ مَا فِى يَمِينِكَ تَلْقَفْ مَا صَنَعُوٓا۟ ۖ إِنَّمَا صَنَعُوا۟ كَيْدُ سَـٰحِرٍۢ ۖ وَلَا يُفْلِحُ ٱلسَّاحِرُ حَيْثُ أَتَىٰ
Wa alqi maa fee yamee nika talqaf maa sana’oo; innamaa sana’oo kaidu saahir; wa laa yuflihus saahiru haisu ataa
69. And throw what is in your right hand; it will swallow up what they have crafted. What they have crafted is but the trick of a magician, and the magician will not succeed wherever he is.”
فَأُلْقِىَ ٱلسَّحَرَةُ سُجَّدًۭا قَالُوٓا۟ ءَامَنَّا بِرَبِّ هَـٰرُونَ وَمُوسَىٰ
Fa ulqiyas saharatu sujjadan qaalooo aamannaa bi Rabbi Haaroona wa Moosa
70. So the magicians fell down in prostration. They said, “We have believed in the Lord of Aaron and Moses.”
قَالَ ءَامَنتُمْ لَهُۥ قَبْلَ أَنْ ءَاذَنَ لَكُمْ ۖ إِنَّهُۥ لَكَبِيرُكُمُ ٱلَّذِى عَلَّمَكُمُ ٱلسِّحْرَ ۖ فَلَأُقَطِّعَنَّ أَيْدِيَكُمْ وَأَرْجُلَكُم مِّنْ خِلَـٰفٍۢ وَلَأُصَلِّبَنَّكُمْ فِى جُذُوعِ ٱلنَّخْلِ وَلَتَعْلَمُنَّ أَيُّنَآ أَشَدُّ عَذَابًۭا وَأَبْقَىٰ
Qaala aamantum lahoo qabla an aazana lakum; innahoo lakabeerukumul lazee ‘allama kumus sihra fala uqatti’anna aidiyakum wa arjulakum min khilaafinw wa la usallibannakum fee juzoo’in nakhli wa lata’lamunna aiyunaaa ashaddu ‘azaabanw wa abqaa
71. [Pharaoh] said, “You believed him before I gave you permission. Indeed, he is your leader who has taught you magic. So I will surely cut off your hands and your feet on opposite sides, and I will crucify you on the trunks of palm trees, and you will surely know which of us is more severe in [giving] punishment and more enduring.”
قَالُوا۟ لَن نُّؤْثِرَكَ عَلَىٰ مَا جَآءَنَا مِنَ ٱلْبَيِّنَـٰتِ وَٱلَّذِى فَطَرَنَا ۖ فَٱقْضِ مَآ أَنتَ قَاضٍ ۖ إِنَّمَا تَقْضِى هَـٰذِهِ ٱلْحَيَوٰةَ ٱلدُّنْيَآ
Qaaloo lan nu’siraka ‘alaa maa jaaa’anaa minal baiyinaati wallazee fataranaa faqdi maaa anta qaad; innamaa taqdee haazihil hayaatad dunyaa
72. They said, “Never will we prefer you over what has come to us of clear proofs and [over] He who created us. So decree whatever you are to decree. You can only decree for this worldly life.
إِنَّآ ءَامَنَّا بِرَبِّنَا لِيَغْفِرَ لَنَا خَطَـٰيَـٰنَا وَمَآ أَكْرَهْتَنَا عَلَيْهِ مِنَ ٱلسِّحْرِ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ خَيْرٌۭ وَأَبْقَىٰٓ
Innaaa aamannaa bi Rabbinaa liyaghfira lanaa khataayaanaa wa maaa akrahtanaa ‘alaihi minas sihr; wallaahu khairunw waabqaa
73. Indeed, we have believed in our Lord that He may forgive us our sins and what you compelled us [to do] of magic. And Allah is better and more enduring.”
إِنَّهُۥ مَن يَأْتِ رَبَّهُۥ مُجْرِمًۭا فَإِنَّ لَهُۥ جَهَنَّمَ لَا يَمُوتُ فِيهَا وَلَا يَحْيَىٰ
Innahoo mai yaati Rabbahoo mujriman fa inna lahoo Jahannama laa yamotu feehaa wa laa yahyaa
74. Indeed, whoever comes to his Lord as a criminal – indeed, for him is Hell; he will neither die therein nor live.
وَمَن يَأْتِهِۦ مُؤْمِنًۭا قَدْ عَمِلَ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ فَأُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ لَهُمُ ٱلدَّرَجَـٰتُ ٱلْعُلَىٰ
Wa mai yaatihee mu’minan qad ‘amilas saalihaati fa ulaaa’ika lahumud dara jaatul ‘ulaa
75. But whoever comes to Him as a believer having done righteous deeds – for those will be the highest degrees [in position]:
جَنَّـٰتُ عَدْنٍۢ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا ٱلْأَنْهَـٰرُ خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيهَا ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ جَزَآءُ مَن تَزَكَّىٰ
Jannaatu ‘Adnin tajree min tahtihal anhaaru khaalideena feehaa; wa zaalika jazaaa’ua man tazakka (section 3)
76. Gardens of perpetual residence beneath which rivers flow, wherein they abide eternally. And that is the reward of one who purifies himself.
وَلَقَدْ أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَىٰ مُوسَىٰٓ أَنْ أَسْرِ بِعِبَادِى فَٱضْرِبْ لَهُمْ طَرِيقًۭا فِى ٱلْبَحْرِ يَبَسًۭا لَّا تَخَـٰفُ دَرَكًۭا وَلَا تَخْشَىٰ
Wa laqad awhainaaa ilaa Moosaaa an asri bi’ibaadee fadrib lahum tareeqan fil bahri yabasal laa takhaafu darakanw wa laa takhshaa
77. And We had inspired to Moses, “Travel by night with My servants and strike for them a dry path through the sea; you will not fear being overtaken [by Pharaoh] nor be afraid [of drowning].”
فَأَتْبَعَهُمْ فِرْعَوْنُ بِجُنُودِهِۦ فَغَشِيَهُم مِّنَ ٱلْيَمِّ مَا غَشِيَهُمْ
Fa atba’ahum Fir’awnu bijunoodihee faghashiyahum minal yammmi maa ghashi yahum
78. So Pharaoh pursued them with his soldiers, and there covered them from the sea that which covered them,
وَأَضَلَّ فِرْعَوْنُ قَوْمَهُۥ وَمَا هَدَىٰ
wa adalla fir’awnu qawmahoo wa maa hadaa
79. And Pharaoh led his people astray and did not guide [them].
يَـٰبَنِىٓ إِسْرَٰٓءِيلَ قَدْ أَنجَيْنَـٰكُم مِّنْ عَدُوِّكُمْ وَوَٰعَدْنَـٰكُمْ جَانِبَ ٱلطُّورِ ٱلْأَيْمَنَ وَنَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكُمُ ٱلْمَنَّ وَٱلسَّلْوَىٰ
Yaa Baneee Israaa’eela qad anjainaakum min ‘aduw wikum wa wa’adnaakum jaanibat Tooril aimana wa nazzalnaa ‘alaikumul Manna was Salwaa
80. O Children of Israel, We delivered you from your enemy, and We made an appointment with you at the right side of the mount, and We sent down to you manna and quails,
كُلُوا۟ مِن طَيِّبَـٰتِ مَا رَزَقْنَـٰكُمْ وَلَا تَطْغَوْا۟ فِيهِ فَيَحِلَّ عَلَيْكُمْ غَضَبِى ۖ وَمَن يَحْلِلْ عَلَيْهِ غَضَبِى فَقَدْ هَوَىٰ
Kuloo min taiyibaati maa razaqnaakum wa laa tatghaw feehi fa yahilla ‘alaikum ghadabee wa mai yahlil ‘alaihi ghadabee faqad hawaa
81. [Saying], “Eat from the good things with which We have provided you and do not transgress [or oppress others] therein, lest My anger should descend upon you. And he upon whom My anger descends has certainly fallen.”
وَإِنِّى لَغَفَّارٌۭ لِّمَن تَابَ وَءَامَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَـٰلِحًۭا ثُمَّ ٱهْتَدَىٰ
Wa innee la Ghaffaarul liman taaba wa aamana wa ‘amila saalihan summah tadaa
82. But indeed, I am the Perpetual Forgiver of whoever repents and believes and does righteousness and then continues in guidance.
۞ وَمَآ أَعْجَلَكَ عَن قَوْمِكَ يَـٰمُوسَىٰ
Wa maaa a’jalaka ‘an qawmika yaa Moosa
83. [Allah] said, “And what made you hasten from your people, O Moses?”
قَالَ هُمْ أُو۟لَآءِ عَلَىٰٓ أَثَرِى وَعَجِلْتُ إِلَيْكَ رَبِّ لِتَرْضَىٰ
Qaala hum ulaaa’i ‘alaaa asaree wa ‘ajiltu ilaika Rabbi litardaa
84. He said, “They are close upon my tracks, and I hastened to You, my Lord, that You be pleased.”
قَالَ فَإِنَّا قَدْ فَتَنَّا قَوْمَكَ مِنۢ بَعْدِكَ وَأَضَلَّهُمُ ٱلسَّامِرِىُّ
Qaala fa innaa qad fatannaa qawmaka mim ba’dika wa adallahumus Saamiriyy
85. [ Allah ] said, “But indeed, We have tried your people after you [departed], and the Samiri has led them astray.”
فَرَجَعَ مُوسَىٰٓ إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِۦ غَضْبَـٰنَ أَسِفًۭا ۚ قَالَ يَـٰقَوْمِ أَلَمْ يَعِدْكُمْ رَبُّكُمْ وَعْدًا حَسَنًا ۚ أَفَطَالَ عَلَيْكُمُ ٱلْعَهْدُ أَمْ أَرَدتُّمْ أَن يَحِلَّ عَلَيْكُمْ غَضَبٌۭ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ فَأَخْلَفْتُم مَّوْعِدِى
Faraja’s Moosaaa ilaa qawmihee ghadbaana asifaa; qaala yaa qawmi alam ya’idkum Rabbukum wa’dan hasanaa; afataala ‘alaikumul ‘ahdu am arattum ai yahilla ‘alaikum ghadabum mir Rabbikum fa akhlaftum maw’idee
86. So Moses returned to his people, angry and grieved. He said, “O my people, did your Lord not make you a good promise? Then, was the time [of its fulfillment] too long for you, or did you wish that wrath from your Lord descend upon you, so you broke your promise [of obedience] to me?”
قَالُوا۟ مَآ أَخْلَفْنَا مَوْعِدَكَ بِمَلْكِنَا وَلَـٰكِنَّا حُمِّلْنَآ أَوْزَارًۭا مِّن زِينَةِ ٱلْقَوْمِ فَقَذَفْنَـٰهَا فَكَذَٰلِكَ أَلْقَى ٱلسَّامِرِىُّ
Qaaloo maaa akhlafnaa maw’idaka bimalkinna wa laakinna hummilnaaa awzaaram min zeenatil qawmi faqazafnaahaa fakazaalika alqas Saamiriyy
87. They said, “We did not break our promise to you by our will, but we were made to carry burdens from the ornaments of the people [of Pharaoh], so we threw them [into the fire], and thus did the Samiri throw.”
فَأَخْرَجَ لَهُمْ عِجْلًۭا جَسَدًۭا لَّهُۥ خُوَارٌۭ فَقَالُوا۟ هَـٰذَآ إِلَـٰهُكُمْ وَإِلَـٰهُ مُوسَىٰ فَنَسِىَ
Fa akhraja lahum ‘ijlan jasadal lahoo khuwaarun faqaaloo haazaaa ilaahukum wa ilaahu Moosaa fanasee
88. And he extracted for them [the statue of] a calf which had a lowing sound, and they said, “This is your god and the god of Moses, but he forgot.”
أَفَلَا يَرَوْنَ أَلَّا يَرْجِعُ إِلَيْهِمْ قَوْلًۭا وَلَا يَمْلِكُ لَهُمْ ضَرًّۭا وَلَا نَفْعًۭا
Afalaa yarawna allaa yarji’u ilaihim qawlanw wa laa yamliku lahum darranw wa laa naf’aa (section 4)
89. Did they not see that it could not return to them any speech and that it did not possess for them any harm or benefit?
وَلَقَدْ قَالَ لَهُمْ هَـٰرُونُ مِن قَبْلُ يَـٰقَوْمِ إِنَّمَا فُتِنتُم بِهِۦ ۖ وَإِنَّ رَبَّكُمُ ٱلرَّحْمَـٰنُ فَٱتَّبِعُونِى وَأَطِيعُوٓا۟ أَمْرِى
Wa laqad qaala lahum Haaroonu min qablu yaa qawmi innamaa futintum bihee wa inna Rabbakumur Rahmaanu fattabi’oonee wa atee’ooo amree
90. And Aaron had already told them before [the return of Moses], “O my people, you are only being tested by it, and indeed, your Lord is the Most Merciful, so follow me and obey my order.”
قَالُوا۟ لَن نَّبْرَحَ عَلَيْهِ عَـٰكِفِينَ حَتَّىٰ يَرْجِعَ إِلَيْنَا مُوسَىٰ
Qaaloo lan nabraha ‘alaihi ‘aakifeena hattaa yarji’a ilainaa Moosaa
91. They said, “We will never cease being devoted to the calf until Moses returns to us.”
قَالَ يَـٰهَـٰرُونُ مَا مَنَعَكَ إِذْ رَأَيْتَهُمْ ضَلُّوٓا۟
Qaala Yaa Haaroonu maa mana ‘aka iz ra aitahum dallooo
92. [Moses] said, “O Aaron, what prevented you, when you saw them going astray,
أَلَّا تَتَّبِعَنِ ۖ أَفَعَصَيْتَ أَمْرِى
Allaa tattabi’ani afa’asaita amree
93. From following me? Then have you disobeyed my order?”
قَالَ يَبْنَؤُمَّ لَا تَأْخُذْ بِلِحْيَتِى وَلَا بِرَأْسِىٓ ۖ إِنِّى خَشِيتُ أَن تَقُولَ فَرَّقْتَ بَيْنَ بَنِىٓ إِسْرَٰٓءِيلَ وَلَمْ تَرْقُبْ قَوْلِى
Qaala yabna’umma laa taakhuz bilihyatee wa laa biraasee innee khashetu an taqoola farraqta baina Baneee Israaa’eela wa lam tarqub qawlee
94. [Aaron] said, “O son of my mother, do not seize [me] by my beard or by my head. Indeed, I feared that you would say, ‘You caused division among the Children of Israel, and you did not observe [or await] my word.’ “
قَالَ فَمَا خَطْبُكَ يَـٰسَـٰمِرِىُّ
Qaala famaa khatbuka yaa Saamiriyy
95. [Moses] said, “And what is your case, O Samiri?”
قَالَ بَصُرْتُ بِمَا لَمْ يَبْصُرُوا۟ بِهِۦ فَقَبَضْتُ قَبْضَةًۭ مِّنْ أَثَرِ ٱلرَّسُولِ فَنَبَذْتُهَا وَكَذَٰلِكَ سَوَّلَتْ لِى نَفْسِى
Qaala basurtu bimaa lam yabsuroo bihee faqabadtu qabdatam min asarir Rasooli fanabaztuhaa wa kazaalika sawwalat lee nafsee
96. He said, “I saw what they did not see, so I took a handful [of dust] from the track of the messenger and threw it, and thus did my soul entice me.”
قَالَ فَٱذْهَبْ فَإِنَّ لَكَ فِى ٱلْحَيَوٰةِ أَن تَقُولَ لَا مِسَاسَ ۖ وَإِنَّ لَكَ مَوْعِدًۭا لَّن تُخْلَفَهُۥ ۖ وَٱنظُرْ إِلَىٰٓ إِلَـٰهِكَ ٱلَّذِى ظَلْتَ عَلَيْهِ عَاكِفًۭا ۖ لَّنُحَرِّقَنَّهُۥ ثُمَّ لَنَنسِفَنَّهُۥ فِى ٱلْيَمِّ نَسْفًا
Qaala fazhab fa inna laka fil hayaati an taqoola laa misaasa wa inna laka maw’idal lan tukhlafahoo wanzur ilaaa ilaahikal lazee zalta ‘alaihi ‘aakifaa; lanuharriqannnahoo summa lanansifanahoo fil yammi nasfaa
97. [Moses] said, “Then go. And indeed, it is [decreed] for you in [this] life to say, ‘No contact.’ And indeed, you have an appointment [in the Hereafter] you will not fail to keep. And look at your ‘god’ to which you remained devoted. We will surely burn it and blow it into the sea with a blast.
إِنَّمَآ إِلَـٰهُكُمُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ وَسِعَ كُلَّ شَىْءٍ عِلْمًۭا
Innamaaa ilaahukkumul laahul lazee laa ilaaha illaa Hoo; wasi’a kulla shai’in ilmaa
98. Your god is only Allah, except for whom there is no deity. He has encompassed all things in knowledge.”
كَذَٰلِكَ نَقُصُّ عَلَيْكَ مِنْ أَنۢبَآءِ مَا قَدْ سَبَقَ ۚ وَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَـٰكَ مِن لَّدُنَّا ذِكْرًۭا
Kazaalika naqussu ‘alaika min ambaaa’i maa qad sabaq; wa qad aatainaaka mil ladunnaa Zikraa
99. Thus, [O Muhammad], We relate to you from the news of what has preceded. And We have certainly given you from Us the Qur’an.
