Assalamualaikum.

Below you will be able to read Surah An Nisa with transliteration and translation.

The theme or subject matter in Surah Nisa aims at outlining acceptable behavior for the Muslim community.

The surah was sent by Allah to eradicate the earlier practices of paganism. It also shows the Quran’s role as the authoritative source for Muslims.

Some topics addressed in An-Nisa are about women, inheritance, marriage laws, how to deal with children and orphans, legal practices, jihad, relations between Muslim communities and People of the Book, war, and the role of Jesus as a prophet (rather than the son of God as Christians claimed).

Notable Quotes:

“O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. And if you disagree over anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you should believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is the best [way] and best in result.”
Surah An Nisa Ayat 59

Allah wills to lighten (things) for you, and man was created a weakling.
Surah Nisa Ayat 29

Skip To Tafsir Surah Nisa by Ibn Kathir

Read Surah An Nisa with English Translation and Transliteration

Bismillah hir rahman nir raheem

Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Raheem
In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ ٱتَّقُوا۟ رَبَّكُمُ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَٰحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالًا كَثِيرًا وَنِسَآءً ۚ وَٱتَّقُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ ٱلَّذِى تَسَآءَلُونَ بِهِۦ وَٱلْأَرْحَامَ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَيْكُمْ رَقِيبًا

Yaaa aiyuhan naasut taqoo Rabbakumul lazee khalaqakum min nafsinw waahidatinw wa khalaqa minhaa zawjahaa wa bas sa minhumaa rijaalan kaseeranw wa nisaaa’aa; wattaqul laahallazee tasaaa ‘aloona bihee wal arhaam; innal laaha kaana ‘alaikum Raqeeba
Ayat 1. O mankind, fear your Lord, who created you from one soul and created from it its mate and dispersed from both of them many men and women. And fear Allah, through whom you ask one another, and the wombs. Indeed Allah is ever, over you, an Observer.

وَءَاتُوا۟ ٱلْيَتَٰمَىٰٓ أَمْوَٰلَهُمْ ۖ وَلَا تَتَبَدَّلُوا۟ ٱلْخَبِيثَ بِٱلطَّيِّبِ ۖ وَلَا تَأْكُلُوٓا۟ أَمْوَٰلَهُمْ إِلَىٰٓ أَمْوَٰلِكُمْ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ كَانَ حُوبًا كَبِيرًا

Wa aatul yataamaaa amwaalahum wa laa tatabad dalul khabeesa bittaiyibi wa laa taakulooo amwaalahum ilaaa amwaalikum; innahoo kaana hooban kabeeraa
Ayat 2. And give to the orphans their properties and do not substitute the defective [of your own] for the good [of theirs]. And do not consume their properties into your own. Indeed, that is ever a great sin.

وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلَّا تُقْسِطُوا۟ فِى ٱلْيَتَٰمَىٰ فَٱنكِحُوا۟ مَا طَابَ لَكُم مِّنَ ٱلنِّسَآءِ مَثْنَىٰ وَثُلَٰثَ وَرُبَٰعَ ۖ فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلَّا تَعْدِلُوا۟ فَوَٰحِدَةً أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَٰنُكُمْ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ أَدْنَىٰٓ أَلَّا تَعُولُوا۟

Wa in khiftum allaa tuqsitoo fil yataamaa fankihoo maa taaba lakum minan nisaaa’i masnaa wa sulaasa wa rubaa’a fa’in khiftum allaa ta’diloo fawaahidatan aw maa malakat aimaanukum; zaalika adnaaa allaa ta’ooloo
Ayat 3. And if you fear that you will not deal justly with the orphan girls, then marry those that please you of [other] women, two or three or four. But if you fear that you will not be just, then [marry only] one or those your right hand possesses. That is more suitable that you may not incline [to injustice].

وَءَاتُوا۟ ٱلنِّسَآءَ صَدُقَٰتِهِنَّ نِحْلَةً ۚ فَإِن طِبْنَ لَكُمْ عَن شَىْءٍ مِّنْهُ نَفْسًا فَكُلُوهُ هَنِيٓـًٔا مَّرِيٓـًٔا

Wa aatun nisaaa’a sadu qaatihinna nihlah; fa in tibna lakum ‘an shai’im minhu nafsan fakuloohu hanee’am mareee’aa
Ayat 4. And give the women [upon marriage] their [bridal] gifts graciously. But if they give up willingly to you anything of it, then take it in satisfaction and ease.

وَلَا تُؤْتُوا۟ ٱلسُّفَهَآءَ أَمْوَٰلَكُمُ ٱلَّتِى جَعَلَ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمْ قِيَٰمًا وَٱرْزُقُوهُمْ فِيهَا وَٱكْسُوهُمْ وَقُولُوا۟ لَهُمْ قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا

Wa laa tu’tus sufahaaa’a amwaalakumul latee ja’alal laahu lakum qiyaamanw-warzuqoohum feehaa waksoohum wa qooloo lahum qawlam ma’roofaa
Ayat 5. And do not give the weak-minded your property, which Allah has made a means of sustenance for you, but provide for them with it and clothe them and speak to them words of appropriate kindness.

وَٱبْتَلُوا۟ ٱلْيَتَٰمَىٰ حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا بَلَغُوا۟ ٱلنِّكَاحَ فَإِنْ ءَانَسْتُم مِّنْهُمْ رُشْدًا فَٱدْفَعُوٓا۟ إِلَيْهِمْ أَمْوَٰلَهُمْ ۖ وَلَا تَأْكُلُوهَآ إِسْرَافًا وَبِدَارًا أَن يَكْبَرُوا۟ ۚ وَمَن كَانَ غَنِيًّا فَلْيَسْتَعْفِفْ ۖ وَمَن كَانَ فَقِيرًا فَلْيَأْكُلْ بِٱلْمَعْرُوفِ ۚ فَإِذَا دَفَعْتُمْ إِلَيْهِمْ أَمْوَٰلَهُمْ فَأَشْهِدُوا۟ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِ حَسِيبًا

Wabtalul yataamaa hattaaa izaa balaghun nikaaha fa in aanastum minhum rushdan fad fa’ooo ilaihim amwaalahum wa laa taa kuloohaaa israafanw wa bidaaran ai yakbaroo; wa mai kaana ghaniyyan falyasta’ fif wa mai kaana faqeeran falyaakul bilma’roof; fa izaa dafa’tum ilaihim amwaalahum fa’ashhidoo ‘alaihim; wa kafaa billaahi Haseeba
Ayat 6. And test the orphans [in their abilities] until they reach marriageable age. Then if you perceive in them sound judgement, release their property to them. And do not consume it excessively and quickly, [anticipating] that they will grow up. And whoever, [when acting as guardian], is self-sufficient should refrain [from taking a fee]; and whoever is poor – let him take according to what is acceptable. Then when you release their property to them, bring witnesses upon them. And sufficient is Allah as Accountant.

لِّلرِّجَالِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ ٱلْوَٰلِدَانِ وَٱلْأَقْرَبُونَ وَلِلنِّسَآءِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ ٱلْوَٰلِدَانِ وَٱلْأَقْرَبُونَ مِمَّا قَلَّ مِنْهُ أَوْ كَثُرَ ۚ نَصِيبًا مَّفْرُوضًا

Lirrijaali naseebum mimmaa tarakal waalidaani wal aqraboona wa lin nisaaa’i naseebum mimmaa tarakal waalidaani wal aqraboona mimmaa qalla minhu aw kasur; naseebam mafroodaa
Ayat 7. For men is a share of what the parents and close relatives leave, and for women is a share of what the parents and close relatives leave, be it little or much – an obligatory share.

وَإِذَا حَضَرَ ٱلْقِسْمَةَ أُو۟لُوا۟ ٱلْقُرْبَىٰ وَٱلْيَتَٰمَىٰ وَٱلْمَسَٰكِينُ فَٱرْزُقُوهُم مِّنْهُ وَقُولُوا۟ لَهُمْ قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا

Wa izaa hadaral qismata ulul qurbaa walyataamaa walmasaakeenu farzuqoohum minhu wa qooloo lahum qawlam ma’roofaa
Ayat 8. And when [other] relatives and orphans and the needy are present at the [time of] division, then provide for them [something] out of the estate and speak to them words of appropriate kindness.

وَلْيَخْشَ ٱلَّذِينَ لَوْ تَرَكُوا۟ مِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّةً ضِعَٰفًا خَافُوا۟ عَلَيْهِمْ فَلْيَتَّقُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَلْيَقُولُوا۟ قَوْلًا سَدِيدًا

Walyakhshal lazeena law tarakoo min khalfihim zurriyyatan di’aafan khaafoo ‘alaihim falyattaqul laaha walyaqooloo qawlan sadeedaa
Ayat 9. And let those [executors and guardians] fear [injustice] as if they [themselves] had left weak offspring behind and feared for them. So let them fear Allah and speak words of appropriate justice.

إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ أَمْوَٰلَ ٱلْيَتَٰمَىٰ ظُلْمًا إِنَّمَا يَأْكُلُونَ فِى بُطُونِهِمْ نَارًا ۖ وَسَيَصْلَوْنَ سَعِيرًا

Innal lazeena yaakuloona amwaalal yataamaa zulman innamaa yaakuloona fee butoonihim Naaranw-wa sayaslawna sa’eeraa (section 1)
Ayat 10. Indeed, those who devour the property of orphans unjustly are only consuming into their bellies fire. And they will be burned in a Blaze.

يُوصِيكُمُ ٱللَّهُ فِىٓ أَوْلَٰدِكُمْ ۖ لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ ٱلْأُنثَيَيْنِ ۚ فَإِن كُنَّ نِسَآءً فَوْقَ ٱثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُنَّ ثُلُثَا مَا تَرَكَ ۖ وَإِن كَانَتْ وَٰحِدَةً فَلَهَا ٱلنِّصْفُ ۚ وَلِأَبَوَيْهِ لِكُلِّ وَٰحِدٍ مِّنْهُمَا ٱلسُّدُسُ مِمَّا تَرَكَ إِن كَانَ لَهُۥ وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهُۥ وَلَدٌ وَوَرِثَهُۥٓ أَبَوَاهُ فَلِأُمِّهِ ٱلثُّلُثُ ۚ فَإِن كَانَ لَهُۥٓ إِخْوَةٌ فَلِأُمِّهِ ٱلسُّدُسُ ۚ مِنۢ بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصِى بِهَآ أَوْ دَيْنٍ ۗ ءَابَآؤُكُمْ وَأَبْنَآؤُكُمْ لَا تَدْرُونَ أَيُّهُمْ أَقْرَبُ لَكُمْ نَفْعًا ۚ فَرِيضَةً مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا

Yooseekumul laahu feee awlaadikum liz zakari mislu hazzil unsayayn; fa in kunna nisaaa’an fawqas nataini falahunna sulusaa maa taraka wa in kaanat waahidatan falahan nisf; wa li abawaihi likulli waahidim minhumas sudusu mimmma taraka in kaana lahoo walad; fa il lam yakul lahowaladunw wa warisahooo abawaahu fali ummihis sulus; fa in kaana lahoo ikhwatun fali ummihis sudus; mim ba’di wasiyyatiny yoosee bihaaa aw dayn; aabaaa’ukum wa abnaaa’ukum laa tadroona aiyuhum aqrabu lakum naf’aa; fareedatam minallaah; innal laaha kaana ‘Aleeman Hakeemaa
Ayat 11. Allah instructs you concerning your children: for the male, what is equal to the share of two females. But if there are [only] daughters, two or more, for them is two thirds of one’s estate. And if there is only one, for her is half. And for one’s parents, to each one of them is a sixth of his estate if he left children. But if he had no children and the parents [alone] inherit from him, then for his mother is one third. And if he had brothers [or sisters], for his mother is a sixth, after any bequest he [may have] made or debt. Your parents or your children – you know not which of them are nearest to you in benefit. [These shares are] an obligation [imposed] by Allah . Indeed, Allah is ever Knowing and Wise.

وَلَكُمْ نِصْفُ مَا تَرَكَ أَزْوَٰجُكُمْ إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهُنَّ وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِن كَانَ لَهُنَّ وَلَدٌ فَلَكُمُ ٱلرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْنَ ۚ مِنۢ بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصِينَ بِهَآ أَوْ دَيْنٍ ۚ وَلَهُنَّ ٱلرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُمْ إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّكُمْ وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِن كَانَ لَكُمْ وَلَدٌ فَلَهُنَّ ٱلثُّمُنُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُم ۚ مِّنۢ بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ تُوصُونَ بِهَآ أَوْ دَيْنٍ ۗ وَإِن كَانَ رَجُلٌ يُورَثُ كَلَٰلَةً أَوِ ٱمْرَأَةٌ وَلَهُۥٓ أَخٌ أَوْ أُخْتٌ فَلِكُلِّ وَٰحِدٍ مِّنْهُمَا ٱلسُّدُسُ ۚ فَإِن كَانُوٓا۟ أَكْثَرَ مِن ذَٰلِكَ فَهُمْ شُرَكَآءُ فِى ٱلثُّلُثِ ۚ مِنۢ بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصَىٰ بِهَآ أَوْ دَيْنٍ غَيْرَ مُضَآرٍّ ۚ وَصِيَّةً مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَلِيمٌ

Wa lakum nisfu maa taraka azwaajukum il lam yakul lahunna walad; fa in kaana lahunna waladun falakumur rub’u mimmaa tarakna mim ba’di wasiyyatiny yooseena bihaaa aw dayn; wa lahunnar rubu’u mimmaa tarakum il lam yakul lakum walad; fa in kaana lakum waladun falahunnas sumunu mimmaa taraktum; mim ba’di wasiyyatin toosoona bihaaa aw dayn; wa in kaana rajuluny yoorasu kalaalatan awim ra atunw wa lahooo akhun aw ukhtun falikulli waahidim minhumas sudus; fa in kaanooo aksara min zaalika fahum shurakaaa’u fissulusi mim ba’di wasiyyatiny yoosaa bihaaa aw dainin ghaira mudaaarr; wasiyyatam minal laah; wallaahu ‘Aleemun Haleem
Ayat 12. And for you is half of what your wives leave if they have no child. But if they have a child, for you is one fourth of what they leave, after any bequest they [may have] made or debt. And for the wives is one fourth if you leave no child. But if you leave a child, then for them is an eighth of what you leave, after any bequest you [may have] made or debt. And if a man or woman leaves neither ascendants nor descendants but has a brother or a sister, then for each one of them is a sixth. But if they are more than two, they share a third, after any bequest which was made or debt, as long as there is no detriment [caused]. [This is] an ordinance from Allah, and Allah is Knowing and Forbearing.

تِلْكَ حُدُودُ ٱللَّهِ ۚ وَمَن يُطِعِ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ يُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّٰتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا ٱلْأَنْهَٰرُ خَٰلِدِينَ فِيهَا ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ ٱلْفَوْزُ ٱلْعَظِيمُ

Tilka hudoodul laah; wa mai yuti’il laaha wa Rasoolahoo yudkhilhu Jannaatin tajree min tahtihal anhaaru khaalideena feehaa; wa zaalikal fawzul ‘azeem
Ayat 13. These are the limits [set by] Allah, and whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger will be admitted by Him to gardens [in Paradise] under which rivers flow, abiding eternally therein; and that is the great attainment.

وَمَن يَعْصِ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ وَيَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَهُۥ يُدْخِلْهُ نَارًا خَٰلِدًا فِيهَا وَلَهُۥ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ

Wa mai ya’sil laaha wa Rasoolahoo wa yata’adda hudoodahoo yudkhilhu Naaran khaalidan feehaa wa lahoo ‘azaabum muheen (section 2)
Ayat 14. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger and transgresses His limits – He will put him into the Fire to abide eternally therein, and he will have a humiliating punishment.

وَٱلَّٰتِى يَأْتِينَ ٱلْفَٰحِشَةَ مِن نِّسَآئِكُمْ فَٱسْتَشْهِدُوا۟ عَلَيْهِنَّ أَرْبَعَةً مِّنكُمْ ۖ فَإِن شَهِدُوا۟ فَأَمْسِكُوهُنَّ فِى ٱلْبُيُوتِ حَتَّىٰ يَتَوَفَّىٰهُنَّ ٱلْمَوْتُ أَوْ يَجْعَلَ ٱللَّهُ لَهُنَّ سَبِيلًا

Wallaatee yaateenal faahishata min nisaaa’ikum fastashhidoo ‘alaihinna arba’atam minkum fa in shahidoo fa amsikoohunna fil buyooti hatta yatawaffaa hunnal mawtu aw yaj’alal laahu lahunna sabeelaa
Aya 15. Those who commit unlawful sexual intercourse of your women – bring against them four [witnesses] from among you. And if they testify, confine the guilty women to houses until death takes them or Allah ordains for them [another] way.

وَٱلَّذَانِ يَأْتِيَٰنِهَا مِنكُمْ فَـَٔاذُوهُمَا ۖ فَإِن تَابَا وَأَصْلَحَا فَأَعْرِضُوا۟ عَنْهُمَآ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ تَوَّابًا رَّحِيمًا

Wallazaani yaatiyaanihaa minkum fa aazoohumaa fa in taabaa wa aslahaa fa a’ridoo ‘anhumaaa; innal laaha kaana Tawwaabar Raheema
Ayat 16. And the two who commit it among you, dishonor them both. But if they repent and correct themselves, leave them alone. Indeed, Allah is ever Accepting of repentance and Merciful.

إِنَّمَا ٱلتَّوْبَةُ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ لِلَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ ٱلسُّوٓءَ بِجَهَٰلَةٍ ثُمَّ يَتُوبُونَ مِن قَرِيبٍ فَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ يَتُوبُ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ ۗ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا

Innamat tawbatu ‘alallaahi lillazeena ya’maloonas sooo’a bijahaalatin summa yatooboona min qareebin faulaaika yatoobul laahu ‘alaihim; wa kaanal laahu ‘Aleeman Hakeemaa
Ayat 17. The repentance accepted by Allah is only for those who do wrong in ignorance [or carelessness] and then repent soon after. It is those to whom Allah will turn in forgiveness, and Allah is ever Knowing and Wise.

وَلَيْسَتِ ٱلتَّوْبَةُ لِلَّذِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ ٱلسَّيِّـَٔاتِ حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا حَضَرَ أَحَدَهُمُ ٱلْمَوْتُ قَالَ إِنِّى تُبْتُ ٱلْـَٰٔنَ وَلَا ٱلَّذِينَ يَمُوتُونَ وَهُمْ كُفَّارٌ ۚ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ أَعْتَدْنَا لَهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا

Wa laisatit tawbatu lillazeena ya’maloonas saiyiaati hattaaa izaa hadara ahadahumul mawtu qaala innee tubtul ‘aana wa lallazeena yamootoona wa hum kuffaar; ulaaa’ika a’tadnaa lahum ‘azaaban aleemaa
Ayat 18. But repentance is not [accepted] of those who [continue to] do evil deeds up until, when death comes to one of them, he says, “Indeed, I have repented now,” or of those who die while they are disbelievers. For them We have prepared a painful punishment.

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ لَا يَحِلُّ لَكُمْ أَن تَرِثُوا۟ ٱلنِّسَآءَ كَرْهًا ۖ وَلَا تَعْضُلُوهُنَّ لِتَذْهَبُوا۟ بِبَعْضِ مَآ ءَاتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ إِلَّآ أَن يَأْتِينَ بِفَٰحِشَةٍ مُّبَيِّنَةٍ ۚ وَعَاشِرُوهُنَّ بِٱلْمَعْرُوفِ ۚ فَإِن كَرِهْتُمُوهُنَّ فَعَسَىٰٓ أَن تَكْرَهُوا۟ شَيْـًٔا وَيَجْعَلَ ٱللَّهُ فِيهِ خَيْرًا كَثِيرًا

Yaaa aiyuhal lazeena aamanoo laa yahillu lakum an tarisun nisaaa’a karhan wa laa ta’duloohunna litazhaboo biba’di maaa aataitumoohunna illaaa ai yaateena bifaahishatim mubaiyinah; wa ‘aashiroo hunna bilma’roof; fa in karihtumoohunna fa’asaaa an takrahoo shai’anw wa yaj’alal laahu feehi khairan kaseeraa
Ayat 19. O you who have believed, it is not lawful for you to inherit women by compulsion. And do not make difficulties for them in order to take [back] part of what you gave them unless they commit a clear immorality. And live with them in kindness. For if you dislike them – perhaps you dislike a thing and Allah makes therein much good.

وَإِنْ أَرَدتُّمُ ٱسْتِبْدَالَ زَوْجٍ مَّكَانَ زَوْجٍ وَءَاتَيْتُمْ إِحْدَىٰهُنَّ قِنطَارًا فَلَا تَأْخُذُوا۟ مِنْهُ شَيْـًٔا ۚ أَتَأْخُذُونَهُۥ بُهْتَٰنًا وَإِثْمًا مُّبِينًا

Wa in arattumustib daala zawjim makaana zawjin wa aataitum ihdaahunna qintaaran falaa taakhuzoo minhu shai’aa; ataakhuzoonahoo buhtaannanw wa ismam mubeenaa
Aya 20. But if you want to replace one wife with another and you have given one of them a great amount [in gifts], do not take [back] from it anything. Would you take it in injustice and manifest sin?

وَكَيْفَ تَأْخُذُونَهُۥ وَقَدْ أَفْضَىٰ بَعْضُكُمْ إِلَىٰ بَعْضٍ وَأَخَذْنَ مِنكُم مِّيثَٰقًا غَلِيظًا

Wa kaifa taakhuzoonahoo wa qad afdaa ba’dukum ilaa ba’dinw wa akhazna minkum meesaaqan ghaleezaa
Ayat 21. And how could you take it while you have gone in unto each other and they have taken from you a solemn covenant?

وَلَا تَنكِحُوا۟ مَا نَكَحَ ءَابَآؤُكُم مِّنَ ٱلنِّسَآءِ إِلَّا مَا قَدْ سَلَفَ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ كَانَ فَٰحِشَةً وَمَقْتًا وَسَآءَ سَبِيلً

Wa laa tankihoo maa nakaha aabaaa’ukum minan nisaaa’i illaa maa qad salaf; inahoo kaana faahishatanw wa maqtanw wa saaa’a sabeelaa (section 3)

Ayat 22. And do not marry those [women] whom your fathers married, except what has already occurred. Indeed, it was an immorality and hateful [to Allah ] and was evil as a way.

حُرِّمَتْ عَلَيْكُمْ أُمَّهَٰتُكُمْ وَبَنَاتُكُمْ وَأَخَوَٰتُكُمْ وَعَمَّٰتُكُمْ وَخَٰلَٰتُكُمْ وَبَنَاتُ ٱلْأَخِ وَبَنَاتُ ٱلْأُخْتِ وَأُمَّهَٰتُكُمُ ٱلَّٰتِىٓ أَرْضَعْنَكُمْ وَأَخَوَٰتُكُم مِّنَ ٱلرَّضَٰعَةِ وَأُمَّهَٰتُ نِسَآئِكُمْ وَرَبَٰٓئِبُكُمُ ٱلَّٰتِى فِى حُجُورِكُم مِّن نِّسَآئِكُمُ ٱلَّٰتِى دَخَلْتُم بِهِنَّ فَإِن لَّمْ تَكُونُوا۟ دَخَلْتُم بِهِنَّ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَحَلَٰٓئِلُ أَبْنَآئِكُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ مِنْ أَصْلَٰبِكُمْ وَأَن تَجْمَعُوا۟ بَيْنَ ٱلْأُخْتَيْنِ إِلَّا مَا قَدْ سَلَفَ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

Hurrimat ‘alaikum umma haatukum wa bannaatukum wa akhawaatukum wa ‘ammaatukum wa khaalaatukum wa banaatul akhi wa banaatul ukhti wa ummahaatu kumul laateee arda’ nakum wa akhawaatukum minarradaa’ati wa ummahaatu nisaaa’ikum wa rabaaa’i bukumul laatee fee hujoorikum min nisaaa’ikumul laatee dakhaltum bihinna Fa il lam takoonoo dakhaltum bihina falaa junaaha ‘alaikum wa halaaa’ilu abnaaa’ikumul lazeena min aslaabikum wa an tajma’oo bainal ukhtaini illaa maa qad salaf; innallaaha kaana Ghafoorar Raheema (End Juz 4)
Ayat 23. Prohibited to you [for marriage] are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your father’s sisters, your mother’s sisters, your brother’s daughters, your sister’s daughters, your [milk] mothers who nursed you, your sisters through nursing, your wives’ mothers, and your step-daughters under your guardianship [born] of your wives unto whom you have gone in. But if you have not gone in unto them, there is no sin upon you. And [also prohibited are] the wives of your sons who are from your [own] loins, and that you take [in marriage] two sisters simultaneously, except for what has already occurred. Indeed, Allah is ever Forgiving and Merciful.

وَٱلْمُحْصَنَٰتُ مِنَ ٱلنِّسَآءِ إِلَّا مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَٰنُكُمْ ۖ كِتَٰبَ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ وَأُحِلَّ لَكُم مَّا وَرَآءَ ذَٰلِكُمْ أَن تَبْتَغُوا۟ بِأَمْوَٰلِكُم مُّحْصِنِينَ غَيْرَ مُسَٰفِحِينَ ۚ فَمَا ٱسْتَمْتَعْتُم بِهِۦ مِنْهُنَّ فَـَٔاتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً ۚ وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيمَا تَرَٰضَيْتُم بِهِۦ مِنۢ بَعْدِ ٱلْفَرِيضَةِ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا

Walmuhsanaatu minan nisaaa’i illaa maa malakat aimaanukum kitaabal laahi ‘alaikum; wa uhilla lakum maa waraaa’a zaalikum an tabtaghoo bi amwaali kum muhsineena ghaira musaa fiheen; famastamta’tum bihee minhunna fa aatoohunna ujoorahunna fareedah; wa laa junaaha ‘alaikum feemaa taraadaitum bihee mim ba’dil fareedah; innal laaha kaana ‘Aleeman Hakeemaa
Ayat 24. And [also prohibited to you are all] married women except those your right hands possess. [This is] the decree of Allah upon you. And lawful to you are [all others] beyond these, [provided] that you seek them [in marriage] with [gifts from] your property, desiring chastity, not unlawful sexual intercourse. So for whatever you enjoy [of marriage] from them, give them their due compensation as an obligation. And there is no blame upon you for what you mutually agree to beyond the obligation. Indeed, Allah is ever Knowing and Wise.

وَمَن لَّمْ يَسْتَطِعْ مِنكُمْ طَوْلًا أَن يَنكِحَ ٱلْمُحْصَنَٰتِ ٱلْمُؤْمِنَٰتِ فَمِن مَّا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَٰنُكُم مِّن فَتَيَٰتِكُمُ ٱلْمُؤْمِنَٰتِ ۚ وَٱللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِإِيمَٰنِكُم ۚ بَعْضُكُم مِّنۢ بَعْضٍ ۚ فَٱنكِحُوهُنَّ بِإِذْنِ أَهْلِهِنَّ وَءَاتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ بِٱلْمَعْرُوفِ مُحْصَنَٰتٍ غَيْرَ مُسَٰفِحَٰتٍ وَلَا مُتَّخِذَٰتِ أَخْدَانٍ ۚ فَإِذَآ أُحْصِنَّ فَإِنْ أَتَيْنَ بِفَٰحِشَةٍ فَعَلَيْهِنَّ نِصْفُ مَا عَلَى ٱلْمُحْصَنَٰتِ مِنَ ٱلْعَذَابِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَنْ خَشِىَ ٱلْعَنَتَ مِنكُمْ ۚ وَأَن تَصْبِرُوا۟ خَيْرٌ لَّكُمْ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

Wa mal lam yastati’ minkum tawlan ai yankihal muhsanaatil mu’minaati famimmaa malakat aimaanukum min fatayaatikumul mu’minaat; wallaahu a’lamu bi eemaanikum; ba’dukum mim ba’d; fankihoohunna bi izni ahlihinna wa aatoohunna ujoorahunna bilma’roofi muhsanaatin ghaira musaa fihaatinw wa laa muttakhizaati akhdaan; fa izaaa uhsinna fa in ataina bifaahi shatin fa’alaihinnna nisfu maa ‘alal muhsanaati minal ‘azaab; zaalika liman khashiyal ‘anata minkum; wa an tasbiroo khairul lakum; wallaahu Ghafoorur Raheem (section 4)
Ayat 25. And whoever among you cannot [find] the means to marry free, believing women, then [he may marry] from those whom your right hands possess of believing slave girls. And Allah is most knowing about your faith. You [believers] are of one another. So marry them with the permission of their people and give them their due compensation according to what is acceptable. [They should be] chaste, neither [of] those who commit unlawful intercourse randomly nor those who take [secret] lovers. But once they are sheltered in marriage, if they should commit adultery, then for them is half the punishment for free [unmarried] women. This [allowance] is for him among you who fears sin, but to be patient is better for you. And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.

يُرِيدُ ٱللَّهُ لِيُبَيِّنَ لَكُمْ وَيَهْدِيَكُمْ سُنَنَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ وَيَتُوبَ عَلَيْكُمْ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ

Yureedul laahu liyubai yina lakum wa yahdiyakum sunanal lazeena min qablikum wa yatooba ‘alaikum; wallaahu ‘Aleemun Hakeem
Ayat 26. Allah wants to make clear to you [the lawful from the unlawful] and guide you to the [good] practices of those before you and to accept your repentance. And Allah is Knowing and Wise.

وَٱللَّهُ يُرِيدُ أَن يَتُوبَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَيُرِيدُ ٱلَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ ٱلشَّهَوَٰتِ أَن تَمِيلُوا۟ مَيْلًا عَظِيمًا

Wallaahu yureedu ai yatooba ‘alaikum wa yureedul lazeena yattabi ‘oonash shahawaati an tameeloo mailan ‘azeemaa
Ayat 27. Allah wants to accept your repentance, but those who follow [their] passions want you to digress [into] a great deviation.