مَّنْ أَعْرَضَ عَنْهُ فَإِنَّهُۥ يَحْمِلُ يَوْمَ ٱلْقِيَـٰمَةِ وِزْرًا
Man a’rada ‘anhu, fa innahoo yahmilu Yawmal Qiyaamati wizraa
100. Whoever turns away from it – then indeed, he will bear on the Day of Resurrection a burden,
خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيهِ ۖ وَسَآءَ لَهُمْ يَوْمَ ٱلْقِيَـٰمَةِ حِمْلًۭا
Khaalideena feehi wa saaa’a lahum Yawmal Qiyaamati himlaa
101. [Abiding] eternally therein, and evil it is for them on the Day of Resurrection as a load –
يَوْمَ يُنفَخُ فِى ٱلصُّورِ ۚ وَنَحْشُرُ ٱلْمُجْرِمِينَ يَوْمَئِذٍۢ زُرْقًۭا
Yawma yunfakhu fissoori wa nahshurul mujrimeena Yawma ‘izin zurqaa
102. The Day the Horn will be blown. And We will gather the criminals, that Day, blue-eyed.
يَتَخَـٰفَتُونَ بَيْنَهُمْ إِن لَّبِثْتُمْ إِلَّا عَشْرًۭا
Yatakhaafatoona bainahum il labistum illaa ‘ashraa
103. They will murmur among themselves, “You remained not but ten [days in the world].”
نَّحْنُ أَعْلَمُ بِمَا يَقُولُونَ إِذْ يَقُولُ أَمْثَلُهُمْ طَرِيقَةً إِن لَّبِثْتُمْ إِلَّا يَوْمًۭا
nahnu a’lamu bimaa yaqooloona iz yaqoolu amsaluhum tareeqatan illabistum illaa yawmaa (section 5)
104. We are most knowing of what they say when the best of them in manner will say, “You remained not but one day.”
وَيَسْـَٔلُونَكَ عَنِ ٱلْجِبَالِ فَقُلْ يَنسِفُهَا رَبِّى نَسْفًۭا
Wa yas’aloonaka ‘anil jibaali faqul yansifuhaa Rabbee nasfaam
105. And they ask you about the mountains, so say, “My Lord will blow them away with a blast.
فَيَذَرُهَا قَاعًۭا صَفْصَفًۭا
Fa yazaruhaa qaa’an safsafaam
106. And He will leave the earth a level plain;
لَّا تَرَىٰ فِيهَا عِوَجًۭا وَلَآ أَمْتًۭا
Laa taraa feehaa ‘iwajanw wa laaa amtaa
107. You will not see therein a depression or an elevation.”
يَوْمَئِذٍۢ يَتَّبِعُونَ ٱلدَّاعِىَ لَا عِوَجَ لَهُۥ ۖ وَخَشَعَتِ ٱلْأَصْوَاتُ لِلرَّحْمَـٰنِ فَلَا تَسْمَعُ إِلَّا هَمْسًۭا
Yawma iziny yattabi’oonad daa’iya laa ‘iwaja lahoo wa khasha’atil aswaatu lir Rahmaani falaa tasma’u illaa hamsaa
108. That Day, everyone will follow [the call of] the Caller [with] no deviation therefrom, and [all] voices will be stilled before the Most Merciful, so you will not hear except a whisper [of footsteps].
يَوْمَئِذٍۢ لَّا تَنفَعُ ٱلشَّفَـٰعَةُ إِلَّا مَنْ أَذِنَ لَهُ ٱلرَّحْمَـٰنُ وَرَضِىَ لَهُۥ قَوْلًۭا
Yawma ‘izil laa tanfa’ush shafaa’atu illaa man azina lahur Rahmaanu wa radiya lahoo qawlaa
109. That Day, no intercession will benefit except [that of] one to whom the Most Merciful has given permission and has accepted his word.
يَعْلَمُ مَا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَلَا يُحِيطُونَ بِهِۦ عِلْمًۭا
Ya’lamu maa bainaa aideehim wa maa khalfahum wa laa yauheetoona bihee ‘ilmaa
110. Allah knows what is [presently] before them and what will be after them, but they do not encompass it in knowledge.
۞ وَعَنَتِ ٱلْوُجُوهُ لِلْحَىِّ ٱلْقَيُّومِ ۖ وَقَدْ خَابَ مَنْ حَمَلَ ظُلْمًۭا
Wa ‘anatil wujoohu lil Haiiyil Qaiyoomi wa qad khaaba man hamala zulmaa
111. And [all] faces will be humbled before the Ever-Living, the Sustainer of existence. And he will have failed who carries injustice.
وَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِنَ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌۭ فَلَا يَخَافُ ظُلْمًۭا وَلَا هَضْمًۭا
Wa mai ya’mal minas saalihaati wa huwa mu’minun falaa yakhaafu zulmanw wa laa hadmaa
112. But he who does of righteous deeds while he is a believer – he will neither fear injustice nor deprivation.
وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَنزَلْنَـٰهُ قُرْءَانًا عَرَبِيًّۭا وَصَرَّفْنَا فِيهِ مِنَ ٱلْوَعِيدِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ أَوْ يُحْدِثُ لَهُمْ ذِكْرًۭا
Wa kazaalika anzalnaahu Qur-aanan ‘Arabiyyanw wa sarrafnaa fee hi minal wa’eedi la’allahum yattaqoona aw yuhdisu lahum zikraa
113. And thus We have sent it down as an Arabic Qur’an and have diversified therein the warnings that perhaps they will avoid [sin] or it would cause them remembrance.
فَتَعَـٰلَى ٱللَّهُ ٱلْمَلِكُ ٱلْحَقُّ ۗ وَلَا تَعْجَلْ بِٱلْقُرْءَانِ مِن قَبْلِ أَن يُقْضَىٰٓ إِلَيْكَ وَحْيُهُۥ ۖ وَقُل رَّبِّ زِدْنِى عِلْمًۭا
Fata’aalal laahul Malikul Haqq; wa laa ta’jal bil Quraani min qabli ai yuqdaaa ilaika wahyuhoo wa qur Rabbi zidnee ‘ilmaa
114. So high [above all] is Allah, the Sovereign, the Truth. And, [O Muhammad], do not hasten with [recitation of] the Qur’an before its revelation is completed to you, and say, “My Lord, increase me in knowledge.”
وَلَقَدْ عَهِدْنَآ إِلَىٰٓ ءَادَمَ مِن قَبْلُ فَنَسِىَ وَلَمْ نَجِدْ لَهُۥ عَزْمًۭا
Wa laqad ‘ahidnaaa ilaaa Aadama min qablu fanasiya wa lam najid lahoo ‘azmaa (section 6)
115. And We had already taken a promise from Adam before, but he forgot; and We found not in him determination.
وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَـٰٓئِكَةِ ٱسْجُدُوا۟ لِءَادَمَ فَسَجَدُوٓا۟ إِلَّآ إِبْلِيسَ أَبَىٰ
Wa iz qulnaa lilma laaa’ikatis judoo li Aadama fasajadooo illaaa Iblees; abaam
116. And [mention] when We said to the angels, “Prostrate to Adam,” and they prostrated, except Iblees; he refused.
فَقُلْنَا يَـٰٓـَٔادَمُ إِنَّ هَـٰذَا عَدُوٌّۭ لَّكَ وَلِزَوْجِكَ فَلَا يُخْرِجَنَّكُمَا مِنَ ٱلْجَنَّةِ فَتَشْقَىٰٓ
Faqulnaa yaaa Aadamu inna haazaa ‘aduwwul laka wa lizawjika falaa yukhrijan nakumaa minal Jannati fatashqaa
117. So We said, “O Adam, indeed this is an enemy to you and to your wife. Then let him not remove you from Paradise so you would suffer.
إِنَّ لَكَ أَلَّا تَجُوعَ فِيهَا وَلَا تَعْرَىٰ
Innaa laka allaa tajoo’a feeha wa laa ta’raa
118. Indeed, it is [promised] for you not to be hungry therein or be unclothed.
وَأَنَّكَ لَا تَظْمَؤُا۟ فِيهَا وَلَا تَضْحَىٰ
Wa annaka laa tazma’u feehaa wa laa tadhaa
119. And indeed, you will not be thirsty therein or be hot from the sun.”
فَوَسْوَسَ إِلَيْهِ ٱلشَّيْطَـٰنُ قَالَ يَـٰٓـَٔادَمُ هَلْ أَدُلُّكَ عَلَىٰ شَجَرَةِ ٱلْخُلْدِ وَمُلْكٍۢ لَّا يَبْلَىٰ
Fa waswasa ilaihish Shaitaanu qaala yaaa Aadamu hal adulluka ‘alaa shajaratil khuldi wa mulkil laa yablaa
120. Then Satan whispered to him; he said, “O Adam, shall I direct you to the tree of eternity and possession that will not deteriorate?”
فَأَكَلَا مِنْهَا فَبَدَتْ لَهُمَا سَوْءَٰتُهُمَا وَطَفِقَا يَخْصِفَانِ عَلَيْهِمَا مِن وَرَقِ ٱلْجَنَّةِ ۚ وَعَصَىٰٓ ءَادَمُ رَبَّهُۥ فَغَوَىٰ
Fa akalaa minhaa fabadat lahumaa saw aatuhumaa wa tafiqaa yakhsifaani ‘alaihimaa minw waraqil jannah; wa ‘asaaa Aadamu Rabbahoo faghawaa
121. And Adam and his wife ate of it, and their private parts became apparent to them, and they began to fasten over themselves from the leaves of Paradise. And Adam disobeyed his Lord and erred.
ثُمَّ ٱجْتَبَـٰهُ رَبُّهُۥ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ وَهَدَىٰ
Summaj tabbahu Rabbuhoo fataaba ‘alaihi wa hadaa
122. Then his Lord chose him and turned to him in forgiveness and guided [him].
قَالَ ٱهْبِطَا مِنْهَا جَمِيعًۢا ۖ بَعْضُكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّۭ ۖ فَإِمَّا يَأْتِيَنَّكُم مِّنِّى هُدًۭى فَمَنِ ٱتَّبَعَ هُدَاىَ فَلَا يَضِلُّ وَلَا يَشْقَىٰ
Qaalah bita minhaa jamee’am ba’dukum liba’din ‘aduww; fa immaa yaati yannakum minnee hudan famanit taba’a hudaaya falaa yadillu wa laa yashhqaa
123. [ Allah ] said, “Descend from Paradise – all, [your descendants] being enemies to one another. And if there should come to you guidance from Me – then whoever follows My guidance will neither go astray [in the world] nor suffer [in the Hereafter].
وَمَنْ أَعْرَضَ عَن ذِكْرِى فَإِنَّ لَهُۥ مَعِيشَةًۭ ضَنكًۭا وَنَحْشُرُهُۥ يَوْمَ ٱلْقِيَـٰمَةِ أَعْمَىٰ
Wa man a’rada ‘an Zikree fa inna lahoo ma’eeshatan dankanw wa nahshuruhoo Yawmal Qiyaamati a’maa
124. And whoever turns away from My remembrance – indeed, he will have a depressed life, and We will gather him on the Day of Resurrection blind.”
قَالَ رَبِّ لِمَ حَشَرْتَنِىٓ أَعْمَىٰ وَقَدْ كُنتُ بَصِيرًۭا
Qaala Rabbi lima hashar tanee a’maa wa qad kuntu baseeraa
125. He will say, “My Lord, why have you raised me blind while I was [once] seeing?”
قَالَ كَذَٰلِكَ أَتَتْكَ ءَايَـٰتُنَا فَنَسِيتَهَا ۖ وَكَذَٰلِكَ ٱلْيَوْمَ تُنسَىٰ
Qaala kazaalika atatka Aayaatunaa fanaseetahaa wa kazaalikal Yawma tunsaa
126. [ Allah ] will say, “Thus did Our signs come to you, and you forgot them; and thus will you this Day be forgotten.”
وَكَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِى مَنْ أَسْرَفَ وَلَمْ يُؤْمِنۢ بِـَٔايَـٰتِ رَبِّهِۦ ۚ وَلَعَذَابُ ٱلْءَاخِرَةِ أَشَدُّ وَأَبْقَىٰٓ
Wa kazaalika najzee man asrafa wa lam yu’mim bi Aayaati Rabbih; wa la’azaabul Aakhirati ashaddu wa abqaa
127. And thus do We recompense he who transgressed and did not believe in the signs of his Lord. And the punishment of the Hereafter is more severe and more enduring.
أَفَلَمْ يَهْدِ لَهُمْ كَمْ أَهْلَكْنَا قَبْلَهُم مِّنَ ٱلْقُرُونِ يَمْشُونَ فِى مَسَـٰكِنِهِمْ ۗ إِنَّ فِى ذَٰلِكَ لَءَايَـٰتٍۢ لِّأُو۟لِى ٱلنُّهَىٰ
Afalam yahdi lahum kam ahlaknaa qablahum minal qurooni yamshoona fee masaakinihim; inna fee zaalika la Aayaatil li ulinnuhaa (section 7)
128. Then, has it not become clear to them how many generations We destroyed before them as they walk among their dwellings? Indeed in that are signs for those of intelligence.
وَلَوْلَا كَلِمَةٌۭ سَبَقَتْ مِن رَّبِّكَ لَكَانَ لِزَامًۭا وَأَجَلٌۭ مُّسَمًّۭى
Wa law laa Kalimatun sabaqat mir Rabbika lakaana lizaamanw wa ajalum musammaa
129. And if not for a word that preceded from your Lord, punishment would have been an obligation [due immediately], and [if not for] a specified term [decreed].
فَٱصْبِرْ عَلَىٰ مَا يَقُولُونَ وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ قَبْلَ طُلُوعِ ٱلشَّمْسِ وَقَبْلَ غُرُوبِهَا ۖ وَمِنْ ءَانَآئِ ٱلَّيْلِ فَسَبِّحْ وَأَطْرَافَ ٱلنَّهَارِ لَعَلَّكَ تَرْضَىٰ
Fasbir ‘alaa maa yaqooloona wa sabbih bihamdi Rabbika qabla tuloo’ish shamsi wa qabla ghuroobihaa wa min aanaaa’il laili fasabbih wa atraafan nahaari la ‘allaka tardaa
130. So be patient over what they say and exalt [ Allah ] with praise of your Lord before the rising of the sun and before its setting; and during periods of the night [exalt Him] and at the ends of the day, that you may be satisfied.
وَلَا تَمُدَّنَّ عَيْنَيْكَ إِلَىٰ مَا مَتَّعْنَا بِهِۦٓ أَزْوَٰجًۭا مِّنْهُمْ زَهْرَةَ ٱلْحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنْيَا لِنَفْتِنَهُمْ فِيهِ ۚ وَرِزْقُ رَبِّكَ خَيْرٌۭ وَأَبْقَىٰ
Wa laa tamuddanna ‘ainaika ilaa ma matta’na biheee azwajam minhum zahratal hayaatid dunya linaftinahum feeh; wa rizqu Rabbika khairunw wa abqaa
131. And do not extend your eyes toward that by which We have given enjoyment to [some] categories of them, [its being but] the splendor of worldly life by which We test them. And the provision of your Lord is better and more enduring.
وَأْمُرْ أَهْلَكَ بِٱلصَّلَوٰةِ وَٱصْطَبِرْ عَلَيْهَا ۖ لَا نَسْـَٔلُكَ رِزْقًۭا ۖ نَّحْنُ نَرْزُقُكَ ۗ وَٱلْعَـٰقِبَةُ لِلتَّقْوَىٰ
Waamur ahlaka bis Salaati wastabir ‘alaihaa la nas’aluka rizqaa; nahnu narzuquk; wal ‘aaqibatu littaqwaa
132. And enjoin prayer upon your family [and people] and be steadfast therein. We ask you not for provision; We provide for you, and the [best] outcome is for [those of] righteousness.
وَقَالُوا۟ لَوْلَا يَأْتِينَا بِـَٔايَةٍۢ مِّن رَّبِّهِۦٓ ۚ أَوَلَمْ تَأْتِهِم بَيِّنَةُ مَا فِى ٱلصُّحُفِ ٱلْأُولَىٰ
Wa qaaloo law laa yaateenaa bi Aayatim mmir Rabbih; awalam taatihim baiyinatu maa fis suhufil oolaa
133. And they say, “Why does he not bring us a sign from his Lord?” Has there not come to them evidence of what was in the former scriptures?
وَلَوْ أَنَّآ أَهْلَكْنَـٰهُم بِعَذَابٍۢ مِّن قَبْلِهِۦ لَقَالُوا۟ رَبَّنَا لَوْلَآ أَرْسَلْتَ إِلَيْنَا رَسُولًۭا فَنَتَّبِعَ ءَايَـٰتِكَ مِن قَبْلِ أَن نَّذِلَّ وَنَخْزَىٰ
Wa law annaaa ahlaknaahum bi’azaabim min qablihee laqaaloo Rabbanaa law laaa arsalta ilainaa Rasoolan fanattabi’a Aayaatika min qabli an nazilla wa nakhzaa
134. And if We had destroyed them with a punishment before him, they would have said, “Our Lord, why did You not send to us a messenger so we could have followed Your verses before we were humiliated and disgraced?”
قُلْ كُلٌّۭ مُّتَرَبِّصٌۭ فَتَرَبَّصُوا۟ ۖ فَسَتَعْلَمُونَ مَنْ أَصْحَـٰبُ ٱلصِّرَٰطِ ٱلسَّوِىِّ وَمَنِ ٱهْتَدَىٰ
Qul kullum mutarabbisun fatarabbasoo fasta’lamoona man Ashaabus Siraatis Sawiyyi wa manih tadaa (section 8) (End Juz 16)
135. Say, “Each [of us] is waiting; so wait. For you will know who are the companions of the sound path and who is guided.”