يُرِيدُ ٱللَّهُ أَن يُخَفِّفَ عَنكُمْ ۚ وَخُلِقَ ٱلْإِنسَٰنُ ضَعِيفًا

Yureedul laahu ai yukhaffifa ‘ankum; wa khuliqal insaanu da’eefaa
Ayat 28. And Allah wants to lighten for you [your difficulties]; and mankind was created weak.

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ لَا تَأْكُلُوٓا۟ أَمْوَٰلَكُم بَيْنَكُم بِٱلْبَٰطِلِ إِلَّآ أَن تَكُونَ تِجَٰرَةً عَن تَرَاضٍ مِّنكُمْ ۚ وَلَا تَقْتُلُوٓا۟ أَنفُسَكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُمْ رَحِيمًا

Yaaa aiyuhal lazeena aamanoo laa taakulooo amwaalakum bainakum bilbaatili ‘illaaa an takoona tijaaratan ‘an taraadim minkum; wa laa taqtulooo anfusakum; innal laaha kaana bikum Raheemaa
Ayat 29. O you who have believed, do not consume one another’s wealth unjustly but only [in lawful] business by mutual consent. And do not kill yourselves [or one another]. Indeed, Allah is to you ever Merciful.

وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ عُدْوَٰنًا وَظُلْمًا فَسَوْفَ نُصْلِيهِ نَارًا ۚ وَكَانَ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ يَسِيرًا

Wa mai yaf’al zaalika ‘udwaananw wa zulman fasawfa nusleehi Naaraa; wa kaana zaalika ‘alal laahi yaseeraa
Ayat 30. And whoever does that in aggression and injustice – then We will drive him into a Fire. And that, for Allah, is [always] easy.

إِن تَجْتَنِبُوا۟ كَبَآئِرَ مَا تُنْهَوْنَ عَنْهُ نُكَفِّرْ عَنكُمْ سَيِّـَٔاتِكُمْ وَنُدْخِلْكُم مُّدْخَلًا كَرِيمًا

In tajtaniboo kabaaa’ira maa tunhawna ‘anhu nukaffir ‘ankum saiyiaatikum wa nudkhilkum mudkhalan kareemaa
Ayat 31. If you avoid the major sins which you are forbidden, We will remove from you your lesser sins and admit you to a noble entrance [into Paradise].

وَلَا تَتَمَنَّوْا۟ مَا فَضَّلَ ٱللَّهُ بِهِۦ بَعْضَكُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۚ لِّلرِّجَالِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا ٱكْتَسَبُوا۟ ۖ وَلِلنِّسَآءِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا ٱكْتَسَبْنَ ۚ وَسْـَٔلُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ مِن فَضْلِهِۦٓ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلِيمًا

Wa laa tatamannaw maa faddalal laahu bihee ba’dakum ‘alaa ba’d; lirrijaali naseebum mimak tasaboo wa linnisaaa’i naseebum mimmak tasabna; was’alullaaha min fadlih; innal laaha kaana bikulli shai’in ‘Aleemaa
Ayat 32. And do not wish for that by which Allah has made some of you exceed others. For men is a share of what they have earned, and for women is a share of what they have earned. And ask Allah of his bounty. Indeed Allah is ever, of all things, Knowing.

وَلِكُلٍّ جَعَلْنَا مَوَٰلِىَ مِمَّا تَرَكَ ٱلْوَٰلِدَانِ وَٱلْأَقْرَبُونَ ۚ وَٱلَّذِينَ عَقَدَتْ أَيْمَٰنُكُمْ فَـَٔاتُوهُمْ نَصِيبَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىْءٍ شَهِيدًا

Wa likullin ja’alnaa ma waaliya mimmaa tarakal waalidaani wal aqraboon; wallazeena ‘aqadat aimaanukum fa aatoohum naseebahum; innal laaha kaana ‘alaa kulli shai’in Shaheedaa (section 5)
Ayat 33. And for all, We have made heirs to what is left by parents and relatives. And to those whom your oaths have bound [to you] – give them their share. Indeed Allah is ever, over all things, a Witness.

ٱلرِّجَالُ قَوَّٰمُونَ عَلَى ٱلنِّسَآءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ ٱللَّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ وَبِمَآ أَنفَقُوا۟ مِنْ أَمْوَٰلِهِمْ ۚ فَٱلصَّٰلِحَٰتُ قَٰنِتَٰتٌ حَٰفِظَٰتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ ٱللَّهُ ۚ وَٱلَّٰتِى تَخَافُونَ نُشُوزَهُنَّ فَعِظُوهُنَّ وَٱهْجُرُوهُنَّ فِى ٱلْمَضَاجِعِ وَٱضْرِبُوهُنَّ ۖ فَإِنْ أَطَعْنَكُمْ فَلَا تَبْغُوا۟ عَلَيْهِنَّ سَبِيلًا ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيًّا كَبِيرًا

Arrijaalu qawwaamoona ‘alan nisaaa’i bimaa fad dalallaahu ba’dahum ‘alaa ba’dinw wa bimaaa anfoqoo min amwaalihim; fassaalihaatu qaanitaatun haafizaatul lil ghaibi bimaa hafizal laah; wallaatee takhaafoona nushoo zahunna fa ‘izoohunna wahjuroohunna fil madaaji’i wadriboohunna fa in ata’nakum falaa tabghoo ‘alaihinna sabeelaa; innallaaha kaana ‘Aliyyan Kabeeraa
Ayat 34. Men are in charge of women by [right of] what Allah has given one over the other and what they spend [for maintenance] from their wealth. So righteous women are devoutly obedient, guarding in [the husband’s] absence what Allah would have them guard. But those [wives] from whom you fear arrogance – [first] advise them; [then if they persist], forsake them in bed; and [finally], strike them. But if they obey you [once more], seek no means against them. Indeed, Allah is ever Exalted and Grand.

 وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ شِقَاقَ بَيْنِهِمَا فَٱبْعَثُوا۟ حَكَمًا مِّنْ أَهْلِهِۦ وَحَكَمًا مِّنْ أَهْلِهَآ إِن يُرِيدَآ إِصْلَٰحًا يُوَفِّقِ ٱللَّهُ بَيْنَهُمَآ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا خَبِيرًا

Wa in khiftum shiqaaqa baini himaa fab’asoo haka mam min ahlihee wa hakamam min ahlihaa; iny-yureedaaa islaah ai-yuwaffiqil laahu bainahumaa; innal laaha kaana ‘Aleeman Khabeeraa
Ayat 35. And if you fear dissension between the two, send an arbitrator from his people and an arbitrator from her people. If they both desire reconciliation, Allah will cause it between them. Indeed, Allah is ever Knowing and Acquainted [with all things].

وَٱعْبُدُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَلَا تُشْرِكُوا۟ بِهِۦ شَيْـًٔا ۖ وَبِٱلْوَٰلِدَيْنِ إِحْسَٰنًا وَبِذِى ٱلْقُرْبَىٰ وَٱلْيَتَٰمَىٰ وَٱلْمَسَٰكِينِ وَٱلْجَارِ ذِى ٱلْقُرْبَىٰ وَٱلْجَارِ ٱلْجُنُبِ وَٱلصَّاحِبِ بِٱلْجَنۢبِ وَٱبْنِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ وَمَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَٰنُكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ مَن كَانَ مُخْتَالًا فَخُورًا

Wa’budul laaha wa laa tushrikoo bihee shai’anw wa bilwaalidaini ihsaananw wa bizil qurbaa walyataamaa walmasaakeeni waljaari zilqurbaa waljaaril junubi wassaahibi biljambi wabnis sabeeli wa maa malakat aimaanukum; innal laaha laa yuhibbu man kaana mukhtaalan fakhooraa
Ayat 36. Worship Allah and associate nothing with Him, and to parents do good, and to relatives, orphans, the needy, the near neighbor, the neighbor farther away, the companion at your side, the traveler, and those whom your right hands possess. Indeed, Allah does not like those who are self-deluding and boastful.

ٱلَّذِينَ يَبْخَلُونَ وَيَأْمُرُونَ ٱلنَّاسَ بِٱلْبُخْلِ وَيَكْتُمُونَ مَآ ءَاتَىٰهُمُ ٱللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِۦ ۗ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَٰفِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُّهِينًا

Allazeena yabkhaloona wa yaamuroonan naasa bilbukhli wa yaktumoona maaa aataahu mullaahu min fadlih; wa a’tadnaa lilkaafireena ‘azaabam muheenaa
Ayat 37. Who are stingy and enjoin upon [other] people stinginess and conceal what Allah has given them of His bounty – and We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating punishment –

وَٱلَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَٰلَهُمْ رِئَآءَ ٱلنَّاسِ وَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَلَا بِٱلْيَوْمِ ٱلْءَاخِرِ ۗ وَمَن يَكُنِ ٱلشَّيْطَٰنُ لَهُۥ قَرِينًا فَسَآءَ قَرِينًا

Wallazeena yunfiqoona amwaalahum ri’aaa’an naasi wa laa yu’minoona billaahi wa laa bil Yawmil Aakhir; wa mai yakunish shaitaanu lahoo qareenan fasaaa’a qareenaa
Ayat 38. And [also] those who spend of their wealth to be seen by the people and believe not in Allah nor in the Last Day. And he to whom Satan is a companion – then evil is he as a companion.

وَمَاذَا عَلَيْهِمْ لَوْ ءَامَنُوا۟ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلْيَوْمِ ٱلْءَاخِرِ وَأَنفَقُوا۟ مِمَّا رَزَقَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ بِهِمْ عَلِيمًا

Wa maazaa ‘alaihim law aamanoo billaahi wal Yawmil Aakhiri wa anfaqoo mimmaa razaqahumul laah; wa kaanallaahu bihim Aaleemaa
Ayat 39. And what [harm would come] upon them if they believed in Allah and the Last Day and spent out of what Allah provided for them? And Allah is ever, about them, Knowing.

إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَظْلِمُ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ ۖ وَإِن تَكُ حَسَنَةً يُضَٰعِفْهَا وَيُؤْتِ مِن لَّدُنْهُ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

Innal laaha laa yazlimu misqaala zarratinw wa in taku hasanatany yudaa’ifhaa wa yu’ti mil ladunhu ajran ‘azeemaa
Ayat 40. Indeed, Allah does not do injustice, [even] as much as an atom’s weight; while if there is a good deed, He multiplies it and gives from Himself a great reward.

فَكَيْفَ إِذَا جِئْنَا مِن كُلِّ أُمَّةٍۭ بِشَهِيدٍ وَجِئْنَا بِكَ عَلَىٰ هَٰٓؤُلَآءِ شَهِيدًا

Fakaifa izaa ji’naa min kulli ummatim bishaheedinw wa ji’naabika ‘alaa haaa’ulaaa ‘i Shaheeda
Ayat 41. So how [will it be] when We bring from every nation a witness and we bring you, [O Muhammad] against these [people] as a witness?

يَوْمَئِذٍ يَوَدُّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ وَعَصَوُا۟ ٱلرَّسُولَ لَوْ تُسَوَّىٰ بِهِمُ ٱلْأَرْضُ وَلَا يَكْتُمُونَ ٱللَّهَ حَدِيثًا

Yawma’iziny yawad dullazeena kafaroo wa’asawur Rasoola law tusawwaa bihimul ardu wa laa yaktumoonal laaha hadeesaa (section 6)
Ayat 42. That Day, those who disbelieved and disobeyed the Messenger will wish they could be covered by the earth. And they will not conceal from Allah a [single] statement.

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ لَا تَقْرَبُوا۟ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَٰرَىٰ حَتَّىٰ تَعْلَمُوا۟ مَا تَقُولُونَ وَلَا جُنُبًا إِلَّا عَابِرِى سَبِيلٍ حَتَّىٰ تَغْتَسِلُوا۟ ۚ وَإِن كُنتُم مَّرْضَىٰٓ أَوْ عَلَىٰ سَفَرٍ أَوْ جَآءَ أَحَدٌ مِّنكُم مِّنَ ٱلْغَآئِطِ أَوْ لَٰمَسْتُمُ ٱلنِّسَآءَ فَلَمْ تَجِدُوا۟ مَآءً فَتَيَمَّمُوا۟ صَعِيدًا طَيِّبًا فَٱمْسَحُوا۟ بِوُجُوهِكُمْ وَأَيْدِيكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَفُوًّا غَفُورًا

yaaa aiyuhal lazeena aamanoo laa taqrabus Salaata wa antum sukaaraa hatta ta’lamoo ma taqooloona wa la junuban illaa ‘aabiree sabeelin hatta taghtasiloo; wa in kuntum mardaaa aw ‘alaa safarin aw jaaa’a ahadum minkum minal ghaaa’iti aw laamastumun nisaaa’a falam tajidoo maaa’an fatayam mamoo sa’eedan taiyiban famsahoo biwujoohikum wa aideekum; innal laaha kaana ‘Afuwwan Ghafooraa
Ayat 43. O you who have believed, do not approach prayer while you are intoxicated until you know what you are saying or in a state of janabah, except those passing through [a place of prayer], until you have washed [your whole body]. And if you are ill or on a journey or one of you comes from the place of relieving himself or you have contacted women and find no water, then seek clean earth and wipe over your faces and your hands [with it]. Indeed, Allah is ever Pardoning and Forgiving.

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُوا۟ نَصِيبًا مِّنَ ٱلْكِتَٰبِ يَشْتَرُونَ ٱلضَّلَٰلَةَ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن تَضِلُّوا۟ ٱلسَّبِيلَ

Alam tara ilal lazeena ootoo naseebam minal Kitaabi yashtaroonad dalaalata wa yureedoona an tadillus sabeel
Ayat 44. Have you not seen those who were given a portion of the Scripture, purchasing error [in exchange for it] and wishing you would lose the way?

وَٱللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِأَعْدَآئِكُمْ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِ وَلِيًّا وَكَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِ نَصِيرًا

Wallaahu a’lamu bi a’daaa’i-kum; wa kafaa billaahi waliyyanw wa kafaa billaahi naseera
Ayat 45. And Allah is most knowing of your enemies; and sufficient is Allah as an ally, and sufficient is Allah as a helper.

مِّنَ ٱلَّذِينَ هَادُوا۟ يُحَرِّفُونَ ٱلْكَلِمَ عَن مَّوَاضِعِهِۦ وَيَقُولُونَ سَمِعْنَا وَعَصَيْنَا وَٱسْمَعْ غَيْرَ مُسْمَعٍ وَرَٰعِنَا لَيًّۢا بِأَلْسِنَتِهِمْ وَطَعْنًا فِى ٱلدِّينِ ۚ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا۟ سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا وَٱسْمَعْ وَٱنظُرْنَا لَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَّهُمْ وَأَقْوَمَ وَلَٰكِن لَّعَنَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

Minal lazeena haadoo yuharrifoonal Kalima ‘am mawaadi’ihee wa yaqooloona sami’naa wa ‘asainaa wasma’ ghaira musma’inw wa raa’inaa laiyam bi alsinatihim wa ta’nan fiddeen; wa law annahum qaaloo sami’naa wa ata’naa wasma’ wanzurnaa lakaana khairal lahum wa aqwama wa laakil la ”anahumul laahu bikufrihim falaa yu’minoona illaa qaleela
Ayat 46. Among the Jews are those who distort words from their [proper] usages and say, “We hear and disobey” and “Hear but be not heard” and “Ra’ina,” twisting their tongues and defaming the religion. And if they had said [instead], “We hear and obey” and “Wait for us [to understand],” it would have been better for them and more suitable. But Allah has cursed them for their disbelief, so they believe not, except for a few.

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُوا۟ ٱلْكِتَٰبَ ءَامِنُوا۟ بِمَا نَزَّلْنَا مُصَدِّقًا لِّمَا مَعَكُم مِّن قَبْلِ أَن نَّطْمِسَ وُجُوهًا فَنَرُدَّهَا عَلَىٰٓ أَدْبَارِهَآ أَوْ نَلْعَنَهُمْ كَمَا لَعَنَّآ أَصْحَٰبَ ٱلسَّبْتِ ۚ وَكَانَ أَمْرُ ٱللَّهِ مَفْعُولًا

yaaa aiyuha lazeena ootu Kitaaba aaminoo bimaa nazzalnaa musadiqallimaa ma’akum min qabli an natmisa wujoohan fanaruddahaa ‘alaaa adbaarihaaa aw nal’anahum kamaa la’annaaa Ashaabas Sabt; wa kaana amrul laahi maf’oolaa
Ayat 47. O you who were given the Scripture, believe in what We have sent down [to Muhammad], confirming that which is with you, before We obliterate faces and turn them toward their backs or curse them as We cursed the sabbath-breakers. And ever is the decree of Allah accomplished.

إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِۦ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَن يَشَآءُ ۚ وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِٱللَّهِ فَقَدِ ٱفْتَرَىٰٓ إِثْمًا عَظِيمًا

Innal laaha laa yaghfiru ai yushraka bihee wa yaghfiru maa doona zaalika limai yashaaa’; wa mai yushrik billaahi faqadif taraaa isman ‘azeemaa
Ayat 48. Indeed, Allah does not forgive association with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whom He wills. And he who associates others with Allah has certainly fabricated a tremendous sin.

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ يُزَكُّونَ أَنفُسَهُم ۚ بَلِ ٱللَّهُ يُزَكِّى مَن يَشَآءُ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلً

Alam tara ilal lazeena yuzakkoona anfusahum; balil laahu yuzakkee mai yashaaa’u wa laa yuzlamoona fateelaa
Ayat 49. Have you not seen those who claim themselves to be pure? Rather, Allah purifies whom He wills, and injustice is not done to them, [even] as much as a thread [inside a date seed].

ٱنظُرْ كَيْفَ يَفْتَرُونَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ ٱلْكَذِبَ ۖ وَكَفَىٰ بِهِۦٓ إِثْمًا مُّبِينًا

Unzur kaifa yaftaroona ‘alal laahil kazib, wakafaa biheee ismamm mubeenaa (section 7)
Ayat 50. Look how they invent about Allah untruth, and sufficient is that as a manifest sin.

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُوا۟ نَصِيبًا مِّنَ ٱلْكِتَٰبِ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِٱلْجِبْتِ وَٱلطَّٰغُوتِ وَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ هَٰٓؤُلَآءِ أَهْدَىٰ مِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ سَبِيلً

Alam tara ilal lazeena ‘ootoo naseebam minal kitaabi yu’minoona bil Jibti wat Taaghooti wa yaqooloona lillazeena kafaroo haaa ulaaa’i ahdaa minal lazeena aamanoo sabeelaa
Ayat 51. Have you not seen those who were given a portion of the Scripture, who believe in superstition and false objects of worship and say about the disbelievers, “These are better guided than the believers as to the way”?

أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ لَعَنَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ ۖ وَمَن يَلْعَنِ ٱللَّهُ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُۥ نَصِيرًا

Ulaaa’ikal lazeena la’ana humul laahu wa mai yal’anil laahu falan tajida lahoo naseeraa
Ayat 52. Those are the ones whom Allah has cursed; and he whom Allah curses – never will you find for him a helper.

أَمْ لَهُمْ نَصِيبٌ مِّنَ ٱلْمُلْكِ فَإِذًا لَّا يُؤْتُونَ ٱلنَّاسَ نَقِيرًا

Am lahum naseebum minal mulki fa izal laa yu’toonan naasa naqeeraa
Ayat 53. Or have they a share of dominion? Then [if that were so], they would not give the people [even as much as] the speck on a date seed.

أَمْ يَحْسُدُونَ ٱلنَّاسَ عَلَىٰ مَآ ءَاتَىٰهُمُ ٱللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِۦ ۖ فَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَآ ءَالَ إِبْرَٰهِيمَ ٱلْكِتَٰبَ وَٱلْحِكْمَةَ وَءَاتَيْنَٰهُم مُّلْكًا عَظِيمًا

Am yahsudoonan naasa ‘alaa maaa aataahumul laahu min fadlihee faqad aatainaaa Aala Ibraaheemal Kitaaba wal Hikmata wa aatainaahum mulkan ‘azeemaa

Ayat 54. Or do they envy people for what Allah has given them of His bounty? But we had already given the family of Abraham the Scripture and wisdom and conferred upon them a great kingdom.

فَمِنْهُم مَّنْ ءَامَنَ بِهِۦ وَمِنْهُم مَّن صَدَّ عَنْهُ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِجَهَنَّمَ سَعِيرًا

Faminhum man aamana bihee wa minhum man sadda ‘anh; wa kafaa bi Jahannama sa’eeraa
Ayat 55. And some among them believed in it, and some among them were averse to it. And sufficient is Hell as a blaze.

إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ بِـَٔايَٰتِنَا سَوْفَ نُصْلِيهِمْ نَارًا كُلَّمَا نَضِجَتْ جُلُودُهُم بَدَّلْنَٰهُمْ جُلُودًا غَيْرَهَا لِيَذُوقُوا۟ ٱلْعَذَابَ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا

Innal lazeena kafaroo bi Aayaatinaa sawfa nusleehim Naaran kullamaa nadijat julooduhum baddalnaahum juloodan ghairahaa liyazooqul ‘azaab; innallaaha kaana ‘Azeezan Hakeemaa
Ayat 56. Indeed, those who disbelieve in Our verses – We will drive them into a Fire. Every time their skins are roasted through We will replace them with other skins so they may taste the punishment. Indeed, Allah is ever Exalted in Might and Wise.

وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَعَمِلُوا۟ ٱلصَّٰلِحَٰتِ سَنُدْخِلُهُمْ جَنَّٰتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا ٱلْأَنْهَٰرُ خَٰلِدِينَ فِيهَآ أَبَدًا ۖ لَّهُمْ فِيهَآ أَزْوَٰجٌ مُّطَهَّرَةٌ ۖ وَنُدْخِلُهُمْ ظِلًّا ظَلِيلًا

Wallazeena aamanoo wa ‘amilus saalihaati sanud khiluum jannaatin tajree min tahtihal anhaaru khaalideena feehaaa abadaa, lahum feehaaa azwaajum mutahharatun wa nudkhiluhum zillan zaleelaa
Ayat 57. But those who believe and do righteous deeds – We will admit them to gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they abide forever. For them therein are purified spouses, and We will admit them to deepening shade.

إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يَأْمُرُكُمْ أَن تُؤَدُّوا۟ ٱلْأَمَٰنَٰتِ إِلَىٰٓ أَهْلِهَا وَإِذَا حَكَمْتُم بَيْنَ ٱلنَّاسِ أَن تَحْكُمُوا۟ بِٱلْعَدْلِ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ نِعِمَّا يَعِظُكُم بِهِۦٓ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ سَمِيعًۢا بَصِيرًا

Innal laaha yaamurukum an tu’addul amaanaati ilaaa ahlihaa wa izaa hakamutum bainan naasi an tahkumoo bil’adl; innal laaha ni’immaa ya’izukum bih; innal laaha kaana Samee’am Baseeraa

Ayat 58. Indeed, Allah commands you to render trusts to whom they are due and when you judge between people to judge with justice. Excellent is that which Allah instructs you. Indeed, Allah is ever Hearing and Seeing.

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓا۟ أَطِيعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا۟ ٱلرَّسُولَ وَأُو۟لِى ٱلْأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ ۖ فَإِن تَنَٰزَعْتُمْ فِى شَىْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَٱلرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلْيَوْمِ ٱلْءَاخِرِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلًا

Yaaa aiyuhal lazeena aamanooo atee’ul laaha wa atee’ur Rasoola wa ulil amri minkum fa in tanaaza’tum fee shai’in faruddoohu ilal laahi war Rasooli in kuntum tu’minoona billaahi wal yawmil Aakhir; zaalika khairunw wa ahsanu taaweelaa (section 8)
Ayat 59. O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. And if you disagree over anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you should believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is the best [way] and best in result.

 

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ يَزْعُمُونَ أَنَّهُمْ ءَامَنُوا۟ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَحَاكَمُوٓا۟ إِلَى ٱلطَّٰغُوتِ وَقَدْ أُمِرُوٓا۟ أَن يَكْفُرُوا۟ بِهِۦ وَيُرِيدُ ٱلشَّيْطَٰنُ أَن يُضِلَّهُمْ ضَلَٰلًۢا بَعِيدًا

Alam tara ilal lazeena yaz’umoona annahum amanoo bimaa unzilaa ilaika wa maaa unzila min qablika yureedoona ai yatahaakamooo ilat Taaghooti wa qad umirooo ai yakfuroo bih, wa yureedush Shaitaanu ai yudillahum dalaalam ba’eedaa
Ayat 60. Have you not seen those who claim to have believed in what was revealed to you, [O Muhammad], and what was revealed before you? They wish to refer legislation to Taghut, while they were commanded to reject it; and Satan wishes to lead them far astray.

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمْ تَعَالَوْا۟ إِلَىٰ مَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ وَإِلَى ٱلرَّسُولِ رَأَيْتَ ٱلْمُنَٰفِقِينَ يَصُدُّونَ عَنكَ صُدُودًا

Wa izaa qeela lahum ta’aalaw ilaa maaa anzalallaahu wa ilar Rasooli ra aital munaafiqeena yasuddoona ‘anka sudoodaa
Ayat 61. And when it is said to them, “Come to what Allah has revealed and to the Messenger,” you see the hypocrites turning away from you in aversion.

فَكَيْفَ إِذَآ أَصَٰبَتْهُم مُّصِيبَةٌۢ بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ ثُمَّ جَآءُوكَ يَحْلِفُونَ بِٱللَّهِ إِنْ أَرَدْنَآ إِلَّآ إِحْسَٰنًا وَتَوْفِيقًا

Fakaifa izaaa asaabathum museebatum bimaa qaddamat aideehim summa jaaa’ooka yahlifoona billaahi in aradnaaa illaaa ihsaananw wa tawfeeqaa
Ayat 62. So how [will it be] when disaster strikes them because of what their hands have put forth and then they come to you swearing by Allah, “We intended nothing but good conduct and accommodation.”

أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ يَعْلَمُ ٱللَّهُ مَا فِى قُلُوبِهِمْ فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ وَعِظْهُمْ وَقُل لَّهُمْ فِىٓ أَنفُسِهِمْ قَوْلًۢا بَلِيغًا

Ulaaa’ikal lazeena ya’la mullaahu maa fee quloobihim fa a’rid ‘anhum wa ‘izhum wa qul lahum feee anfusihim qawlam baleeghaa
Ayat 63. Those are the ones of whom Allah knows what is in their hearts, so turn away from them but admonish them and speak to them a far-reaching word.

وَمَآ أَرْسَلْنَا مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا لِيُطَاعَ بِإِذْنِ ٱللَّهِ ۚ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ إِذ ظَّلَمُوٓا۟ أَنفُسَهُمْ جَآءُوكَ فَٱسْتَغْفَرُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَٱسْتَغْفَرَ لَهُمُ ٱلرَّسُولُ لَوَجَدُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ تَوَّابًا رَّحِيمًا

Wa maa arsalnaa mir Rasoolin illaa liyutaa’a bi iznil laah; wa law annahum ‘iz zalamooo anfusahum jaaa’ooka fastaghfarul laaha wastaghfara lahumur Rasoolu la wajadul laaha Tawwaabar Raheemaa
Ayat 64. Then you turned away after that. And if not for the favor of Allah upon you and His mercy, you would have been among the losers.

فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّىٰ يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُوا۟ فِىٓ أَنفُسِهِمْ حَرَجًا مِّمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُوا۟ تَسْلِيمًا

Falaa wa Rabbika laa yu’minoona hattaa yuhakkimooka fe emaa shajara bainahum summa laa yajidoo fee anfusihim harajam mimmaa qadaita wa yusal limoo tasleemaa
Ayat 65. But no, by your Lord, they will not [truly] believe until they make you, [O Muhammad], judge concerning that over which they dispute among themselves and then find within themselves no discomfort from what you have judged and submit in [full, willing] submission.

وَلَوْ أَنَّا كَتَبْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ أَنِ ٱقْتُلُوٓا۟ أَنفُسَكُمْ أَوِ ٱخْرُجُوا۟ مِن دِيَٰرِكُم مَّا فَعَلُوهُ إِلَّا قَلِيلٌ مِّنْهُمْ ۖ وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ فَعَلُوا۟ مَا يُوعَظُونَ بِهِۦ لَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَّهُمْ وَأَشَدَّ تَثْبِيتًا

Wa law annaa katabnaa ‘alaihim aniq tulooo anfusakum awikh rujoo min diyaarikum maa fa’aloohu illaa qaleelum minhum wa law annahum fa’aloo maa yoo’azoona bihee lakaana khairal lahum wa ashadda tasbeetaa
Ayat 66. And if We had decreed upon them, “Kill yourselves” or “Leave your homes,” they would not have done it, except for a few of them. But if they had done what they were instructed, it would have been better for them and a firmer position [for them in faith].

وَإِذًا لَّءَاتَيْنَٰهُم مِّن لَّدُنَّآ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

Wa izal la aatainaahum mil ladunnaaa ajran ‘azeemaa
Ayat 67. And then We would have given them from Us a great reward.

وَلَهَدَيْنَٰهُمْ صِرَٰطًا مُّسْتَقِيمًا

Wa lahadainaahum Siraatam mustaqeemaa
Ayat 68. And We would have guided them to a straight path.

وَمَن يُطِعِ ٱللَّهَ وَٱلرَّسُولَ فَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ مَعَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ ٱلنَّبِيِّۦنَ وَٱلصِّدِّيقِينَ وَٱلشُّهَدَآءِ وَٱلصَّٰلِحِينَ ۚ وَحَسُنَ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ رَفِيقًا

Wa many-yuti’il laaha war Rasoola fa ulaaa’ika ma’al lazeena an’amal laahu ‘alaihim minan nabiyyeena wassiddeeqeena washshuhadaaa’i wassaaliheen; wa hasuna ulaaa’ika rafeeqaa
Ayat 69. And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger – those will be with the ones upon whom Allah has bestowed favor of the prophets, the steadfast affirmers of truth, the martyrs and the righteous. And excellent are those as companions.

ذَٰلِكَ ٱلْفَضْلُ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِ عَلِيمًا

Zaalikal fadlu minal laah; wa kafaa billaahi ‘Aleemaa (section 9)
Ayat 70. That is the bounty from Allah, and sufficient is Allah as Knower.

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ خُذُوا۟ حِذْرَكُمْ فَٱنفِرُوا۟ ثُبَاتٍ أَوِ ٱنفِرُوا۟ جَمِيعًا

Yaaa aiyuhal lazeena aamanoo khuzoo hizrakum fanfiroo subaatin awin firoo jamee’aa
Ayat 71. O you who have believed, take your precaution and [either] go forth in companies or go forth all together.

وَإِنَّ مِنكُمْ لَمَن لَّيُبَطِّئَنَّ فَإِنْ أَصَٰبَتْكُم مُّصِيبَةٌ قَالَ قَدْ أَنْعَمَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىَّ إِذْ لَمْ أَكُن مَّعَهُمْ شَهِيدًا

Wa inna minkum lamal la yubatti’anna fa in asaabatkum museebatun qaala qad an’amal laahu ‘alaiya iz lam akum ma’ahum shaheeda
Ayat 72. And indeed, there is among you he who lingers behind; and if disaster strikes you, he says, ” Allah has favored me in that I was not present with them.”

وَلَئِنْ أَصَٰبَكُمْ فَضْلٌ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ لَيَقُولَنَّ كَأَن لَّمْ تَكُنۢ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُۥ مَوَدَّةٌ يَٰلَيْتَنِى كُنتُ مَعَهُمْ فَأَفُوزَ فَوْزًا عَظِيمًا

Wa la’in asaabakum fadlum minal laahi la yaqoolanna ka al lam takum bainakum wa bainahoo mawaddatuny yaa laitanee kuntu ma’ahum fa afooza fawzan ‘azeemaa
Ayat 73. But if bounty comes to you from Allah, he will surely say, as if there had never been between you and him any affection. “Oh, I wish I had been with them so I could have attained a great attainment.”

فَلْيُقَٰتِلْ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلَّذِينَ يَشْرُونَ ٱلْحَيَوٰةَ ٱلدُّنْيَا بِٱلْءَاخِرَةِ ۚ وَمَن يُقَٰتِلْ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ فَيُقْتَلْ أَوْ يَغْلِبْ فَسَوْفَ نُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

Falyuqaatil fee sabeelil laahil lazeena yashroonal hayaatad dunyaa bil Aakhirah; wa many-uqaatil fee sabeelil laahi fa yuqtal aw yaghlib fasawfa nu’teehi ajran ‘azeemaa

Ayat 74. So let those fight in the cause of Allah who sell the life of this world for the Hereafter. And he who fights in the cause of Allah and is killed or achieves victory – We will bestow upon him a great reward.

وَمَا لَكُمْ لَا تُقَٰتِلُونَ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَٱلْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ مِنَ ٱلرِّجَالِ وَٱلنِّسَآءِ وَٱلْوِلْدَٰنِ ٱلَّذِينَ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَآ أَخْرِجْنَا مِنْ هَٰذِهِ ٱلْقَرْيَةِ ٱلظَّالِمِ أَهْلُهَا وَٱجْعَل لَّنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ وَلِيًّا وَٱجْعَل لَّنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ نَصِيرًا

Wa maa lakum laa tuqaatiloona fee sabeelil laahi walmustad’afeena minar rijaali wannisaaa’i walwildaanil lazeena yaqooloona Rabbanaaa akhrijnaa min haazihil qaryatiz zaalimi ahluhaa waj’al lanaa mil ladunka waliyanw waj’al lanaa mil ladunka naseeraa
Ayat 75. And what is [the matter] with you that you fight not in the cause of Allah and [for] the oppressed among men, women, and children who say, “Our Lord, take us out of this city of oppressive people and appoint for us from Yourself a protector and appoint for us from Yourself a helper?”

ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ يُقَٰتِلُونَ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ ۖ وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ يُقَٰتِلُونَ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱلطَّٰغُوتِ فَقَٰتِلُوٓا۟ أَوْلِيَآءَ ٱلشَّيْطَٰنِ ۖ إِنَّ كَيْدَ ٱلشَّيْطَٰنِ كَانَ ضَعِيفًا

Allazeena aamanoo yuqaatiloona fee sabeelil laahi wallazeena kafaroo yuqaatiloona fee sabeelit Taaghoot faqaatiloo awliyaaa’ash Shaitaan; inna kaidash Shairaani kaana da’eefa (section 10)
Ayat 76. Those who believe fight in the cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve fight in the cause of Taghut. So fight against the allies of Satan. Indeed, the plot of Satan has ever been weak.

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ قِيلَ لَهُمْ كُفُّوٓا۟ أَيْدِيَكُمْ وَأَقِيمُوا۟ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتُوا۟ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ فَلَمَّا كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِمُ ٱلْقِتَالُ إِذَا فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُمْ يَخْشَوْنَ ٱلنَّاسَ كَخَشْيَةِ ٱللَّهِ أَوْ أَشَدَّ خَشْيَةً ۚ وَقَالُوا۟ رَبَّنَا لِمَ كَتَبْتَ عَلَيْنَا ٱلْقِتَالَ لَوْلَآ أَخَّرْتَنَآ إِلَىٰٓ أَجَلٍ قَرِيبٍ ۗ قُلْ مَتَٰعُ ٱلدُّنْيَا قَلِيلٌ وَٱلْءَاخِرَةُ خَيْرٌ لِّمَنِ ٱتَّقَىٰ وَلَا تُظْلَمُونَ فَتِيلًا

Alam tara ilal lazeena qeela lahum kuffooo aidiyakum wa aqeemus Salaata w aaatuz Zakaata falammaa kutiba ‘alaihimul qitaalu izaa fareequm minhum yakhshawnnan naasa kakhashyatil laahi aw ashadda khashyah; wa qaaloo Rabbanaa lima katabta ‘alainal qitaala law laaa akhkhartanaa ilaaa ajalin qareeb; qul mataa’ud dunyaa qaleelunw wal Aakhiratu khairul limanit taqaa wa laa tuzlamoona fateelaa
Ayat 77. Have you not seen those who were told, “Restrain your hands [from fighting] and establish prayer and give zakah”? But then when fighting was ordained for them, at once a party of them feared men as they fear Allah or with [even] greater fear. They said, “Our Lord, why have You decreed upon us fighting? If only You had postponed [it for] us for a short time.” Say, The enjoyment of this world is little, and the Hereafter is better for he who fears Allah . And injustice will not be done to you, [even] as much as a thread [inside a date seed].”

أَيْنَمَا تَكُونُوا۟ يُدْرِككُّمُ ٱلْمَوْتُ وَلَوْ كُنتُمْ فِى بُرُوجٍ مُّشَيَّدَةٍ ۗ وَإِن تُصِبْهُمْ حَسَنَةٌ يَقُولُوا۟ هَٰذِهِۦ مِنْ عِندِ ٱللَّهِ ۖ وَإِن تُصِبْهُمْ سَيِّئَةٌ يَقُولُوا۟ هَٰذِهِۦ مِنْ عِندِكَ ۚ قُلْ كُلٌّ مِّنْ عِندِ ٱللَّهِ ۖ فَمَالِ هَٰٓؤُلَآءِ ٱلْقَوْمِ لَا يَكَادُونَ يَفْقَهُونَ حَدِيثًا

Ainamaa takoonoo yudrikkumul mawtu wa law kuntum fee buroojim mushai yadah; wa in tusibhum hasanatuny yaqooloo haazihee min indil laahi wa in tusibhum saiyi’atuny yaqooloo haazihee min ‘indik; qul kullum min ‘indillaahi famaa lihaaa ‘ulaaa’il qawmi laa yakaadoona yafqahoona hadeesaa
Ayat 78. Wherever you may be, death will overtake you, even if you should be within towers of lofty construction. But if good comes to them, they say, “This is from Allah “; and if evil befalls them, they say, “This is from you.” Say, “All [things] are from Allah .” So what is [the matter] with those people that they can hardly understand any statement?

مَّآ أَصَابَكَ مِنْ حَسَنَةٍ فَمِنَ ٱللَّهِ ۖ وَمَآ أَصَابَكَ مِن سَيِّئَةٍ فَمِن نَّفْسِكَ ۚ وَأَرْسَلْنَٰكَ لِلنَّاسِ رَسُولًا ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِ شَهِيدًا

Maaa asaabaka min hasanatin faminal laahi wa maaa asaaabaka min saiyi’atin famin nafsik; wa arsalnaaka linnaasi Rasoolaa; wa kafaa billaahi Shaheedaa
Ayat 79. What comes to you of good is from Allah, but what comes to you of evil, [O man], is from yourself. And We have sent you, [O Muhammad], to the people as a messenger, and sufficient is Allah as Witness.

مَّن يُطِعِ ٱلرَّسُولَ فَقَدْ أَطَاعَ ٱللَّهَ ۖ وَمَن تَوَلَّىٰ فَمَآ أَرْسَلْنَٰكَ عَلَيْهِمْ حَفِيظًا

Man yuti’ir Rasoola faqad ataa’al laaha wa man tawallaa famaaa arsalnaaka ‘alaihim hafeezaa
Ayat 80. He who obeys the Messenger has obeyed Allah ; but those who turn away – We have not sent you over them as a guardian.

وَيَقُولُونَ طَاعَةٌ فَإِذَا بَرَزُوا۟ مِنْ عِندِكَ بَيَّتَ طَآئِفَةٌ مِّنْهُمْ غَيْرَ ٱلَّذِى تَقُولُ ۖ وَٱللَّهُ يَكْتُبُ مَا يُبَيِّتُونَ ۖ فَأَعْرِضْ عَنْهُمْ وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِ وَكِيلًا

Wa yaqooloona taa’antun fa izaa barazoo min ‘indika baiyata taaa’ifatum minhum ghairal lazee taqoolu wallaahu yaktubu maa yubaiyitoona faa’rid ‘anhum wa tawakkal ‘alal laah; wa kafaa billaahi Wakeelan
Ayat 81. And they say, “[We pledge] obedience.” But when they leave you, a group of them spend the night determining to do other than what you say. But Allah records what they plan by night. So leave them alone and rely upon Allah . And sufficient is Allah as Disposer of affairs.

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ ٱلْقُرْءَانَ ۚ وَلَوْ كَانَ مِنْ عِندِ غَيْرِ ٱللَّهِ لَوَجَدُوا۟ فِيهِ ٱخْتِلَٰفًا كَثِيرًا

Afalaa yatadabbaroonal Qur’aan; wa law kaana min ‘indi ghairil laahi la wajadoo fee hikh tilaafan kaseeraa
Ayat 82. Then do they not reflect upon the Qur’an? If it had been from [any] other than Allah, they would have found within it much contradiction.

وَإِذَا جَآءَهُمْ أَمْرٌ مِّنَ ٱلْأَمْنِ أَوِ ٱلْخَوْفِ أَذَاعُوا۟ بِهِۦ ۖ وَلَوْ رَدُّوهُ إِلَى ٱلرَّسُولِ وَإِلَىٰٓ أُو۟لِى ٱلْأَمْرِ مِنْهُمْ لَعَلِمَهُ ٱلَّذِينَ يَسْتَنۢبِطُونَهُۥ مِنْهُمْ ۗ وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُۥ لَٱتَّبَعْتُمُ ٱلشَّيْطَٰنَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

Wa izaa jaaa’ahum amrum minal amni awil khawfi azaa’oo bihee wa law raddoohu ilar Rasooli wa ilaaa ulil amri minhum la’alimahul lazeena yastambitoonahoo minhum; wa law laa fadlul laahi ‘alaikum wa rahmatuhoo lattaba’tumush Shaitaana illaa qaleelaa
Ayat 83. And when there comes to them information about [public] security or fear, they spread it around. But if they had referred it back to the Messenger or to those of authority among them, then the ones who [can] draw correct conclusions from it would have known about it. And if not for the favor of Allah upon you and His mercy, you would have followed Satan, except for a few.

فَقَٰتِلْ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ لَا تُكَلَّفُ إِلَّا نَفْسَكَ ۚ وَحَرِّضِ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۖ عَسَى ٱللَّهُ أَن يَكُفَّ بَأْسَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ ۚ وَٱللَّهُ أَشَدُّ بَأْسًا وَأَشَدُّ تَنكِيلً

Wa iz akhaznaa meesaa qakum laa tasfikoona dimaaa’akum wa laa tukhrijoona anfusakum min diyaarikum summa aqrartum wa antum tashhadoon
Ayat 84. So fight, [O Muhammad], in the cause of Allah ; you are not held responsible except for yourself. And encourage the believers [to join you] that perhaps Allah will restrain the [military] might of those who disbelieve. And Allah is greater in might and stronger in [exemplary] punishment.

مَّن يَشْفَعْ شَفَٰعَةً حَسَنَةً يَكُن لَّهُۥ نَصِيبٌ مِّنْهَا ۖ وَمَن يَشْفَعْ شَفَٰعَةً سَيِّئَةً يَكُن لَّهُۥ كِفْلٌ مِّنْهَا ۗ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىْءٍ مُّقِيتًا

Mai yashfa’ shafaa’atan hasanatay yakul lahoo naseebum minhaa wa mai yashfa’ shafaa’tan saiyi’atanny-yakul lahoo kiflum minhaa; wa kaanal laahu ‘alaa kulli shai’im Muqeetaa
Ayat 85. Then, you are those [same ones who are] killing one another and evicting a party of your people from their homes, cooperating against them in sin and aggression. And if they come to you as captives, you ransom them, although their eviction was forbidden to you. So do you believe in part of the Scripture and disbelieve in part? Then what is the recompense for those who do that among you except disgrace in worldly life; and on the Day of Resurrection they will be sent back to the severest of punishment. And Allah is not unaware of what you do.

وَإِذَا حُيِّيتُم بِتَحِيَّةٍ فَحَيُّوا۟ بِأَحْسَنَ مِنْهَآ أَوْ رُدُّوهَآ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىْءٍ حَسِيبًا

Wa izaa huyyeetum bitahaiyyatin fahaiyoo bi ahsana minhaaa aw ruddoohaa; innal laaha kaana ‘alaa kulli shai’in Haseeba
Ayat 86. And when you are greeted with a greeting, greet [in return] with one better than it or [at least] return it [in a like manner]. Indeed, Allah is ever, over all things, an Accountant.

ٱللَّهُ لَآ إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۚ لَيَجْمَعَنَّكُمْ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ ٱلْقِيَٰمَةِ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ ۗ وَمَنْ أَصْدَقُ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ حَدِيثًا

Allaahu laaa ilaaha illaa huwa la yajma’annakum ilaa Yawmil Qiyaamati laa raiba feeh; wa man asdaqu mminallaahi hadeesaa (section 11)
Ayat 87. Allah – there is no deity except Him. He will surely assemble you for [account on] the Day of Resurrection, about which there is no doubt. And who is more truthful than Allah in statement.

فَمَا لَكُمْ فِى ٱلْمُنَٰفِقِينَ فِئَتَيْنِ وَٱللَّهُ أَرْكَسَهُم بِمَا كَسَبُوٓا۟ ۚ أَتُرِيدُونَ أَن تَهْدُوا۟ مَنْ أَضَلَّ ٱللَّهُ ۖ وَمَن يُضْلِلِ ٱللَّهُ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُۥ سَبِيلًا

Famaa lakum filmuna afiqeena fi’ataini wallaahu arkasahum bimaa kasaboo; atureedoona an tahdoo man adallal laahu wa mmai yudlilil laahu falan tajida lahoo sabeelaa
Ayat 88. What is [the matter] with you [that you are] two groups concerning the hypocrites, while Allah has made them fall back [into error and disbelief] for what they earned. Do you wish to guide those whom Allah has sent astray? And he whom Allah sends astray – never will you find for him a way [of guidance].

وَدُّوا۟ لَوْ تَكْفُرُونَ كَمَا كَفَرُوا۟ فَتَكُونُونَ سَوَآءً ۖ فَلَا تَتَّخِذُوا۟ مِنْهُمْ أَوْلِيَآءَ حَتَّىٰ يُهَاجِرُوا۟ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ ۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا۟ فَخُذُوهُمْ وَٱقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ وَجَدتُّمُوهُمْ ۖ وَلَا تَتَّخِذُوا۟ مِنْهُمْ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا

Wadoo law takfuroona kamaa kafaroo fatakoonoona sawaaa’an falaa tattakhizoo minhum awliyaaa’a hattaa yuhaajiroo fee sabeelil laah; fa in tawallaw fa khuzoohum waqtuloohum haisu wajat tumoohum wa laa tattakhizoo minhum waliyyanw wa laa naseeraa
Ayat 89. They wish you would disbelieve as they disbelieved so you would be alike. So do not take from among them allies until they emigrate for the cause of Allah . But if they turn away, then seize them and kill them wherever you find them and take not from among them any ally or helper.

إِلَّا ٱلَّذِينَ يَصِلُونَ إِلَىٰ قَوْمٍۭ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُم مِّيثَٰقٌ أَوْ جَآءُوكُمْ حَصِرَتْ صُدُورُهُمْ أَن يُقَٰتِلُوكُمْ أَوْ يُقَٰتِلُوا۟ قَوْمَهُمْ ۚ وَلَوْ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ لَسَلَّطَهُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ فَلَقَٰتَلُوكُمْ ۚ فَإِنِ ٱعْتَزَلُوكُمْ فَلَمْ يُقَٰتِلُوكُمْ وَأَلْقَوْا۟ إِلَيْكُمُ ٱلسَّلَمَ فَمَا جَعَلَ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ سَبِيلًا

Illal lazeena yasiloona ilaa qawmim bainakum wa bainahum meesaaqun aw jaaa’ookum hasirat sudooruhum ai yuqaatilookum aw yuqaatiloo qawmahum, wa law shaaa’al laahu lasallatahum ‘alaikum falaqaatalookum; fa ini’ tazalookum falam yuqaatilookum wa alqaw ilaikumus salama famaa ja’alal laahu lakum ‘alaihim sabeelaa
Ayat 90. Except for those who take refuge with a people between yourselves and whom is a treaty or those who come to you, their hearts strained at [the prospect of] fighting you or fighting their own people. And if Allah had willed, He could have given them power over you, and they would have fought you. So if they remove themselves from you and do not fight you and offer you peace, then Allah has not made for you a cause [for fighting] against them.

سَتَجِدُونَ ءَاخَرِينَ يُرِيدُونَ أَن يَأْمَنُوكُمْ وَيَأْمَنُوا۟ قَوْمَهُمْ كُلَّ مَا رُدُّوٓا۟ إِلَى ٱلْفِتْنَةِ أُرْكِسُوا۟ فِيهَا ۚ فَإِن لَّمْ يَعْتَزِلُوكُمْ وَيُلْقُوٓا۟ إِلَيْكُمُ ٱلسَّلَمَ وَيَكُفُّوٓا۟ أَيْدِيَهُمْ فَخُذُوهُمْ وَٱقْتُلُوهُمْ حَيْثُ ثَقِفْتُمُوهُمْ ۚ وَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكُمْ جَعَلْنَا لَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ سُلْطَٰنًا مُّبِينًا

Satajidoona aakhareena yureedoona ai yaamanookum wa yaamanoo qawmahum kullamaa ruddooo ilal fitnati urkisoo feehaa; fa il lam ya’tazilookum wa yulqooo ilai kumus salama wa yakuffooo aidiyahum fakhuzoohum waqtuloohum haisu saqif tumoohum; wa ulaaa’ikum ja’alnaa lakum ‘alaihim sultaanam mubeenaa (section 12)
Ayat 91. You will find others who wish to obtain security from you and [to] obtain security from their people. Every time they are returned to [the influence of] disbelief, they fall back into it. So if they do not withdraw from you or offer you peace or restrain their hands, then seize them and kill them wherever you overtake them. And those – We have made for you against them a clear authorization.

وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ أَن يَقْتُلَ مُؤْمِنًا إِلَّا خَطَـًٔا ۚ وَمَن قَتَلَ مُؤْمِنًا خَطَـًٔا فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ وَدِيَةٌ مُّسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَىٰٓ أَهْلِهِۦٓ إِلَّآ أَن يَصَّدَّقُوا۟ ۚ فَإِن كَانَ مِن قَوْمٍ عَدُوٍّ لَّكُمْ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ ۖ وَإِن كَانَ مِن قَوْمٍۭ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُم مِّيثَٰقٌ فَدِيَةٌ مُّسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَىٰٓ أَهْلِهِۦ وَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ ۖ فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ تَوْبَةً مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ ۗ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا

Wa maa kaana limu’minin ai yaqtula mu’minan illaa khata’aa; waman qatala mu’minan khata’an fatahreeru raqabatim mu’minatinw wa diyatum mmusallamatun ilaaa ahliheee illaaa ai yassaddaqoo; fa in kaana min qawmin ‘aduwwil lakum wa huwa mu’minun fatahreeru raqabatim mu’minah; wa in kaana min qawmim bainakum wa bainahum meesaaqun fadiyatum mmusallamatun ilaaa ahlihee wa tahreeru raqabatim mu’minatin famal lam yajid fa Siyaamu shahraini mutataabi’aini awbatan minal laah; wa kaanal laahu ‘Aleeman hakeemaa
Ayat 92. And never is it for a believer to kill a believer except by mistake. And whoever kills a believer by mistake – then the freeing of a believing slave and a compensation payment presented to the deceased’s family [is required] unless they give [up their right as] charity. But if the deceased was from a people at war with you and he was a believer – then [only] the freeing of a believing slave; and if he was from a people with whom you have a treaty – then a compensation payment presented to his family and the freeing of a believing slave. And whoever does not find [one or cannot afford to buy one] – then [instead], a fast for two months consecutively, [seeking] acceptance of repentance from Allah . And Allah is ever Knowing and Wise.

وَمَن يَقْتُلْ مُؤْمِنًا مُّتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَآؤُهُۥ جَهَنَّمُ خَٰلِدًا فِيهَا وَغَضِبَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَلَعَنَهُۥ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُۥ عَذَابًا عَظِيمًا

Wa mai yaqtul mu’minammuta ‘ammidan fajazaaa’uhoo Jahannamu khaalidan feehaa wa ghadibal laahu’ alaihi wa la’anahoo wa a’adda lahoo ‘azaaban ‘azeemaa
Ayat 93. But whoever kills a believer intentionally – his recompense is Hell, wherein he will abide eternally, and Allah has become angry with him and has cursed him and has prepared for him a great punishment.

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓا۟ إِذَا ضَرَبْتُمْ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ فَتَبَيَّنُوا۟ وَلَا تَقُولُوا۟ لِمَنْ أَلْقَىٰٓ إِلَيْكُمُ ٱلسَّلَٰمَ لَسْتَ مُؤْمِنًا تَبْتَغُونَ عَرَضَ ٱلْحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنْيَا فَعِندَ ٱللَّهِ مَغَانِمُ كَثِيرَةٌ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ كُنتُم مِّن قَبْلُ فَمَنَّ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيْكُمْ فَتَبَيَّنُوٓا۟ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا

Yaaa aiyuhal lazeena aamanoo izaa darabtum fee sabeelil laahi fatabaiyanoo wa laa taqooloo liman alqaaa ilaikumus salaama lasta mu’minan tabtaghoona ‘aradal hayaatid dunyaa fa’indal laahi maghaanimu kaseerah; kazaalika kuntum min qablu famannnal laahu ‘alaikum fatabaiyanoo; innallaaha kaana bimaa ta’maloona Khabeeraa
Ayat 94. O you who have believed, when you go forth [to fight] in the cause of Allah, investigate; and do not say to one who gives you [a greeting of] peace “You are not a believer,” aspiring for the goods of worldly life; for with Allah are many acquisitions. You [yourselves] were like that before; then Allah conferred His favor upon you, so investigate. Indeed Allah is ever, with what you do, Acquainted.

لَّا يَسْتَوِى ٱلْقَٰعِدُونَ مِنَ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ غَيْرُ أُو۟لِى ٱلضَّرَرِ وَٱلْمُجَٰهِدُونَ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ بِأَمْوَٰلِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ ۚ فَضَّلَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلْمُجَٰهِدِينَ بِأَمْوَٰلِهِمْ وَأَنفُسِهِمْ عَلَى ٱلْقَٰعِدِينَ دَرَجَةً ۚ وَكُلًّا وَعَدَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلْحُسْنَىٰ ۚ وَفَضَّلَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلْمُجَٰهِدِينَ عَلَى ٱلْقَٰعِدِينَ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

Laa yastawil qaa’idoona Minal mu’mineena ghairu ulid darari walmujaahidoona fee sabeelil laahi bi amwaalihim wa anfusihim; faddalal laahul mujaahideena bi am waalihim wa anfusihim ‘alalqaa’ideena darajat; wa kullanw wa’adal laahul husnaa; wa faddalal laahul mujaahideena ‘alal qaa’ideena ajran ‘azeemaa
Ayat 95. Not equal are those believers remaining [at home] – other than the disabled – and the mujahideen, [who strive and fight] in the cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives. Allah has preferred the mujahideen through their wealth and their lives over those who remain [behind], by degrees. And to both Allah has promised the best [reward]. But Allah has preferred the mujahideen over those who remain [behind] with a great reward –

دَرَجَٰتٍ مِّنْهُ وَمَغْفِرَةً وَرَحْمَةً ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

Darajaatim minhu wa maghfiratanw wa rahmah; wa kaanal laahu Ghafoorar Raheema (section 13)
Ayat 96. Degrees [of high position] from Him and forgiveness and mercy. And Allah is ever Forgiving and Merciful.

إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ تَوَفَّىٰهُمُ ٱلْمَلَٰٓئِكَةُ ظَالِمِىٓ أَنفُسِهِمْ قَالُوا۟ فِيمَ كُنتُمْ ۖ قَالُوا۟ كُنَّا مُسْتَضْعَفِينَ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ قَالُوٓا۟ أَلَمْ تَكُنْ أَرْضُ ٱللَّهِ وَٰسِعَةً فَتُهَاجِرُوا۟ فِيهَا ۚ فَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ مَأْوَىٰهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ ۖ وَسَآءَتْ مَصِيرًا

Innal lazeena tawaffaa humul malaaa’ikatu zaalimeee anfusihim qaaloo feema kuntum qaaloo kunnaa mustad’afeena fil-ard; qaalooo alam takun ardul laahi waasi’atan fatuhaajiroo feehaa; fa ulaaa’ika maawaahum Jahannamu wa saaa’at maseeraa
Ayat 97. Indeed, those whom the angels take [in death] while wronging themselves – [the angels] will say, “In what [condition] were you?” They will say, “We were oppressed in the land.” The angels will say, “Was not the earth of Allah spacious [enough] for you to emigrate therein?” For those, their refuge is Hell – and evil it is as a destination.

إِلَّا ٱلْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ مِنَ ٱلرِّجَالِ وَٱلنِّسَآءِ وَٱلْوِلْدَٰنِ لَا يَسْتَطِيعُونَ حِيلَةً وَلَا يَهْتَدُونَ سَبِيلًا

Illal mustad ‘afeena minar rijaali wannisaaa’i walwildaani laa yastatee’oona heelatanw wa laa yahtadoona sabeela
Aya 98. Except for the oppressed among men, women and children who cannot devise a plan nor are they directed to a way –

فَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ عَسَى ٱللَّهُ أَن يَعْفُوَ عَنْهُمْ ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَفُوًّا غَفُورًا

Fa ulaaa’ika ‘asal laahu ai ya’fuwa ‘anhum; wa kaanal laahu ‘Afuwwan Ghafooraa
Ayat 99. For those it is expected that Allah will pardon them, and Allah is ever Pardoning and Forgiving.

وَمَن يُهَاجِرْ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ يَجِدْ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ مُرَٰغَمًا كَثِيرًا وَسَعَةً ۚ وَمَن يَخْرُجْ مِنۢ بَيْتِهِۦ مُهَاجِرًا إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ ثُمَّ يُدْرِكْهُ ٱلْمَوْتُ فَقَدْ وَقَعَ أَجْرُهُۥ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ ۗ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

Wa mai yuhaajir fee sabeelil laahi yajid fil ardi mmuraaghaman kaseeranw wa sa’at; wa mai yakhruj mim baitihee muhaajiran ilal laahi wa Rasoolihee summa yudrikhul mawtu faqad waqa’a ajruhoo ‘alal laah; wa kaanal laahu Ghafoorar Raheemaa (section 14)
Ayat 100. And whoever emigrates for the cause of Allah will find on the earth many [alternative] locations and abundance. And whoever leaves his home as an emigrant to Allah and His Messenger and then death overtakes him – his reward has already become incumbent upon Allah . And Allah is ever Forgiving and Merciful.

وَإِذَا ضَرَبْتُمْ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَن تَقْصُرُوا۟ مِنَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةِ إِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَن يَفْتِنَكُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓا۟ ۚ إِنَّ ٱلْكَٰفِرِينَ كَانُوا۟ لَكُمْ عَدُوًّا مُّبِينًا

Wa izaa darabtum fil ardi falaisa ‘alaikum junaahun an taqsuroo minas Salaati in khiftum ai yaftinakumul lazeena kafarooo; innal kaafireena kaanoo lakum aduwwam mubeenaa
Ayat 101. And when you travel throughout the land, there is no blame upon you for shortening the prayer, [especially] if you fear that those who disbelieve may disrupt [or attack] you. Indeed, the disbelievers are ever to you a clear enemy.