The Tafsir of Surah Ta Ha
Chapter – 20
Which was revealed at Makkah
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. Ta Ha.) (2. We have not sent down the Qur’an unto you to cause you distress,) (3. But only as a Reminder to those who fear (Allah).) (4. A revelation from Him Who created the earth and high heavens.) (5. The Most Gracious Istawa the Throne.) (6. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth, and all that is between them, and all that is under the soil.) (7. And if you speak aloud, then verily, He knows the secret and that which is yet more hidden.) (8. Allah! There is no God but Him! To Him belong the Best Names.)
The Qur’an is a Reminder and a Revelation from Allah
We have already discussed the separated letters at the beginning of Surah Al-Baqarah, so there is no need to repeat its discussion here. Allah says,
(We have not sent down the Qur’an unto you to cause you distress,) Juwaybir reported that Ad-Dahhak said, “When Allah sent the Qur’an down to His Messenger , he and his Companions adh- ered to it. Thus, the idolators of the Quraysh said, `This Qur’an was only reve- aled to Muhammad to cause him distress.’ Therefore, Allah revealed,
(Ta Ha. We have not sent down the Qur’an unto you to cause you distress, but only as a Reminder to those who fear (Allah).) The matter is not like the people of falsehood claim. Rather, whomever Allah gives knowledge to, it is because Allah wants him to have an abundance of good. This like what is confirmed in the Two Sahihs on the authority of Ibn Mas`ud, who said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Whomever Allah wants good for, then He gives him the understanding of the religion. ) Mujahid commented on Allah’s statement,
(We have not sent down the Qur’an unto you to cause you distress,) “This is like His statement,
(So recite as much of the Qur’an as may be easy (for you).) ﴿73:20﴾ For, the people used to hang ropes at their chests (to hang on to when tired) in the prayer.” Qatadah said,
(We have not sent down the Qur’an unto you to cause you distress,) “No, by Allah, He did not make it a thing of distress. Rather, He made it a mercy, a light and a guide to Paradise.” Allah said,
(But only as a Reminder to those who fear (Allah).) Allah revealed His Book and sent His Messenger as a mercy for His servants, so that the person who reflects may be reminded. Thus, a man will benefit from what he hears of the Book of Allah, it is a remembrance in which Allah revealed what He permits and prohibits. His saying,
(A Revelation from Him (Allah) Who has created the earth and high heavens. ) means, `This Qur’an, which has come to you, O Muhammad, is a revelation from your Lord. He is the Lord of everything and its King. He is Most Able to do whatever He wills. He created the earth with its low depths and dense regions. He created the lofty heavens with their high altitudes and subtleties.’ It has been reported in a Hadith, which At-Tirmidhi and others graded as authentic, that the density of each sky of the heavens is the distance of five hundred years travel and the distance between it and the next heaven is also five hundred years. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(The Most Gracious Istawa the Throne.) A discussion concerning this has already preceded in Surat Al-A`raf, so there is no need to repeat it here. The safest path to take in understanding this, is the way of the Salaf (predecessors). Their way was to accept that which has been reported concerning this from the Book and the Sunnah without describing it, reinterpreting it, resembling it to creation, rejecting it, or comparing it to attributes of the creatures. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth, and all that is between them, and all that is under the soil.) This means all of this is owned by Him and in His grasp. It is all under His control, will, intent and judgement. He created all of this, He owns it and He is the God of all of it. There is no true God other than He and no Lord other than He. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(and all that is under the soil.) Muhammad bin Ka`b said, “This means that which is beneath the seventh earth.” Concerning Allah’s statement,
(And if you speak aloud, then verily, He knows the secret and that which is yet more hidden.) This means that He Who revealed this Qur’an, has also created the high heavens and the earth and He knows that which is secret and what is even more hidden. As Allah says,
(Say: “It has been sent down by Him Who knows the secret of the heavens and the earth. Truly, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”) ﴿25:6﴾ `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said,
(He knows the secret and that which is yet more hidden.) “The secret is what the son of Adam hides within himself, and
(that which is yet more hidden. ) is the deeds of the son of Adam, which are hidden before he does them. Allah knows all of that. His knowledge encompasses that which has passed and that which is in the future and it is one, complete knowledge. In this regard, all of the creatures are as one soul to Him. That is the meaning of His statement,
(The creation of you all and the resurrection of you all are only as a single person.) ﴿31:28﴾ Concerning Allah’s statement,
(Allah! There is no God but Him! To Him belongs the Best Names.) This means, `He Who revealed this Qur’an to you (O Muhammad), He is Allah, there is no God except Him. He is the Owner of the Best Names and the most lofty attributes.’
(9. And has there come to you the story of Musa) (10. When he saw a fire, he said to his family: “Wait! Verily, I have seen a fire; perhaps I can bring you some burning brand therefrom, or find some guidance at the fire.”)
A Discussion of the Message of Musa
From this point, Allah begins to mention the story of Musa, how revelation began to come to Him, and Allah’s speaking directly to him. This occurred after Musa had completed the time agreed upon between he and his father-in-law that he would herd sheep. He was traveling with his family, and it has been said that he was headed for the land of Egypt, after having been away from it for more than ten years. He had his wife with him and he became lost on the way during a cold, wintery night. Therefore, he settled down, making a camp between some mountain passes and mountains that were covered with snow, sleet, dense clouds, darkness and fog. He began to try to make a fire with a kindling device he had with him, in order to produce some light, as was customary. However, it would not kindle anything and it even stopped giving off sparks. While he was in this condition, he saw a fire from the side of the mountain. It appeared to him to be a fire glowing from the right side of the mountain from where he was. He then announced the good news to his family saying,
(Verily, I have seen a fire; perhaps I can bring you some burning brand) This means a flame from a fire. In another Ayah he said,
(or a burning firebrand.) ﴿28:29﴾) This is a coal that has a burning flame.
(that you may warm yourselves. ) ﴿28:29﴾ This proves that it was in fact cold weather at that time. Concerning his statement,
(some burning brand) This proves that it was dark. In reference to his statement,
(or find some guidance at the fire.) This means someone who can guide me to the road. This proves that he lost the road. This is as Ath-Thawri reported from Abu Sa`id Al-A`war, from `Ikrimah, from Ibn `Abbas that he said concerning Allah’s statement,
(or find some guidance at the fire.) “This means someone who will guide me to the road. They were cold and had lost their way. Then, when he (Musa) saw the fire he said, `Either I will find someone who can guide us to the road, or at least I can bring you all some fire that you can kindle with.’ ”
(11. And when he came to it (the fire), he was called by name: “O Musa!”) (12. “Verily, I am your Lord! So take off your shoes; you are in the sacred valley, Tuwa.”) (13. “And I have chosen you. So listen to that which will be revealed (to you)”) (14. “Verily, I am Allah! There is no God but Me, so worship Me, and perform Salah for My remembrance.”) (15. “Verily, the Hour is coming — and I am almost hiding it — that every person may be rewarded for that which he strives.”) (16. “Therefore, let not the one who believes not therein, but follows his own lusts, divert you therefrom, lest you perish.”)
The First Revelation to Musa
Allah, the Exalted, says,
(And when he came to it,) This is referring to the fire when he approached it.
(He was called by name: “O Musa!”) In another Ayah it says,
(He was called from the right side of the valley, in the blessed place, from the tree: “O Musa! Verily, I am Allah.”)﴿28:30﴾ However, here Allah says,
(Verily, I am your Lord!) meaning, `the One Who is talking to you and addressing you,’
(So take off your shoes;) `Ali bin Abi Talib, Abu Dharr, Abu Ayyub and others of the Salaf said, “They (his sandals) were from the skin of a donkey that was not slaughtered.” It has also been said that he was only commanded to remove his sandals due to respect for the blessed spot. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(Tuwa) `Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas said, “It is the name of the valley.” Others have said the same. This is merely mentioned as something to give more explanation to the story. It has also been said that it is a figure of speech, which comes from the command to place his feet down. It has also been said that it means `doubly sacred’ and that Tuwa is something that has repetitious blessings. However, the first opinion is most correct. It is similar to Allah’s statement,
(When his Lord called him in the sacred valley of Tuwa.) ﴿79:16﴾ Allah’s statement,
(And I have chosen you.) is similar to His statement,
(I have chosen you above men by My Messages, and by My speaking (to you).) ﴿7:144﴾ This means over all human beings of that time. It has also been said that Allah said, “O Musa, do you know why I chose to speak to you directly out of all of the people” Musa said, “No.” Allah then said, “Because I have not made anyone humble himself as much as you have humbled yourself. ” Concerning Allah’s statement,
(So listen to that which will be revealed.) “Now listen to what I say to you and what I reveal to you.”
(Verily, I am Allah! There is no God but Me,) This is the first obligation upon all responsible people of age, that they know that there is no God worthy of worship except Allah alone, Who has no partners. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(so worship Me,) This means, “Single Me out alone for worship, and establish My worship without associating anything with Me.”
(and perform Salah for My remembrance.) It has been said that this means, “Pray in order to remember Me.” It has also been said that it means, “And establish the prayer whenever you remember Me.” There is a supporting evidence for this second statement in a Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad from Anas, who said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Whenever one of you sleeps past the prayer, or he forgets to pray, then let him pray when he remembers it. For verily, Allah said, (And perform Salah for My remembrance.)) In the Two Sahihs it is reported from Anas that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Whoever slept past the prayer, or forgot it, then his expiation is that he prays it when he remembers it. There is no expiation for it other than that.) Concerning Allah’s statement,
(Verily, the Hour is coming) This means that it is established and there is no avoiding it. It will be and it is inevitable. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(I am almost hiding it) Ad-Dahhak related from Ibn `Abbas that he used to recite it as, “I almost kept it hidden — from myself.” Ibn `Abbas then would say, “Because nothing is ever hidden from Allah’s Self.” `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said,
(I am almost hiding it.) “This means that no one knows its appointed time except Me (Allah).” Allah also said,
(Heavy is its burden through the heavens and the earth. It shall not come upon you except all of a sudden.) ﴿7:187﴾ This means that its knowledge weighs heavily upon the dwellers of the heavens and the earth. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(that every person may be rewarded for that which he strives.) “I will establish it and it is inevitable. I will certainly reward every person who does something, according to what he did.”
(So whosoever does good equal to the weight of an atom shall see it. And whosoever does evil equal to the weight of an atom shall see it.) ﴿99:7-8﴾
(You are only being requited for what you used to do.) ﴿52:16﴾ Allah said,
(Therefore, let not divert you the one who believes not therein,) The address here is directed towards all individuals who are responsible (and capable of taking heed to this message). This means, “Do not follow the way of the person who does not believe in the Hour (Day of Judgement) and he only pursues his desires in this worldly life. He disobeys his Lord and only follows his desires. Whoever behaves like these people, then verily he has failed and lost.
(lest you perish.) This means that you will be destroyed and ruined.
(And what will his wealth avail him when he goes down (in destruction)) ﴿92:11﴾
(17. “And what is that in your right hand, O Musa”) (18. He said: “This is my stick, whereon I lean, and wherewith I beat down branches for my sheep, and wherein I find other uses.”) (19. (Allah) said: “Cast it down, O Musa!”) (20. He cast it down, and behold! It was a snake, moving quickly. ) (21. Allah said: “Grasp it and fear not; We shall return it to its former state.”)
The Stick of Musa turned into a Snake
This was a proof from Allah for Musa and a great miracle. This was something that broke through the boundaries of what is considered normal, thus, it was a brilliant evidence that none but Allah could do. It was also a proof that no one could come with the likes of this (from mankind) except a Prophet who was sent (by Allah). Concerning Allah’s statement,
(And what is that in your right hand, O Musa) Some of the scholars of Tafsir have said, “He (Allah) only said this to him in order to draw his attention to it.” It has also been said, “He only said this to him in order to affirm for him what was in his hand. In other words, that which is in your right hand is a stick that you are familiar with. You will see what We are about to do to it now.”
(And what is that in your right hand, O Musa) This is an interrogative phrase for the purpose of affirmation.
(He said: “This is my stick, whereon I lean…”) I lean on it while I am walking.
(and wherewith I beat down branches for my sheep,) This means, `I use it to shake the branches of trees so that the leaves will fall for my sheep to eat them. ‘ `Abdur-Rahman bin Al-Qasim reported from Imam Malik that he said, “﴿It is﴾ when a man places his staff into a branch and shakes it so that its leaves and fruit will fall without breaking the stick. It is not the same as striking or beating.” Maymun bin Mahran also said the same. Concerning his statement,
(and wherein I find other uses.) This means other benefits, services and needs besides this. Some of the scholars took upon themselves the burden of mentioning many of these obscure uses. Concerning Allah’s statement,
((Allah) said: “Cast it down, O Musa!”) “Throw down this stick that is in your right hand, O Musa.”
(He cast it down, and behold! It was a snake, moving quickly.) This means that the stick changed into a huge snake, like a long python, and it moved with rapid movements. It moved as if it were the fastest type of small snake. Yet, it was in the form of the largest snake, while still having the fastest of movements.
(moving quickly.) moving restlessly. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(We shall return it to its former state. ) the form that it was in, as you recognized it before.
(22. “And press your (right) hand to your (left) side: it will come forth white (and shining), without any disease as another sign,”) (23. “That We may show you (some) of Our greater signs.”) (24. “Go to Fir`awn! Verily, he has transgressed.”) (25. He said: “O my Lord! Open for me my chest.”) (26. “And ease my task for me;”) (27. “And loosen the knot from my tongue,”) (28. “That they understand my speech.”) (29. “And appoint for me a helper from my family,”) (30. “Harun, my brother.”) (31. “Increase my strength with him,”) (32. “And let him share my task,”) (33. “That we may glorify You much,”) (34. “And remember You much,”) (35. “Verily, You are ever seeing us.”)
The Hand of Musa turning White without any Disease
This is the second sign of Musa. That is Allah has commanded him to place his hand into the opening of his garment, as is clearly stated in another Ayah. It mentioned here merely as a passing reference, saying:
(And press your hand to your side:) Allah said in another Ayah,
(And draw your hand close to your side to be free from fear. These are two signs from your Lord to Fir`awn and his chiefs.) ﴿28:32﴾ Mujahid said,
(And press your hand to your side:) “This means put your palm under your upper arm.” When Musa put his hand into the opening of his garment and brought it out, it came out shining as if it were a half moon. Concerning His statement,
(it will come forth white, without any disease) This means without any leprosy, ailment, or disfigurement. This was stated by Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi and others. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, “He brought it out, and by Allah, it was as if it were a lamp. From this Musa knew that he had surely met his Lord, the Mighty and Sublime.” This is why Allah says,
(That We may show you (some) of Our greater signs.)
Allah commanded Musa to go to Fir`awn to convey the Message Allah said,
(Go to Fir`awn! Verily, he has transgressed.) This means, “Go to Fir`awn, the king of Egypt, whom you left Egypt fleeing from, and invite him to the worship of Allah alone, Who has no partners. Command him to treat the Children of Israel well and to not torment them. For verily, he has transgressed, oppressed, preferred the worldly life and forgotten the Most High Lord.”
The Supplication of Musa
((Musa) said: “O my Lord! Open for me my chest, and ease my task for me.”) Musa requsted his Lord to expand his chest for his mission. For verily, He was commanding him with a great task and a weighty affair. He was sending him to the mightiest king on the face of the earth at that time. He was the most arrogant and severe of all people in his disbelief, and He had the largest army and the most powerful kingdom. He was the most tyrannical and the most obstinate of rulers. His case was such that he claimed not to know Allah at all, and that he knew of no god for his subjects other than himself. Along with this, Musa lived in his home for a period of time as a child. He stayed in Fir`awn’s own room and slept on his bed. Then, after this, he killed one of their people and feared that they would retaliate by killing him in return. Thus, he fled from them and remained an outlaw during this entire time. Then, after all of this, His Lord sent him to them as a warner calling them to worship Allah alone, without associating partners with Him. This is why he said,
(O my Lord! Open for me my chest, and ease my task for me.) This means, “I cannot perform this task if You do not help me, aid me and support me.”
(And loosen the knot from my tongue, that they understand my speech.) This is referring to the lisp that he had. This lisp was a result of an incident when he was presented a date and a hot coal stone and he placed the coal on his tongue instead of the date. A detailed explanation of this story is forthcoming in the following chapters. However, he did not ask Allah to remove this affliction all together. Rather, he asked for removal of his stammering so the people would understand what he intended in his speech. He was only asking for what was necessary to deliver his message. If he had asked for the removal of his affliction in its entirety, it would have been cured for him. However, the Prophets do not ask for any more than what is required. Therefore, he was left with the remnants of this accident that took place with his tongue. Allah informed of what Fir`awn said concerning him,
(Am I not better than this one who is despicable and can scarcely express himself clearly)﴿43:52﴾ This means that he is not eloquent in speech. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(And appoint for me a helper from my family, Harun, my brother.) This was also a request from Musa concerning something not pertaining to himself. That was his request for the assistance of his brother, Harun. Ath-Thawri reported from Abu Sa`id, from `Ikrimah, who said that Ibn `Abbas said, “Harun was made a Prophet at the same moment that Musa was made a Prophet.” Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `A’ishah went out intending to perform `Umrah and stopped to camp among some bedouins. While she was among them she heard a man say, “Which brother in this life was the most beneficial to his brother” The people said, “We do not know.” The man said, “By Allah, I know.” `A’ishah said, “I said to myself about his swearing, that he should not swear such an oath, singling himself out as knowing what person was of most benefit to his brother.” The man said, “It is Musa, when he asked for prophethood to be bestowed upon his brother.” Then `A’ishah said, “By Allah, he has spoken truthfully.” This is why Allah commended Musa by saying,
(And he was honorable before Allah.)﴿33:69﴾ Concerning Musa’s statement,
(Increase my strength with him.) Mujahid said, “This means to make my back strong.”