وَإِذَا كُنتَ فِيهِمْ فَأَقَمْتَ لَهُمُ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ فَلْتَقُمْ طَآئِفَةٌ مِّنْهُم مَّعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُوٓا۟ أَسْلِحَتَهُمْ فَإِذَا سَجَدُوا۟ فَلْيَكُونُوا۟ مِن وَرَآئِكُمْ وَلْتَأْتِ طَآئِفَةٌ أُخْرَىٰ لَمْ يُصَلُّوا۟ فَلْيُصَلُّوا۟ مَعَكَ وَلْيَأْخُذُوا۟ حِذْرَهُمْ وَأَسْلِحَتَهُمْ ۗ وَدَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ لَوْ تَغْفُلُونَ عَنْ أَسْلِحَتِكُمْ وَأَمْتِعَتِكُمْ فَيَمِيلُونَ عَلَيْكُم مَّيْلَةً وَٰحِدَةً ۚ وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِن كَانَ بِكُمْ أَذًى مِّن مَّطَرٍ أَوْ كُنتُم مَّرْضَىٰٓ أَن تَضَعُوٓا۟ أَسْلِحَتَكُمْ ۖ وَخُذُوا۟ حِذْرَكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ أَعَدَّ لِلْكَٰفِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُّهِينًا

Wa izaa kunta feehim fa aqamta lahumus Salaata faltaqum taaa’ifatum minhum ma’aka walyaakhuzooo aslihatahum fa izaa sajadoo fal yakoonoo minw waraaa’ikum waltaati taaa’ifatun ukhraa lam yusalloo falyusallo ma’aka walyaakhuzoo hizrahum wa aslihatahum; waddal lazeena kafaroo law taghfuloona ‘anaslihatikum wa amti’atikum fa yameeloona ‘alaikum mailatanw waahidah; wa laa junaaha ‘alaikum in kaana bikum azam mimmatarin aw kuntum mmardaaa an tada’ooo aslihatakum wa khuzoo hizrakum; innal laaha a’adda lilkaafireena ‘azaabam muheenaa
Ayat 102. And when you are among them and lead them in prayer, let a group of them stand [in prayer] with you and let them carry their arms. And when they have prostrated, let them be [in position] behind you and have the other group come forward which has not [yet] prayed and let them pray with you, taking precaution and carrying their arms. Those who disbelieve wish that you would neglect your weapons and your baggage so they could come down upon you in one [single] attack. But there is no blame upon you, if you are troubled by rain or are ill, for putting down your arms, but take precaution. Indeed, Allah has prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating punishment.

فَإِذَا قَضَيْتُمُ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ فَٱذْكُرُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ قِيَٰمًا وَقُعُودًا وَعَلَىٰ جُنُوبِكُمْ ۚ فَإِذَا ٱطْمَأْنَنتُمْ فَأَقِيمُوا۟ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ ۚ إِنَّ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ كَانَتْ عَلَى ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ كِتَٰبًا مَّوْقُوتًا

Fa izaa qadaitumus Salaata fazkurul laaha qiyaamanw wa qu’oodanw wa ‘alaa junoobikum; fa izat maanantum fa aqeemus Salaah; innas Salaata kaanat ‘alal mu’mineena kitaabam mawqootaa
Ayat 103. And when you have completed the prayer, remember Allah standing, sitting, or [lying] on your sides. But when you become secure, re-establish [regular] prayer. Indeed, prayer has been decreed upon the believers a decree of specified times.

وَلَا تَهِنُوا۟ فِى ٱبْتِغَآءِ ٱلْقَوْمِ ۖ إِن تَكُونُوا۟ تَأْلَمُونَ فَإِنَّهُمْ يَأْلَمُونَ كَمَا تَأْلَمُونَ ۖ وَتَرْجُونَ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ مَا لَا يَرْجُونَ ۗ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا

Wa laa tahinoo fibtighaaa’il qawmi in takoonoo taalamoona fa innahum yaalamoona kamaa taalamoona wa tarjoona minal laahi maa laa yarjoon; wa kaanal laahu ‘Aleeman Hakeemaa (section 15)
Ayat 104. And do not weaken in pursuit of the enemy. If you should be suffering – so are they suffering as you are suffering, but you expect from Allah that which they expect not. And Allah is ever Knowing and Wise.

إِنَّآ أَنزَلْنَآ إِلَيْكَ ٱلْكِتَٰبَ بِٱلْحَقِّ لِتَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ ٱلنَّاسِ بِمَآ أَرَىٰكَ ٱللَّهُ ۚ وَلَا تَكُن لِّلْخَآئِنِينَ خَصِيمًا

Innaaa anzalnaaa ilaikal Kitaaba bilhaqqi litahkuma bainan naasi bimaaa araakal laah; wa laa takul lilkhaaa’ineena khaseemaa
Ayat 105. Indeed, We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], the Book in truth so you may judge between the people by that which Allah has shown you. And do not be for the deceitful an advocate.

وَٱسْتَغْفِرِ ٱللَّهَ ۖ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

Wastaghfiril laaha innal laaha kaana Ghafoorar Raheema
Ayat 106. And seek forgiveness of Allah . Indeed, Allah is ever Forgiving and Merciful.

وَلَا تُجَٰدِلْ عَنِ ٱلَّذِينَ يَخْتَانُونَ أَنفُسَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ مَن كَانَ خَوَّانًا أَثِيمًا

Wa laa tujaadil ‘anil lazeena yakhtaanoona anfusahum; innal laaha laa yuhibbuman kaana khawwaanan aseemaa
Ayat 107. And do not argue on behalf of those who deceive themselves. Indeed, Allah loves not one who is a habitually sinful deceiver.

يَسْتَخْفُونَ مِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ وَلَا يَسْتَخْفُونَ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ وَهُوَ مَعَهُمْ إِذْ يُبَيِّتُونَ مَا لَا يَرْضَىٰ مِنَ ٱلْقَوْلِ ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ بِمَا يَعْمَلُونَ مُحِيطًا

Yastakhfoona minannaasi wa laa yastakh foona minal laahi wa huwa ma’ahum iz yubaiyitoona maa laa yardaa minal qawl; wa kaanal laahu bimaa ya’maloona muheetaa
Ayat 108. They conceal [their evil intentions and deeds] from the people, but they cannot conceal [them] from Allah, and He is with them [in His knowledge] when they spend the night in such as He does not accept of speech. And ever is Allah, of what they do, encompassing.

هَٰٓأَنتُمْ هَٰٓؤُلَآءِ جَٰدَلْتُمْ عَنْهُمْ فِى ٱلْحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنْيَا فَمَن يُجَٰدِلُ ٱللَّهَ عَنْهُمْ يَوْمَ ٱلْقِيَٰمَةِ أَم مَّن يَكُونُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَكِيلً

haaa antum haaa’ulaaa’i jaadaltum ‘anhum fil hayaatid dunyaa famai yujaadilul laaha ‘anhum Yawmal Qiyaamati am mai yakoonu ‘alaihim wakeelaa
Ayat 109. Here you are – those who argue on their behalf in [this] worldly life – but who will argue with Allah for them on the Day of Resurrection, or who will [then] be their representative?

وَمَن يَعْمَلْ سُوٓءًا أَوْ يَظْلِمْ نَفْسَهُۥ ثُمَّ يَسْتَغْفِرِ ٱللَّهَ يَجِدِ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

Wa mai ya’mal sooo’an aw yazlim nafsahoo summa yastaghfiril laaha yajidil laaha Ghafoorar Raheemaar
Ayat 110. And whoever does a wrong or wrongs himself but then seeks forgiveness of Allah will find Allah Forgiving and Merciful.

وَمَن يَكْسِبْ إِثْمًا فَإِنَّمَا يَكْسِبُهُۥ عَلَىٰ نَفْسِهِۦ ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا

Wa mai yaksib isman fa innamaa yaksibuhoo ‘alaa nafsih; wa kaanal laahu ‘Aleeman hakeemaa
Ayat 111. And whoever commits a sin only earns it against himself. And Allah is ever Knowing and Wise.

وَمَن يَكْسِبْ خَطِيٓـَٔةً أَوْ إِثْمًا ثُمَّ يَرْمِ بِهِۦ بَرِيٓـًٔا فَقَدِ ٱحْتَمَلَ بُهْتَٰنًا وَإِثْمًا مُّبِينًا

Wa mai yaksib khateee’atan aw isman summa yarmi bihee bareee’an faqadih tamala buhtaananw wa ismam mubeenaa (section 16)
Ayat 112. But whoever earns an offense or a sin and then blames it on an innocent [person] has taken upon himself a slander and manifest sin.

وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيْكَ وَرَحْمَتُهُۥ لَهَمَّت طَّآئِفَةٌ مِّنْهُمْ أَن يُضِلُّوكَ وَمَا يُضِلُّونَ إِلَّآ أَنفُسَهُمْ ۖ وَمَا يَضُرُّونَكَ مِن شَىْءٍ ۚ وَأَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيْكَ ٱلْكِتَٰبَ وَٱلْحِكْمَةَ وَعَلَّمَكَ مَا لَمْ تَكُن تَعْلَمُ ۚ وَكَانَ فَضْلُ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيْكَ عَظِيمًا

Wa law laa fadlul laahi ‘alaika wa rahmatuhoo lahammat taaa’ifatum minhum ai yudillooka wa maa yudilloona illaaa anfusahum wa maa yadurroonaka min shai’; wa anzalal laahu ‘alaikal Kitaaba wal Hikmata wa ‘allamaka maa lam takun ta’lam; wa kaana fadlul laahi ‘alaika ‘azeemaa
Ayat 113. And if it was not for the favor of Allah upon you, [O Muhammad], and His mercy, a group of them would have determined to mislead you. But they do not mislead except themselves, and they will not harm you at all. And Allah has revealed to you the Book and wisdom and has taught you that which you did not know. And ever has the favor of Allah upon you been great.

لَّا خَيْرَ فِى كَثِيرٍ مِّن نَّجْوَىٰهُمْ إِلَّا مَنْ أَمَرَ بِصَدَقَةٍ أَوْ مَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ إِصْلَٰحٍۭ بَيْنَ ٱلنَّاسِ ۚ وَمَن يَفْعَلْ ذَٰلِكَ ٱبْتِغَآءَ مَرْضَاتِ ٱللَّهِ فَسَوْفَ نُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

laa khaira fee kaseerim min najwaahum illaa man amara bisadaqatin aw ma’roofin aw islaahim bainan naas; wa mai yaf’al zaalikab tighaaa’a mardaatil laahi fa sawfa nu’teehi ajran ‘azeemaa
Ayat 114. No good is there in much of their private conversation, except for those who enjoin charity or that which is right or conciliation between people. And whoever does that seeking means to the approval of Allah – then We are going to give him a great reward.

وَمَن يُشَاقِقِ ٱلرَّسُولَ مِنۢ بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ ٱلْهُدَىٰ وَيَتَّبِعْ غَيْرَ سَبِيلِ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ نُوَلِّهِۦ مَا تَوَلَّىٰ وَنُصْلِهِۦ جَهَنَّمَ ۖ وَسَآءَتْ مَصِيرًا

Wa mai yushaaqiqir Rasoola mim ba’di maa tabaiyana lahul hudaa wa tattabi’ ghaira sabeelil mu’mineena nuwallihee ma tawallaa wa nuslihee Jahannama wa saaa’at maseeraa (section 17)
Ayat 115. And whoever opposes the Messenger after guidance has become clear to him and follows other than the way of the believers – We will give him what he has taken and drive him into Hell, and evil it is as a destination.

إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَغْفِرُ أَن يُشْرَكَ بِهِۦ وَيَغْفِرُ مَا دُونَ ذَٰلِكَ لِمَن يَشَآءُ ۚ وَمَن يُشْرِكْ بِٱللَّهِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَٰلًۢا بَعِيدًا

Innal laaha laa yaghfiru ai yushraka bihee wayaghfiru maa doona zaalika limai yashaaa’; wa mai yushrik billaahi faqad dalla dalaalam ba’eedaa
Ayat 116. Indeed, Allah does not forgive association with Him, but He forgives what is less than that for whom He wills. And he who associates others with Allah has certainly gone far astray.

إِن يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِۦٓ إِلَّآ إِنَٰثًا وَإِن يَدْعُونَ إِلَّا شَيْطَٰنًا مَّرِيدًا

iny yad’oona min dooniheee illaaa inaasanw wa iny yad’oona illaa Shaitaanam mareedaa
Ayat 117. They call upon instead of Him none but female [deities], and they [actually] call upon none but a rebellious Satan.

لَّعَنَهُ ٱللَّهُ ۘ وَقَالَ لَأَتَّخِذَنَّ مِنْ عِبَادِكَ نَصِيبًا مَّفْرُوضًا

La’anahul laah; wa qaala la attakhizanna min ‘ibaadika naseebam mafroodaa
Ayat 118. Whom Allah has cursed. For he had said, “I will surely take from among Your servants a specific portion.

وَلَأُضِلَّنَّهُمْ وَلَأُمَنِّيَنَّهُمْ وَلَءَامُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُبَتِّكُنَّ ءَاذَانَ ٱلْأَنْعَٰمِ وَلَءَامُرَنَّهُمْ فَلَيُغَيِّرُنَّ خَلْقَ ٱللَّهِ ۚ وَمَن يَتَّخِذِ ٱلشَّيْطَٰنَ وَلِيًّا مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ فَقَدْ خَسِرَ خُسْرَانًا مُّبِينًا

Wa la udillannahum wa la umanni yannnahum wa la aamurannahum fala yubat tikunna aazaanal an’aami wa la aamurannahum fala yughai yirunna khalqal laah; wa mai yattakhizish Shaitaana waliyyam mmin doonil laahi faqad khasira khusraanam mubeena
Ayat 119. And I will mislead them, and I will arouse in them [sinful] desires, and I will command them so they will slit the ears of cattle, and I will command them so they will change the creation of Allah .” And whoever takes Satan as an ally instead of Allah has certainly sustained a clear loss.

يَعِدُهُمْ وَيُمَنِّيهِمْ ۖ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ ٱلشَّيْطَٰنُ إِلَّا غُرُورًا

Ya’iduhum wa yuman neehim wa maa ya’iduhumush Shaitaanu illaa ghurooraa
Ayat 120. Satan promises them and arouses desire in them. But Satan does not promise them except delusion.

أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ مَأْوَىٰهُمْ جَهَنَّمُ وَلَا يَجِدُونَ عَنْهَا مَحِيصًا

Ulaaa’ika maawaahum Jahannamu wa laa yajidoona ‘anhaa maheesaa
Ayat 121. The refuge of those will be Hell, and they will not find from it an escape.

وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَعَمِلُوا۟ ٱلصَّٰلِحَٰتِ سَنُدْخِلُهُمْ جَنَّٰتٍ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا ٱلْأَنْهَٰرُ خَٰلِدِينَ فِيهَآ أَبَدًا ۖ وَعْدَ ٱللَّهِ حَقًّا ۚ وَمَنْ أَصْدَقُ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ قِيلًا

Wallazeena aamanoo wa ‘amilus saalihaati sanud khiluhum Jannaatin tajree min tahtihal anhaaru khaalideena feehaaa abadaa; wa’dal laahi haqqaa; wa man asdaqu minal laahi qeelaa
Ayat 122. But the ones who believe and do righteous deeds – We will admit them to gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. [It is] the promise of Allah, [which is] truth, and who is more truthful than Allah in statement.

لَّيْسَ بِأَمَانِيِّكُمْ وَلَآ أَمَانِىِّ أَهْلِ ٱلْكِتَٰبِ ۗ مَن يَعْمَلْ سُوٓءًا يُجْزَ بِهِۦ وَلَا يَجِدْ لَهُۥ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا

ALaisa bi amaaniyyikum wa laaa amaaniyyi Ahlil Kitaab; mai ya’mal sooo’ai yujza bihee wa laa yajid lahoo min doonil laahi waliyanw wa laa naseeraa
Ayat 123. Paradise is not [obtained] by your wishful thinking nor by that of the People of the Scripture. Whoever does a wrong will be recompensed for it, and he will not find besides Allah a protector or a helper.

وَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِنَ ٱلصَّٰلِحَٰتِ مِن ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنثَىٰ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ يَدْخُلُونَ ٱلْجَنَّةَ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ نَقِيرًا

Wa mai ya’mal minas saalihaati min zakarin aw unsaa wa huwa mu’minun fa ulaaa’ika yadkhuloonal Jannata wa laa yuzlamoona naqeeraa
Ayat 124. And whoever does righteous deeds, whether male or female, while being a believer – those will enter Paradise and will not be wronged, [even as much as] the speck on a date seed.

وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ دِينًا مِّمَّنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُۥ لِلَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ وَٱتَّبَعَ مِلَّةَ إِبْرَٰهِيمَ حَنِيفًا ۗ وَٱتَّخَذَ ٱللَّهُ إِبْرَٰهِيمَ خَلِيلً

Wa man ahsanu deenam mimmman aslama wajhahoo lillaahi wa huwa muhsinunw wattaba’a Millata Ibraaheema haneefaa; wattakhazal laahu Ibraaheema khaleelaa
Ayat 125. And who is better in religion than one who submits himself to Allah while being a doer of good and follows the religion of Abraham, inclining toward truth? And Allah took Abraham as an intimate friend.

وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ مُّحِيطًا

Wa lillaahi maa fis samaawaati wa maa fil ard; wa kaanal laahu bikulli shai’im muheetaa (section 18)
Ayat 126. And to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And ever is Allah, of all things, encompassing.

وَيَسْتَفْتُونَكَ فِى ٱلنِّسَآءِ ۖ قُلِ ٱللَّهُ يُفْتِيكُمْ فِيهِنَّ وَمَا يُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ فِى ٱلْكِتَٰبِ فِى يَتَٰمَى ٱلنِّسَآءِ ٱلَّٰتِى لَا تُؤْتُونَهُنَّ مَا كُتِبَ لَهُنَّ وَتَرْغَبُونَ أَن تَنكِحُوهُنَّ وَٱلْمُسْتَضْعَفِينَ مِنَ ٱلْوِلْدَٰنِ وَأَن تَقُومُوا۟ لِلْيَتَٰمَىٰ بِٱلْقِسْطِ ۚ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا۟ مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ بِهِۦ عَلِيمًا

Wa yastaftoonaka finnisaaa’i qulil laahu yufteekum feehinna wa maa yutlaa ‘alaikum fil Kitaabi fee yataaman nisaaa’il laatee laa tu’toonahunna mmaa kutiba lahunnna wa targhaboona an tankihoohunna wal mustad’a feena minal wildaani wa an taqoomoo lilyataamaa bilqist; wa maa taf’aloo min khairin fa innal laaha kaana bihee ‘Aleemaa
Ayat 127. And they request from you, [O Muhammad], a [legal] ruling concerning women. Say, ” Allah gives you a ruling about them and [about] what has been recited to you in the Book concerning the orphan girls to whom you do not give what is decreed for them – and [yet] you desire to marry them – and concerning the oppressed among children and that you maintain for orphans [their rights] in justice.” And whatever you do of good – indeed, Allah is ever Knowing of it.

وَإِنِ ٱمْرَأَةٌ خَافَتْ مِنۢ بَعْلِهَا نُشُوزًا أَوْ إِعْرَاضًا فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَآ أَن يُصْلِحَا بَيْنَهُمَا صُلْحًا ۚ وَٱلصُّلْحُ خَيْرٌ ۗ وَأُحْضِرَتِ ٱلْأَنفُسُ ٱلشُّحَّ ۚ وَإِن تُحْسِنُوا۟ وَتَتَّقُوا۟ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا

Wa inimra atun khaafat mim ba’lihaa nushoozan aw i’raadan falaa junaaha ‘alaihi maaa ai yuslihaa bainahumaa sulhaa; wassulhu khair; wa uhdiratil anfusush shuhh; wa in tuhsinoo wa tattaqoo fa innal laaha kaana bimaa ta’maloona Khabeeraa
Ayat 128. And if a woman fears from her husband contempt or evasion, there is no sin upon them if they make terms of settlement between them – and settlement is best. And present in [human] souls is stinginess. But if you do good and fear Allah – then indeed Allah is ever, with what you do, Acquainted.

وَلَن تَسْتَطِيعُوٓا۟ أَن تَعْدِلُوا۟ بَيْنَ ٱلنِّسَآءِ وَلَوْ حَرَصْتُمْ ۖ فَلَا تَمِيلُوا۟ كُلَّ ٱلْمَيْلِ فَتَذَرُوهَا كَٱلْمُعَلَّقَةِ ۚ وَإِن تُصْلِحُوا۟ وَتَتَّقُوا۟ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

Wa lan tastatee’ooo an ta’diloo bainan nisaaa’i wa law harastum falaa tameeloo kullal maili fatazaroohaa kalmu’al laqah; wa in tuslihoo wa tattaqoo fa innal laaha kaana Ghafoorar Raheema
Ayat 129. And you will never be able to be equal [in feeling] between wives, even if you should strive [to do so]. So do not incline completely [toward one] and leave another hanging. And if you amend [your affairs] and fear Allah – then indeed, Allah is ever Forgiving and Merciful.

وَإِن يَتَفَرَّقَا يُغْنِ ٱللَّهُ كُلًّا مِّن سَعَتِهِۦ ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ وَٰسِعًا حَكِيمًا

Wa iny-yatafarraqaa yughnil laahu kullam min sa’atih; wa kaanal laahu Waasi’an Hakeemaa
Ayat 130. And who would be averse to the religion of Abraham except one who makes a fool of himself. And We had chosen him in this world, and indeed he, in the Hereafter, will be among the righteous.

وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ ۗ وَلَقَدْ وَصَّيْنَا ٱلَّذِينَ أُوتُوا۟ ٱلْكِتَٰبَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ وَإِيَّاكُمْ أَنِ ٱتَّقُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ ۚ وَإِن تَكْفُرُوا۟ فَإِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ غَنِيًّا حَمِيدًا

Wa lillaahi maafis samaawaati wa maa fil ard; wa laqad wassainal lazeena ootul Kitaaba min qablikum wa iyyaakum anit taqul laah; wa intakfuroo fa inna lillaahi maa fis samaawaati wa maa fil ard; wa kaanal laahu Ghaniyyan hameedaa
Ayat 131. And to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And We have instructed those who were given the Scripture before you and yourselves to fear Allah . But if you disbelieve – then to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And ever is Allah Free of need and Praiseworthy.

وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِ وَكِيلً

Wa lillaahi maa fis samaawaati wa maa fil ard; wa kafaa billaahi Wakeelaa
Ayat 132. And to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And sufficient is Allah as Disposer of affairs.

إِن يَشَأْ يُذْهِبْكُمْ أَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ وَيَأْتِ بِـَٔاخَرِينَ ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ ذَٰلِكَ قَدِيرًا

Iny-yashaa yuzhibkum aiyuhan naasu wa yaati bi aakhareen; wa kaanal laahu ‘alaa zaalika Qadeeraa
Ayat 133. If He wills, He can do away with you, O people, and bring others [in your place]. And ever is Allah competent to do that.

مَّن كَانَ يُرِيدُ ثَوَابَ ٱلدُّنْيَا فَعِندَ ٱللَّهِ ثَوَابُ ٱلدُّنْيَا وَٱلْءَاخِرَةِ ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ سَمِيعًۢا بَصِيرًا

man kaana yureedu sawaabad dunyaa fa’indallaahi sawaabud dunyaa wal Aakhirah; wa kaanal laahu Samee’am Baseeraa (section 19)
Ayat 134. Whoever desires the reward of this world – then with Allah is the reward of this world and the Hereafter. And ever is Allah Hearing and Seeing.

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ كُونُوا۟ قَوَّٰمِينَ بِٱلْقِسْطِ شُهَدَآءَ لِلَّهِ وَلَوْ عَلَىٰٓ أَنفُسِكُمْ أَوِ ٱلْوَٰلِدَيْنِ وَٱلْأَقْرَبِينَ ۚ إِن يَكُنْ غَنِيًّا أَوْ فَقِيرًا فَٱللَّهُ أَوْلَىٰ بِهِمَا ۖ فَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا۟ ٱلْهَوَىٰٓ أَن تَعْدِلُوا۟ ۚ وَإِن تَلْوُۥٓا۟ أَوْ تُعْرِضُوا۟ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا

Yaa aiyuhal lazeena aamanoo koonoo qawwa ameena bilqisti shuhadaaa’a lillaahi wa law ‘alaa anfusikum awil waalidaini wal aqrabeen iny yakun ghaniyyan aw faqeeran fallaahu awlaa bihimaa falaaa tattabi’ul hawaaa an ta’diloo; wa in talwooo aw tu’ridoo fa innal laaha kaana bimaa ta’maloona Khabeera
Ayat 135. O you who have believed, be persistently standing firm in justice, witnesses for Allah, even if it be against yourselves or parents and relatives. Whether one is rich or poor, Allah is more worthy of both. So follow not [personal] inclination, lest you not be just. And if you distort [your testimony] or refuse [to give it], then indeed Allah is ever, with what you do, Acquainted.

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓا۟ ءَامِنُوا۟ بِٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ وَٱلْكِتَٰبِ ٱلَّذِى نَزَّلَ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِۦ وَٱلْكِتَٰبِ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَنزَلَ مِن قَبْلُ ۚ وَمَن يَكْفُرْ بِٱللَّهِ وَمَلَٰٓئِكَتِهِۦ وَكُتُبِهِۦ وَرُسُلِهِۦ وَٱلْيَوْمِ ٱلْءَاخِرِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَٰلًۢا بَعِيدًا

Yaaa aiyuhal lazeena aamanooo aaminoo billaahi wa Rasoolihee wal Kitaabil lazee nazzala ‘alaa Rasoolihee wal Kitaabil lazeee anzala min qabl; wa mai yakfur billaahi wa Malaaa’ikatihee wa Kutubihee wa Rusulihee wal Yawmil Aakhiri faqad dalla dalaalam ba’eedaa
Ayat 136. O you who have believed, believe in Allah and His Messenger and the Book that He sent down upon His Messenger and the Scripture which He sent down before. And whoever disbelieves in Allah, His angels, His books, His messengers, and the Last Day has certainly gone far astray.

إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ ثُمَّ كَفَرُوا۟ ثُمَّ ءَامَنُوا۟ ثُمَّ كَفَرُوا۟ ثُمَّ ٱزْدَادُوا۟ كُفْرًا لَّمْ يَكُنِ ٱللَّهُ لِيَغْفِرَ لَهُمْ وَلَا لِيَهْدِيَهُمْ سَبِيلًۢ

Innal lazeena aamanoo summa kafaroo summa aamanoo summa kafaroo summaz daado kufral lam yakunil laahu liyaghfira lahum wa laa liyahdiyahum sabeelaa
Ayat 137. Indeed, those who have believed then disbelieved, then believed, then disbelieved, and then increased in disbelief – never will Allah forgive them, nor will He guide them to a way.

بَشِّرِ ٱلْمُنَٰفِقِينَ بِأَنَّ لَهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا

Sibghatal laahi wa man ahsanu minal laahi sibghatanw wa nahnu lahoo ‘aabidoon
Ayat 138. Give tidings to the hypocrites that there is for them a painful punishment –

ٱلَّذِينَ يَتَّخِذُونَ ٱلْكَٰفِرِينَ أَوْلِيَآءَ مِن دُونِ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۚ أَيَبْتَغُونَ عِندَهُمُ ٱلْعِزَّةَ فَإِنَّ ٱلْعِزَّةَ لِلَّهِ جَمِيعًا

Allazeena yattakhizoo nal kaafireena awliyaaa’a min doonil mu’mineen; a-yabta ghoona ‘indahumul ‘izzata fainnnal ‘izzata lillaahi jamee’aa
Ayat 139. Those who take disbelievers as allies instead of the believers. Do they seek with them honor [through power]? But indeed, honor belongs to Allah entirely.

وَقَدْ نَزَّلَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِى ٱلْكِتَٰبِ أَنْ إِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ ءَايَٰتِ ٱللَّهِ يُكْفَرُ بِهَا وَيُسْتَهْزَأُ بِهَا فَلَا تَقْعُدُوا۟ مَعَهُمْ حَتَّىٰ يَخُوضُوا۟ فِى حَدِيثٍ غَيْرِهِۦٓ ۚ إِنَّكُمْ إِذًا مِّثْلُهُمْ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ جَامِعُ ٱلْمُنَٰفِقِينَ وَٱلْكَٰفِرِينَ فِى جَهَنَّمَ جَمِيعًا

Wa qad nazzala ‘alaikum fil Kitaabi an izaa sami’tum Aayaatil laahi yukfaru bihaa wa yustahza u bihaa falaa taq’udoo ma’ahum hattaa yakhoodoo fee hadeesin ghairih; innakum izam misluhum; innal laaha jaami’ul munaafiqeena wal kaafireena fee jahannama jamee’aa
Ayat 140. And it has already come down to you in the Book that when you hear the verses of Allah [recited], they are denied [by them] and ridiculed; so do not sit with them until they enter into another conversation. Indeed, you would then be like them. Indeed Allah will gather the hypocrites and disbelievers in Hell all together –

ٱلَّذِينَ يَتَرَبَّصُونَ بِكُمْ فَإِن كَانَ لَكُمْ فَتْحٌ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ قَالُوٓا۟ أَلَمْ نَكُن مَّعَكُمْ وَإِن كَانَ لِلْكَٰفِرِينَ نَصِيبٌ قَالُوٓا۟ أَلَمْ نَسْتَحْوِذْ عَلَيْكُمْ وَنَمْنَعْكُم مِّنَ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۚ فَٱللَّهُ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَكُمْ يَوْمَ ٱلْقِيَٰمَةِ ۗ وَلَن يَجْعَلَ ٱللَّهُ لِلْكَٰفِرِينَ عَلَى ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ سَبِيلًا

Allazeena yatarab basoona bikum fa in kaana lakum fathum minal laahi qaalooo alam nakum ma’akum wa in kaana lilkaafireena naseebun qaalooo alam nastah wiz ‘alaikum wa nammna’kum minal mu’mineen; fallaahu yahkumu bainakum Yawmal Qiyaamah; wa lai yaj’alal laahu lilkaafireena ‘alal mu’mineena sabeelaa (section 20)
Ayat 141. Those who wait [and watch] you. Then if you gain a victory from Allah, they say, “Were we not with you?” But if the disbelievers have a success, they say [to them], “Did we not gain the advantage over you, but we protected you from the believers?” Allah will judge between [all of] you on the Day of Resurrection, and never will Allah give the disbelievers over the believers a way [to overcome them].

إِنَّ ٱلْمُنَٰفِقِينَ يُخَٰدِعُونَ ٱللَّهَ وَهُوَ خَٰدِعُهُمْ وَإِذَا قَامُوٓا۟ إِلَى ٱلصَّلَوٰةِ قَامُوا۟ كُسَالَىٰ يُرَآءُونَ ٱلنَّاسَ وَلَا يَذْكُرُونَ ٱللَّهَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا

Innal munaafiqeena yukhaadi’oonal laaha wa huwa khaadi’uhum wa izaa qaamooo ilas Salaati qaamoo kusaalaa yuraaa’oonan naasa wa laa yazkuroonal laaha illaa qaleelaa
Ayat 142. Indeed, the hypocrites [think to] deceive Allah, but He is deceiving them. And when they stand for prayer, they stand lazily, showing [themselves to] the people and not remembering Allah except a little,

مُّذَبْذَبِينَ بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ لَآ إِلَىٰ هَٰٓؤُلَآءِ وَلَآ إِلَىٰ هَٰٓؤُلَآءِ ۚ وَمَن يُضْلِلِ ٱللَّهُ فَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُۥ سَبِيلًا

Muzabzabeena baina zaalika laaa ilaa haaa’ ulaaa’i wa laaa ilaa haaa’ulaaa’; wa mai yudlilil laahu falan tajida lahoo sabeela
Ayat 143. Wavering between them, [belonging] neither to the believers nor to the disbelievers. And whoever Allah leaves astray – never will you find for him a way.

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ لَا تَتَّخِذُوا۟ ٱلْكَٰفِرِينَ أَوْلِيَآءَ مِن دُونِ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۚ أَتُرِيدُونَ أَن تَجْعَلُوا۟ لِلَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ سُلْطَٰنًا مُّبِينًا

Yaaa aiyuhal lazeena aamanoo laa tattakhizul kaafireena awliyaaa’a min doonil mu’mineen; aturee doona an taj’aloo lillaahi ‘alaikum sultaanam mubeenaa
Ayat 144. O you who have believed, do not take the disbelievers as allies instead of the believers. Do you wish to give Allah against yourselves a clear case?

إِنَّ ٱلْمُنَٰفِقِينَ فِى ٱلدَّرْكِ ٱلْأَسْفَلِ مِنَ ٱلنَّارِ وَلَن تَجِدَ لَهُمْ نَصِيرًا

Innal munaafiqeena fiddarkil asfali minan Naari wa lan tajjida lahum naseeraa
Ayat 145. Indeed, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire – and never will you find for them a helper –

إِلَّا ٱلَّذِينَ تَابُوا۟ وَأَصْلَحُوا۟ وَٱعْتَصَمُوا۟ بِٱللَّهِ وَأَخْلَصُوا۟ دِينَهُمْ لِلَّهِ فَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ مَعَ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ ۖ وَسَوْفَ يُؤْتِ ٱللَّهُ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

Illal lazeena taaboo wa aslahoo wa’tasamoo billaahi wa akhlasoo deenahum lillaahi faulaaa’ika ma’al mu’mineena wa sawfa yu’til laahul mu’mineena ajran ‘azeemaa
Ayat 146. Except for those who repent, correct themselves, hold fast to Allah, and are sincere in their religion for Allah, for those will be with the believers. And Allah is going to give the believers a great reward.

مَّا يَفْعَلُ ٱللَّهُ بِعَذَابِكُمْ إِن شَكَرْتُمْ وَءَامَنتُمْ ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ شَاكِرًا عَلِيمًا

maa yafa’lul laahu bi ‘azaabikum in shakartum wa aamantum; wa kaanal laahu Shaakiran ‘Aleema (End Juz 5)
Ayat 147. What would Allah do with your punishment if you are grateful and believe? And ever is Allah Appreciative and Knowing.

لَّا يُحِبُّ ٱللَّهُ ٱلْجَهْرَ بِٱلسُّوٓءِ مِنَ ٱلْقَوْلِ إِلَّا مَن ظُلِمَ ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ سَمِيعًا عَلِيمًا

Laa yuhibbullaahul jahra bis sooo’i minal qawli illaa man zulim; wa kaanallaahu Samee’an ‘Aleeman
Ayat 148. Allah does not like the public mention of evil except by one who has been wronged. And ever is Allah Hearing and Knowing.

إِن تُبْدُوا۟ خَيْرًا أَوْ تُخْفُوهُ أَوْ تَعْفُوا۟ عَن سُوٓءٍ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ عَفُوًّا قَدِيرًا

in tubdoo khairann aw tukhfoohu aw ta’foo ‘an sooo’in fa innal laaha kaana ‘afuwwan Qadeeraa
Ayat 149. If [instead] you show [some] good or conceal it or pardon an offense – indeed, Allah is ever Pardoning and Competent.

إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يَكْفُرُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِۦ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يُفَرِّقُوا۟ بَيْنَ ٱللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِۦ وَيَقُولُونَ نُؤْمِنُ بِبَعْضٍ وَنَكْفُرُ بِبَعْضٍ وَيُرِيدُونَ أَن يَتَّخِذُوا۟ بَيْنَ ذَٰلِكَ سَبِيلًا

Innal lazeena yakkfuroona billaahi wa Rusulihee wa yureedoona ai yufarriqoo bainal laahi wa Rusulihee wa yaqooloona nu’minu biba’dinw wa nakfuru biba’ dinw wa yureedoona ai yattakhizoo baina zaalika sabeelaa
Ayat 150. Indeed, those who disbelieve in Allah and His messengers and wish to discriminate between Allah and His messengers and say, “We believe in some and disbelieve in others,” and wish to adopt a way in between –

أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلْكَٰفِرُونَ حَقًّا ۚ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَٰفِرِينَ عَذَابًا مُّهِينًا

Ulaaa’ika humul kaafiroona haqqaaw; wa a’tadnaa lilkaafireena ‘azaabam muheenaa
Ayat 151. Those are the disbelievers, truly. And We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating punishment.

وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ بِٱللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِۦ وَلَمْ يُفَرِّقُوا۟ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ سَوْفَ يُؤْتِيهِمْ أُجُورَهُمْ ۗ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا

Wallazeena aamanoo billaahi wa Rusulihee wa lam yufarriqoo baina ahadim minhum ulaaa’ika sawfa yu’teehim ujoorahum; wa kaanal laahu Ghafoorar Raheema (section 21)
Ayat 152. But they who believe in Allah and His messengers and do not discriminate between any of them – to those He is going to give their rewards. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful.

يَسْـَٔلُكَ أَهْلُ ٱلْكِتَٰبِ أَن تُنَزِّلَ عَلَيْهِمْ كِتَٰبًا مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ ۚ فَقَدْ سَأَلُوا۟ مُوسَىٰٓ أَكْبَرَ مِن ذَٰلِكَ فَقَالُوٓا۟ أَرِنَا ٱللَّهَ جَهْرَةً فَأَخَذَتْهُمُ ٱلصَّٰعِقَةُ بِظُلْمِهِمْ ۚ ثُمَّ ٱتَّخَذُوا۟ ٱلْعِجْلَ مِنۢ بَعْدِ مَا جَآءَتْهُمُ ٱلْبَيِّنَٰتُ فَعَفَوْنَا عَن ذَٰلِكَ ۚ وَءَاتَيْنَا مُوسَىٰ سُلْطَٰنًا مُّبِينًا

yas’aluka Ahlul Kitaabi an tunazzila ‘alaihim Kitaabam minas samaaa’i faqad sa aloo Moosaa akbara min zaalika faqaaloo arinal laaha jahratan fa akhazat humus saa’iqatu bizulmihim; summat takhazul ‘ijla mim ba’di maa jaa’at humul baiyinaatu fa’afawnaa ‘ann zaalik; wa aatainaa Moosaa sultaanam mubeenaa
Ayat 153. The People of the Scripture ask you to bring down to them a book from the heaven. But they had asked of Moses [even] greater than that and said, “Show us Allah outright,” so the thunderbolt struck them for their wrongdoing. Then they took the calf [for worship] after clear evidences had come to them, and We pardoned that. And We gave Moses a clear authority.

وَرَفَعْنَا فَوْقَهُمُ ٱلطُّورَ بِمِيثَٰقِهِمْ وَقُلْنَا لَهُمُ ٱدْخُلُوا۟ ٱلْبَابَ سُجَّدًا وَقُلْنَا لَهُمْ لَا تَعْدُوا۟ فِى ٱلسَّبْتِ وَأَخَذْنَا مِنْهُم مِّيثَٰقًا غَلِيظًا

Wa rafa’naa fawqahumut Toora bimeesaaqihim wa qulnaa lahumud khulul baaba sujjadanw wa qulnaa lahum laa ta’doo fis Sabti wa akhaznaa minhum meesaaqan ghaleezaa
Ayat 154
. And We raised over them the mount for [refusal of] their covenant; and We said to them, “Enter the gate bowing humbly”, and We said to them, “Do not transgress on the sabbath”, and We took from them a solemn covenant.

فَبِمَا نَقْضِهِم مِّيثَٰقَهُمْ وَكُفْرِهِم بِـَٔايَٰتِ ٱللَّهِ وَقَتْلِهِمُ ٱلْأَنۢبِيَآءَ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ وَقَوْلِهِمْ قُلُوبُنَا غُلْفٌۢ ۚ بَلْ طَبَعَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيْهَا بِكُفْرِهِمْ فَلَا يُؤْمِنُونَ إِلَّا قَلِيلً

Fabimaa naqdihim meesaaqahum wa kufrihim bi Aayaatil laahi wa qatlihimul Ambiyaaa’a bighairi haqqinw wa qawlihim quloobunna ghulf; bal taba’al laahu ‘alaihaa bikufrihim falaa yu’minoona illaa qaleelaa
Ayat 155. And [We cursed them] for their breaking of the covenant and their disbelief in the signs of Allah and their killing of the prophets without right and their saying, “Our hearts are wrapped”. Rather, Allah has sealed them because of their disbelief, so they believe not, except for a few.

وَبِكُفْرِهِمْ وَقَوْلِهِمْ عَلَىٰ مَرْيَمَ بُهْتَٰنًا عَظِيمًا

Wa bikufrihim wa qawlihim ‘alaa Maryama buh taanan ‘azeema
Ayat 156. And [We cursed them] for their disbelief and their saying against Mary a great slander,

وَقَوْلِهِمْ إِنَّا قَتَلْنَا ٱلْمَسِيحَ عِيسَى ٱبْنَ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولَ ٱللَّهِ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ وَمَا صَلَبُوهُ وَلَٰكِن شُبِّهَ لَهُمْ ۚ وَإِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱخْتَلَفُوا۟ فِيهِ لَفِى شَكٍّ مِّنْهُ ۚ مَا لَهُم بِهِۦ مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِلَّا ٱتِّبَاعَ ٱلظَّنِّ ۚ وَمَا قَتَلُوهُ يَقِينًۢا

Wa qawlihim innaa qatal nal maseeha ‘Eesab-na-Maryama Rasoolal laahi wa maa qataloohu wa maa salaboohu wa laakin shubbiha lahum; wa innal lazeenakh talafoo fee lafee shakkim minh; maa lahum bihee min ‘ilmin illat tibaa’az zann; wa maa qataloohu yaqeenaa
Ayat 157. And [for] their saying, “Indeed, we have killed the Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, the messenger of Allah .” And they did not kill him, nor did they crucify him; but [another] was made to resemble him to them. And indeed, those who differ over it are in doubt about it. They have no knowledge of it except the following of assumption. And they did not kill him, for certain.

بَل رَّفَعَهُ ٱللَّهُ إِلَيْهِ ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا

Bar rafa’ahul laahu ilayh; wa kaanal laahu ‘Azeezan Hakeemaa
Ayat 158. Rather, Allah raised him to Himself. And ever is Allah Exalted in Might and Wise.

وَإِن مِّنْ أَهْلِ ٱلْكِتَٰبِ إِلَّا لَيُؤْمِنَنَّ بِهِۦ قَبْلَ مَوْتِهِۦ ۖ وَيَوْمَ ٱلْقِيَٰمَةِ يَكُونُ عَلَيْهِمْ شَهِيدًا

Wa im min Ahlil Kitaabi illaa layu’minanna bihee qabla mawtihee wa Yawmal Qiyaamati yakoonu ‘alaihim shaheedaa
Ayat 159. And there is none from the People of the Scripture but that he will surely believe in Jesus before his death. And on the Day of Resurrection he will be against them a witness.

فَبِظُلْمٍ مِّنَ ٱلَّذِينَ هَادُوا۟ حَرَّمْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ طَيِّبَٰتٍ أُحِلَّتْ لَهُمْ وَبِصَدِّهِمْ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ كَثِيرًا

Fabizulmin minal lazeena haadoo harramnaa ‘alaihim taiyibaatin uhillat lahum wa bisadihim ‘an sabeelil laahi kaseeraa
Ayat 160. For wrongdoing on the part of the Jews, We made unlawful for them [certain] good foods which had been lawful to them, and for their averting from the way of Allah many [people],

وَأَخْذِهِمُ ٱلرِّبَوٰا۟ وَقَدْ نُهُوا۟ عَنْهُ وَأَكْلِهِمْ أَمْوَٰلَ ٱلنَّاسِ بِٱلْبَٰطِلِ ۚ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَٰفِرِينَ مِنْهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا

Wa akhzihimur ribaa wa qad nuhoo ‘anhu wa aklihim amwaalan naasi bilbaatil; wa a’tadnaa lilkaafireena minhum ‘azaaban aleema
Ayat 161. And [for] their taking of usury while they had been forbidden from it, and their consuming of the people’s wealth unjustly. And we have prepared for the disbelievers among them a painful punishment.

لَّٰكِنِ ٱلرَّٰسِخُونَ فِى ٱلْعِلْمِ مِنْهُمْ وَٱلْمُؤْمِنُونَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ ۚ وَٱلْمُقِيمِينَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ ۚ وَٱلْمُؤْتُونَ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ وَٱلْمُؤْمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلْيَوْمِ ٱلْءَاخِرِ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ سَنُؤْتِيهِمْ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا

Laakinir raasikhoona fil’ilmi minhum walmu’minoona yu’minoona bimaaa unzila ilaika wa maaa unzila min qablika walmuqeemeenas Salaata walmu’toonaz Zakaata walmu ‘minoona billaahi wal yawmil Aakhir; ulaaa’ika sanu’teehim ajran ‘azeemaa (section 22)
Ayat 162. Abiding eternally therein. The punishment will not be lightened for them, nor will they be reprieved.

إِنَّآ أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَيْكَ كَمَآ أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَىٰ نُوحٍ وَٱلنَّبِيِّۦنَ مِنۢ بَعْدِهِۦ ۚ وَأَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَىٰٓ إِبْرَٰهِيمَ وَإِسْمَٰعِيلَ وَإِسْحَٰقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَٱلْأَسْبَاطِ وَعِيسَىٰ وَأَيُّوبَ وَيُونُسَ وَهَٰرُونَ وَسُلَيْمَٰنَ ۚ وَءَاتَيْنَا دَاوُۥدَ زَبُورًا

innaaa awhainaaa ilaika kamaaa awhainaaa ilaa Noohinw wan nabiyyeena mim ba’dih; wa awhainaaa ilaaa ibraaheema wa Ismaaa’eela wa Ishaaqa wa Ya’qooba wal Asbaati wa ‘Eesaa wa Ayyooba wa Yoonusa wa haaroona wa Sulaimaan; wa aatainaa Daawooda Zabooraa
Ayat 163. Indeed, We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], as We revealed to Noah and the prophets after him. And we revealed to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, the Descendants, Jesus, Job, Jonah, Aaron, and Solomon, and to David We gave the book [of Psalms].

وَرُسُلًا قَدْ قَصَصْنَٰهُمْ عَلَيْكَ مِن قَبْلُ وَرُسُلًا لَّمْ نَقْصُصْهُمْ عَلَيْكَ ۚ وَكَلَّمَ ٱللَّهُ مُوسَىٰ تَكْلِيمًا

Wa Rusulan qad qasas naahum ‘alaika min qablu wa Rusulal lam naqsushum ‘alaik; wa kallamallaahu Moosaa takleemaa
Ayat 164. And [We sent] messengers about whom We have related [their stories] to you before and messengers about whom We have not related to you. And Allah spoke to Moses with [direct] speech.

رُّسُلًا مُّبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ لِئَلَّا يَكُونَ لِلنَّاسِ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ حُجَّةٌۢ بَعْدَ ٱلرُّسُلِ ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا

Rusulam mubashshireena wa munzireena li’allaa yakoona linnaasi ‘alal laahi hujjatum ba’dar Rusul; wa kaanallaahu ‘Azeezan Hakeema
Ayat 165. [We sent] messengers as bringers of good tidings and warners so that mankind will have no argument against Allah after the messengers. And ever is Allah Exalted in Might and Wise.

لَّٰكِنِ ٱللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ بِمَآ أَنزَلَ إِلَيْكَ ۖ أَنزَلَهُۥ بِعِلْمِهِۦ ۖ وَٱلْمَلَٰٓئِكَةُ يَشْهَدُونَ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِ شَهِيدًا

Laakinil laahu yashhadu bimaaa anzala ilaika anzalahoo bi’ilmihee wal malaaa’ikatu yashhadoon; wa kafaa billaahi Shaheeda
Ayat 166. But Allah bears witness to that which He has revealed to you. He has sent it down with His knowledge, and the angels bear witness [as well]. And sufficient is Allah as Witness.

إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ وَصَدُّوا۟ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ قَدْ ضَلُّوا۟ ضَلَٰلًۢا بَعِيدًا

Innal lazeena kafaroo wa saddoo ‘an sabeelil laahi qad dalloo dalaalam ba’eedaa
Ayat 167. Indeed, those who disbelieve and avert [people] from the way of Allah have certainly gone far astray.

إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ وَظَلَمُوا۟ لَمْ يَكُنِ ٱللَّهُ لِيَغْفِرَ لَهُمْ وَلَا لِيَهْدِيَهُمْ طَرِيقًا

Innal lazeenakafaroo wa zalamoo lam yakkunillaahu liyaghfira lahum wa laa liyahdiyahum tareeqaa
Ayat 168. Indeed, those who disbelieve and commit wrong [or injustice] – never will Allah forgive them, nor will He guide them to a path.

إِلَّا طَرِيقَ جَهَنَّمَ خَٰلِدِينَ فِيهَآ أَبَدًا ۚ وَكَانَ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ يَسِيرًا

Illaa tareeqa jahannamma khaalideena feehaa abadaa; wa kaana zaalika ‘alal laahi yaseeraa
Ayat 169. Except the path of Hell; they will abide therein forever. And that, for Allah, is [always] easy.

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ قَدْ جَآءَكُمُ ٱلرَّسُولُ بِٱلْحَقِّ مِن رَّبِّكُمْ فَـَٔامِنُوا۟ خَيْرًا لَّكُمْ ۚ وَإِن تَكْفُرُوا۟ فَإِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا

Yaaa aiyuhan naasu qad jaaa’akumur Rasoolu bilhaqqi mir Rabbikum fa ammminoo khairal lakum; wa in takfuroo fainnna lillaahi maa fis samaawaati wal ard; wa kaanal laahu ‘Aleemann hakeemaa
Ayat 170. O Mankind, the Messenger has come to you with the truth from your Lord, so believe; it is better for you. But if you disbelieve – then indeed, to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and earth. And ever is Allah Knowing and Wise.

يَٰٓأَهْلَ ٱلْكِتَٰبِ لَا تَغْلُوا۟ فِى دِينِكُمْ وَلَا تَقُولُوا۟ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ إِلَّا ٱلْحَقَّ ۚ إِنَّمَا ٱلْمَسِيحُ عِيسَى ٱبْنُ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولُ ٱللَّهِ وَكَلِمَتُهُۥٓ أَلْقَىٰهَآ إِلَىٰ مَرْيَمَ وَرُوحٌ مِّنْهُ ۖ فَـَٔامِنُوا۟ بِٱللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِۦ ۖ وَلَا تَقُولُوا۟ ثَلَٰثَةٌ ۚ ٱنتَهُوا۟ خَيْرًا لَّكُمْ ۚ إِنَّمَا ٱللَّهُ إِلَٰهٌ وَٰحِدٌ ۖ سُبْحَٰنَهُۥٓ أَن يَكُونَ لَهُۥ وَلَدٌ ۘ لَّهُۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ ۗ وَكَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِ وَكِيلًا

Yaaa Ahlal Kitaabi laa taghloo fee deenikum wa laa taqooloo ‘alal laahi illalhaqq; innamal Maseehu ‘Eesab-nu-Maryamma Rasoolul laahi wa Kalimatuhooo alqaahaaa ilaa Maryamma wa roohum minhum fa aaminoo billaahi wa Rusulihee wa laa taqooloo salaasah; intahoo khairallakum; innamal laahu Ilaahunw Waahid, Subhaanahooo any yakoona lahoo walad; lahoo maa fissamaawaati wa maa fil ard; wa kafaa billaahi Wakeelaa (section 23)
Ayat 171. O People of the Scripture, do not commit excess in your religion or say about Allah except the truth. The Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, was but a messenger of Allah and His word which He directed to Mary and a soul [created at a command] from Him. So believe in Allah and His messengers. And do not say, “Three”; desist – it is better for you. Indeed, Allah is but one God. Exalted is He above having a son. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. And sufficient is Allah as Disposer of affairs.

لَّن يَسْتَنكِفَ ٱلْمَسِيحُ أَن يَكُونَ عَبْدًا لِّلَّهِ وَلَا ٱلْمَلَٰٓئِكَةُ ٱلْمُقَرَّبُونَ ۚ وَمَن يَسْتَنكِفْ عَنْ عِبَادَتِهِۦ وَيَسْتَكْبِرْ فَسَيَحْشُرُهُمْ إِلَيْهِ جَمِيعًا

Lanny yastankifal Maseehu ai yakoona ‘abdal lillaahi wa lal malaaa’ikatul muqarraboon; wa mai yastankif ‘an ibaadatihee wa yastakbir fasa yahshuruhum ilaihi jamee’aa
Ayat 172. Never would the Messiah disdain to be a servant of Allah, nor would the angels near [to Him]. And whoever disdains His worship and is arrogant – He will gather them to Himself all together.

فَأَمَّا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَعَمِلُوا۟ ٱلصَّٰلِحَٰتِ فَيُوَفِّيهِمْ أُجُورَهُمْ وَيَزِيدُهُم مِّن فَضْلِهِۦ ۖ وَأَمَّا ٱلَّذِينَ ٱسْتَنكَفُوا۟ وَٱسْتَكْبَرُوا۟ فَيُعَذِّبُهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا وَلَا يَجِدُونَ لَهُم مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا

Fa ammal lazeena aamanoo wa ‘amilus saalihaati fa yuwaffeehim ujoorahum wa yazeeduhum min fadlihee wa ammal lazeenas tankafoo wastakbaroo fa yu’azzibuhum ‘azaaban aleemanw wa laa yajidoona lahum min doonil laahi waliyyanw wa laa naseeraa
Ayat 173. And as for those who believed and did righteous deeds, He will give them in full their rewards and grant them extra from His bounty. But as for those who disdained and were arrogant, He will punish them with a painful punishment, and they will not find for themselves besides Allah any protector or helper.

يَٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ قَدْ جَآءَكُم بُرْهَٰنٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَأَنزَلْنَآ إِلَيْكُمْ نُورًا مُّبِينًا

yaa aiyuhan naasu qad jaaa’akum burhaanum mir Rabbikum wa anzalnaaa ilaikum Nooram Mubeena
Ayat 174. O mankind, there has come to you a conclusive proof from your Lord, and We have sent down to you a clear light.

فَأَمَّا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱعْتَصَمُوا۟ بِهِۦ فَسَيُدْخِلُهُمْ فِى رَحْمَةٍ مِّنْهُ وَفَضْلٍ وَيَهْدِيهِمْ إِلَيْهِ صِرَٰطًا مُّسْتَقِيمًا

Fa ammal lazeena aamanoo billaahi wa’tasamoo bihee fasa yudkhiluhum fee rahmatim minhu wa fadlinw wa yahdeehim ilaihi Siraatam Mustaqeema
Ayat 175. So those who believe in Allah and hold fast to Him – He will admit them to mercy from Himself and bounty and guide them to Himself on a straight path.

يَسْتَفْتُونَكَ قُلِ ٱللَّهُ يُفْتِيكُمْ فِى ٱلْكَلَٰلَةِ ۚ إِنِ ٱمْرُؤٌا۟ هَلَكَ لَيْسَ لَهُۥ وَلَدٌ وَلَهُۥٓ أُخْتٌ فَلَهَا نِصْفُ مَا تَرَكَ ۚ وَهُوَ يَرِثُهَآ إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهَا وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِن كَانَتَا ٱثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُمَا ٱلثُّلُثَانِ مِمَّا تَرَكَ ۚ وَإِن كَانُوٓا۟ إِخْوَةً رِّجَالًا وَنِسَآءً فَلِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ ٱلْأُنثَيَيْنِ ۗ يُبَيِّنُ ٱللَّهُ لَكُمْ أَن تَضِلُّوا۟ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلِيمٌۢ

Yastaftoonaka qulillaahu yafteekum fil kalaalah; inimru’un halaka laisa lahoo waladunw wa lahoo ukhtun falahaa nisfu maa tarak; wa huwa yarisuhaaa il lam yakkul lahaa walad; fa in kaanatas nataini falahumas sulusaani mimmmaa tarak; wa in kaanooo ikhwatar rijaalanw wa nisaaa’an faliz zakari mislu hazzil unsayayn; yubaiyinullaahu lakum an tadilloo; wallaahu bikulli shai’in Aleem (section 24)
Ayat 176. They request from you a [legal] ruling. Say, ” Allah gives you a ruling concerning one having neither descendants nor ascendants [as heirs].” If a man dies, leaving no child but [only] a sister, she will have half of what he left. And he inherits from her if she [dies and] has no child. But if there are two sisters [or more], they will have two-thirds of what he left. If there are both brothers and sisters, the male will have the share of two females. Allah makes clear to you [His law], lest you go astray. And Allah is Knowing of all things.

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The Tafsir of Surah An-Nisa

Chapter 4
Virtues of Surat An-Nisa, A Madinan Surah

Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said that Surat An-Nisa’ was revealed in Al-Madinah. Ibn Marduwyah recorded similar statements from `Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr and Zayd bin Thabit. In his Mustadrak, Al-Hakim recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, “There are five Ayat in Surat An-Nisa’ that I would prefer to the life of this world and all that is in it,

(Surely, Allah wrongs not even the weight of an atom,) ﴿4:40﴾,

(If you avoid the great sins which you are forbidden to do) ﴿4:31﴾,

(Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him (in worship), but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He wills) ﴿4:48﴾,

(If they (hypocrites), when they had been unjust to themselves, had come to you) ﴿4:64﴾, and,

(And whoever does evil or wrongs himself, but afterwards seeks Allah’s forgiveness, he will find Allah Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful) ﴿4:110﴾.” Al-Hakim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “Ask me about Surat An-Nisa’, for I learned the Qur’an when I was still young.” Al-Hakim said, “This Hadith is Sahih according to the criteria of the Two Sahihs, and they did not collect it.”

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

(1. O mankind! Have Taqwa of your Lord, Who created you from a single person, and from him He created his mate, and from them both He created many men and women, and have Taqwa of Allah through Whom you demand your mutual (rights), and revere the wombs. Surely, Allah is always watching over you.)

The Command to have Taqwa, a Reminder about Creation, and Being Kind to Relatives

Allah commands His creatures to have Taqwa of Him by worshipping Him Alone without partners. He also reminds to them of His ability, in that He created them all from a single person, Adam, peace be unto him.

(And from him He created his wife) Hawwa’ (Eve), who was created from Adam’s left rib, from his back while he was sleeping. When Adam woke up and saw Hawwa’, he liked her and had affection for her, and she felt the same toward him. An authentic Hadith states,

(Woman was created from a rib. Verily, the most curved portion of the rib is its upper part, so, if you should try to straighten it, you will break it, but if you leave it as it is, it will remain crooked.) Allah’s statement,

(And from them both He created many men and women;) means, Allah created from Adam and Hawwa’ many men and women and distributed them throughout the world in various shapes, characteristics, colors and languages. In the end, their gathering and return will be to Allah. Allah then said,

(And have Taqwa of Allah through Whom you demand your mutual (rights) and revere the wombs), protect yourself from Allah by your acts of obedience to Him. Allah’s statement,

(through Whom you demand your mutual (rights)), is in reference to when some people say, “I ask you by Allah, and then by the relation of the Rahim (the womb, i.e. my relationship to you)”, according to Ibrahim, Mujahid and Al-Hasan. Ad-Dahhak said; “Fear Allah Whom you invoke when you conduct transactions and contracts.” “And revere the womb by not cutting the relations of the womb, but keep and honor them, as Ibn `Abbas, `Ikrimah, Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak, Ar-Rabi`, and others have stated. Allah’s statement,

(Surely, Allah is always watching over you.) means, He watches all your deeds and sees your every circumstance. In another Ayah, Allah said;

(And Allah is Witness over all things.) ﴿58:6﴾. An authentic Hadith states,

(Worship Allah as if you see Him, for even though you cannot see Him, He sees you.) This part of the Ayah encourages having a sense of certainty that Allah is always watching, in a complete and perfect manner. Allah mentioned that He has created mankind from a single father and a single mother, so that they feel compassion for each other and are kind to the weaker among them. In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Jarir bin `Abdullah Al-Bajali said that a delegation from Mudar came to the Messenger of Allah , and he saw their state, wearing striped woolen clothes due to poverty. After the Zuhr prayer, the Messenger of Allah stood up and gave a speech in which he recited,

(O mankind! Have Taqwa of your Lord, Who created you from a single person,) until the end of the Ayah. He also recited,

(O you who believe! Have Taqwa of Allah. And let every person look to what he has sent forth for the tomorrow) ﴿59:18﴾. He also encouraged them to give charity, saying,

(A man gave Sadaqah from his Dinar, from his Dirham, from his Sa` of wheat, from his Sa` of dates) until the end of the Hadith. This narration was also collected by Ahmad and the Sunan compilers from Ibn Mas`ud.