(And let him share my task.) make him my consultant in this matter.
(That we may glorify You much, and remember You much.) Mujahid said, “A servant of Allah is not considered of those who remember Allah much until he remembers Allah while standing, sitting and lying down.” Concerning his statement,
(Verily, You are ever seeing us.) This means in Your choosing us, giving us the prophethood and sending us to Your enemy, Fir`awn. So unto You is all praise for this.
(36. (Allah) said: “You are granted your request, O Musa!”) (37. “And indeed We conferred a favor on you another time (before).”) (38. “When We inspired your mother with that which We inspired.”) (39. “Saying: `Put him (the child) into the Tabut and put it into the river; then the river shall cast it up on the bank, and there, an enemy of Mine and an enemy of his shall take him.’ And I endued you with love from Me, in order that you may be brought up under My Eye.”) (40. “When your sister went and said: `Shall I show you one who will nurse him’ So We restored you to your mother, that she might cool her eyes and she should not grieve. Then you did kill a man, but We saved you from great distress and tried you with a heavy trial.”)
Glad Tidings of the acceptance of Musa’s Supplication and the Reminder of the Previous Blessings
This is a response from Allah to His Messenger, Musa, for what he requested from His Lord. It also contains a reminder of Allah’s previous favors upon him. The first was inspiring his mother when she was breastfeeding him and she feared that Fir`awn and his chiefs would kill him. Musa was born during a year in which they (Fir`awn’s people) were killing all of the male children. So she placed him in a case and cast him into the river. The river carried him away and she became grieved and distressed, as Allah mentioned about her when He said,
(And the heart of the mother of Musa became empty. She was very near to disclose his (case) had We not strengthened her heart.) ﴿28:10﴾ So the river carried him to the home of Fir`awn.
(Then the people of Fir`awn picked him up, that he might become for them an enemy and a (cause of ) grief.) ﴿28:8﴾ Means that this was a destined matter, decreed by Allah. They were killing the male children of the Israelites for fear of Musa’s arrival. Therefore, with Allah having the great authority and the most perfect power, He determined that Musa would not be raised except upon Fir`awn’s own bed. He would be sustained by Fir`awn’s food and drink, while receiving the love of Fir`awn and his wife. This is why Allah said,
(and there, an enemy of Mine and an enemy of his shall take him. And I endued you with love from Me,) This means that I made your enemy love you. Salamah bin Kuhayl said,
(And I endued you with love from Me,) “This means, `I made My creatures love you.’ ”
(in order that you may be brought up under My Eye.) Abu `Imran Al-Jawni said, “This means, `You will be raised under Allah’s Eye.’ ” Concerning Allah’s statement,
(When your sister went and said: `Shall I show you one who will nurse him’ So We restored you to your mother, that she might cool her eyes) When he was accepted into the house of Fir`awn, women were brought in attempts to find someone who might be able to nurse him. But he refused to breast feed from any of them. Allah, the Exalted, says,
(And We had already forbidden (other) foster suckling mothers for him) ﴿28:12﴾ Then, his sister came and said,
(Shall I direct you to a household who will rear him for you, and look after him in a good manner) ﴿28:12﴾ She meant, “Shall I guide you to someone who can nurse him for you for a fee” So she took him and they went with her to his real mother. When her breast was presented to him, he took it and they (Fir`awn’s family) were extremely happy for this. Thus, they hired her to nurse him and she achieved great happiness and comfort because of him, in this life and even more so in the Hereafter. Allah, the Exalted, says here,
(So We restored you to your mother, that she might cool her eyes and she should not grieve.) This means that she should not grieve over you.
(Then you killed man,) This means that he killed a Coptic person (the people of Egypt, Fir`awn’s people).
(but We saved you from great distress) This is what he was feeling due to Fir`awn’s family intending to kill him. So he fled from them until he came to the water of the people of Madyan. This is when the righteous man said to him,
(Fear you not. You have escaped from the people who are wrongdoers.) ﴿28:25﴾
(40. Then you stayed a number of years with the people of Madyan. Then you came here according to the fixed term which I ordained (for you), O Musa!) (41. And I have chosen you for Myself.) (42. Go you and your brother with My Ayat, and do not, you both, slacken and become weak in My remembrance.) (43. Go both of you to Fir`awn, verily, he has transgressed.) (44. And speak to him mildly, perhaps he may accept admonition or fear (Allah).)
Choosing Musa to go to Fir`awn and to be Soft and Gentle in His Invitation
Allah, the Exalted, says in His address to Musa that he had lived among the people of Madyan, avoiding Fir`awn and his chiefs. He worked as a shepherd for his father-in-law until the appointed time for his work ended. Then he met the decree of Allah and His predetermined will, without him having any set appointment. This entire situation was under the control of Allah, Blessed be He, the Most High. He compels His servants and His creatures to whatever end He wills. This is why Allah says,
(Then You came here according to the fixed term which I ordained (for you), O Musa!) Mujahid said, “For a set appointment.” `Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Ma`mar reported from Qatadah that he said,
(Then You came here according to the fixed term which I ordained (for you), O Musa!) “For the decree of messengership and prophethood.” Concerning Allah’s statement,
(And I have chosen you for Myself.) This means, “I have chosen you and selected you to be a Messenger for Myself. This is as I wish and according to My will.” Concerning the Tafsir of this Ayah, Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Adam and Musa met, and Musa said, “You are the one who made things difficult for mankind and you caused them to be evicted from Paradise.” Adam said, “Are you the one whom Allah chose for His Message, and He selected you for Himself and He revealed the Tawrah to you” Musa replied, “Yes.” Then Adam said, “Did you find that it was preordained upon me before He (Allah) created me” Musa replied, “Yes.” Therefore, Adam defeated Musa’s argument.) Both Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded this narration. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(Go you and your brother with My Ayat,) This means with My proofs, evidences and miracles.
(And do not, you both, slacken and become weak in My remembrance.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah related from Ibn `Abbas that he said, “This means do not be slow.” Mujahid reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “This means do not be weak.” The meaning here is that they should not slacken in the remembrance of Allah. Rather, they both should remember Allah during their meeting with Fir`awn so that the remembrance of Allah can be an aid for them against him. The remembrance of Allah would be their strength and their power that would defeat him. Allah’s statement;
(Go both of you to Fir`awn, Verily, he has transgressed.) means that he has rebelled and become haughty and insolent against Allah and he has disobeyed Him.
(And speak to him mildly, perhaps he may accept admonition or fear (Allah).) This Ayah contains a great lesson. Even though Fir`awn was the most insolent and arrogant of people and Musa was the friend of Allah among His creation at that time, Musa was still commanded to speak to Fir`awn with mildness and softness. Therefore, their invitation to him was with gentle, soft and easy speech that is used by one who is a close friend. This is so that the message may have more effect on the souls, and so it would have deeper and more beneficial results. This is as Allah, the Exalted, says,
(Invite (mankind) to the way of your Lord with wisdom and fair preaching, and argue with them in a way that is better.) ﴿16:125﴾ Concerning Allah’s statement,
(perhaps he may accept admonition or fear (Allah). ) This means that perhaps he will recant from that which he is in of misguidance and destruction,
(or he will fear) meaning that he will become obedient due to fear of Allah. This is as Allah says,
(For such who desires to remember or desires to show his gratitude.) ﴿25:62﴾ Thus, to remember means to recant from that which is dangerous, and fear means to attain obedience.
(45. Both of them said: “Our Lord! Verily, we fear lest he should hasten to punish us or lest he should transgress.”) (46. He (Allah) said: “Fear not, verily, I am with you both, hearing and seeing.”) (47. “So go you both to him, and say: ‘Verily, we are both Messengers of your Lord, so let the Children of Israel go with us, and torment them not; indeed, we have come with a sign from your Lord! And peace will be upon him who follows the guidance!”) (48. `Truly, it has been revealed to us that the torment will be for him who denies, and turns away.`”)
Musa’s fear of Fir`awn and Allah’s strengthening Him
Allah, the Exalted, informs that Musa and Harun pleaded to Allah, expressing their grievance to him:
(Verily, we fear lest he should hasten to punish us or lest he should transgress.) They meant that Fir`awn might seize them unexpectedly with a punishment, or transgress against them by tormenting them, when they actually did not deserve it. Ad-Dahhak reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said that transgress here means, “To exceed the bounds.”
(He (Allah) said: “Fear not, verily, I am with you both, hearing and seeing.”) meaning; “Do not fear him (Fir`awn), for verily, I am with you and I hear your speech and his speech as well. I see your place and I see his place as well. Nothing is hidden from Me of your affair. Know that his forehead is in My Hand, and he does not speak, breathe, or use any force, except by My leave and after My command. I am with you by My protection, My help and My support.”
(So go you both to him, and say: “Verily, we are both Messengers of your Lord…”)
Musa admonishes Fir`awn
Concerning his statement,
(indeed, We have come with a sign from your Lord!) meaning with evidence and a miracle from your Lord.
(And peace will be upon him who follows the guidance!) meaning, `peace be upon you if you follow the guidance.’ Because of this, when the Messenger of Allah wrote a letter to Heraclius, the emperor of Rome, beginning with,
(In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. From Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, to Heraclius the emperor of Rome. Peace be upon him who follows the guidance. Thus, to proceed: Verily, I invite you with the invitation of Islam. So accept Islam and you will be safe, and Allah will give you a double reward.) Due to this, Musa and Harun said to Fir`awn,
(And peace will be upon him who follows the guidance! Truly, it has been revealed to us that the torment will be for him who denies, and turns away.) In His flawless revelation, Allah has revealed to us that torment is prepared exclusively for those who reject the signs of Allah and turn away from His obedience. As Allah says,
(Then for him who transgressed all bounds, and preferred the life of this world, Verily, his abode will be Hellfire.) ﴿79:37-39﴾ Allah, the Exalted, also says,
(Therefore I have warned you of a blazing Fire. None shall enter it save the most wretched. Who denies and turns away.) ﴿92:14-16﴾ Allah also says,
(So he neither believed nor prayed! But on the contrary, he belied and turned away.) ﴿75:31-32﴾ This means that he denied with his heart and turned away by his actions.
(49. Fir`awn said: “Who then, O Musa, is the Lord of you two”) (50. ﴿Musa﴾ said: “Our Lord is He Who gave to each thing its form and nature, then guided it aright.”) (51. ﴿Fir`awn﴾ said: “What about the generations of old”) (52. ﴿Musa﴾ said: “The knowledge thereof is with my Lord, in a Record. My Lord neither errs nor forgets.”
The Conversation between Musa and Fir`awn
Allah, the Exalted, informs about Fir`awn that he said to Musa, in his rejection of the existence of a Supreme Maker and Creator, Who is the God of everything and his own Lord and Owner:
(Who then, O Musa, is the Lord of you two) meaning “Who is the one who called you forth and sent you For verily, I do not know him and I have not given you any god other than myself.”
((Musa) said: “Our Lord is He Who gave to each thing its form and nature, then guided it aright.”) `Ali bin Abi Talhah related that Ibn `Abbas said, “He is saying that He created a mate for everything.” Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn `Abbas said, “He made the man a man, and the donkey a donkey and the sheep a sheep.” Layth bin Abi Sulaym reported from Mujahid that he said, “He gave everything its form.” Ibn Abi Najih said that Mujahid said, “He fashioned the creation of every moving creature.” Sa`id bin Jubayr said concerning His statement,
((Who) gave to each thing its form and nature, then guided it aright.) “He gave each of His creatures what is suitable for its creation.” Therefore, He did not give man the form of a wild beast, nor did He give wild beasts the form of the dog. Likewise, the dog’s form is not like the sheep’s. He also gave creature a suitable spouse, and He influenced everything towards that mate. There is no species of creation that is exactly like another species. They are different in their actions, their forms, their sustenance and their mating. Some of the scholars of Tafsir have said that this statement, “He gave to each thing its form and nature, then guided it aright,” is similar to Allah’s statement,
(And Who has measured; and then guided.) ﴿87:3﴾ This means He measured out an ordained amount (of sustenance, actions, etc.) and then guided His creatures to it. He wrote the deeds, the appointed times of death and the provisions. Then, the creatures traverse upon that and they are not able to avoid it, nor are they able to abandon it. In this Ayah Musa is saying that our Lord is the One Who created the creation, measured out its ordainment and compelled the creatures to that which He wanted.
((Fir`awn) said: “What about the generations of old”) The most correct opinion concerning the meaning of this, is that when Musa informed Fir`awn that his Lord Who sent him is the One Who creates, sustains, ordains and guides, Fir`awn began to argue, using the previous generations as a proof. He was referring to those people of old who did not worship Allah. In other words, “If the matter is as you say, then what happened to those people They did not worship your Lord. Instead they worshipped other gods besides Him.” Musa said to him, in response to this, that if they did not worship Allah, then Allah knows precisely what happened to them and He will give them just recompense for their deeds, as is written in Allah’s Book (of decrees). This Book is called Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz (The Preserved Tablet) and it is the Book of Deeds.
(My Lord neither errs nor forgets.) This means that nothing eludes Him and He does not miss anything, whether it is small or great. He does not forget anything and His Most Exalted knowledge is described as encompassing everything. Blessed be He, the Exalted, the Most Holy and free of any imperfections. The knowledge that creatures have has two deficiencies. The first is that it does not completely encompass anything, and the second is that the creature is prone to forget after knowing. Therefore, Allah has declared Himself above such deficiencies.
(53. Who has made earth for you like a bed; and has opened ways for you therein, and has sent down water (rain) from the sky. And We have brought forth with it various kinds of vegetation.) (54. Eat and pasture your cattle; verily, in this are Ayat for men of understanding.) (55. Thereof We created you, and into it We shall return you, and from it We shall bring you out once again.) (56. And indeed We showed him (Fir`awn) all Our Ayat, but he denied and refused.)
The Completion of Musa’s Reply to Fir`awn
This is from the completion of Musa’s speech concerning the description of His Lord when Fir`awn asked him about Him. He (Musa) said,
(He Who gave to each thing its form and nature, then guided it aright.) Then, Fir`awn attempted to present some argumentative rebuttal during Musa’s reply. Yet, Musa continued by saying, “He is the One Who made the earth as a bed for you.” Some recited the word as Mihadan and others recited it as Mahdan, which means `a place of rest that you settle down upon.’ It also may mean `that which you stand upon, sleep upon or travel upon its back.’
(and has opened ways for you therein.) This means, `He made roads for you to walk upon their shoulders.’ This is just as He, the Exalted, said,
(And placed therein broad highways for them to pass through, that they may be guided.) ﴿21:31﴾
(and has sent down water from the sky. And We have brought forth with it various kinds of vegetation.) referring to the various species of plants, such as vegetation and fruits. Some are sour, some are sweet, some are bitter and there are other kinds as well.
(Eat and pasture your cattle (therein);) meaning, `something that is food for you and a palatable fruit for you, and something that is for your cattle as fodder for them, both green and dry.’
(Verily, in this are Ayat.) This means proofs, signs and evidences.
(for men of understanding.) meaning those who possess correct and upright intelligence realizing that there is no god worthy of worship except Allah, and there is no true Lord other than Him.
(Thereof We created you, and into it we shall return you, and from it We shall bring you out once again.) meaning, `the earth is your beginning. For your father, Adam, was created with dirt from the surface of the earth. You also will be returned to the earth. This means that you will become dirt when you die and decay.’ The statement, “And from it We shall bring you out once again,” means,
(On the Day when He will call you, and you will answer with His praise and obedience, and you will think that you have stayed (in this world) but a little while!) ﴿17:52﴾ This Ayah is similar to Allah’s statement,
(He said: “Therein you shall live, and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out.”) ﴿7:25﴾
Musa showed Fir`awn all of the Signs but He did not believe Concerning Allah’s statement,
(And indeed We showed him (Fir`awn) all Our Ayat, but he denied and refused.) This means that the proofs, signs and evi- dences were establi- shed against Fir`awn and he saw them with his own eyes, but he still denied and rejec- ted them due to his disbelief, abstinence and transgression. This is as Allah, the Exalted, says,
(And they belied them wrongfully and arrogantly, though they themselves were convinced thereof.) ﴿27:14﴾
(57. He (Fir`awn) said: “Have you come to drive us out of our land with your magic, O Musa”) (58. “Then verily, we can produce magic the like thereof; so appoint a meeting between us and you, which neither we nor you shall fail to keep, in an open place where both shall have a just and equal chance.”) (59. (Musa) said: “Your appointed meeting is the day of the festival, and let the people assemble when the sun has risen (forenoon).”)
Fir`awn describes Musa’s Proofs as being Magic and Their Agreement to hold a Contest
Allah, the Exalted, informs of what Fir`awn said to Musa when he showed him the great proof. This great sign to Fir`awn was Musa casting down his stick which became a huge snake, and his pulling his hand out from under his arm while it was glowing white without any illness. At this, Fir`awn said, “This is magic that you have brought to us to bewitch us and conquer the people, so that they will follow you. Then you will outnumber us.” Fir`awn then said, “Your plan will not work. We have magic just like yours, so do not let yourself be deceived by that what you are doing.”