(2. And give unto orphans their property and do not exchange (your) bad things for (their) good ones; and devour not their substance (by adding it) to your substance. Surely, this is a great sin.) (3. And if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly with the orphan girls, then marry (other) women of your choice, two or three, or four; but if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one or (the captives and the servants) that your right hands possess. That is nearer to prevent you from Ta`ulu.) (4. And give to the women (whom you marry) their Saduqat (or dowry) Nihlah (with a good heart), but if they, of their own good pleasure, remit any part of it to you, take it, and enjoy it without fear of any harm.)

Protecting the Property of the Orphans

Allah commands that the property of the orphans be surrendered to them in full when they reach the age of adolescence, and He forbids using or confiscating any part of it. So He said;

(and do not exchange (your) bad things for (their) good ones;) Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib and Az-Zuhri commented, “Do not substitute a weak animal of yours for a fat animal (of the orphans).” Ibrahim An-Nakha`i and Ad-Dahhak commented, “Do not give something of bad quality for something of good quality.” As-Suddi said, “One of them (caretakers of orphans) would take a fat sheep from the orphan’s property and put in its place, a weak sheep of his, saying, `A sheep for a sheep.’ He would also take a good Dirham and exchange it for a fake Dirham, saying, `A Dirham for a Dirham.”’ Allah’s statement,

(and devour not their substance to your substance.) means, do not mix them together so that you eat up both, as Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Muqatil bin Hayyan, As-Suddi and Sufyan bin Hassin stated. Allah said,

(Surely, this is a great sin. ), a major and substantial sin, according to Ibn `Abbas. This was also reported from Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan, Ibn Sirin, Qatadah, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Ad-Dahhak, Abu Malik, Zayd bin Aslam and Abu Sinan. The meaning above is: adding their property to your property is a grave sin and a major mistake, so avoid it.

The Prohibition of Marrying Female Orphans Without Giving a Dowry

Allah said,

(And if you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly with the orphan girls, then marry (other) women of your choice, two) Allah commands, when one of you is the caretaker of a female orphan and he fears that he might not give her a dowry that is suitable for women of her status, he should marry other women, who are plenty as Allah has not restricted him. Al-Bukhari recorded that `A’ishah said, “A man was taking care of a female orphan and he married her, although he did not desire to marry her. That girl’s money was mixed with his, and he was keeping her portion from her. Afterwards, this Ayah was revealed about his case;

(If you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly)” Al-Bukhari recorded that `Urwah bin Az-Zubayr said that he asked `A’ishah about the meaning of the statement of Allah,

(If you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly with the orphan girls.) She said, “O my nephew! This is about the orphan girl who lives with her guardian and shares his property. Her wealth and beauty may tempt him to marry her without giving her an adequate dowry which might have been given by another suitor. So, such guardians were forbidden to marry such orphan girls unless they treated them justly and gave them the most suitable dowry; otherwise they were ordered to marry woman besides them.” `A’ishah further said, “After that verse, the people again asked the Messenger of Allah (about marriage with orphan girls), so Allah revealed the Ayah,

(They ask your instruction concerning the women..) ﴿4:127﴾.” She said, “Allah’s statement in this Ayah,

(yet whom you desire to marry) ﴿4:127﴾ refers to the guardian who does not desire to marry an orphan girl under his supervision because she is neither wealthy nor beautiful. The guardians were forbidden to marry their orphan girls possessing property and beauty without being just to them, as they generally refrain from marrying them (when they are neither beautiful nor wealthy).”

The Permission to Marry Four Women

Allah’s statement,

(two or three, or four), means, marry as many women as you like, other than the orphan girls, two, three or four. We should mention that Allah’s statement in another Ayah,

(Who made the angels messengers with wings, – two or three or four) ﴿35:1﴾, does not mean that other angels do not have more than four wings, as there are proofs that some angels do have more wings. Yet, men are prohibited from marrying more than four wives, as the Ayah decrees, since the Ayah specifies what men are allowed of wives, as Ibn `Abbas and the majority of scholars stated. If it were allowed for them to have more than four wives, the Ayah would have mentioned it. Imam Ahmad recorded that Salim said that his father said that Ghilan bin Salamah Ath-Thaqafi had ten wives when he became Muslim, and the Prophet said to him, “Choose any four of them (and divorce the rest).” During the reign of `Umar, Ghilan divorced his remaining wives and divided his money between his children. When `Umar heard news of this, he said to Ghilan, “I think that the devil has conveyed to your heart the news of your imminent death, from what the devil hears during his eavesdropping. It may as well be that you will not remain alive but for a little longer. By Allah! You will take back your wives and your money, or I will take possession of this all and will order that your grave be stoned as is the case with the grave of Abu Righal (from Thamud, who was saved from their fate because he was in the Sacred Area. But, when he left it, he was tormented like they were).” Ash-Shafi`i, At-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, Ad-Daraqutni and Al-Bayhaqi collected this Hadith up to the Prophet’s statement, “Choose any four of them.” Only Ahmad collected the full version of this Hadith. Therefore, had it been allowed for men to marry more than four women at the same time, the Prophet would have allowed Ghilan to keep more than four of his wives since they all embraced Islam with him. When the Prophet commanded him to keep just four of them and divorce the rest, this indicated that men are not allowed to keep more than four wives at a time under any circumstances. If this is the case concerning those who already had more than four wives upon embracing Islam, then this ruling applies even more so to marrying more than four.

Marrying Only One Wife When One Fears He Might not Do Justice to His Wives

Allah’s statement,

(But if you fear that you will not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one or what your right hands possess.) The Ayah commands, if you fear that you will not be able to do justice between your wives by marrying more than one, then marry only one wife, or satisfy yourself with only female captives, for it is not obligatory to treat them equally, rather it is recommended. So if one does so, that is good, and if not, there is no harm on him. In another Ayah, Allah said,

(You will never be able to do perfect justice between wives even if it is your ardent desire) ﴿4:129﴾. Allah said,

(That is nearer to prevent you from Ta`ulu), meaning, from doing injustice. Ibn Abi Hatim, Ibn Marduwyah and Abu Hatim Ibn Hibban, in his Sahih, recorded that `A’ishah said that, the Prophet said that the Ayah,

(That is nearer to prevent you from Ta`ulu), means, from doing injustice. However, Ibn Abi Hatim said that his father said that this Hadith to the Prophet is a mistake, for it should be attributed to `A’ishah not the Prophet . Ibn Abi Hatim reported from Ibn `Abbas, `A’ishah, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Abu Malik, Abu Razin, An-Nakha`i, Ash-Sha`bi, Ad-Dahhak, `Ata’ Al-Khurasani, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Muqatil bin Hayyan that Ta`ulu means to deviate ﴿from justice﴾.

Giving the Dowry is Obligatory

`Ali bin Abi Talhah reported Ibn `Abbas saying, Nihlah, in Allah’s statement,

(And give to the women (whom you marry) their Saduqat Nihlah) refers to the dowry. Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated from Az-Zuhri that `Urwah said that `A’ishah said that `Nihlah’ means `obligatory’. Muqatil, Qatadah and Ibn Jurayj said, `Nihlah’ means `obligatory’ Ibn Jurayj added: `specified.’ Ibn Zayd said, “In Arabic, Nihlah, refers to what is necessary. So Allah is commanding: Do not marry unless you give your wife something that is her right. No person after the Prophet is allowed to marry a woman except with the required dowry, nor by giving false promises about the dowry ﴿intended﴾.” Therefore, the man is required to pay a dowry to his wife with a good heart, just as he gives a gift with a good heart. If the wife gives him part or all of that dowry with a good heart, her husband is allowed to take it, as it is lawful for him in this case. This is why Allah said afterwards,

(But if they, of their own pleasure, remit any part of it to you, take it, and enjoy it without fear of any harm.)

(5. And give not unto the unwise your wealth which Allah has made a means of support for you, but feed and clothe them therewith, and speak to them words of kindness and justice.) (6. And test orphans until they reach the age of marriage; if then you find sound judgment in them, release their property to them, but consume it not wastefully and hastily, fearing that they should grow up. And whoever among guardians is rich, he should take no wages, but if he is poor, let him have for himself what is just and reasonable (according to his work). And when you release their property to them, take a witness in their presence; and Allah is All-Sufficient in taking account.)

Holding the Property of the Unwise in Escrow

Allah prohibited giving the unwise the freedom to do as they wish with wealth, which Allah has made as a means of support for people. This ruling sometimes applies because of being young, as young people are incapable of making wise decisions. It also applies in cases of insanity, erratic behavior and having a weak intellect or religious practice. It applies in cases of bankruptcy, when the debtors ask that the property of a bankrupt person is put in escrow, when his debts cannot be paid off with his money. Ad-Dahhak reported that Ibn `Abbas said that Allah’s statement,

(And give not unto the unwise your property) refers to children and women. Similar was also said by Ibn Mas`ud, Al-Hakam bin `Uyaynah, Al-Hasan and Ad-Dahhak: “Women and boys.” Sa`id bin Jubayr said that `the unwise’ refers to the orphans. Mujahid, `Ikrimah and Qatadah said; “They are women.”

Spending on the Unwise with Fairness

Allah said,

(but feed and clothe them therewith, and speak to them words of kindness and justice.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas commented, “Do not give your wealth, what Allah has made you responsible for and made a means of sustenance to you, to your wife or children. Rather, hold on to your money, take care of it, and be the one who spends on them for clothes, food and provision.” Mujahid said that the Ayah,

(and speak to them words of kindness and justice.) refers to kindness and keeping good relations. This honorable Ayah commands kind treatment, in deed, with family and those under one’s care. One should spend on them for clothes and provisions, and be good to them, such as saying good words to them.

Giving Back the Property of the Orphans When They Reach Adulthood

Allah said,

(And test orphans) meaning, test their intelligence, as Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Al-Hasan, As-Suddi and Muqatil bin Hayyan stated.

(until they reach the age of marriage), the age of puberty, according to Mujahid. The age of puberty according to the majority of scholars comes when the child has a wet dream. In his Sunan, Abu Dawud recorded that `Ali said, “I memorized these words from the Messenger of Allah ,

(There is no orphan after the age of puberty nor vowing to be silent throughout the day to the night.) In another Hadith, `A’ishah and other Companions said that the Prophet said,

s(The pen does not record the deeds of three persons: the child until the age of puberty, the sleeping person until waking up, and the senile until sane.) Or, the age of fifteen is considered the age of adolescence. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Ibn `Umar said, “I was presented in front of the Prophet on the eve of the battle of Uhud, while I was fourteen years of age, and he did not allow me to take part in that battle. But I was presented in front of him on the eve of the battle of Al-Khandaq (The Trench) when I was fifteen years old, and he allowed me (to join that battle).” `Umar bin `Abdul-`Aziz commented when this Hadith reached him, “This is the difference between a child and an adult.” There is a difference of opinion over whether pubic hair is considered a sign of adulthood, and the correct opinion is that it is. The Sunnah supports this view, according to a Hadith collected by Imam Ahmad from `Atiyah Al-Qurazi who said, We were presented to the Prophet on the day of Qurizah, whoever had pubic hair was killed, whoever did not was left free to go, I was one of those who did not, so I was left free.” The Four Sunan compilers also recorded similar to it. At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih.” Allah’s statement,

(if then you find sound judgment in them, release their property to them,) Sa`id bin Jubayr said that this portion of the Ayah means, when you find them to be good in the religion and wise with their money. Similar was reported from Ibn `Abbas, Al-Hasan Al-Basri and others among the Imams. The scholars of Fiqh stated that when the child becomes good in the religion and wise concerning with money, then the money that his caretaker was keeping for him should be surrendered to him.

Poor Caretakers are Allowed to Wisely Spend from the Money of the Orphan Under Their Care, to Compensate for Their Work

Allah said,

(But consume it not wastefully and hastily, fearing that they should grow up.) Allah commands that the money of the orphan should not be spent unnecessarily,

(Wastefully and hastily) for fear they might grow up. Allah also commands,

(And whoever among guardians is rich, he should take no wages,) Hence, the guardian who is rich and does not need the orphan’s money, should not take any of it as wages.

(but if he is poor, let him have for himself what is just and reasonable.) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `A’ishah said, “This Ayah,

(And whoever among guardians is rich, he should take no wages, but if he is poor, let him have for himself what is just and reasonable.) was revealed about the guardian of the orphan and pertains to whatever work he does for the orphan’s estate. ” Al-Bukhari also collected this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Amr bin Shu`ayb said that his father said that his father told him that a man asked the Messenger of Allah , “I do not have money, but I have an orphan under my care.” The Messenger said,

(Eat from your orphan’s wealth without extravagance or wastefulness, or mixing it, and without saving your money by spending his.)” Allah said,

(And when you release their property to them.) after they become adults, and you see that they are wise, then,

(take a witness in their presence;) Allah commands the guardians of orphans to surrender the property of the orphans who become consenting adults, in the presence of witnesses, so that none of them denies the fact that he received his money. Allah said next,

(and Allah is All-Sufficient in taking account.) meaning, Allah is sufficient as Witness, Reckoner and Watcher over their work for orphans, and when they surrender their money to them, whether their property was complete and whole, or deficient and less. Indeed, Allah knows all of that. In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that the Messenger of Allah said,

(O Abu Dharr! Verily, you are weak, and I love for you what I love for myself. Do not become a leader of two nor assume guardianship of an orphan’s property.)

(7. There is a share for men and a share for women from what is left by parents and those nearest in relation, whether the property be small or large — a legal share.) (8. And when the relatives, and the orphans, and the poor are present at the time of division, give them from the property, and speak to them words of kindness and justice.) (9. And let those (executors and guardians) have the same fear in their minds as they would have for their own, if they had left weak offspring behind. So, let them have Taqwa of Allah and speak truthfully.) (10. Verily, those who unjustly eat up the property of orphans, they eat up only a fire into their bellies, and they will be burnt in the blazing Fire!)

The Necessity of Surrendering the Inheritance According to the Portions that Allah Ordained

Sa`id bin Jubayr and Qatadah said, “The idolators used to give adult men a share of inheritance and deprive women and children of it. Allah revealed;

(There is a share for men from what is left by parents and those nearest in relation).” Therefore, everyone is equal in Allah’s decision to inherit, even though their shares vary according to the degree of their relationship to the deceased, whether being a relative, spouse, etc. Ibn Marduwyah reported that Jabir said, “Umm Kujjah came to the Messenger of Allah and said to him, `O Messenger of Allah! I have two daughters whose father died, and they do not own anything.’ So Allah revealed;

(There is a share for men from what is left by parents and those nearest in relation.)” We will mention this Hadith when explaining the two Ayat about inheritance. Allah knows best. Allah said,

(are present at the time of division,) those who do not have a share in the inheritance,

(and the orphans and the poor), are also present upon dividing the inheritance, give them a share of the inheritance. Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah,

(And when the relatives and the orphans and the poor are present at the time of division), was not abrogated. Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that this Ayah still applies and should be implemented. Ath-Thawri said that Ibn Abi Najih narrated from Mujahid that implementing this Ayah, “Is required from those who have anything to inherit, paid from whatever portions their hearts are satisfied with giving away.” Similar explanation was reported from Ibn Mas`ud, Abu Musa, `Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Bakr, Abu Al-`Aliyah, Ash-Sha`bi and Al-Hasan. Ibn Sirin, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Makhul, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, `Ata’ bin Abi Rabah, Az-Zuhri and Yahya bin Ya`mar said this payment is obligatory. Others say that this refers to the bequeathal at the time of death. And others say that it was abrogated. Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said that this Ayah,

(And when are present at the time of division), refers to divisions of inheritance. So, when poor relatives, who are ineligible for inheritance, orphans, and the poor attend the division of the inheritance, which is sometimes substantial, their hearts will feel eager to have a share, seeing each eligible person assuming his share; while they are desperate, yet are not given anything. Allah the Most Kind, Most Compassionate, commands that they should have a share in the inheritance as an act of kindness, charity, compassion and mercy for them.

Observing Fairness in the Will

Allah said,

(And let those have the same fear in their minds as they would have for their own, if they had left behind…) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said that this part of the Ayah, “Refers to a man who is near death and he dictates a will and testament that harms some of the rightful inheritors. Allah commands whoever hears such will to fear Allah, and direct the dying man to do what is right and to be fair, being as eager to protect the inheritors of the dying man as he would be with his own.” Similar was reported from Mujahid and several others. The Two Sahihs record that when the Messenger of Allah visited Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas during an illness he suffered from, Sa`d said to the Messenger, “O Messenger of Allah! I am wealthy and have no inheritors except a daughter. Should I give two-thirds of my property in charity” He said, “No.” Sa`d asked, “Half” He said, “No.” Sa`d said, “One-third” The Prophet said;

(One-third, and even one-third is too much.) The Messenger of Allah then said,

(You’d better leave your inheritors wealthy rather than leaving them poor, begging from others.)

A Stern Warning Against Those Who Use Up the Orphan’s Wealth

It was also said that the Ayah

(consume it not wastefully and hastily, fearing that they should grow up,) means, let them have Taqwa of Allah when taking care of the orphan’s wealth, as Ibn Jarir recorded from Al-`Awfi who reported this explanation from Ibn `Abbas. This is a sound opinion that is supported by the warning that follows against consuming the orphan’s wealth unjustly. In this case, the meaning becomes: Just as you would want your offspring to be treated fairly after you, then treat other people’s offspring fairly when you are given the responsibility of caring for them. Allah proclaims that those who unjustly consume the wealth of orphans, will be eating fire into their stomach, this is why Allah said,

(Verily, those who unjustly eat up the property of orphans, they eat up only a fire into their bellies, and they will be burnt in the blazing Fire!) meaning, when you consume the orphan’s wealth without a right, then you are only consuming fire, which will kindle in your stomach on the Day of Resurrection. It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Avoid the seven great destructive sins. ) The people asked, “O Allah’s Messenger! What are they” He said,

(To join others in worship along with Allah, magic, to kill the life which Allah has forbidden except for a just cause, to consume interest, to consume an orphan’s property, to turn your back to the enemy and flee from the battlefield at the time of fighting, and to accuse chaste women who never even think of anything harmful to their chastity being good believers.)

(11. Allah commands you for your children’s (inheritance): to the male, a portion equal to that of two – females; if only daughters, two or more, their share is two thirds of the inheritance; if only one, her share is half. For parents, a sixth share of inheritance to each if the deceased left children; if no children, and the parents are the (only) heirs, the mother has a third; if the deceased left brothers or (sisters), the mother has a sixth. (The distribution in all cases is) after the payment of legacies he may have bequeathed or debts. You know not which of them, whether your parents or your children, are nearest to you in benefit, (these fixed shares) are ordained by Allah. And Allah is Ever All-Knower, All-Wise.)

Learning the Various Shares of the Inheritance is Encouraged

This, the following, and the last honorable Ayah in this Surah contain the knowledge of Al-Fara’id, inheritance. The knowledge of Al-Fara’id is derived from these three Ayat and from the Hadiths on this subject which explain them. Learning this knowledge is encouraged, especially the specific things mentioned in the Ayat. Ibn `Uyaynah said; “Knowledge of Al-Fara’id was called half of knowledge, because it effects all people.” o

The Reason Behind Revealing Ayah 4:11

Explaining this Ayah, Al-Bukhari recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said, “Allah’s Messenger came visiting me on foot with Abu Bakr at Banu Salamah’s (dwellings), and the Prophet found me unconscious. He asked for some water, performed ablution with it, then poured it on me, and I regained consciousness. I said, `What do you command me to do with my money, O Allah’s Messenger’ this Ayah was later revealed,

(Allah commands you for your children’s (inheritance); to the male, a portion equal to that of two females).” This is how it was recorded by Muslim and An-Nasa’i. The remainder of the Six compilers also collected this Hadith. Another Hadith from Jabir concerning the reason behind revealing Ayah 4:11 Ahmad recorded from Jabir that he said, “The wife of Sa`d bin Ar-Rabi` came to Allah’s Messenger and said to him, `O Allah’s Messenger! These are the two daughters of Sa`d bin Ar-Rabi`, who was killed as a martyr at Uhud. Their uncle took their money and did not leave anything for them. They will not be married unless they have money.’ The Messenger said, `Allah will decide on this matter.’ The Ayah about the inheritance was later revealed and the Messenger of Allah sent word to their uncle commanding him,

(Give two-thirds (of Sa`d’s money) to Sa`d’s two daughters and one eighth for their mother, and whatever is left is yours.)” Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah collected this Hadith. It is apparent, however, that the first Hadith from Jabir was about the case of the last Ayah in the Surah ﴿4:176, rather than 4:11﴾, for at the time this incident occurred, Jabir had sisters and did not have daughters, parents or offspring to inherit from him. Yet, we mentioned the Hadith here just as Al-Bukhari did.

Males Get Two Times the Share of Females for Inheritance

Allah said,

(Allah commands you for your children’s (inheritance): to the male, a portion equal to that of two females;) Allah commands: observe justice with your children. The people of Jahiliyyah used to give the males, but not the females, a share in the inheritance. Therefore, Allah commands that both males and females take a share in the inheritance, although the portion of the males is twice as much as that of the females. There is a distinction because men need money to spend on their dependants, commercial transactions, work and fulfillling their obligations. Consequently, men get twice the portion of the inheritance that females get. Allah’s statement,

(Allah commands you for your children’s (inheritance): to the male, a portion equal to that of two females;) testifies to the fact that Allah is more merciful with children than their own parents are with them, since He commands the parents to be just and fair with their own children. An authentic Hadith stated that a captured woman was looking for her child and when she found him, she held him, gave him her breast and nursed him. The Messenger of Allah said to his Companions,

? (Do you think that this woman would willingly throw her child in the fire) They said, “No, O Messenger of Allah.” He said,

(By Allah! Allah is more merciful with His servants than this woman is with her own child.) Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “The custom (in old days) was that the property of the deceased would be inherited by his offspring; as for the parents (of the deceased), they would inherit by the will of the deceased. Then Allah cancelled whatever He willed from that custom and ordained that the male get twice the amount inherited by the female, and for each parent a sixth (of the whole legacy), for the wife an eighth or a fourth, and for the husband a half or a fourth.”

The Share of the Females When They Are the Only Eligible Heirs

Allah said,

(if only daughters, two or more, their share is two-thirds of the inheritance;) We should mention here that some people said the Ayah only means two daughters, and that `more’ is redundant, which is not true. Nothing in the Qur’an is useless or redundant. Had the Ayah been talking about only two women, it would have said, “The share of both of them is two-thirds.” As for the daughters, two or more, the ruling that they get two-thirds was derived from this Ayah, stating that the two sisters get two-thirds. We also mentioned the Hadith in which the Prophet commanded that two-thirds be the share of the two daughters of Sa`d bin Ar-Rabi`. So this is proven in the Book and the Sunnah.

(if only one, her share is half.) If there are two daughters, then there are texts to prove they share a half. Therefore, two-thirds is the share of the two daughters or sisters, and Allah knows best.

Share of the Parents in the Inheritance

Allah said,

(For parents, a sixth share of inheritance to each) There are several forms of the share that the parents get in the inheritance. 1. If the deceased left behind children, the parents get a sixth each. When the deceased had only one daughter, she gets half of the inheritance and the parents each one sixth, and another sixth is given to the father. 2. When the parents are the only inheritors, the mother gets one-third while the father gets the remaining two-thirds. In this case, the father’s share will be twice the mother’s share. If the deceased had a surviving spouse, the spouse gets half, in the case of a husband, or a fourth in the case of a surviving wife. In both cases, the mother of the deceased gets one-third of the remaining inheritance. This is because the remaining portion of the inheritance is treated just as the entire legacy in regard to the parents’ share. Allah has given the mother one-half of what the father gets. Therefore, the mother gets a third of the remaining inheritance while the father gets two-thirds. 3. If the deceased left behind surviving brothers and sisters, whether half brothers, half sisters or from the same father and mother, their presence does not cause reduction in the father’s share. Yet, their presence reduces the share of the mother to one-sixth instead of one-third, and the father gets the rest, when there are no other heirs. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Qatadah commented on the Ayah,

(If the deceased left brothers or (sisters), the mother has a sixth.) “Their presence will reduce the share of the mother, but they will not inherit. If there is only one surviving brother, the mother’s share will remain one-third, but her share will be reduced if there is more than one surviving brother. The people of knowledge attribute this reduction in the mother’s share from one-third (to one-sixth) to the fact that the father is the one who helps the brothers (and sisters) of the deceased get married, spending from his own money for this purpose. The mother does not spend from her money for this purpose.” This is a sound opinion.

First the Debts are Paid Off, then the Will, then the Fixed Inheritance

Allah said,

((The distribution in all cases is) after the payment of legacies he may have bequeathed or debts.) The scholars of the Salaf and the Khalaf agree that paying debts comes before fulfilling the will, and this is apparent to those who read the Ayah carefully. Allah said next,

(You know not which of them, whether your parents or your children, are nearest to you in benefit.) This Ayah means: We have appointed a share to the parents and children, contrary to the practice of Jahiliyyah and the early Islamic era, when the inheritance would go to the children, and parents get a share only if they were named in the will, as Ibn `Abbas stated. Allah abrogated this practice and appointed a fixed share for the children and for the parents. One may derive benefit in this life or for the Hereafter from his parents, the likes of which he could not get from his children. The opposite of this could also be true. Allah said,

(You know not which of them, whether your parents or your children, are nearest to you in benefit,): since benefit could come from one or the other of these relatives, We appointed a fixed share of inheritance for each. Allah knows best. Allah said,

(ordained by Allah), meaning: These appointed shares of inheritance that We mentioned and which give some inheritors a bigger share than others, is a commandment from Allah that He has decided and ordained,

(And Allah is Ever All-Knower, All-Wise.), Who places everything in its rightful place and gives each his rightful share.

(12. In that which your wives leave, your share is half if they have no child; but if they leave a child, you get a fourth of that which they leave after payment of legacies that they may have bequeathed or debts. In that which you leave, their (your wives) share is a fourth if you leave no child; but if you leave a child, they get an eighth of that which you leave after payment of legacies that you may have bequeathed or debts. If the man or woman whose inheritance is in Kalalah has left neither ascendants nor descendants, but has left a brother or a sister, each one of the two gets a sixth; but if more than two, they share in a third; after payment of legacies he (or she) may have bequeathed or debts, so that no loss is caused (to anyone). This is a Commandment from Allah; and Allah is Ever All-Knowing, Most Forbearing.)

Share of the Spouses in the Inheritance

Allah says to the husband, you get half of what your wife leaves behind if she dies and did not have a child. If she had a child, you get one-fourth of what she leaves behind, after payment of legacies that she may have bequeathed, or her debts. We mentioned before that payment of debts comes before fulfilling the will, and then comes the will, then the inheritance, and there is a consensus on this matter among the scholars. And the rule applies to the grandchildren as well as the children, even if they are great-grandchildren (or even further in generation) Allah then said,

(In that which you leave, their (your wives) share is a fourth) and if there is more than one wife, they all share in the fourth, or one-eighth that the wife gets. Earlier, we explained Allah’s statement,

(After payment of legacies)

The Meaning of Kalalah

Allah said,

(If the man or woman whose inheritance is in question was left in Kalalah.) Kalalah is a derivative of Iklil; the crown that surrounds the head. The meaning of Kalalah in this Ayah is that the person’s heirs come from other than the first degree of relative. Ash-Sha`bi reported that when Abu Bakr As-Siddiq was asked about the meaning of Kalalah, he said, “I will say my own opinion about it, and if it is correct, then this correctness is from Allah. However, if my opinion is wrong, it will be my error and because of the evil efforts of Shaytan, and Allah and His Messenger have nothing to do with it. Kalalah refers to the man who has neither descendants nor ascendants.” When `Umar became the Khalifah, he said, “I hesitate to contradict an opinion of Abu Bakr.” This was recorded by Ibn Jarir and others. In his Tafsir, Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “I was among the last persons to see `Umar bin Al-Khattab, and he said to me, `What you said was the correct opinion.’ I asked, `What did I say’ He said, `That Kalalah refers to the person who has no child or parents.”’ This is also the opinion of `Ali bin Abi Talib, Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Abbas, Zayd bin Thabit, Ash-Sha`bi, An-Nakha`i, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Qatadah, Jabir bin Zayd and Al-Hakam . This is also the view of the people of Al-Madinah, Kufah, Basrah, the Seven Fuqaha’, the Four Imams and the majority of scholars of the past and present, causing some scholars to declare that there is a consensus on this opinion.

The Ruling Concerning Children of the Mother From Other Than the Deceased’s Father

Allah said,

(But has left a brother or a sister), meaning, from his mother’s side, as some of the Salaf stated, including Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas. Qatadah reported that this is the view of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq.

(Each one of the two gets a sixth; but if more than two, they share in a third.) There is a difference between the half brothers from the mother’s side and the rest of the heirs. First, they get a share in the inheritance on account of their mother. Second, the males and females among them get the same share. Third, they only have a share in the inheritance when the deceased’s estate is inherited in Kalalah, for they do not have a share if the deceased has a surviving father, grandfather, child or grandchild. Fourth, they do not have more than a third, no matter how numerous they were. aAllah’s statement,

(After payment of legacies he (or she) may have bequeathed or debts, so that no loss is caused (to anyone).) means, let the will and testament be fair and free of any type of harm, without depriving some rightful heirs from all, or part of their share, or adding to the fixed portion that Allah or dained for some heirs. Indeed, whoever does this, will have disputed with Allah concerning His decision and division. An authentic Hadith states,

(Allah has given each his fixed due right. Therefore, there is no will for a rightful inheritor.)

(13. These are the limits (set by) Allah, and whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, will be admitted to Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise), to abide therein, and is the great success.) (14. And whosoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, and transgresses His (set) limits, He will cast him into the Fire, to abide therein; and he shall suffer a disgraceful torment.)

Warning Against Transgressing the Limits for Inheritance

Meaning, the Fara’id are Allah’s set limits. This includes what Allah has alloted for the heirs, according to the degree of relation they have to the deceased, and their degree of dependency on him. Therefore, do not transgress or violate them. So Allah said;

(And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger,) regarding the inheritance, and does not add or decrease any of these fixed shares by use of tricks and plots. Rather, he gives each his appointed share as Allah commanded, ordained and decided,

(Will be admitted to Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise), to abide therein, and is the great success. And whosoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, and transgresses His (set) limits, He will cast him into the Fire, to abide therein; and he shall have a disgraceful torment.) This is because he changed what Allah has ordained and disputed with His judgment. Indeed, this is the behavior of those who do not agree with what Allah has decided and divided, and this is why Allah punishes them with humiliation in the eternal, painful torment. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that, the Messenger of Allah said,

(A man might perform the actions of righteous people for seventy years, but when it is time to compile his will, he commits injustice. So his final work will be his worst, and he thus enters the Fire. A man might perform the deeds of evil people for seventy years, yet he is fair in his will. So his final work will be his best, and he thus enters Paradise.) Abu Hurayrah said, “Read, if you will,

(These are the limits (set by) Allah) until,

(a disgraceful torment.).” In the chapter on injustice in the will, Abu Dawud recorded in his Sunan that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(A man or a woman might perform actions in obedience to Allah for sixty years. Yet, when they are near death, they leave an unfair will and thus acquire the Fire.) Abu Hurayrah then recited the Ayah,

(After payment of legacies he (or she) may have bequeathed or debts, so that no loss is caused), until,

(and that is the great success.) This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah, and At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Gharib”.

(15. And those of your women who commit illegal sexual intercourse, take the evidence of four witnesses from among you against them; and if they testify, confine them (i.e. women) to houses until death comes to them or Allah ordains for them some (other) way.) (16. And the two persons among you who commit illegal sexual intercourse, punish them both. And if they repent and do righteous good deeds, leave them alone. Surely, Allah is Ever the One Who accepts repentance, (and He is) Most Merciful.)

The Adulteress is Confined in her House; A Command Later Abrogated

At the begining of Islam, the ruling was that if a woman commits adultery as stipulated by sufficient proof, she was confined to her home, without leave, until she died. Allah said,

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(And those of your women who commit illegal sexual intercourse, take the evidence of four witnesses from among you against them; and if they testify, confine them (i.e. women) to houses until death comes to them or Allah ordains for them some (other) way.) `Some other way’ mentioned here is the abrogation of this ruling that came later. Ibn `Abbas said, “The early ruling was confinement, until Allah sent down Surat An-Nur (chapter 24) which abrogated that ruling with the ruling of flogging (for fornication) or stoning to death (for adultery).” Similar was reported from `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan, `Ata’ Al-Khurasani, Abu Salih, Qatadah, Zayd bin Aslam and Ad-Dahhak, and this is a matter that is agreed upon. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Ubadah bin As-Samit said, “When the revelation descended upon the Messenger of Allah , it would affect him and his face would show signs of strain. One day, Allah sent down a revelation to him, and when the Messenger was relieved of its strain, he said,

(Take from me: Allah has made some other way for them. The married with the married, the unmarried with the unmarried. The married gets a hundred lashes and stoning to death, while the unmarried gets a hundred lashes then banishment for a year.)” Muslim and the collectors of the Sunan recorded that `Ubadah bin As-Samit said that the Prophet said,

(Take from me, take from me. Allah has made some other way for them: the (unmarried) gets a hundred lashes and banishment for one year, while the (married) gets a hundred lashes and stoning to death.) At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih”. Allah said,

(And the two persons among you who commit illegal sexual intercourse, punish them both.) Ibn `Abbas and Sa`id bin Jubayr said that this punishment includes cursing, shaming them and beating them with sandals. This was the ruling until Allah abrogated it with flogging or stoning, as we stated. Mujahid said, “It was revealed about the case of two men who do it.” As if he was referring to the actions of the people of Lut, and Allah knows best. The collectors of Sunan recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Whoever you catch committing the act of the people of Lut (homosexuality), then kill both parties to the act.) Allah said,

(And if they repent and do righteous good deeds), by refraining from that evil act, and thereafter their actions become righteous,

(leave them alone), do not verbally abuse them after that, since he who truly repents is just like he who has no sin,

(Surely, Allah is Ever the One Who accepts repentance, Most Merciful.) The following is recorded in the Two Sahihs:

(When the slave-girl of one of you commits illegal sexual intercouse, let him flog her and not chastise her afterwards. ) because the lashes she receives erase the sin that she has committed.

(17. Allah accepts only the repentance of those who do evil in ignorance and foolishness and repent soon ﴿afterwards﴾; it is they to whom Allah will forgive and Allah is Ever All-Knower, All-Wise.) (18. And of no effect is the repentance of those who continue to do evil deeds until death faces one of them and he says: “Now I repent;” nor of those who die while they are disbelievers. For them, We have prepared a painful torment.)

Repentance is Accepted Until one Faces death

Allah states that He accepts repentance of the servant who commits an error in ignorance and then repents, even just before he sees the angel who captures the soul, before his soul reaches his throat. Mujahid and others said, “Every person who disobeys Allah by mistake, or intentionally is ignorant, until he refrains from the sin.” Qatadah said that Abu Al-`Aliyah narrated that the Companions of the Messenger of Allah used to say, “Every sin that the servant commits, he commits out of ignorance.” `Abdur-Razzaq narrated that, Ma`mar said that Qatadah said that, the Companions of the Messenger of Allah agreed that every sin that is committed by intention or otherwise, is committed in ignorance.” Ibn Jurayj said, “Abdullah bin Kathir narrated to me that Mujahid said, `Every person who disobeys Allah (even willfully), is ignorant while committing the act of disobedience.”’ Ibn Jurayj said, “`Ata’ bin Abi Rabah told me something similar.” Abu Salih said that Ibn `Abbas commented, “It is because of one’s ignorance that he commits the error.” `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said about the Ayah,

(and repent soon (afterwards)), “Until just before he (or she) looks at the angel of death.” Ad-Dahhak said, “Every thing before death is `soon ﴿afterwards﴾.”’ Al-Hasan Al-Basri said about the Ayah,

(and repent soon afterwards), “Just before his last breath leaves his throat.” `Ikrimah said, “All of this life is `soon ﴿afterwards﴾.”’ Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Umar said that the Messenger said,

(Allah accepts the repentance of the servant as long as the soul does not reach the throat.) This Hadith was also collected by At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah, and At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Gharib”. By mistake, Ibn Majah mentioned that this Hadith was narrated through `Abdullah bin `Amr. However, what is correct is that `Abdullah bin `Umar bin Al-Khattab was the narrator. Allah said,

(It is they to whom Allah will forgive and Allah is Ever All-Knower, All-Wise.) Surely, when hope in continued living diminishes, the angel of death comes forth and the soul reaches the throat, approaches the chest and arrives at the state where it is being gradually pulled out, then there is no accepted repentance, nor a way out of that certain end. Hence Allah’s statements,

(And of no effect is the repentance of those who continue to do evil deeds until death faces one of them and he says: “Now I repent,”) and,

(So when they saw Our punishment, they said: “We believe in Allah Alone…”) ﴿40:84﴾ Allah decided that repentance shall not be accepted from the people of the earth when the sun rises from the west, as Allah said,

(The day that some of the signs of your Lord do come, no good will it do to a person to believe then, if he believed not before, nor earned good through his faith.) ﴿6:158﴾. oAllah said,

(nor of those who die while they are disbelievers.) Consequently, when the disbeliever dies while still a disbeliever and polytheist, his sorrow and repentance shall not avail him. If he were to ransom himself, even with the earth’s fill of gold, it will not be accepted from him. Ibn `Abbas, Abu Al-`Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said that the Ayah:

(nor of those who die while they are disbelievers), was revealed about the people of Shirk. Imam Ahmad recorded that Usamah bin Salman said that Abu Dharr said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Allah accepts the repentance of His servant, or forgives His servant, as long as the veil does not drop.) They asked, “And what does the drop of the veil mean ” He said,

(When the soul is removed while one is a polythiest.) Allah then said,

(For them We have prepared a painful torment), torment that is severe, eternal and enormous.

(19. O you who believe! You are not permitted to inherit women against their will, nor to prevent them from marriage in order to get part of (the dowry) what you have given them, unless they commit open Fahishah. And live with them honorably. If you dislike them, it may be that you dislike a thing and Allah brings through it a great deal of good.) (20. But if you intend to replace a wife by another and you have given one of them a Qintar, take not the least bit of it back; would you take it wrongfully without a right and (with) a manifest sin) (21. And how could you take it (back) while you have gone in unto each other, and they have taken from you a firm and strong covenant) (22. And marry not women whom your fathers married, except what has already passed; indeed it was shameful and Maqtan, and an evil way.)

Meaning of `Inheriting Women Against Their Will

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said about the Ayah,

(O you who believe! You are not permitted to inherit women against their will,) “Before, the practice was that when a man dies, his male relatives used to have the right to do whatever they wanted with his wife. If one of them wants, he would marry her, give her in marriage, or prevent her from marriage, for they had more right to her than her own family. Thereafter, this Ayah was revealed about this practice,

(O you who believe! You are not permitted to inherit women against their will).”

Women Should not Be Treated with Harshness

Allah said,

(nor to prevent them from marriage, in order to take part of what you have given them,) Allah commands: Do not treat the woman harshly so that she gives back all or part of the dowry that she was given, or forfeits one of her rights by means of coercion and oppression. Allah’s statement,

(unless they commit open Fahishah.) Ibn Mas`ud, Ibn `Abbas, Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib, Ash-Sha`bi, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Muhammad bin Sirin, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, `Ata’ Al-Khurasani, Ad-Dahhak, Abu Qilabah, Abu Salih, As-Suddi, Zayd bin Aslam and Sa`id bin Abi Hilal said that this refers to illicit sex. Meaning that if the wife commits adultery, you are allowed to take back the dowry you gave her. You are also allowed to annoy her, until she gives back the dowry in return for a Khula`.” In Surat Al-Baqarah, Allah said,

(And it is not lawful for you (men) to take back (from your wives) any of what you have given them, except when both parties fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by Allah) ﴿2:229﴾. Ibn `Abbas, `Ikrimah and Ad-Dahhak said that Fahishah refers to disobedience and defiance. Ibn Jarir chose the view that it is general, encompasses all these meanings, adultery, disobedience, defiance, rudeness, and so forth. Meaning that he is allowed to annoy his wife when she does any of these acts until she forfeits all or part of her rights and he then separates from her, and this ﴿view﴾ is good, and Allah knows best.

Live With Women Honorably

Allah said,

(And live with them honorably), by saying kind words to them, treating them kindly and making your appearance appealing for them, as much as you can, just as you like the same from them. Allah said in another Ayah,

(And they have rights similar over them to what is reasonable) ﴿2:228﴾. The Messenger of Allah said,

(The best among you is he who is the best with his family. Verily, I am the best one among you with my family.) It was the practice of the Messenger of Allah to be kind, cheerful, playful with his wives, compassionate, spending on them and laughing with them. The Messenger used to race with `A’ishah, the Mother of the Faithful, as a means of kindness to her. `A’ishah said, “The Messenger of Allah raced with me and I won the race. This occurred before I gained weight, and afterwards I raced with him again, and he won that race. He said,

(This ﴿victory ﴾ is for that ﴿victory﴾.)” When the Prophet was at the home of one of his wives, sometimes all of his wives would meet there and eat together, and they would then go back to their homes. He and his wife would sleep in the same bed, he would remove his upper garment, sleeping in only his lower garment. The Prophet used to talk to the wife whose night it was, after praying `Isha’ and before he went to sleep. Allah said,

(Indeed in the Messenger of Allah you have a good example to follow) ﴿33:21﴾. Allah said,

(If you dislike them, it may be that you dislike a thing and Allah brings through it a great deal of good.) Allah says that your patience, which is demonstrated by keeping wives whom you dislike, carries good rewards for you in this life and the Hereafter. Ibn `Abbas commented on this Ayah, “That the husband may feel compassion towards his wife and Allah gives him a child with her, and this child carries tremendous goodness.” An authentic Hadith states,

(No believing man should hate his believing wife. If he dislikes a part of her conduct, he would surely like another.)

The Prohibition of Taking Back the Dowry

Allah said,

(But if you intend to replace a wife by another and you have given one of them a Qintar, take not the least bit of it back; would you take it wrongfully without a right and (with) a manifest sin) The Ayah commands: When one of you wants to divorce a wife and marry another one, he must not take any portion of the dowry he gave to the first wife, even if it were a Qintar of money. We mentioned the meaning of Qintar in the Tafsir of Surah Al `Imran. This Ayah is clear in its indication that the dowry could be substantial. `Umar bin Al-Khattab used to discourage giving a large dowry, but later on changed his view. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Al-`Ajfa’ As-Sulami said that he heard `Umar bin Al-Khattab saying, “Do not exaggerate with the dowry of women, had this practice been an honor in this world or a part of Taqwa, then the Prophet would have had more right to practice it than you. The Messenger of Allah never gave any of his wives, nor did any of his daughters receive a dowry more than twelve Uwqiyah. A man used to pay a substantial dowry and thus conceal enmity towards his wife!” Ahmad and the collectors of Sunan collected this Hadith through various chains of narration, and At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih”. Al-Hafiz Abu Ya`la recorded that Masruq said, “`Umar bin Al-Khattab stood up on the Minbar of the Messenger of Allah and said, `O people! Why do you exaggerate concerning the dowry given to women The Messenger of Allah and his Companions used to pay up to four hundred Dirhams for a dowry, or less than that. Had paying more for a dowry been a part of Taqwa or an honor, you would not have led them in this practice. Therefore, I do not want to hear about a man who pays more than four hundred Dirhams for a dowry.’ He then went down the Minbar, but a woman from Quraysh said to him, `O Leader of the Faithful! You prohibited people from paying more than four hundred Dirhams in a dowry for women’ He said, `Yes.’ She said, `Have you not heard what Allah sent down in the Qur’an’ He said, `Which part of it’ She said, `Have you not heard Allah’s statement,

(And you have given one of them a Qintar)’ He said, `O Allah! Forgive me…’ He then went back and stood up on the Minbar saying, `I had prohibited you from paying more than four hundred Dirhams in a dowry for women. So, let everyone pay what he likes from his money.”’ The chain of narration for this Hadith is strong.

(And how could you take it (back) while you have gone in unto each other) how can you take back the dowry from the woman with whom you had sexual relations and she had sexual relations with you Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, As-Suddi and several others said that this means sexual intercourse. The Two Sahihs record that the Messenger of Allah said three times to the spouses who said the Mula`anah;

(Allah knows that one of you is a liar, so would any of you repent ) The man said, “O Messenger of Allah! My money,” referring to the dowry that he gave his wife. The Messenger said,

(You have no money. If you are the one who said the truth, the dowry is in return for the right to have sexual intercourse with her. If you are the one who uttered the lie, then this money is even farther from your reach.) Similarly Allah said;

(And how could you take it (back) while you have gone in unto each other and they have taken from you a firm and strong covenant) (Be kind with women, for you have taken them by Allah’s covenant and earned the right to have sexual relations with them by Allah’s Word.)

Marrying the Wife of the Father is Prohibited

Allah said,

(And marry not women whom your fathers married,) Allah prohibits marrying the women whom the father married, in honor and respect to the fathers, not allowing their children to have sexual relations with their wives after they die. A woman becomes ineligible for the son of her husband as soon as the marriage contract is conducted, and there is a consensus on this ruling. Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “During the time of Jahiliyyah, the people used to prohibit what Allah prohibits (concerning marriage), except marrying the stepmother and taking two sisters as rival wives. Allah sent down,

(And marry not women whom your fathers married,) and,

(and two sisters in wedlock at the same time) ﴿4:23﴾.” Similar was reported from `Ata’ and Qatadah. Therefore, the practice that the Ayah mentions is prohibited for this Ummah, being disgraced as an awful sin, r

(Indeed it was shameful and Maqtan, and an evil way.) Allah said in other Ayat,

(Come not near to Al-Fawahish (shameful acts) whether committed openly or secretly) ﴿6:151﴾, and,

(And come not near to unlawful sex. Verily, it is a Fahishah and an evil way.) ﴿17:32﴾ In this Ayah (4:22), Allah added,

(and Maqtan), meaning, offensive. It is a sin itself and causes the son to hate his father after he marries his wife. It is usual that whoever marries a woman dislikes those who married her before him. This is one reason why the Mothers of the Faithful were not allowed for anyone in marriage after the Messenger . They are indeed the Mothers of the Faithful since they married the Messenger , who is like the father to the believers. Rather, the Prophet’s right is far greater than the right of a father, and his love comes before each person loving himself, may Allah’s peace and blessings be on him. `Ata’ bin Abi Rabah said that the Ayah,

(and Maqtan), means, Allah will hate him,

(and an evil way), for those who take this way. Therefore, those who commit this practice will have committed an act of reversion from the religion and deserve capital punishment and confiscation of their property, which will be given to the Muslim Treasury. Imam Ahmad and the collectors of Sunan recorded that Al-Bara’ bin `Azib said that his uncle Abu Burdah was sent by the Messenger of Allah to a man who married his stepmother to execute him and confiscate his money.

(23. Forbidden to you (for marriage) are: your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your father’s sisters, your mother’s sisters, your brother’s daughters, your sister’s daughters, your foster mothers who suckled you, your foster milk suckling sisters, your wives’ mothers, your stepdaughters under your guardianship, born of your wives unto whom you have gone in — but there is no sin on you if you have not gone in unto them (to marry their daughters), — the wives of your sons who (spring) from your own loins, and two sisters in wedlock at the same time, except for what has already passed; verily, Allah is Oft- Forgiving, Most Merciful.)

Degrees of Women Never Eligible for One to Marry

This honorable Ayah is the Ayah that establishes the degrees of women relatives who are never eligible for one to marry, because of blood relations, relations established by suckling or marriage. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “(Allah said) I have prohibited for you seven types of relatives by blood and seven by marriage.” Ibn `Abbas then recited the Ayah,

(Forbidden to you (for marriage) are: your mothers, your daughters, your sisters…) At-Tabari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “Seven degrees of blood relation and seven degrees of marriage relation are prohibited (for marriage).” He then recited the Ayah,

(Forbidden to you (for marriage) are: your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your father’s sisters, your mother’s sisters, your brother’s daughters, your sister’s daughters) and these are the types prohibited by blood relation.” Allah’s statement,

(Your foster mothers who suckled you, your foster milk suckling sisters) means, just as your mother who bore you is prohibited for you in marriage, so is your mother from suckling prohibited for you. Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that `A’ishah, the Mother of the Faithful, said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Suckling prohibits what birth prohibits.) In another narration reported by Muslim,

(Suckling establishes prohibited degrees just as blood does.)

`Suckling’ that Establishes Prohibition for Marriage

Less than five incidents of suckling will not establish prohibition for marriage. In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that `A’ishah said, “Among the parts of the Qur’an that were revealed, is the statement, `Ten incidents of suckling establishes the prohibition (concerning marriage).’ It was later abrogated with five, and the Messenger of Allah died while this statement was still recited as part of the Qur’an.”’ A Hadith that Sahlah bint Suhayl narrated states that the Messenger of Allah ordered her to suckle Salim the freed slave of Abu Hudhayfah with five.” We should assert that the suckling mentioned here must occur before the age of two, as we stated when we explained the Ayah in Surat Al-Baqarah,

((The mothers) should suckle their children for two whole years, (that is) for those (parents) who desire to complete the term of suckling) ﴿2:233﴾. The Mother-in-Law and Stepdaughter are Prohibited in Marriage Allah said next,

(Your wives’ mothers, your stepdaughters under your guardianship, born of your wives unto whom you have gone in – but there is no sin on you if you have not gone in unto them,) As for the mother of the wife, she becomes prohibited for marriage for her son-in-law when the marriage is conducted, whether the son-in-law has sexual relations with her daughter or not. As for the wife’s daughter, she becomes prohibited for her stepfather when he has sexual relations with her mother, after the marriage contract is ratified. If the man divorces the mother before having sexual relations with her, he is allowed to marry her daughter. So Allah said;

(Your stepdaughters under your guardianship, born of your wives unto whom you have gone in — but there is no sin on you if you have not gone in unto them,) to marry the stepdaughter.

The Stepdaughter is Prohibited in Marriage Even if She Was Not Under the Guardianship of Her Stepfather

Allah said,

(…your stepdaughters under your guardianship,) The majority of scholars state that the stepdaughter is prohibited in marriage for her stepfather ﴿who consummated his marriage to her mother﴾ whether she was under his guardianship or not. The Two Sahih recorded that Umm Habibah said, “O Messenger of Allah! Marry my sister, the daughter of Abu Sufyan (and in one narration `Azzah bint Abu Sufyan).” He said,

???

(“Do you like that I do that” She said, “I would not give you up for anything, but the best of whom I like to share with me in that which is righteously good, is my sister.” He said, “That is not allowed for me.” She said, “We were told that you want to marry the daughter of Abu Salamah.” He asked, “The daughter of Umm Salamah” She said, “Yes.” He said, “Even if she was not my stepdaughter and under my guardianship, she is still not allowed for me because she is my niece from suckling, for Thuwaybah suckled me and Abu Salamah. Therefore, do not offer me to marry your daughters or sisters. ”) In another narration from Al-Bukhari,

(Had I not married Umm Salamah, her daughter would not have been allowed for me anyway.) Consequently, the Messenger stated that his marriage to Umm Salamah was the real reason behind that prohibition.

Meaning of `gone in unto them

The Ayah continues,

(Your wives unto whom you have gone in), meaning, had sexual relations with them, according to Ibn `Abbas and several others.

Prohibiting the Daughter-in-Law for Marriage

Allah said,

(The wives of your sons who (spring) from your own loins,) Therefore, you are prohibited to marry the wives of your own sons, but not the wives of your adopted sons, as adoption was common practice in Jahiliyyah. Allah said,

(So when Zayd had accomplished his desire from her (i.e. divorced her), We gave her to you in marriage, so that (in future) there may be no difficulty to the believers in respect of (the marriage of) the wives of their adopted sons when the latter have no desire to keep them (i.e. they had divorced them).) ﴿33:37﴾ Ibn Jurayj said, “I asked `Ata’ about Allah’s statement,

(The wives of your sons who (spring) from your own loins,) He said, `We were told that when the Prophet married the ex-wife of Zayd (who was the Prophet’s adopted son before Islam prohibited this practice), the idolators in Makkah criticized him. Allah sent down the Ayat:

(The wives of your sons who (spring) from your own loins),

(nor has He made your adopted sons your real sons.) ﴿33:4﴾, and,

(Muhammad is not the father of any of your men) ﴿33:40﴾.”’ Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Al-Hasan bin Muhammad said, “These Ayat are encompassing,

(the wives of your sons), and,

(your wives’ mothers). This is also the explanation of Tawus, Ibrahim, Az-Zuhri and Makhul. It means that these two Ayat encompass these types of women, whether the marriage was consummated or not, and there is a consensus on this ruling.

A Doubt and Rebuttal

Why is the wife of one’s son from suckling prohibited for him for marriage – that is, if she is no longer married to his son from suckling – as the majority of scholars state, although they are not related by blood The answer is the Prophet’s statement,

(Suckling prohibits what blood relations prohibit.)

The Prohibition of Taking Two Sisters as Rival Wives

Allah said,

(…and two sisters in wedlock at the same time, except for what has already passed;) The Ayah commands: you are prohibited to take two sisters as rival wives, or rival female-servants, except for what had happened to you during the time of Jahiliyyah, which We have forgiven and erased. Therefore, no one is allowed to take or keep two sisters as rival wives, according to the consensus of the scholars of the Companions, their followers, and the Imams of old and present. They all stated that taking two sisters as rival wives is prohibited, and that whoever embraces Islam while married to two sisters at the same time is given the choice to keep one of them and divorce the other. Imam Ahmad recorded that Ad-Dahhak bin Fayruz said that his father said, “I embraced Islam while married to two sisters at the same time and the Prophet commanded me to divorce one of them.”

(24. Also (forbidden are) women already married, except those (slaves) whom your right hands possess. Thus has Allah ordained for you. All others are lawful, provided you seek them (with a dowry) from your property, desiring chastity, not fornication. So with those among them whom you have enjoyed, give them their required due, but if you agree mutually (to give more) after the requirement (has been determined), there is no sin on you. Surely, Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.)

Forbidding Women Already Married, Except for Female Slaves

Allah said,

(Also (forbidden are) women already married, except those whom your right hands possess.) The Ayah means, you are prohibited from marrying women who are already married,

(except those whom your right hands possess) except those whom you acquire through war, for you are allowed such women after making sure they are not pregnant. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said, “We captured some women from the area of Awtas who were already married, and we disliked having sexual relations with them because they already had husbands. So, we asked the Prophet about this matter, and this Ayah was revealed, e

(Also (forbidden are) women already married, except those whom your right hands possess). Consequently, we had sexual relations with these women.” This is the wording collected by At-Tirmidhi An-Nasa’i, Ibn Jarir and Muslim in his Sahih. Allah’s statement,

(Thus has Allah ordained for you) means, this prohibition was ordained for you by Allah. Therefore, adhere to Allah’s Book, do not transgress His set limits, and adhere to His legislation and decrees.

The Permission to Marry All Other Women

Allah said,

(All others are lawful) meaning, you are allowed to marry women other than the prohibited types mentioned here, as `Ata’ and others have stated. Allah’s statement,

(provided you seek them (with a dowry) from your property, desiring chastity, not fornication,) meaning, you are allowed to use your money to marry up to four wives and for (the purchase of) as many female slaves as you like, all through legal means,

((desiring) chastity, not fornication.) Allah’s statement,

(So with those among them whom you have enjoyed, give them their required due,) means, to enjoy them sexually, surrender to them their rightful dowry as compensation. In other Ayat, Allah said,

(And how could you take it (back) while you have gone in unto each other),

(And give to the women (whom you marry) their dowry with a good heart), and,

(And it is not lawful for you (men) to take back (from your wives) any of what (dowry) you gave them)

Prohibiting the Mut`ah of Marriage

Mujahid stated that,

(So with those among them whom you have enjoyed, give them their required due,) was revealed about the Mut`ah marriage. A Mut`ah marriage is a marriage that ends upon a predeterminied date. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that the Leader of the Faithful `Ali bin Abi Talib said, “The Messenger of Allah prohibited Mut`ah marriage and eating the meat of domesticated donkeys on the day of Khaybar (battle).” In addition, in his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Ar-Rabi` bin Sabrah bin Ma`bad Al-Juhani said that his father said that he accompanied the Messenger of Allah during the conquest of Makkah, and that the Prophet said,

(O people! I allowed you the Mut`ah marriage with women before. Now, Allah has prohibited it until the Day of Resurrection. Therefore, anyone who has any women in Mut`ah, let him let them go, and do not take anything from what you have given them.) Allah’s statement,

(but if you agree mutually (to give more) after the requirement (has been determined), there is no sin on you.) is similar to His other statement,

(And give to the women their dowry with a good heart). The meaning of these Ayat is: If you have stipulated a dowry for her, and she later forfeits it, either totally or partially, then this bears no harm on you or her in this case. Ibn Jarir said, “Al-Hadrami said that some men would designate a certain dowry, but then fall into financial difficulties. Therefore, Allah said that there is no harm on you, O people, concerning your mutual agreement after the requirement (has been determined).” meaning, if she gives up part of the dowry, then you men are allowed to accept that. Allah’s statement,

(Surely, Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.) is suitable here, after Allah mentioned these prohibitions.

(25. And whoever of you have not the means wherewith to wed free believing women, they may wed believing girls from among those whom your right hands possess, and Allah has full knowledge about your faith, you are one from another. Wed them with the permission of their own folk (guardians) and give them their due in a good manner; they should be chaste, not fornicators, nor promiscuous. And after they have been taken in wedlock, if they commit Fahishah, their punishment is half that for free (unmarried) women. This is for him among you who is afraid of being harmed in his religion or in his body; but it is better for you that you practice self-restraint, and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)

Marrying a Female Slave, if One Cannot Marry a Free Woman

Allah said, those who do not have,

(the means), financial capability,

(Wherewith to wed free believing women) meaning, free faithful, chaste women.

(They may wed believing girls from among those whom your right hands possess,) meaning, they are allowed to wed believing slave girls owned by the believers.

(and Allah has full knowledge about your faith; you are one from another.) Allah knows the true reality and secrets of all things, but you people know only the apparent things. Allah then said,

(Wed them with the permission of their own folk) indicating that the owner is responsible for the slave girl, and consequently, she cannot marry without his permission. The owner is also responsible for his male slave and they cannot wed without his permission. A Hadith states,

(Any male slave who marries without permission from his master, is a fornicator.) When the owner of the female slave is a female, those who are allowed to give away the free woman in marriage, with her permission, become responsible for giving away her female slave in marriage, as well. A Hadith states that

(The woman does not give away another woman, or herself in marriage, for only the adulteress gives herself away in marriage.) Allah’s statement,

(And give them their due in a good manner;) meaning, pay them their dowry with a good heart, and do not keep any of it, belittling the matter due to the fact that they are owned slaves. Allah’s statement,

(they should be chaste) means, they are honorable women who do not commit adultery, and this is why Allah said,

(not fornicators) referring to dishonorable women, who do not refrain from illicit sexual relations with those who ask. Ibn `Abbas said that the fornicating women are the whores, who do not object to having relations with whomever seeks it, while,

(nor promiscuous. ) refers to taking boyfriends. Similar was said by Abu Hurayrah, Mujahid, Ash-Sha`bi, Ad-Dahhak, `Ata’ Al-Khurasani, Yahya bin Abi Kathir, Muqatil bin Hayyan and As-Suddi.