(so appoint a meeting between us and you,) Meaning, `a day that we can come together to present some of our magic to confront yours. It will be at a specified place and time.’ With this, Musa said to them,
(Your appointed meeting is the day of festival,) That was the day of their celebration and their New Year’s festivity. It was a holiday for them when they took vacation from their work and came together for a large gathering. This day was selected so that all of the people could witness the power of Allah to do whatever He wills. They would see the miracles of the prophets and the futility of magic to contest the supernatural prophetic powers. This is why Musa said,
(and let the people assemble) meaning all of them.
(when the sun has risen (forenoon).) meaning in the morning, just before noon. In this way the contest will be most visible, well lit, apparent and obvious in plain view. This is the way of the Prophets. Their work is always clear and apparent. It is never something hidden, or something for sale. This is why he did not say that the meeting should be at night, but rather, it was to be held during the bright part of the day. Ibn `Abbas said, “The day of their festivity was the day of `Ashura’.” As-Suddi, Qatadah and Ibn Zayd said, “It was the day of their great celebration.” Sa`id bin Jubayr said, “It was the day of their great bazzar.” These statements are not contradictory. I say that Allah destroyed Fir`awn and his armies on a day similar to this, just as is confirmed in the Sahih. `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said, “It was a flat place where all of the people were on the same level, having an equal view of the event. There was nothing there that would obstruct the view so that some people could see what others did not.”
(60. So Fir`awn withdrew, devised his plot and then came back.) (61. Musa said to them: “Woe unto you! Invent not a lie against Allah, lest He should destroy you completely by a torment. And surely, he who invents a lie (against Allah) will fail miserably.”) (62 Then they debated one with another what they must do, and they kept their talk secret.) (63. They said: “Verily, these are two magicians. Their object is to drive you out from your land with magic, and to take you away from your exemplary way.”) (64. “So devise your plot, and then assemble in line. And whoever overcomes this day will be indeed successful.”)
The Meeting of the Two Parties, Musa’s Propagation of the Message and the Magicians
Allah, the Exalted informs that when Fir`awn and Musa agreed to an appointed meeting at a specified place and time, Fir`awn began to gather some magicians from the cities of his kingdom. Every person who had any affiliation with magic at that time was summoned, and magic was very widespread and in demand at that time. This is as Allah says,
(And Fir`awn said: “Bring me every well-versed sorcerer.”) ﴿10:79﴾ Then, the day came. It was the day when all of the people gathered, which was well-known, being the day of the festival. Fir`awn was there sitting upon his throne surrounded by the elite officials of his kingdom. The subjects were all standing on his right and his left. Then, Musa came forward leaning upon his stick accompanied by his brother Harun. The magicians were standing in front of Fir`awn in rows and he was prodding them, inciting them and encouraging them to do their best on this day. They wanted to please him and he was promising them and inspiring them. They said,
(Will there surely be a reward for us if we are the winners He (Fir`awn) said: “Yes, and you shall then verily be of those brought near (to myself).”) ﴿26:41-42﴾
(Musa said to them: “Woe unto you! Invent not a lie against Allah…”) This means, “Do not make an illusion before the people of something that is not real, making it appear as if it were a creature, when it is not really a creature. If you do this, then you would be lying on Allah.”
(lest He (Allah) should destroy you completely by a torment.) This means, `He will destroy you with a destructive punishment that will not spare anything, or anyone.’
(“…And surely, he who invents a lie will fail miserably.” Then they debated one with another what they must do,) It has been said that this means that they argued among themselves. So one of them said, “This is not the speech of a magician, but it is the speech of a Prophet.” Another said, “No, he is only a magician.” There are other opinions that have been mentioned about what they discussed. And Allah knows best. Allah’s statement,
(and they kept their talk secret.) means, they held secret counsel among themselves about this matter.
(They said: “Verily, these are two ﴿Hadhan﴾ magicians…”) This is a way of speaking with some of the Arabs and this Ayah has been recited according to the grammar of their dialect. There are also others who recite it as, (????? ???????? ????????????) Which carries the same meaning, “Verily, these are two ﴿Hadhayn﴾ magicians.” This is the popular style of language in Arabic grammar. The grammarians have extensive discussions in reply to the first recitation and its grammatical explanation, but this is not the place for such a discussion. The main point is that the magicians said among themselves, “You all know that this man and his brother (Musa and Harun) are two knowledgeable magicians who are quite aware of the skill of magic. They want to defeat you and your people today and conquer the people, causing the masses to follow them. They want to fight against Fir`awn and his armies, and they are seeking victory over him. And their ultimate goal is to expel you from your land.” Concerning Allah’s statement,
(and to take you away from your exemplary way.) This means, `they want to expose this way (of yours) openly, which is magic.’ For verily, they were considered great because of their magic. They had wealth and sustenance because of this magic. They were actually saying, “If these two (Musa and Harun) are victorious, they will destroy you and expel you from your land. In doing so, they will be the first individuals to do so, and they will be given great power of leadership without you.” Ibn `Abbas mentioned concerning Allah’s statement,
(and to take you away from your exemplary way. ) “This means their kingdom, which they were in, and their livelihood.” `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd said, “This superior way means that which they were upon.”
(So devise your plot, and assemble in line.) This means, “All of you come together in one row, and throw that which is in your hands at one time in order to dazzle the eyes (of the people) and defeat this man and his brother.”
(And whoever overcomes this day will be indeed successful.) meaning “Between you and us. As for us (the magicians), we have been promised to be given an abundance of power and sovereignty. And in reference to him (Musa), He will gain great leadership.”
(65. They said: “O Musa! Either you throw first or we be the first to throw”) (66. ﴿Musa﴾ said: “Nay, throw you (first)!” Then behold! their ropes and their sticks, by their magic, appeared to him as though they moved fast.) (67. So Musa conceived fear in himself.) (68. We (Allah) said: “Fear not! Surely, you will have the upper hand.”) (69. “And throw that which is in your right hand! It will swallow up that which they have made. That which they have made is only a magician’s trick, and the magician will never be successful, to whatever amount (of skill) he may attain.”) (70. So the magicians fell down prostrate. They said: “We believe in the Lord of Harun and Musa.”)
The Competition, Musa’s Victory, and the Magician’s Faith
Allah, the Exalted, informs about the magicians when they met Musa, that they said to Musa,
(“Either you throw first…”) meaning, “you go first.”
(“…or we be the first to throw” (Musa) said: “Nay, throw you (first)!”) This means, `you magicians should go first so that we can see what magic you are going to perform and so that the true state of their affair will become obvious to the people.’
(Then behold! their ropes and their sticks, by their magic, appeared to him as though they moved fast.) In another Ayah it says that when they threw,
(Then said: “By the might of Fir`awn, it is we who will certainly win!”) ﴿26:44﴾ And Allah, the Exalted, says,
(They bewitched the eyes of the people, and struck terror into them, and they displayed a great magic.) ﴿7:116﴾ Here, He says in this Surah,
(Then behold! their ropes and their sticks, by their magic, appeared to him as though they moved fast.) They were a large numbered group and each one of them threw a stick and a rope until the valley became full of snakes piled on top of each other. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(So Musa conceived fear in himself.) This means that he feared for the people that they would be tested and deceived by their magic before he could even have a chance to throw what was in his right hand. Thus, Allah revealed to him at the right moment, to throw what was in his right hand, which was the stick. When he did so, it swallowed what they had made. It became a huge, monstrous creature with legs, a neck, a head and fangs. It went after these ropes and sticks until none of them remained, except that it was devoured and swallowed by this beast. At the same time, the magicians and all of the people were watching with their own eyes, seeing this amazing event in broad daylight. Thus, the miracle was performed and the evidence was clear. The truth prevailed and the magic was proven to be falsehood. This is why Allah said,
(That which they have made is only a magician’s trick, and the magician will never be successful, to whatever amount (of skill) he may attain.) So when the magicians saw the event and witnessed it with their own eyes, while they were knowledgeable of the various tricks and methods in the sciences of magic, they knew with conviction that what Musa had done was not magic or illusionary tricks. They recognized that it was the truth without any doubt. They knew that no one had any power to do this except for One Who says for a thing “Be,” and it is. Therefore, when this happened, they fell down into prostration to Allah. They said, “We believe in the Lord of all that exists, the Lord of Musa and Harun!” This is why Ibn `Abbas and `Ubayd bin `Umayr both said, “At the beginning of the day they were magicians and at the end of the day they were outstanding witnesses of faith.” l
The Number of Magicians
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “The magicians were seventy men who were magicians in the morning, but witnesses of faith by the time evening came.” Ibn Abi Hatim also reported that Al-Awza’i said, “When the magicians fell down in prostration, Paradise was raised up before them until they were looking at it.” It is reported from Sa`id bin Jubayr that he said concerning Allah’s statement,
(So the magicians fell down prostrate.) “They saw their places (in Paradise) made clear before them while they were in their prostration.” `Ikrimah and Al-Qasim bin Abi Bizzah both said the same.
(71. (Fir`awn) said: “Believe you in him before I give you permission Verily, he is your chief who has taught you magic. So I will surely cut off your hands and feet on opposite sides, and I will surely crucify you on the trunks of date palms, and you shall surely know which of us can give the severe and more lasting torment. ”) (72. They said: “We prefer you not over what have come to us of the clear signs and to Him (Allah) Who created us. So, decree whatever you desire to decree, for you can only’ decree (regarding) this life of the world.”) (73. “Verily, we have believed in our Lord, that He may forgive us our faults, and the magic to which you did compel us. And Allah is better as regards reward in comparison to your reward, and more lasting.”)
Fir`awn’s turning against the Magicians, His threatening Them and Their Reply
Allah, the Exalted, informs of Fir`awn’s disbelief, obstinance, transgression and haughtiness against the truth in favor of falsehood. When he saw what he saw of the magnificent miracle and the great sign, and he saw those whose help he sought accept faith in the presence of all of the people, and he was absolutely defeated, he began to behave arrogantly and cast accusations. He resorted to using his esteemed honor and might against the magicians. He warned them and threatened them saying,
(Believe you in him (Musa)) This means, “Do you have faith in him”
(before I give you permission) meaning, “I have not commanded you to do so, by which you have rebelled against me.” Then he said a statement that he, the magicians and all creatures knew was a forgery and an utter lie.
(Verily, he is your chief who has taught you magic.) meaning “You all only took your magic from Musa and you have made an agreement with him against me and my subjects, that you would help him be victorious.” Allah says in another Ayah,
(Surely, this is a plot which you have plotted in the city to drive out its people, but you shall come to know.) ﴿7:123﴾ Then he began threatening them. He said to them,
(So I will surely cut off your hands and feet on opposite sides, and I will surely crucify you on the trunks of date palms,) meaning, “I will certainly make an example of you, I will kill you in a public execution.” Ibn `Abbas said, “Thus, he was the first person to ever do this (public execution, crucifixion).” This was reported by Ibn Abi Hatim. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(And you shall surely know which of us can give the severe and more lasting torment.) This means, “You say that my people and I are astray and that you (magicians), Musa and his people are following correct guidance, but you will come to know who will be punished and remain punished.” So when he attacked with this and threatened them, their souls eased them because of their belief in Allah, the Mighty and Sublime. They exclaimed,
(They said: “We prefer you not over what have come to us of the clear signs…”) meaning, “We do not chose you over the guidance and conviction that we have received. ”
(and to Him (Allah) Who created us.) It could be that they were swearing, “By He Who has created us.” It also could be connected in meaning to the clear signs mentioned before it. In this case it would mean, “We do not prefer you over our Originator and Creator, Who produced us from a beginning that was nothing. He created us from clay (or mud). Therefore, He alone deserves worship and humility and you do not (Fir`awn)!”
(So decree whatever you desire to decree,) “Do whatever you wish and whatever your hands are able to achieve.”
(for you can only decree (regarding) this life of the world.) meaning, “You only have power in this world and it is a world that will come to an end. Verily, we are hoping in the eternal abode.”
(Verily, we have believed in our Lord, that He may forgive us our faults,) “Whatever evils that we did.” It specifically means, `which we were forced to do of magic, in order to oppose the sign of Allah and the miracle of His Prophet.’ Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said concerning Allah’s statement,
(and the magic to which you compelled us.) “Fir`awn took forty boys from the Children of Israel and commanded that they be taught magic at Al-Farama. He said, `Teach them knowledge that no one in the land knows.”’ Ibn `Abbas then said, “They were of those who believed in Musa and they were of those who said,
(We have believed in our Lord, that He may forgive us our faults, and the magic to which you did compel us.)” `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said the same. Allah’s statement,
(And Allah is better as regards reward in comparison to your reward, and more lasting.) means, “He is better for us than you.”
(and more lasting.) More lasting in reward than what you pro- mised us and made us aspire to. It is apparent that Fir`awn (may Allah curse him) was bent upon their punishment, and that what he did to them was a mercy from Allah for them. This is why Ibn `Abbas and others of the Salaf said, “They woke up in that morning as magicians, but they became witnesses of faith by the evening. ”
(74. Verily, whoever comes to his Lord as a criminal, then surely, for him is Hell, wherein he will neither die nor live.) (75. But whoever comes to Him as a believer, and has done righteous good deeds, for such are the high ranks,) (76. `Adn Gardens, under which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever, and such is the reward of those who purify themselves.)
The Magicians admonish Fir`awn
The clear intent of this is to be a completion of what the magicians admonished Fir`awn with. They warned him of the vengeance of Allah and His eternal and everlasting punishment. They also encouraged him to seek Allah’s eternal and endless reward. They said,
(Verily, whoever comes to his Lord as a criminal,) This means, whoever meets Allah on the Day of Judgment while being a criminal.
(then surely, for him is Hell, wherein he will neither die nor live.) This is similar to Allah’s statement,
(Neither will it have a complete killing effect on them so that they die, nor shall its torment be lightened for them. Thus do We requite every disbeliever!) ﴿35:36﴾ Allah also said,
(But it will be avoided by the wretched, who will enter the great Fire. There he will neither die nor live.) ﴿87:11-13﴾
(And they will cry: “O Malik (Keeper of Hell)! Let your Lord made an end of us.” He will say: “Verily, you shall abide forever.”) ﴿43:77﴾ Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(The dwellers of Hellfire, who are those who deserve it, they will not die in it, nor will they be living. Rather, they will be a people who will be punished by the Fire due to their sins. It will be gradually killing them and devouring them until they become burnt coals. Then, intercession will be allowed and they will be brought (out of Hell) group by group and they will be spread on the rivers of Paradise. It will then be said, “O people of Paradise, pour (water) over them.” Then, they will start to grow like the growing of a seed on the muddy banks of a flowing river.) A man among the people said, “It is as if the Messenger of Allah lived in the desert.” This is how Muslim recorded this narration in his Sahih. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(But whoever comes to Him (Allah) as a believer, and has done righteous good deeds,) whoever meets his Lord on the Day of Judgment as a believer in his heart, then verily, his intentions in his heart will be affirmed to be true by his statements and deeds.
(for such are the high ranks,) Paradise, which has the highest levels, the most tranquil rooms and the nicest homes. Imam Ahmad reported from `Ubadah bin As-Samit that the Prophet said,
(Paradise has one hundred levels and between each level is a distance like the distance between the sky and the earth. Al-Firdaws is the name of the highest of its levels. From it springs the four rivers and the Throne is above it. Therefore, when you ask Allah, then ask Him for Al-Firdaws.) This narration was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi. In the Two Sahihs it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Verily, the people of the `Illiyyin will see those who are above them just as you see the fading star in the horizon of the sky, due to the different status of virtue between them. ) The people said, “O Messenger of Allah, these are the dwellings of the Prophets.” He replied, (Of course. And I swear by the One Whom my soul is in His Hand, (it is for) men who had faith in Allah and they believed the Messengers.) In the Sunan collections this narration is mentioned with the additional wording,
(And verily Abu Bakr and `Umar are of them and they will be most favored.) His saying,
(Adn Gardens,) meaning established as a residence. It is merely used here in reference to the high ranks mentioned previously.
(under which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever,) meaning that they will abide in it for eternity.
(and such is the reward of those who purify themselves.) One who purifies himself from dirt, filth and associating partners with Allah. This is the person who worships Allah alone, without ascribing partners to Him, and he follows the Messengers in the good they came with all that they claim.
(77. And indeed We revealed to Musa: “Travel by night with My servants and strike a dry path for them in the sea, fearing neither to be overtaken nor being afraid.”) (78. Then Fir`awn pursued them with his hosts, but the sea ﴿Al-Yamm﴾ completely overwhelmed them and covered them up.) (79. And Fir`awn led his people astray, and he did not guide them.)
The Children of Israel leave Egypt
Allah, the Exalted, informs that He commanded Musa to journey at night with the Children of Israel, when Fir`awn refused to release them and send them with Musa. He was to take them away from Fir`awn’s captivity. Allah expounds upon this in Surahs other than this noble Surah. Musa left with the Children of Israel, and when the people of Egypt awoke in the morning they found that not a single one of them remained in Egypt. Fir`awn became extremely furious. He sent callers into all of the cities to gather together his army from all of his lands and provinces. He said to them,
(Verily, these indeed are but a small band. And verily, they have done what has enraged us.) ﴿26:54-55﴾ Then when he gathered his army and organized his troops, he set out after them and they followed them at dawn when the sun began to rise.
(And when the two hosts saw each other) ﴿26:61﴾ This means that each person of the two parties was looking at the other party.
(The companions of Musa said: “We are sure to be overtaken.” (Musa) said: “Nay, verily, with me is my Lord. He will guide me.”) ﴿26:61-62﴾ Musa stopped with the Children of Israel and the sea was in front of them and Fir`awn was behind them. Then, at that moment, Allah revealed to Musa,
(And strike a dry path for them in the sea.) So Musa struck the sea with his stick and he said, “Split for me, by the leave of Allah.” Thus, it split, and each separate part of the water became like a huge mountain. Then, Allah sent a wind to the land of the sea and it burned the soil until it became dry like the ground that is on land. For this reason Allah said,
(and strike a dry path for them in the sea, fearing neither to be overtaken…) This means being caught by Fir`awn.
(nor being afraid.) meaning, “Do not be afraid of the sea drowning your people.” Then, Allah, the Exalted, said,
(Then Fir`awn pursued them with his hosts, but the sea ﴿Al-Yamm﴾ completely overwhelmed them) Al-Yamm means the sea.
(and covered them up. ) meaning, covered them up with a thing that was well-familiar to them in such a situa- tion, as Allah states;
(And He destroyed the overthrown cities. So there covered them that which did cover.) ﴿53:53-54﴾ As Fir`awn pursued them into the sea, misled his people and did not lead them to the path of correct guidance, likewise, he will go ahead of his people on the Day of Resurrection, and will lead them in to the Hellfire. And evil indeed is the place to which they are led.
(80. O Children of Israel! We delivered you from your enemy, and We made a covenant with you on the right side of the Mount, and We sent down to you manna and quail,) (81. (Saying) eat of the Tayyibat wherewith We have provided you, and commit no transgression or oppression therein, lest My anger should justly descend on you. And he on whom My anger descends, he is indeed perished.) (82. And verily, I am indeed forgiving to him who repents, believes and does righteous deeds, and then Ihtada.)
A Reminder for the Children of Israel of
Allah’s Favors upon Them Allah reminds of His tremendous favors upon the Children of Israel and His numerous blessings. He saved them from their enemy, Fir`awn, and He relieved their eyes by drowning him and his hosts all at one time while they watched. Allah said,
(And We drowned Fir`awn people while you were looking.) ﴿2:50﴾ Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “When the Messenger of Allah came to Al-Madinah, he found the Jews fasting the day of `Ashura’. Therefore he asked them about it and they said, `This is the day that Allah gave Musa victory over Fir`awn.’ Then, the Prophet said,
(We have more right to Musa (than them), so fast it.) Muslim also recorded this narration in his Sahih. Then, Allah made a covenant with Musa and the Children of Israel on the right side of the Mountain, after the destruction of Fir`awn. This is the Mountain upon which Allah spoke to Musa and He told Musa’s people to look at it when they requested to see Allah. It is also the same Mountain upon which Musa was given the Tawrah, while at the same time the Children of Israel began worshipping the (statue of a) calf, as Allah relates in the forth coming Ayat. The manna and quails have previously been discussed in Surah Al-Baqarah and other Surahs. Manna was a sweet substance that descended upon them from the sky and the quail ﴿Salwa﴾ was a type of bird that would fall down to them. They would fill every pot with them as ample provisions until the following day. This was a kindness and a mercy from Allah upon them. It was a manifestation of Allah’s good treatment of them. For this reason Allah says,
(Eat of the Tayyibat wherewith We have provided you, and commit no transgression or oppression therein, lest My anger should justly descend on you.) This means, “Eat from this sustenance which I have provided for you, and do not transgress against My sustenance by taking it without necessity or you will be opposing what I have commanded you.”
(lest My anger should justly descend on you.) This means, “I will become angry with you.”
(And he on whom My anger descends, he is indeed perished.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah related that Ibn `Abbas said, “This means that he will indeed be made miserable.” Concerning Allah’s statement,
(And verily, I am indeed forgiving to him who repents, believes and does righteous good deeds,) meaning, “Whoever turns to Me in repentance, then I will accept his repentance regardless of whatever sin he did.” Allah, the Exalted, even accepts the repentance of the Children of Israel who worshipped the calf. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(who repents,) This means to turn away from what one was involved in of disbelief, associating partners with Allah, disobedience of Allah or hypocrisy. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(and believes) This means the person’s belief in his heart.
(and does righteous deeds,) his action with his bodily limbs. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(and then Ihtada.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah related that Ibn `Abbas said, “This means that he then does not doubt.” Qatadah said,
(and then Ihtada.) “This means he adheres to Islam until he dies.” We see here that there is a specific order in which these things are presented. This is similar to Allah’s saying,
(Then he became one of those who believed and recommended one another to perseverance and patience and recommended one another to pity and compassion.) ﴿90:17﴾
(83. “And what made you hasten from your people, O Musa) (84. He said: “They are close on my footsteps, and I hastened to You, O my Lord, that You might be pleased.”) (85. (Allah) said: “Verily, We have tried your people in your absence, and As-Samiri has led them astray.”) (86. Then Musa returned to his people in a state of anger and sorrow ﴿Asif﴾. He said: “O my people! Did not your Lord promise you a fair promise Did then the promise seem to you long in coming Or did you desire that wrath should descend from your Lord on you, that you broke your promise to me”) (87. They said: “We broke not the promise to you, of our own will, but we were made to carry the weight of the ornaments of the people, then we cast them, and that was what As-Samiri suggested.”) (88. Then he took out for them a calf which was mooing. They said: “This is your god, and the god of Musa,” but he had forgotten.) (89. Did they not see that it could not return them a word (for answer), and that it had no power either to harm them or to do them good)
Musa goes to the Appointment with Allah and the Children of Israel succumb to worship the Calf
Allah relates what happened when Musa traveled with the Children of Israel after Fir`awn’s destruction.
(And they came upon a people devoted to some of idols. They said: “O Musa! Make for us god as they have gods.” He said: “Verily, you are a people who know not. Verily, these people will be destroyed for that which they are engaged in. And all that they are doing is in vain.”) ﴿7:138-139﴾ Then, Allah made a covenant with Musa of thirty nights after which He added to them ten more nights. Thus, they were forty nights in all. The covenant was that he was to fast these number of days, during both the day and night. Thus, Musa made haste to go to the Mountain and he left his brother, Harun, in charge over the Children of Israel. This is why Allah says,
(“And what made you hasten from your people, O Musa” He said: “They are close on my footsteps.”) These means that they have arrived and are settled near the Mountain.
(and I hastened to You, O my Lord, that You might be pleased.) meaning, “So You will be more pleased with me.”
((Allah) said: “Verily, We have tried your people in your absence, and As-Samiri has led them astray.”) Allah informs His Prophet, Musa, of what happened to the Children of Israel after he left them, and their deification of the calf that As-Samiri had made for them. During this time period, Allah wrote for Musa the Tablets, which contained the Tawrah. Allah said,
(And We wrote for him on the Tablets the lesson to be drawn from all things and the explanation for all things (and said): “Hold unto these with firmness, and enjoin your people to take the better therein. I shall show you the home of evildoers.”) ﴿7:145﴾ This means, “I will show you the final outcome of what will happen to those who abandon My obedience and oppose My command.” Concerning Allah’s statement,
(Then Musa returned to his people in a state of anger and sorrow ﴿Asif﴾.) This means that after Allah informed him of what they were doing, he became extremely angry and upset with them. He was very worried for them. During this time he received the Tawrah, which contained their Shari`ah (Law), this was a great honor for them. For they were a people who used to worship other than Allah. Every person with sound reason and good sense could see that what they were doing was false and foolish. This is why Allah said that he (Musa) returned to them in a state of anger and sorrow. The word for sorrow used here is Asif, which is used to emphasize to the severity of his anger. Mujahid said, “In a state of anger and sorrow means worried.” Qatadah and As-Suddi said, “Asif here means in a state of sadness because of what his people had done after him.”
(He (Musa) said: “O my people! Did not your Lord promise you a fair promise…”) This means, “Did He not promise you in that which I have spoken to you, every good in this life and in the Hereafter, and the good end in the final outcome of things You have already witnessed how He helped you defeat your enemy (Fir`awn) and He made you victorious over him and He blessed you with other bounties as well through His help.”
(Did then the promise seem to you long in coming) meaning, `in waiting for what Allah had promised you and forgetting His previous favors and the covenant that He made with you before.’
(Or did you desire that wrath should descend from your Lord on you, ) The word `Or’ here means `Nay, but.’ It is used here to separate between a previous item and a coming item. It is as if it is saying, “Nay, but you want to make permissible the anger of your Lord upon you by what you have done. Therefore, you have broken your promise to me.” The Children of Israel said in reply to Musa’s blame and rebuke,
(We broke not our promise to you of our own will,) Meaning by our power and our choice. Then, they began making lame excuses and they told him how they got rid of that which they were carrying of Coptic jewelry that they had borrowed from them (the Egyptian Copts) when they left Egypt. Therefore they cast it, meaning that they threw it away. Thus, it became a calf that made a moaning sound that would gradually rise in pitch. This calf was an ordeal, a hindrance and test. This is why Allah said,
(“…that was what As-Samiri suggested.” Then he took out (of the fire) for them (a statue of) a calf which was mooing.) Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn `Abbas said,
(This is your god, and the god of Musa.) “So they became religiously devoted to it (the calf) and they loved it with a love that they had never loved anything else with before. ” Allah then says,
(but he had forgotten.) This means that he abandoned what he was following of the religion of Islam. This is referring to As-Samiri. Allah says in refuting them and rebuking them, and also explaining to them their folly and foolishness in that which they had done,
(Did they not see that it could not return them a word (for answer), and that it had no power either to harm them or to do them good) This is about the calf. `Do they not see that it does not respond to them when they ask it and when they speak to it’
(and that it had no power either to harm them or to do them good) Meaning in their worldly affairs and matters of the Hereafter. Ibn `Abbas said, “Nay, by Allah, the moaning sound of the calf was nothing but wind that would enter into its behind and come out of its mouth, thus causing it to make a sound.” In a Hadith of Al-Fitun recorded from Al-Hasan Al-Basri, it is mentioned that this calf’s name was Bahmut. In reference to the excuse of these ignorant people, they claimed that they were merely ridding themselves of the jewelry of the Copts. In the process of doing so, they cast the jewelry (into the pit of fire) and ended up worshipping the calf. Thus, they were seeking to rid themselves of something detestable, but wound up doing something even worse. This is similar to an authentic narration reported from `Abdullah bin `Umar. A man from `Iraq asked him about the ruling of mosquitoes’ blood if it get on one’s garment. The man wanted to know if it is permissible to pray in such a garment or not. Ibn `Umar replied by saying, “Look at the people of `Iraq. They killed the grandson of the Messenger of Allah , Al-Husayn, and yet they’re asking about the blood of the mosquito.”
(90. And Harun indeed had said to them beforehand: “O my people! You are being tried in this, and verily, your Lord is (Allah) the Most Gracious, so follow me and obey my order.”) (91. They said: “We will not stop worshipping it, until Musa returns to us.”)
Harun prohibits them from worship of Calf and the Persistence of the Children of Israel in doing so
Allah, the Exalted, informs of Harun’s attempt to prohibit them from worshipping the calf and his telling them that this was only a test for them. He told them that their Lord was the Most Beneficent, Who created everything and decreed for everything its just measure. He is the Owner of the Mighty Throne, the One Who does whatever He wants.
(so follow me and obey my order.) Meaning, “Follow me in that which I am commanding you with and leave that which I forbid you from.”
(They said: “We will not stop worshipping it, until Musa returns to us.”) meaning, “We will not cease in our worship of this calf until we hear what Musa has to say about it.” So they opposed Harun in this matter and they fought against him, nearly killing him.
(92. (Musa) said: “O Harun! What prevented you when you saw them going astray;”) (93. “That you followed me not (according to my advice to you) Have you then disobeyed my order”) (94. He (Harun) said: “O son of my mother! Seize (me) not by my beard, nor by my head! Verily, I feared lest you should say: `You have caused a division among the Children of Israel, and you have not respected my word!”’)
What happened between Musa and Harun after Musa returned
Allah informs of what happened when Musa returned to his people and saw the great matter that had taken place among them. With this he became filled with anger and he threw down the Divine Tablets that he had in his hand. Then, he grabbed his brother Harun by his head and pulled him towards himself. We expounded upon this previously in Surat Al-A`raf, where we mentioned the Hadith,
(Information is not the same as observation.) Then, he began to blame his brother, Harun, by saying,
(What prevented you when you saw them going astray; that you followed me not) meaning, “You should have informed me of this matter as soon as it happened.”
(Have you then disobeyed my order) “In that which I entrusted to you,” referring to Musa’s statement,
(Replace me among my people, act in the right way and follow not the way of the mischief-makers.)﴿7:142﴾
(He (Harun) said: “O son of my mother!”) This mentioning of the mother was Harun’s attempt to soften Musa’s anger, because he was Musa’s biological brother and they had the same parents. The mentioning of the mother here is more delicate and profound in bringing about gentleness and mildness. This is why he said,
(O son of my mother! Seize (me) not by my beard, nor by my head!) This was Harun’s excuse to Musa for being delayed from coming to him and informing him of the great mishap that took place. He said,
(Verily, I feared) meaning, “I was afraid to come after you and inform you of this, because I thought you might accuse me of leaving them alone and causing division between them.”
(and you have not respected my word!) This means, “And you did not take care of what I commanded you to do when I left you in charge of them.” Ibn `Abbas said, “Harun was respectful and obedient to Musa.”
(95. (Musa) said: “And what is the matter with you. O Samiri”) (96. (Samiri) said: “I saw what they saw not, so I took a (Qabdah) handful (of dust) from the (hoof) print of the messenger and threw it. Thus my inner self suggested to me.”) (97. Musa said: “Then go away! And verily, your (punishment) in this life will be that you will say: `Touch me not;’ and verily, you have a promise that will not fail. And look at your god to which you have been devoted. We will certainly burn it, and scatter its particles in the sea.”) (98. Your God is only Allah, there is no God but Him. He has full knowledge of all things.)
How As-Samiri made the Calf
Musa said to As-Samiri, “What caused you to do what you did What presented such an idea to you causing you to do this” Muhammad bin Ishaq reported from Ibn `Abbas that he said, “As-Samiri was a man from the people of Bajarma, a people who worshipped cows. He still had the love of cow worshipping in his soul. However, he acted as though he had accepted Islam with the Children of Israel. His name was Musa bin Zafar.” Qatadah said, “He was from the village of Samarra.”
((Samiri) said: “I saw what they saw not.”) This means, “I saw Jibril when he came to destroy Fir`awn.”
(so I took a handful (Qabdah) from the print of the messenger) This means from the hoof print of his (Jibril’s) horse. This is what is well-known with many of the scholars of Tafsir, rather most of them. Mujahid said,
(so I took a handful (Qabdah) from the print of the messenger) “From under the hoof of Jibril’s horse.” He also said, “The word Qabdah means a palmful, and it is also that which is grasped by the tips of the fingers.” Mujahid said, “As-Samiri threw what was in his hand onto the jewelry of the Children of Israel and it became molded into the body of a calf, which made a light moaning sound. The wind that blew into it was the cause of its sound.” Thus, he said,
(and I threw it.) This means, “I threw it along with those who were throwing (jewelry).”
(Thus my inner self suggested to me.) This means that his soul considered it something good and it was pleasing to his self.
The Punishment of As-Samiri and the burning of the Calf Thereupon,
((Musa) said: “Then go away! And verily, your (punishment) in this life will be that you will say: `Touch me not.”’) This means, “Just as you took and touched what was not your right to take and touch of the messenger’s foot print, such is your punishment in this life, that you will say, `Do not touch (me).”’ This means, “You will not touch the people and they will not touch you.”
(and verily, you have a promise) This means on the Day of Resurrection.
(that will not fail.) you will have no way to escape it. Qatadah said,
(that you will say: `Touch me not.’) “This is referring to a punishment for them and their remnants (i.e. those who have their disease) today still say `Do not touch.”’ Concerning Allah’s statement,
(and verily, you have a promise that will not fail.) Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Abu Nahik said, “You will not be absent from it.”
(And look at your god) that which you worshipped,
(to which you have been devoted.) that which you established worship of, which was the calf.
(Your God is only Allah, there is no God but Him. He has full knowledge of all things.) Musa was saying to them, “This is not your god. Your God is only Allah, the One Whom there is no true God except Him. Worship is not befitting to anyone except Him. For everything is in need of Him and everything is His servant. Concerning the statement,
(He has full knowledge of all things.) The word `Ilm (knowledge) is in the accusative case for distinction. It means that He is the All-Knower of everything.
((Allah) surrounds all things in (His) knowledge. ) ﴿65:12﴾ And He says,
(And (He) keeps count of all things.) ﴿72:28﴾ Therefore,
(Not even the weight of a speck of dust escapes His knowledge.) ﴿34:3﴾ He also says,
(Not a leaf falls, but He knows it. There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry, but is written in a Clear Record.) ﴿6:59﴾ And He says,
(And no moving creature is there on earth but its provision is due from Allah. And He knows its dwelling place and its deposit. All is in a Clear Book.) ﴿11:6﴾ The Ayat that mention this are numerous.
(99. Thus We relate to you some information of what happened before. And indeed We have given you from Us a Reminder.) (100. Whoever turns away from it, verily, they will bear a heavy burden on the Day of Resurrection.) (101. They will abide in that — and evil indeed will it be that load for them on the Day of Resurrection.)
The Entire Qur’an is the Remembrance of Allah and mentioning the Punishment of Those Who turn away from It
Allah, the Exalted, is saying to Prophet Muhammad , `We have told you (O Muhammad) the story of Musa and what happened with him, Fir`awn and his armies, just as it actually happened. Likewise, We relate to you the information of the past just as it happened, without any increase or decrease. We also gave you a remembrance from Us, the Mighty Qur’an, no falsehood comes to it from before it or behind it.’ It is a revelation from One Most Wise, Most Praiseworthy. No Prophet was given any Book like it or more complete than it, since the time of the previous Prophets who were sent, until their being sealed off with the coming of Muhammad . No Prophet was given any Book containing as much information than the Qur’an about what has past and what would be. The judgement concerning the distinction between mankind is taken from it. Therefore, Allah says about it,
(Whoever turns away from it,) This means whoever denies it and turns away from following its commands and instructions, while seeking guidance from other than it, then Allah will mislead him and send him on the path to Hell. This is why Allah says,
(Whoever turns away from it, verily, they will bear a heavy burden on the Day of Resurrection.) .Burden here means sin. This is as Allah says,
(But those of the sects that reject it , the Fire will be their promised meeting place.) ﴿11:17﴾ This applies generally to whoever the Qur’an reaches of the Arabs, the non-Arabs, the People of the Book and others. This is as Allah says,
(That I may therewith warn you and whomsoever it may reach.) ﴿6:19﴾ The Qur’an is a final warning for everyone it reaches. Whoever follows it, then he is rightly guided and whoever opposes it and turns away from it, then he is misguided. He will be wretched in this life, and he is promised that on the Day of Resurrection his abode will be the Hellfire. For this reason Allah says,
(Whoever turns away from it, verily, they will bear a heavy burden on the Day of Resurrection. They will abide in that.) ﴿20:100-101﴾ They will not be able to avoid this or escape it.
(And evil indeed will it be that load for them on the Day of Resurrection.)
(102. The Day when the Sur will be blown: that Day, We shall gather the criminals blue-eyed.) (103. They will speak in a very low voice to each other (saying): “You stayed not longer than ten.”) (104. We know very well what they will say, when the best among them in knowledge and wisdom will say: “You stayed no longer than a day!”)
The Blowing of the Sur and the Day of Resurrection
It has been confirmed in a Hadith that the Messenger of Allah was asked about the Sur and he replied,
(It is a horn that will be blown into.) It has been related in a Hadith about the Sur, on the authority of Abu Hurayrah that it is a huge horn that has a circumference as large as the heavens and the earth. The angel Israfil will blow into it. Another Hadith has been related which states that the Prophet said,
(How can I be comfortable when the one with the horn is holding it in his lips and his forehead is leaning forward, waiting to be given permission (to blow it).) The people said, “O Messenger of Allah, what should we say” He said,
(Say: Allah is sufficient for us and what a good protector He is. Upon Allah we place our trust.) Concerning His statement,
(And We shall gather the criminals blue-eyed.) It has been said that this means having blue eyes due to the severity of their horrifying situation.
(They will speak in a very low voice to each other. ) Ibn `Abbas said, “This means whispering among themselves.” This means that some of them will be saying to others,
(You stayed not longer than ten.) meaning in the abode of the worldly life, you only tarried there for a little while. The time was equivalent to ten days or so. Allah, the Exalted, then says,
(We know very well what they will say,) This means in their condition of conversing amongst themselves.
(when the best among them in knowledge and wisdom will say;) the one with perfect intelligence amongst them,
(You stayed no longer than a day!) This is because on the Day of Judgement they will sense the shortness of the worldly life within themselves. For the worldly life, with its repetitious time periods and successive nights, days and hours, is as if it is just one day. For this reason, on the Day of Resurrection the disbelievers will think the worldly life was very short. By this they mean to prevent the establishment of the evidence against them due to the shortness of time that they had. Allah says about this,
(And on the Day that the Hour will be established, the criminals will swear that they stayed not but an hour) until His statement,
(but you knew not.”) ﴿30:55-56﴾ Allah also says,
(Did We not give you lives long enough, so that whosoever would receive admonition could receive it And the warner came to you.) ﴿35:37﴾ Allah, the Exalted, also says,
((Allah will say): What number of years did you stay on earth They will say: “We stayed a day or part of a day. Ask of those who keep account.” He (Allah) will say: “You stayed not but a little, if you had only known!”) ﴿23:112-114﴾ This means that you only remained in it (the earth) a little while. If you only knew, you would have preferred the eternal life over the temporal life. Yet, you conducted yourselves in an evil manner. You gave the present, temporary life precedence over the eternal and everlasting life.
(105. And they ask you concerning the mountains. Say: “My Lord will blast them and scatter them as particles of dust.”) (106. “Then He shall leave it as a level smooth plain.”) (107. “You will see therein no crookedness nor curve.”) (108. On that Day mankind will follow strictly (the voice of) Allah’s caller, no crookedness (that is without going to the right or left of that voice) will they show him (Allah’s caller). And all voices will be humbled for the Most Gracious (Allah), and nothing shall you hear except Hamsa.)
The destruction of the Mountains, and the Earth becomes a Smooth Plain
(And they ask you concerning the mountains.) This is a question, will they remain on the Day of Resurrection or will they cease to exist
(Say: “My Lord will blast them and scatter them as particles of dust.”) This means that He will take them away from their places, wipe them out and remove them completely.
(Then He shall leave it) referring to the earth;
(as a level smooth plain.) This means one expanse spread out. The word Qa` means a piece of land that is level and the word Safsafa is used to place emphasis on this meaning. It has also been said that Safsafa means that which has no vegetation growing in it. The first meaning is preferred, even though the second meaning is also included by necessity. In reference to this, Allah says,
(You will see therein no crookedness nor curve. ) meaning, `on that Day you will not see in the earth any valley, hill, or any place, whether low or elevated.’ Ibn `Abbas, `Ikrimah, Mujahid, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah and others of the Salaf all said the same.
The People will rush towards the Voice of the Caller
(On that Day mankind will follow strictly Allah’s caller, no crookedness will they show him.) On the Day, they see these conditions and these frightening sights, they will hastily respond to the caller. Wherever they are commanded to go, they will rush to it. If they had been like this in the worldly life, it would have been more beneficial for them, but here it does not benefit them. This is as Allah says,
(How clearly will they see and hear, the Day when they will appear before Us!) ﴿19:38﴾ Allah also says,
(hastening towards the caller.) Concerning Allah’s statement,
(And all voices will be humbled for the Most Gracious,) Ibn `Abbas said, “This means they will be silent.” As-Suddi also said the same.
(And nothing shall you hear except Hamsa.) Sa`id bin Jubayr related that Ibn `Abbas said, “This means the steps of feet.” `Ikrimah, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Qatadah, Ibn Zayd and others all said the same. `Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas said,
(And nothing shall you hear except Hamsa.) “Hamsa means a hidden voice.” This has also been repor- ted from `Ikrimah and Ad-Dahhak. Sa`id bin Jubayr said,
(And nothing shall you hear except Hamsa.) “Hamsa means the secret speech and the steps of feet.”
(109. On that day no intercession shall avail, except the one for whom the Most Gracious has given permission and whose word is acceptable to Him.) (110. He knows what happens to them, and what will happen to them, but they will never encompass anything of His knowledge.) (111. And (all) faces shall be humbled before the Ever Living, the Sustainer. And he who carried wrongdoing, will be indeed a complete failure.) (112. And he who works deeds of righteousness, while he is a believer, then he will have no fear of injustice, nor of any curtailment.)
The Intercession and the Recompense
Allah, the Exalted, says,
(On that day) the Day of Resurrection,
(no intercession shall avail.) meaning with Him (Allah).
(except the one for whom the Most Gracious has given permission and whose word is acceptable to Him.) This is similar to His statement,
(Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission) ﴿2:255﴾ It is also similar to His statement,
(And there are many angels in the heavens, whose intercession will avail nothing except after Allah has given leave for whom He wills and is pleased with.) ﴿53:26﴾ He also says,
(And they cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased. And they stand in awe for fear of Him.) ﴿21:28﴾ He also says,
(Intercession with Him profits not except for him whom He permits.) ﴿34:23﴾ And He says,
(The Day that Ar-Ruh and the angels will stand forth in rows, they will not speak except him whom the Most Gracious allows, and he will speak what is right.) ﴿78:38﴾ In the Two Sahihs it is reported from the leader of the Children of Adam and the Noblest of all the creatures to Allah, Muhammad :
(I will come under the Throne and I will fall down into prostration. Then, I will be inspired to make praises (of Allah) that I am not able to recall them now. Allah will leave me in this condition as long as He wishes. Then, He will say, “O Muhammad, raise your head. Speak and you will be heard, intercede and your intercession will be accepted.” Then, a designated group will be allowed for me (to intercede on their behalf). Allah will then enter them into Paradise and I will return (to repeat the process again). ) The Prophet mentioned doing this four times. May Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him and the rest of the Prophets as well. In another Hadith it also mentions that he said,
(Allah, the Exalted, will say, “Bring out of the Fire whoever has a seed’s weight of faith in his heart.” So a large number of people will be brought out. Then He will say, “Bring out of the Fire whoever has a half of a seed’s weight of faith in his heart. Bring out whoever has the weight of a speck of dust in his heart. Bring out whoever has the weight of the smallest and tiniest particle of dust of faith in his heart.”) And the Hadith continues. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(He knows what happens to them and what will happen to them,) He encompasses all creation with His knowledge.
(but they will never encompass anything of His knowledge.) This is like His statement,
(And they will never encompass anything of His knowledge except that which He wills. ) ﴿2:255﴾ Concerning Allah’s statement,
(And (all) faces shall be humbled before the Ever Living, the Sustainer.) Ibn `Abbas and others said, “This means that the creatures will be humbled, submissive and compliant to their Compeller, the Ever Living, Who does not die, the Sustainer of all, Who does not sleep.” He is the maintainer of everything. He determines the affairs of everything and preserves everything. He is perfect in His Self. He is the One Whom everything is in need of and whom nothing could survive without. Concerning His statement,
(And he who carried wrongdoing, will be indeed a complete failure.) meaning on the Day of Resurrection. For verily, Allah will give every due right to the one who deserved it. Even the ram who lost its horn will be given revenge against the one who had horns. In the Sahih, it is recorded that the Prophet said,
(Beware of wrongdoing (or oppression), for verily, wrongdoing will be darknesses on the Day of Resurrection.) And the true failure is for whoever meets Allah while associating partners with Him. Allah the Exalted says,
(“Verily, associating partners with Me is the great wrongdoing.”) Allah’s statement,
(And he who works deeds of righteousness, while he is a believer, then he will have no fear of injustice, nor of any curtailment.) After Allah mentions the wrongdoers and their threat, He then commends the pious people and mentions the judgement they receive. Their judgement is that they will not be wronged nor oppressed. This means that their evils will not be increased and their good deeds will not be decreased. This was stated by Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and others. Zulm means an increase that comes from the sins of others being placed upon the person, and Hadm means a decrease.
(113. And thus We have sent it down as a Qur’an in Arabic, and have explained therein in detail the warnings, in order that they may have Taqwa, or that it may cause them to have a lesson from it.) (114. Then High above all be Allah, the True King. And be not in haste with the Qur’an before its revelation is completed to you, and say: “My Lord! Increase me in knowledge.”)
The Qur’an was revealed so that the People would have Taqwa and reflect
After Allah, the Exalted, mentions that on the Day of Judgement both the good and the evil will be recompensed and there is no avoiding it, He then explains that the Qur’an was revealed as a bringer of glad tidings and a warner in the clear and eloquent Arabic language. There is no confusion or deficiency in it.
(And thus We have sent it down as a Qur’an in Arabic, and have explained therein in detail the warnings, in order that they may have Taqwa of,) This means: so that they will leave off sins, forbidden things and lewd abominations.
(or that it may cause them to have a lesson from it.) This means: to produce acts of obedience and deeds that will bring one closer to Allah.
(Then High above all be Allah, the True King.) This means: Most Holy and Majestic is He, the True King, Who is Himself the Truth and His promise is true. Likewise, His threat is true, His Messengers are true, the Paradise is true, the Hellfire is true and everything from Him is true. His justice is that He does not punish anyone before warning them, sending Messengers to them and granting excuses to His creatures, so that no one will have any argument or doubt (on Judgment Day).
The Command to the Prophet to listen to the Qur’an when it is revealed without making haste to recite it
Concerning Allah’s statement,
(And be not in haste with the Qur’an before its revelation is completed to you,) This is similar to Allah’s statement,
(Move not your tongue to make haste therewith. It is for Us to collect it and to give you the ability to recite it. And when We have recited it to you, then follow its recital. Then it is for Us to made it clear (to you).) ﴿75:16-19﴾ It is confirmed in the Sahih on the authority of Ibn `Abbas, who said that the Messenger of Allah used to go through great pains to retain the revelation. In doing so he used to move his tongue rapidly with its recital. Then, Allah revealed this Ayah. This means that whenever Jibril would say an Ayah, the Prophet would say it with him due to his eagerness to memorize it. Then, Allah guided him to that which was easier and lighter in this matter, to relieve him of this difficulty. Allah said,
(Move not your tongue to make haste therewith. It is for Us to collect it and to give you the ability to recite it.) ﴿75:16-17﴾ Meaning, “We will gather it in your chest, then you will recite it to the people without forgetting anything of it.”
(And when We have recited it to you, then follow its recital. Then it is for Us to made it clear (to you).) ﴿75:18-19﴾ And He said in this Ayah,
(And be not in haste with the Qur’an before its revelation is completed to you,) This is a command to the Prophet to listen quietly: `Then, when the angel (Jibril) completes reciting to you, you recite it after him.’
(and say: “My Lord! Increase me in knowledge.”) meaning, “Give me more knowledge from You.” Ibn `Uyaynah said, “The Prophet did not cease increasing (in knowledge) until Allah, the Mighty and Sublime, took him (i.e. he died).”
(115. And indeed We made a covenant with Adam before, but he forgot, and We found on his part no firm willpower.) (116. And (remember) when We said to the angels: “Prostrate yourselves to Adam.” They prostrated themselves (all) except Iblis; he refused.) (117. Then We said: “O Adam! Verily, this is an enemy to you and to your wife. So let him not get you both out of Paradise, so that you will be distressed.”) (118. “You will never be hungry therein nor naked.”) (119. “And you (will) suffer not from thirst therein nor from the sun’s heat.”) (120. Then Shaytan whispered to him, saying: “O Adam! Shall I lead you to the Tree of Eternity and to a kingdom that will never waste away”) (121. Then they both ate of the Tree, and so their private parts became manifest to them, and they began to cover themselves with the leaves of the Paradise for their covering. Thus Adam disobeyd his Lord, so he went astray.) (122. Then his Lord chose him, and turned to him with forgiveness, and gave him guidance.)
The Story of Adam and Iblis
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “Verily, man was named Insan only because he was given a covenant, but he forgot it (Nasiya).” `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported the same from Ibn `Abbas. Mujahid and Al-Hasan said that he forgot means, “He abandoned it.” Concerning Allah’s statement,
(And when We said to the angels: “Prostrate yourselves to Adam.”) He, Allah mentions how Adam was honored and what respect was given to him. He mentions how He favored him over many of those whom He created. A discussion of this story has already preceded in Surat Al-Baqarah, Surat Al-A`raf, Surat Al-Hijr and Surat Al-Kahf. It will also be mentioned again at the end of Surah Sad. In this story, Allah mentions the creation of Adam and that He commanded the angels to prostrate to Adam as a sign of honor and respect. He also explains the enmity of Iblis for the Children of Adam and for their father, Adam, before them. Due to this Allah says,
(They prostrated themselves (all) except Iblis; he refused.) This means that he refrained from prostrating and became arrogant.
(Then We said: “O Adam! Verily, this is an enemy to you and to your wife…”) here wife refers to Hawwa’.
(So let him not get you both out of Paradise, so that you will be distressed.) meaning, `Do not be hasty in doing something that will get you expelled from Paradise, or else you will be fatigued, discomforted and worried, seeking your sustenance. But here, in Paradise, you live a life of ease with no burdens and no difficulties.’
(Verily, you will never be hungry therein nor naked.) The reason that Allah combined hunger and nakedness is because hunger is internal humiliation, while nakedness is external humiliation.
(And you (will) suffer not from thirst therein nor from the sun’s heat.) These two characteristics are also opposites. Thirst is the internal heat and being parched from lack of water, while the suns heat is the external heat.
(Then Shaytan whispered to him, saying: “O Adam! Shall I lead you to the Tree of Eternity and to a kingdom that will never waste away”) It has already been mentioned that he caused them to fall through deception.
(And he swore by Allah to them both: “Verily, I am one of the sincere well-wishers for you both.”) ﴿7:21﴾ It has already preceded in our discussion that Allah took a promise from Adam and his wife that although they could eat from every fruit, they could not come near a specific tree in Paradise. However, Iblis did not cease prodding them until they both had eaten from it. It was the Tree of Eternity (Shajarat Al-Khuld). This meant that anyone who ate from it would live forever and always remain. A Hadith has been narrated which mentions this Tree of Eternity. Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi reported from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said,
(Verily, in Paradise there is a tree which a rider can travel under its shade for one hundred years and still not have passed it. It is the Tree of Eternity.) Imam Ahmad also recorded this narration. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(Then they both ate of the tree, and so their private parts became manifest to them,) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ubayy bin Ka`b said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Verily, Allah created Adam as a tall man with an abundance of hair on his head. He looked like a clothed palm tree. Then, when he tasted (the fruit of) the tree, his clothes fell off of him. The first thing that became exposed was his private parts. So when he noticed his nakedness, he tried to run back into Paradise. However, in the process a tree caught hold of his hair (i.e. his hair was tangled in a tree), so he ripped his hair out. Then, the Most Beneficent called out to him saying, “O Adam, are you fleeing from me” When he heard the Words of the Most Beneficent, he said, “No my Lord, but I am ashamed. If I repent and recant would You let me return to Paradise” Allah replied, “Yes.”) This is the meaning of Allah’s statement,
a(Then Adam received from his Lord Words. And his Lord pardoned him.) ﴿2:37﴾ However, this narration has a break in the chain of transmission between Al-Hasan and Ubayy bin Ka`b. Al-Hasan did not hear this Hadith from Ubayy. It is questionable as to whether this narration can be correctly attributed to the Prophet . Allah said,
(And they began to cover themselves with the leaves of the Paradise for their covering. ) Mujahid said, “They patched the leaves on themselves in the form of a garment.” Qatadah and As-Suddi both said the same. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(Thus Adam disobeyed his Lord, so he went astray. Then his Lord chose him, and turned to him with forgiveness, and gave him guidance.) Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,
(Musa argued with Adam and he said to him, “Are you the one who got mankind expelled from Paradise because of your sin and you caused them grief!” Adam replied, “Are you the one whom Allah chose for His Divine Messages and His direct Speech Are you blaming me for a matter that Allah wrote upon me before He created me”) Then, the Messenger of Allah said, (Thus, Adam defeated Musa.) This Hadith has various routes of transmission in the Two Sahihs as well as the Musnad collections.
(123. He (Allah) said: “Get you down, both of you, together, some of you are an enemy to some others. Then if there comes to you guidance from Me, then whoever follows My guidance he shall neither go astray nor shall be distressed.) (124. But whosoever turns away from My Reminder, verily, for him is a life of hardship, and We shall raise him up blind on the Day of Resurrection.”) (125. He will say: “O my Lord! Why have you raised me up blind, while I had sight (before).”) (126. (Allah) will say: “Like this Our Ayat came unto you, but you disregarded them, and so this Day, you will be neglected.”)
The Descent of Adam to the Earth and the Promise of Good for the Guided and Evil for the Transgressors
Allah says to Adam, Hawwa’ and Iblis, “Get down from here, all of you.” This means each of you should get out of Paradise. We expounded upon this in Surah Al-Baqarah.
(Some of you as enemies to others.) ﴿2:36﴾ He (Allah) was saying this to Adam and his progeny and Iblis and his progeny. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(Then if there comes to you guidance from Me,) Abu Al-`Aliyyah said, “This (guidance) means the Prophets, the Messengers and the evidence.”
(Then whoever follows My guidance he shall neither go astray nor shall be distressed.) Ibn `Abbas said, “He will not be misguided in this life and he will not be distressed in the Hereafter.”
(But whosoever turns away from My Reminder,) This means, “Whoever opposes my command and what I have revealed to My Messenger, then he has turned away from it, neglected it and taken his guidance from other than it.”
(verily, for him is a life of hardship,) meaning, his life will be hard in this world. He will have no tranquillity and no expanding of his breast (ease). Rather, his chest will be constrained and in difficulty due to his misguidance. Even if he appears to be in comfort outwardly and he wears whatever he likes, eats whatever he likes and lives wherever he wants, he will not be happy. For verily, his heart will not have pure certainty and guidance. He will be in agitation, bewilderment and doubt. He will always be in confusion and a state of uncertainty. This is from the hardship of life. Concerning His statement,
(and We shall raise him up blind on the Day of Resurrection.) Mujahid, Abu Salih and As-Suddi said, “This means he will have no proof.” `Ikrimah said, “He will be made blind to everything except Hell.” This is as Allah says,
(And We shall gather them together on the Day of Resurrection on their faces, blind, dumb and deaf; their abode will be Hell.) ﴿17:97﴾ This is why Allah says,
(O my Lord! Why have you raised me up blind, while I had sight (before).) This means in the life of this world.
((Allah) will say: “Like this Our Ayat came unto you, but you disregarded them, and so this Day, you will be neglected.) Meaning, “When you turned away from the signs of Allah and dealt with them in the manner of one who does not remember them after they were conveyed to you. You neglected them, turned away from them and were heedless of them. Therefore, today We will treat you in the manner of one who has forgotten you.”
(So this Day We shall forget them as they forgot their meeting of this Day.) ﴿7:51﴾ For verily, the punishment will be a retribution that is based upon the type of deed that was done. However, forgetting the words of the Qur’an, while understanding its meaning and acting upon its legislation, is not included in the meaning of this specific threat. Yet, forgetting the words of the Qur’an has been warned against from a different aspect. It has been reported in the Sunnah that it is absolutely forbidden and there is a serious threat against one who forgets Qur’an (that he previously memorized).
(127. And thus do We requite him who transgresses beyond bounds and believes not in the Ayat of his Lord; and the torment of the Hereafter is far more severe and more lasting.)
Severe Torment for Him Who transgresses beyond bounds
Allah says: `Thus We do requite those who transgress beyond bounds and belie the Ayat of Allah in this world and in the Hereafter.’
(For them is a torment in the life of this world, and certainly, harder is the torment of the Hereafter. And they have no defender or protector against Allah.) ﴿13:34﴾ Therefore Allah said,
(and the torment of the Hereafter is far more severe and more lasting.) meaning: a more grievous and more painful penalty than of this world they will remain therein, they will abide forever in such torment. Allah’s Messenger said to both husband and wife who took an oath, when the husband accused his wife of committing illegal sexual intercourse:
(Verily, the torment of this worldly life is more insignificant, compared to the punishment of the Hereafter.)
(128. Is it not a guidance for them (to know) how many generations We have destroyed before them, in whose dwellings they walk Verily, in this are signs indeed for men of understanding.) (129. And had it not been for a Word that went forth before from your Lord, and a term determined, (their punishment) must necessarily have come (in this world).) (130. So bear patiently what they say, and glorify the praises of your Lord before the rising of the sun, and before its setting, and during some hours of the night, and at the ends of the day, that you may become pleased with the reward which Allah shall give you.)
Many Nations were destroyed and in Them is a Lesson
Allah, the Exalted, says,
(Is it not a guidance for them…) This is addressed to those who reject what the Prophet came to them with: `We destroyed those who denied the Messengers from the previous nations before them. They showed open hostility, so now there is not trace of them and none of them are left. This is witnessed by the empty homes that these people left behind, and which others have now inherited, moving about in the dwellings of those of the past.’
(Verily, in this are signs indeed for men of understanding.) This means those who have sound intellect and correct understanding. This is as Allah says,
(Have they not traveled through the land, and have they hearts wherewith to understand and ears wherewith to hear Verily, it is not the eyes that grow blind, but it is the hearts which are in the breasts that grow blind.) ﴿22:46﴾ Allah also said in Surah Alif Lam Mim As-Sajdah,
(Is it not a guidance for them: how many generations We have destroyed before them in whose dwellings they walk about) ﴿32:26﴾ Then, Allah, the Exalted, says,
(And had it not been for a Word that went forth before from your Lord, and a term determined (their punishment), must necessarily have come (in this world).) ﴿20:129﴾ This means that if it were not for the Word that had already preceded from Allah — that He would not punish anyone until the proof had been established against him and the punishment would take place at an appointed time that He has already determined for these rejecters — then the punishment would certainly seize them immediately.
The Command to be patient and perform the Five daily Prayers
Allah comforts His Prophet by saying to him,
(So bear patiently what they say,) This means, “Be patient concerning their rejection of you.”
(And glorify the praises of your Lord before the rising of the sun,) This is speaking of the Morning (Fajr) prayer.
(and before its setting,) This is speaking of the Mid-afternoon (`Asr) prayer. This has been mentioned in the Two Sahihs on the authority of Jarir bin `Abdullah Al-Bajali, who said, “Once we were sitting with the Messenger of Allah when he looked up at the moon on a night when it was full. He said,
(Verily, you all will see your Lord (in the Hereafter) just as you see this moon and you will not have to crowd together to see Him. Therefore, if you are able to not miss a prayer before sunrise (Fajr) and before sunset (`Asr), then you should do so.) Then he recited this Ayah.” Imam Ahmad recorded that `Umarah bin Ru’aybah that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying,
(Anyone who prays before sunrise and before sunset will never enter the Hellfire.) This was also recorded by Muslim. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(and during some hours of the night, glorify the praises.) This means during its hours offer the late night (Tahajjud) prayer. Some of the scholars said it also means the after sunset (Maghrib) and the night (`Isha’) prayers.
(and at the ends of the day,) This is the opposite of the hours of the night.
(that you may become pleased) As Allah says,
(And verily, your Lord will give you (all good) so that you shall be well-pleased.) ﴿93:5﴾ In the Sahih, it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Allah, the Exalted, says, “O people of Paradise.” They will reply, “We are here at Your service and Your pleasure our Lord.” He will then say, “Are you all pleased” They will reply, “Why should we not be pleased our Lord, when You have given us what You have not given any others of Your creation” Allah will then say, “Verily, I am going to give you something better than that.” They will say, “And what thing could be better than that” Allah will say, “I have allowed for you My pleasure, so I will never be angry with you again after this.”) In another Hadith, it states that it will be said,
(“O people of Paradise, verily you all have an appointed promise with Allah that He would like to fulfill for you.” They will say, “And what is that Has He not already enlightened our faces, made our Scales (of good deeds) heavy, saved us from the Hellfire and entered us into Paradise” Then, the veil will be lifted and they will gaze upon Him (Allah). By Allah, He has not given them anything better than the opportunity to look upon Him, and that is the increase (extra blessing).)
(131. And strain not your eyes in longing for the things We have given for enjoyment to various groups of them, the splendor of the life of this world, that We may test them thereby. But the provision of your Lord is better and more lasting.) (132. And enjoin Salah on your family, and be patient in offering them. We ask not of you a provision: We provide for you. And the good end is for those who have Taqwa.)
Do not look at the Enjoyment of the Wealthy, be patient in the worship of Allah
Allah, the Exalted, says to His Prophet Muhammad , “Do not look at what these people of luxury and their likes and peers have of nice comforts. For verily, it is only short-lived splendor and a feeble bounty, which We are using to test them with. And very few of My servants are truly thankful.” Mujahid said,
(various groups of them,) “This means the wealthy people.” This means, “Verily, We have given you (O Muhammad) better than that which We have given them.” This is just as Allah says in another Ayah,
(And indeed, We have bestowed upon you seven repeatedly recited verses, and the Grand Qur’an. Look not with your eyes ambitiously.) ﴿15:87-88﴾ Likewise, that which Allah has stored for His Messenger in the Hereafter is something extremely great. It is an unlimited reward that cannot be described. This is as Allah says,
(And verily, your Lord will give you so that you shall be well-pleased.) ﴿93:5﴾ For this reason, Allah says,
(But the provision of your Lord is better and more lasting. ) In the Sahih it is recorded that `Umar bin Al-Khattab entered upon the Messenger of Allah while he was in the small room in which he had separated himself from his wives after he had vowed to stay away from them. When he came in, he saw him (the Prophet ) lying down upon a sandy straw mat. There was nothing in the house except a pile of sant tree pods and some hanging equipment. `Umar’s eyes filled with tears (upon seeing this), so the Messenger of Allah said to him,
(What makes you cry, O Umar) He replied, “O Messenger of Allah, verily Kisra and Caesar are living in their luxurious conditions, yet you are the chosen Friend of Allah amongst His creation” The Prophet said,
(Do you have doubt, O son of Al-Khattab Those people have had their good hastened for them in the life of this world.) Thus, the Prophet was the most abstinent of people concerning worldly luxuries, even though he had the ability to attain them. If he acquired anything of worldly treasures he would spend it on this and that for the servants of Allah. He would never save anything for himself for the next day. Ibn Abi Hatim reported from Abu Sa`id that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Verily, the thing I fear most for you all is what Allah will allow you to acquire of the splendor of this world. ) They (the Companions) said, “What is the splendor of this world, O Messenger of Allah” He said,
(The blessings of the earth.) Qatadah and As-Suddi said, “The splendor of this worldly life means the beautiful adornments of the life of this world.” Qatadah said,
(that We may test them thereby.) “So that We may put them to trial.” Concerning Allah’s statement,
(And enjoin the Salah on your family, and be patient in offering them.) This means to save them from the punishment of Allah by the establishment of the prayer, and you also be patient in performing it. This is as Allah says,
(O you who believe! Ward off yourselves and your families against a Fire (Hell).) ﴿66:6﴾ Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Zayd bin Aslam reported from his father that he and Yarfa’ would sometimes spend the night at `Umar bin Al-Khattab’s. `Umar had a certain time of night that he would get up and pray. However, sometimes he would not get up for it. Then, we would say, “He is not going to get up like he usually does.” When he would awaken, he would make his family get up as well. He would say,
(And enjoin the Salah on your family, and be patient in offering them.)” Allah said;
(We ask not of you a provision: We provide for you.) This means that if you establish the prayer, your sustenance will come to you from where you did not expect. This is as Allah says,
(And whosoever has Taqwa of Allah, He will make a way for him to get out (from every difficulty). And He will provide him from (sources) he never could imagine.) ﴿65:2-3﴾ Allah also says,
(And I (Allah) created not the Jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me (Alone).) until,
(Verily, Allah is the All-Provider, Owner of Power, the Most Strong.) ﴿51:56-58﴾ Thus, Allah says,
(We ask not of you a provision: We provide for you.) Verily, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Allah, the Exalted, says, “O son of Adam, perform My worship and I will fill your chest with wealth and fulfill your needs. If you do not do so, then I will fill your chest with toil and I will not fulfill your needs.”) It is also reported from Zayd bin Thabit that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying,
(Whoever makes the worldly life his major concern, then Allah will scatter his situation for him (i.e. make it difficult) and his poverty will be placed between his eyes. He will not get from this world anything except that which has already been written for him. Whoever makes the Hereafter his intention, then his situation will be gathered for him (i.e. made easy) and his wealth will be placed in his heart. The worldly life will come to him anyway (in spite of his not seeking it).) Concerning Allah’s statement,
(And the good end is for those who have Taqwa.) This means the good end in this life and in the Hereafter. In the Hereafter the good end will be Paradise for whoever feared Allah. In the Sahih it is reported that the Messenger of Allah said,
The Request of the Polytheists for Proofs while the Qur’an is itself a Proof
Allah, the Exalted, informs about the disbelievers in their statement,
(Why does not) This means, `Why doesn’t Muhammad bring us some proof from his Lord’ They meant a sign that was proof of his truthfulness in his claim that he was the Messenger of Allah. Allah, the Exalted, said,
(Has there not come to them the proof of that which is in the former papers (Scriptures)) This means the Qur’an which Allah revealed to him while he was an unlettered man who could not write well and who did not study with the People of the Book. Yet, the Qur’an contains information about the people of the past that tells of their events from times long ago and it agrees with the authentic information in the previous Books concerning these matters. The Qur’an is the supervisor of these other Books. It verifies what is correct and explains the mistakes that were falsely placed in these Books and attributed to them. This Ayah is similar to Allah’s statement in Surat Al-`Ankabut,
(And they say: “Why are not signs sent down to him from his Lord” Say: “The signs are only with Allah, and I am only a plain warner.” It is not sufficient for them that We have sent down to you the Book which is recited to them Verily, herein is mercy and a reminder for a people who believe.) ﴿29:50-51﴾ In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said,
(There was not any Prophet except that he was given signs that caused men to believe. That which I have been given is a revelation that Allah has revealed to me, so I hope that I have the most followers among them (the Prophets) on the Day of Resurrection.) In this Hadith, the Prophet only mentioned the greatest of the signs that he was given, which is the Qur’an. However, he did have other miracles, which were innumerable and limitless. These miracles have all been recorded in the books that discuss them, and they have been affirmed in the places that mention them. Then Allah says,
(And if We had destroyed them with a torment before this, they would surely have said: “Our Lord! If only You had sent us a Messenger…”) This means, “If We had destroyed these rejecting people before We sent this Noble Messenger to them and revealed the Mighty Book to them, they would have said,
(Our Lord! If only You had sent us a Messenger,) meaning, `before you destroyed us, so we could have believed in him and followed him.’ This is like Allah said,
(we should certainly have followed Your Ayat, before we were humiliated and disgraced.) Allah, the Exalted, explains that these rejecters are stubborn and obstinate and they will not believe.
(Even if every sign should come them, until they see the painful torment.) ﴿10:97﴾ This is as Allah says,
(And this is a blessed Book which We have sent down, so follow it and have Taqwa (of Allah), that you may receive mercy.) Until His statement,
(because of their turning away.) ﴿6:155-157﴾ Allah also says,
(And they swore by Allah their most binding oath that if a warner came to them, they would be more guided than any of the nations (before them).) ﴿35:42﴾
(And they swear their strongest oaths by Allah, that if there came to them a sign, they would surely believe therein.) ﴿6:109﴾ to the completion of those Ayat. Then, Allah says,
(Say) “Say, O Muhammad, to those who deny you, oppose you and continue in their disbelief and obstinance.”
(Each one is waiting,) among you and us;
(so wait you too;) This is a command to await (anticipate).
(and you shall know who are they that are on As-Sirat As-Sawi.) This means the straight road.
(And who are they that have let themselves be guided. ) meaning guidance to the truth and the path of right guidance. This is similar to Allah’s statement,
(And they will know, when they see the torment, who it is that is most astray from the path!) 25:42 And Allah said,
(Tomorrow they will come to know who is liar, the insolent one!) 54:26
This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Ta Ha, and all praise and gratitude is due to Allah.