The Slave Girl’s Punishment for Adultery is Half that of a Free Unmarried Woman

Allah said,

(And after they have been taken in wedlock, if they commit Fahishah, their punishment is half of that for free (unmarried) women.) this is about the slave women who got married, as indicated by the Ayah;

(And whoever of you have not the means wherewith to wed free believing women, they may wed believing girls from among those whom your right hands possess,) Therefore, since the honorable Ayah is about believing slave girls, then,

(And after they have been taken in wedlock,) refers to when they (believing slave girls) get married, as Ibn `Abbas and others have said. Allah’s statement,

(their punishment is half of that for free (unmarried) women.) indicates that the type of punishment prescribed here is the one that can be reduced to half, lashes in this case, not stoning to death, and Allah knows best. Allah’s statement,

(This is for him among you who is afraid of being harmed in his religion or in his body;) indicates that marrying slave girls, providing one satisfies the required conditions, is for those who fear for their chastity and find it hard to be patient and refrain from sex. In this difficult circumstance, one is allowed to marry a slave girl. However, it is better to refrain from marrying slave girls and to observe patience, for otherwise, the offspring will become slaves to the girl’s master. Allah said,

(but it is better for you that you practice self-restraint, and Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)

(26. Allah wishes to make clear (what is lawful and what is unlawful) to you, and to show you the ways of those before you, and accept your repentance, and Allah is All-Knower, All-Wise.) (27. Allah wishes to accept your repentance, but those who follow their lusts, wish that you (believers) should deviate tremendously away (from the right path)) (28. Allah wishes to lighten (the burden) for you; and man was created weak. ) Allah explains to the believers what He has allowed and prohibited for them in this and other Surahs,

(And to show you the ways of those before you,) meaning their righteous ways and how to adhere to the commandments that He likes and is pleased with.

(and accept your repentance) from sin and error,

(and Allah is All-Knower, All-Wise.) in His commands, decrees, actions and statements. Allah’s statement,

(but those who follow their lusts, wish that you (believers) should deviate tremendously away from the right path)) indicates that the followers of Shaytan among the Jews, Christians and the adulterous, wish that you would take the horrendous path of falsehood instead of the truth.

(Allah wishes to lighten (the burden) for you”) His legislation, orders, what He prohibits and what He decrees for you. This is why Allah has allowed free men to marry slave girls under certain conditions, as Mujahid and others have stated.

(and man was created weak.) and this is why it is suitable in his case that the commands are made easy for him, because of his weakness and feebleness. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Tawus said that,

(and man was created weak), “Concerning women”. Waki` said, “Man’s mind leaves when women are involved.”

(29. O you who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly except it be a trade amongst you, by mutual consent. And do not kill yourselves (nor kill one another). Surely, Allah is Most Merciful to you.) (30. And whoever commits that through aggression and injustice, We shall cast him into the Fire, and that is easy for Allah.) (31. If you avoid the great sins which you are forbidden to do, We shall remit from you your (small) sins, and admit you to a Noble Entrance (i.e. Paradise).)

Prohibiting Unlawfully Earned Money

Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, prohibits His believing servants from illegally acquiring each other’s property using various dishonest methods such as Riba, gambling and other wicked methods that appear to be legal, but Allah knows that, in reality, those involved seek to deal in interest. Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn `Abbas commented on a man who buys a garment, saying that if he likes it he will keep it, or he will return it along with an extra Dirham, “This is what Allah meant, when He said, o

(Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly.”) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “When Allah sent down,

(O you who believe! Eat not up your property among yourselves unjustly) some Muslims said, `Allah has forbidden us from eating up each other’s property unjustly, and food is our best property. Therefore, none among us is allowed to eat from anyone else’s food.’ After that Allah sent down,

(There is no restriction on the blind) (until the end of the Ayah). ﴿24:61﴾.”’ Qatadah said similarly. Allah’s statement,

(except it be a trade amongst you, by mutual consent.) means, do not revert to illegal ways and means to acquire money. However, there is no harm in commercial transactions that transpire between the buyer and the seller with mutual consent, so that money is legally earned from these transactions. Mujahid said that,

(except it be a trade amongst you, by mutual consent.) means, “By selling and buying, or giving someone a gift.” Ibn Jarir recorded this statement.

The Option to Buy or Sell Before Parting, is Part of `Mutual Consent’ in Trading

Mutual agreement in various transactions is attained when both parties have the right to uphold or dissolve the agreement before they part. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The seller and the buyer retain the (right to change their mind) as long as they have not parted.) Al-Bukhari’s wording for this Hadith reads,

(When two men conduct a transaction, they retain their (right to change their mind) as long as they have not parted.)

Forbidding Murder and Suicide

Allah said,

(And do not kill yourselves.) by committing Allah’s prohibitions, falling into sin and eating up each other’s property unjustly,

(Surely, Allah is Most Merciful to you.) in what He commanded you and prohibited you from. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Amr bin Al-`As said that when the Prophet sent him for the battle of Dhat As-Salasil, “I had a wet dream during a very cold night and feared that if I bathed, I would die. So I performed Tayammum (with pure earth) and led my company in the Dawn prayer. When I went back to the Messenger of Allah , I mentioned what had happened to me and he said,

(O `Amr! Have you led your people in prayer while you were in a state of sexual impurity) I said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! I had a wet dream on a very cold night and feared that if I bathed I would perish, and I remembered Allah’s statement,

(And do not kill yourselves. Surely, Allah is Most Merciful to you). So I performed Tayammum and prayed.’ The Messenger of Allah smiled and did not say anything.” This is the narration reported by Abu Dawud. Ibn Marduwyah mentioned this honorable Ayah and then reported that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Whoever kills himself with an iron tool, then his tool will be in his hand and he will keep stabbing himself with it in the Fire of Jahannam, forever and ever. Whoever kills himself with poison, then his poison will be in his hand and he will keep taking it in the Fire of Jahannam forever and ever. Whoever kills himself by throwing himself from a mountain, will keep falling in the Fire of Jahannam forever and ever.) This Hadith was also collected in the Two Sahihs. Abu Qilabah said that Thabit bin Ad-Dahhak said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Whoever kills himself with an instrument, will be punished with it on the Day of Resurrection.) This Hadith was collected by the Group. This is why Allah said,

(And whoever commits that through aggression and injustice, ) meaning, whoever commits what Allah has forbidden for him transgression and injustice – while knowing that it is forbidden for him, yet he still dares to commit it,

(We shall cast him into the Fire,). This Ayah carries a stern warning and a truthful promise. Therefore, every sane person should beware of it, those who hear the speech with full comprehension.

Minor Sins Will be Pardoned if One Refrains from Major Sins

Allah said,

(If you avoid the great sins which you are forbidden to do, We shall remit from you your (small) sins,) meaning, if you avoid the major evil deeds that you were prohibited We will forgive you the minor evil deeds and will admit you into Paradise. This is why Allah said,

(and admit you to a Noble Entrance (i.e. Paradise).) There are several Hadiths on the subject of this honorable Ayah. Imam Ahmad recorded that Salman Al-Farisi said, “The Prophet said to me, `Do you know what the day of Al-Jumu`ah is’ I said, `It is the day during which Allah brought together the creation of your father (Adam).’ He said,

(I know what the day of Jumu`ah is. Anyone who takes a bath and cleans himself as much as he can and then proceeds for the Friday prayer and remains quiet until the Imam finishes the prayer, all his sins in between the present and the next Friday will be forgiven, as long as major sins were avoided.)” Al-Bukhari recorded similar wording from Salman Al-Farisi.

The Seven Destructive Sins

What are the Seven Destructive Sins In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Avoid the seven great destructive sins.) The people inquired, ‘O Allah’s Messenger! What are they’ He said,

(To join others in worship along with Allah, to kill the life which Allah has forbidden except for a just cause, magic, to consume Riba, to consume an orphan’s wealth, to turn away from the enemy and flee from the battlefield when the battle begins, and to accuse chaste women, who never even think of anything that would tarnish their chastity and are good believers.) Another Hadith that mentions False Witness Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik said, “The Messenger of Allah mentioned the major sins, or was asked about the major sins. He said,

(Associating others with Allah in worship, killing the life, and being undutiful to the parents.) He then said,

???:

(Should I tell you about the biggest of the major sins The false statement – or the false testimony.)” Shu`bah – one of the narrators of the Hadith – said, “Most likely, in my opinion, he said, `False testimony.”’ The Two Sahihs recorded this Hadith from Shu`bah from Anas. Another Hadith In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that `Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Bakrah said that his father said, “The Prophet said,

(Should I inform you about the greatest of the great sins) We said, `Yes, O Allah’s Messenger !’ He said,

(To join others in worship with Allah and to be undutiful to one’s parents.) He was reclining, then he sat up and said;

(And I warn you against false testimony and false speech.) and he continued repeating it until we wished that he would stop.” Another Hadith that mentions killing the Offspring In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, “I asked, `O Allah’s Messenger! What is the greatest sin’ ﴿(in one narration) the biggest sin﴾’ He said,

(To make a rival for Allah while He Alone created you.) I said, `Then’ He said,

(To kill your offspring for fear that he might share your food with you. ) I said, `Then’ He said,

(To commit adultery with your neighbor’s wife.) He then recited,

(And those who invoke not any other god along with Allah), until,

(Except those who repent).” Another Hadith from `Abdullah bin `Amr Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr said that the Prophet said,

(The greatest sins are: To join others in worship with Allah, to be undutiful to one’s parents – or to take a life) Shu`bah was uncertain of which one – (and the false oath). Recorded by Al-Bukhari, At-Tirmidhi, and An-Nasai. Another Hadith by `Abdullah bin `Amr about Causing one’s Parents to be Cursed `Abdullah bin `Amr said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Among the worst of the major sins is for a man to curse his own parents.) They said, “How can one curse his own parents” He said,

(One curses another man’s father, and that man curses his father in retaliation, or he curses someone’s mother and that man curses his mother.) This is the wording of Muslim. At-Tirmidhi said, “Sahih.” It is recorded in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Cursing a Muslim is a sin and fighting him is Kufr.)

(32. And wish not for the things in which Allah has made some of you to excel others. For men there is reward for what they have earned, (and likewise) for women there is reward for what they have earned, and ask Allah of His bounty. Surely, Allah is Ever All-Knower of everything.)

Do Not Wish for the Things Which Allah has Made Some Others to Excel In

Imam Ahmad recorded that Umm Salamah said, “O Messenger of Allah! Men go to battle, but we do not go to battle, and we earn one-half of the inheritance (that men get).” Allah sent down,

(And wish not for the things in which Allah has made some of you to excel others). At-Tirmidhi also recorded this Hadith. Allah’s statement,

(For men there is reward for what they have earned, (and likewise) for women there is reward for what they have earned,) indicates, according to Ibn Jarir, that each person will earn his wages for his works, a reward if his deeds are good, and punishment if his deeds are evil. It was also reported that this Ayah is talking about inheritance, indicating the fact that each person will get his due share of the inheritance, as Al-Walibi reported from Ibn `Abbas. Allah then directed the servants to what benefits them,

(and ask Allah of His Bounty.)Therefore, the Ayah states, “Do not wish for what other people were endowed with over you, for this is a decision that will come to pass, and wishing does not change its decree. However, ask Me of My favor and I will grant it to you, for I Am Most Generous and Most Giving.” Allah then said,

(Surely, Allah is Ever All-Knower of everything.) meaning, Allah knows who deserves this life, and so He gives him riches, and whoever deserves poverty, He makes him poor. He also knows who deserves the Hereafter, and He directs him to perform the deeds that will help him to be sucessful in it, and whoever deserves failure, He prevents him from achieving righteousness and what leads to it. Hence, Allah said, m

(Surely, Allah is Ever All-Knower of everything).

(33. And to everyone, We have appointed Mawali of that left by parents and relatives. To those also with whom you have made a pledge (brotherhood), give them their due portion (by wills). Truly, Allah is Ever a Witness over all things.) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Salih, Qatadah, Zayd bin Aslam, As-Suddi, Ad-Dahhak, Muqatil bin Hayyan, and others said that Allah’s statement,

(And to everyone, We have appointed Mawali) means, “Heirs.” Ibn `Abbas was also reported to have said that Mawali refers to relatives. Ibn Jarir commented, “The Arabs call the cousin a Mawla.” Ibn Jarir continued, “Allah’s statement,

(of that (property) left by parents and relatives.) means, from what he inherited from his parents and family members. Therefore, the meaning of the Ayah becomes: `To all of you, O people, We appointed relatives (such as children) who will later inherit what you inherited from your own parents and relatives.” Allah’s statement,

(To those also with whom you have made a pledge (brotherhood), give them their due portion.) means, “Those with whom you have a pledge of brotherhood, give them their share of inheritance, thus fulfilling the ratified pledges that you gave them. Allah has witnessed all of you when you gave these pledges and promises.” This practice was followed in the beginning of Islam, but was later on abrogated when Muslims were commanded to fulfill the pledges (brotherhood) they had already given, but to refrain from making any new pledges after that. Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said,

(And to everyone, We have appointed Mawali) “meaning, heirs;

(To those also with whom you have made a pledge (brotherhood)) When the emigrants came to Al-Madinah, the emigrant would inherit from the Ansari, while the latter’s relatives would not inherit from him because of the bond of brotherhood which the Prophet established between them (the emigrants and the Ansar). When the verse,

(And to everyone We have appointed Mawali) was revealed, it cancelled (the pledge of brotherhood regarding inheritance).” Then he said, “The verse,

(To those also with whom you have made a pledge (brotherhood), give them their due portion.) remained valid for cases of co-operation and mutual advice, while the matter of inheritance was excluded and it became permissible to assign something in one’s will to the person who had the right of inheriting before.”

(34. Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has made one of them to excel the other, and because they spend (to support them) from their means. Therefore the righteous women are Qanitat, and guard in the husband’s absence what Allah orders them to guard. As to those women on whose part you see ill conduct, admonish them, and abandon them in their beds, and beat them, but if they return to obedience, do not seek a means against them. Surely, Allah is Ever Most High, Most Great.) Allah said,

(Men are the protectors and maintainers of women,) meaning, the man is responsible for the woman, and he is her maintainer, caretaker and leader who disciplines her if she deviates.

(because Allah has made one of them to excel the other,) meaning, because men excel over women and are better than them for certain tasks. This is why prophethood was exclusive of men, as well as other important positions of leadership. The Prophet said,

(People who appoint a woman to be their leader, will never achieve success.) Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith. Such is the case with appointing women as judges or on other positions of leadership.

(and because they spend from their means.) meaning the dowry, expenditures and various expenses that Allah ordained in His Book and the Sunnah of His Messenger for men to spend on women. For these reasons it is suitable that he is appointed her maintainer, just as Allah said,

(But men have a degree (of responsibility) over them).

Qualities of the Righteous Wife

Allah said,

(Therefore, the righteous) women,

(are Qanitat), obedient to their husbands, as Ibn `Abbas and others stated.

(and guard in the husband’s absence) As-Suddi and others said that it means she protects her honor and her husband’s property when he is absent, and Allah’s statement,

(what Allah orders them to guard.) means, the protected ﴿husband﴾ is the one whom Allah protects. Ibn Jarir recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The best women is she who when you look at her, she pleases you, when you command her she obeys you, and when you are absent, she protects her honor and your property.) Then, the Messenger of Allah recited the Ayah,

(Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, ) until its end. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdur-Rahman bin ‘Awf said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(If the woman prayed her five daily prayers, fasted her month, protected her chastity and obeyed her husband, she will be told, ‘Enter Paradise from any of its doors you wish.’)

Dealing with the Wife’s Ill-Conduct

Allah said,

(As to those women on whose part you see ill conduct,) meaning, the woman from whom you see ill conduct with her husband, such as when she acts as if she is above her husband, disobeys him, ignores him, dislikes him, and so forth. When these signs appear in a woman, her husband should advise her and remind her of Allah’s torment if she disobeys him. Indeed, Allah ordered the wife to obey her husband and prohibited her from disobeying him, because of the enormity of his rights and all that he does for her. The Messenger of Allah said,

(If I were to command anyone to prostrate before anyone, I would have commanded the wife to prostrate before her husband, because of the enormity of his right upon her.) Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(If the man asks his wife to come to his bed and she declines, the angels will keep cursing her until the morning.) Muslim recorded it with the wording,

(If the wife goes to sleep while ignoring her husband’s bed, the angels will keep cursing her until the morning.) This is why Allah said,

(As to those women on whose part you see ill conduct, admonish them (first)). Allah’s statement,

(abandon them in their beds,) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said “The abandonment refers to not having intercourse with her, to lie on her bed with his back to her.” Several others said similarly. As-Suddi, Ad-Dahhak, `Ikrimah, and Ibn `Abbas, in another narration, added, “Not to speak with her or talk to her.” The Sunan and Musnad compilers recorded that Mu`awiyah bin Haydah Al-Qushayri said, “O Allah’s Messenger! What is the right that the wife of one of us has on him” The Prophet said,

(To feed her when you eat, cloth her when you buy clothes for yourself, refrain from striking her face or cursing her, and to not abandon her, except in the house.) Allah’s statement,

(beat them) means, if advice and ignoring her in the bed do not produce the desired results, you are allowed to discipline the wife, without severe beating. Muslim recorded that Jabir said that during the Farewell Hajj, the Prophet said;

(Fear Allah regarding women, for they are your assistants. You have the right on them that they do not allow any person whom you dislike to step on your mat. However, if they do that, you are allowed to discipline them lightly. They have a right on you that you provide them with their provision and clothes, in a reasonable manner.) Ibn `Abbas and several others said that the Ayah refers to a beating that is not violent. Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that it means, a beating that is not severe.

When the Wife Obeys Her Husband, Means of Annoyance Against Her are Prohibited

Allah said,

(but if they return to obedience, seek not against them means (of annoyance),) meaning, when the wife obeys her husband in all that Allah has allowed, then no means of annoyance from the husband are allowed against his wife. Therefore, in this case, the husband does not have the right to beat her or shun her bed. Allah’s statement,

(Surely, Allah is Ever Most High, Most Great.) reminds men that if they transgress against their wives without justification, then Allah, the Ever Most High, Most Great, is their Protector, and He will exert revenge on those who transgress against their wives and deal with them unjustly.

(35. If you fear a breach between the two, appoint (two) arbitrators, one from his family and the other from her’s; if they both wish for peace, Allah will cause their reconciliation. Indeed Allah is Ever All-Knower, Well-Acquainted with all things.)

Appointing Two Arbitrators When the Possibility of Estrangement Between Husband and Wife Occurs

Allah first mentioned the case of rebellion on the part of the wife. He then mentioned the case of estrangement and alienation between the two spouses. Allah said,

(If you fear a breach between the two, appoint (two) arbitrators, one from his family). The Fuqaha’ (scholars of Fiqh) say that when estrangement occurs between the husband and wife, the judge refers them to a trusted person who examines their case in order to stop any wrongs commited between them. If the matter continues or worsens, the judge sends a trustworthy person from the woman’s family and a trustworthy person from the man’s family to meet with them and examine their case to determine whether it is best for them to part or to remain together. Allah gives preference to staying together, and this is why Allah said,

(if they both wish for peace, Allah will cause their reconciliation.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “Allah commands that a righteous man from the husband’s side of the family and the wife’s side of the family are appointed, so that they find out who among the spouses is in the wrong. If the man is in the wrong, they prevent him from his wife, and he pays some restitution. If the wife is in the wrong, she remains with her husband, and he does not pay any restitution. If the arbitrators decide that the marriage should remain intact or be dissolved, then their decision is upheld. If they decide that the marriage remains intact, but one of the spouses disagrees while the other agrees, and one of them dies, then the one who agreed inherits from the other, while the spouse who did not agree does not inherit from the spouse who agreed.” This was collected by Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir. Shaykh Abu `Umar bin `Abdul-Barr said, “The scholars agree that when the two arbitrators disagree, then the opinion that dissolves the marriage will not be adopted. They also agree that the decision of the arbitrators is binding, even if the two spouses did not appoint them as agents. This is the case if it is decided that they should stay together, but they disagree whether it is binding or not when they decide for separation.” Then he mentioned that the majority holds the view that the decision is still binding, even if they did not appoint them to make any decision.

(36. Worship Allah and join none with Him in worship, and do good to parents, kinsfolk, orphans, the poor, the neighbor who is near of kin, the neighbor who is a stranger, the companion by your side, the wayfarer (you meet), and those (slaves) whom your right hands possess. Verily, Allah does not like such as are proud and boastful.)

The Order to Worship Allah Alone and to Be Dutiful to Parents

Allah orders that He be worshipped Alone without partners, because He Alone is the Creator and Sustainer Who sends His favors and bounties on His creation in all situations and instances. Therefore He deserves to be singled out, without associating anything or anyone from His creation with Him in worship. Indeed, the Prophet said to Mu`adh,

(Do you know what Allah’s right on His servants is) Mu`adh replied, “Allah and His Messenger know better.” He said,

(That they should worship Him and should not worship any others with Him.) The Prophet then said,

(Do you know what the right of the servants on Allah is if they do this He should not punish them.) Allah then commands the servants to be dutiful to their parents, for Allah made parents the reason for the servants to come to existence, after they did not exist. Allah joins the order to worship Him with being dutiful to parents in many places. For example, He said,

(give thanks to Me and to your parents), and,

(And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him. And that you be dutiful to your parents). After Allah ordained being dutiful to parents, He ordained kind treatment of relatives, males and females. A Hadith states,

(Charity given to the poor is Sadaqah, while charity given to relatives is both Sadaqah and Silah (keeping the relations).) Allah then said,

(orphans), because they lost their caretakers who would spend on them. So Allah commands that the orphans be treated with kindness and compassion. Allah then said,

(Al-Masakin (the poor)) who have various needs and cannot find what sustains these needs. Therefore, Allah commands they should be helped in acquiring their needs in a sufficient manner that will end their inadequacy. We will further elaborate on the matter of the destitute and the poor in Surah Bara’h (9:60).

The Right of the Neighbor

Allah said,

(the neighbor who is near of kin, the neighbor who is a stranger) `Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas said that,

(the neighbor who is near of kin) means, “The neighbor who is also a relative”, while,

(The neighbor who is a stranger) means, “Who is not a relative.” It was also reported that `Ikrimah, Mujahid, Maymun bin Mihran, Ad-Dahhak, Zayd bin Aslam, Muqatil bin Hayyan and Qatadah said similarly. Mujahid was also reported to have said that Allah’s statement,

(the neighbor who is a stranger) means, “The companion during travel.” There are many Hadiths that command kind treatment to the neighbors, and we will mention some of them here with Allah’s help. The First Hadith Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Jibril kept reminding of the neighbor’s right, until I thought that he was going to give him a share of the inheritance.) The Two Sahihs recorded this Hadith. The Second Hadith Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Jibril kept reminding me of the neighbor’s right, until I thought he was going to appoint a share of the inheritance for him.) Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi recorded this Hadith, which At-Tirmidhi said was “Hasan Gharib through this route.” The Third Hadith Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr bin Al-`As said that the Prophet said,

(The best companions according to Allah are those who are the best with their friends, and the best neighbors according to Allah are the best with their neighbors.) At-Tirmidhi recorded this Hadith and said, “Hasan Gharib”. The Fourth Hadith Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Miqdad bin Al-Aswad said that the Messenger of Allah asked his Companions,

(What do you say about adultery) They said, “It is prohibited, for Allah and His Messenger have prohibited it. So it is forbidden until the Day of Resurrection.” The Messenger of Allah said,

(For a man to commit adultery with his neighbor’s wife is worse than if he commits adultery with ten women.) He then said,

(What do you say about theft) They said, “It is prohibited, for Allah and His Messenger prohibited it.” He said,

(If a man steals from his neighbor, it is worse for him than stealing from ten homes.) Only Ahmad recorded this Hadith. A similar Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs, Ibn Mas`ud said, “I asked, `O Allah’s Messenger! What is the greatest sin’ He said,

(To make a rival for Allah while He Alone created you.) I said, `Then’ He said,

(To kill your offspring for fear that he might share your food with you.) I said, `Then’ He said,

(To commit adultery with your neighbor’s wife.)” The Fifth Hadith Imam Ahmad recorded that `A’ishah asked the Messenger of Allah, “I have two neighbors, so whom among them should I give my gift” He said,

(The neighbor whose door is the closest to you.) Al-Bukhari narrated this Hadith We will elaborate on this subject in the Tafsir of Surah Bara’h, Allah willing and upon Him we depend.

Being Kind to Slaves and Servants

Allah said,

(and those (slaves) whom your right hands possess,) this is an order to be kind to them because they are weak, being held as captives by others. An authentic Hadith records that during the illness that preceded his death, the Messenger of Allah continued advising his Ummah:

((Protect) the prayer, (protect) the prayer, and (those slaves) whom your hands possess.) He was repeating it until his tongue was still. Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Miqdam bin Ma`dykarib said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(What you feed yourself is a Sadaqah (charity) for you, what you feed your children is Sadaqah for you, what you feed your wife is Sadaqah for you and what you feed your servant is Sadaqah for you.) An-Nasa’i recorded this Hadith which has an authentic chain of narration, all the thanks are due to Allah. `Abdullah bin `Amr said to a caretaker of his, “Did you give the slaves their food yet” He said, “No.” Ibn `Amr said, “Go and give it to them, for the Messenger of Allah said,

(It is enough sin for someone to prevent whomever he is responsible for from getting their food. )” Muslim recorded this Hadith. Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet said,

(The slave has the right to have food, clothing and to only be required to perform what he can bear of work.) Muslim also recorded this Hadith. Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet said,

(When your servant brings meals to one of you, if he does not let him sit and share the meal, then he should at least give him a mouthful or two mouthfuls of that meal or a meal or two, for he has prepared it.) This is the wording collected by Al-Bukhari.

Allah Does Not Like the Arrogant

Allah said,

(Verily, Allah does not like such as are proud and boastful.) meaning, one who is proud and arrogant, insolent and boasts to others. He thinks that he is better than other people, thus thinking high of himself, even though he is insignificant to Allah and hated by people. Mujahid said that Allah’s statement,

(Verily, Allah does not like such as are proud) means arrogant, while,

(boastful) means boasting about what he has, while he does not thank Allah. This Ayah indicates that such a person boasts with people about the bounty that Allah has given him, but he is actually ungrateful to Allah for this bounty. Ibn Jarir recorded that `Abdullah bin Waqid Abu Raja’ Al-Harawi said, “You will find that those who are mean are also proud and boasting. He then recited,

(and those (slaves) whom your right hands possess,) You will find that he who is undutiful (to parents) is also arrogant, and deprived. He then recited,

(And dutiful to my mother, and made me not arrogant, deprived.) Once a man asked the Prophet, “O Messenger of Allah, advise me.’ The Prophet said,

(Avoid lengthening the dress (below the ankles), for this practice is from arrogance. Verily, Allah does not like arrogance.)”

(37. Those who are stingy and encourage people to be stingy and hide what Allah has bestowed upon them of His bounties. And We have prepared for the disbelievers a disgraceful torment.) (38. And (also) those who spend of their wealth to be seen of men, and believe not in Allah and the Last Day, and whoever takes Shaytan as an intimate; then what a dreadful intimate he has!) (39. And what loss have they if they had believed in Allah and in the Last Day, and they spend out of what Allah has given them for sustenamce And Allah is Ever All-Knower of them.)

The Censure of Stingy Behavior

Allah chastises the stingy behavior of those who refuse to spend their money for what Allah ordered them, such as being kind to parents and compassionate to relatives, orphans, the poor, the relative who is also a neighbor, the companion during travel, the needy wayfarer, the slaves and servants. Such people do not give Allah’s right from their wealth, and they assist in the spread of stingy behavior. The Messenger of Allah said,

(What disease is more serious than being stingy) He also said,

(Beware of being stingy, for it destroyed those who were before you, as it encouraged them to cut their relations and they did, and it encouraged them to commit sin and they did.) Allah said,

(and hide what Allah has bestowed upon them of His bounties,) Therefore, the miser is ungrateful for Allah’s favor, for its effect does not appear on him, whether in his food, clothes or what he gives. Similarly, Allah said,

(Verily, man is ungrateful to his Lord. And to that he bears witness.) by his manners and conduct,

(And verily, he is violent in the love of wealth.) Allah said,

(and hide what Allah has bestowed upon them of His bounties) and this is why He threatened them,

(And We have prepared for the disbelievers a disgraceful torment.) Kufr means to cover something. Therefore, the Bakhil (miser) covers the favors that Allah has blessed him with, meaning he does not spread those favors. So he is described by the term Kafir (ungrateful) regarding the favors that Allah granted him. A Hadith states that,

(When Allah grants a servant a favor, He likes that its effect appears on him.) Some of the Salaf stated that this Ayah ﴿4:37﴾ is describing the Jews who hid the knowledge they had about the description of Muhammad, and there is no doubt that the general meaning of the Ayah includes this. The apparent wording for this Ayah indicates that it is talking about being stingy with money, even though miserly conduct with knowledge is also included. The Ayah talks about spending on relatives and the weak, just as the Ayah after it,

(And (also) those who spend of their wealth to be seen of men, ) Allah first mentions the punished misers who do not spend, then He mentions those who spend to show off to gain the reputation that they are generous, not for the Face of Allah. A Hadith states that the first three persons on whom the fire will feed are a scholar, a fighter and a spender who shows off with their actions. For instance,

(The wealthy will say, “I did not leave any area that You like to be spent on, but I spent on it in Your cause.” Allah will say, “You lie, you only did that so that it is said, `He is generous.’ And it was said…”) meaning you acquired your reward in the life, and this is indeed what you sought with your action. This is why Allah said,

(and believe not in Allah and the Last Day,) meaning, it is Shaytan who lured them to commit this evil action, instead of performing the good deed as it should be performed. Shaytan encouraged, excited and lured them by making the evil appear good,

(And whoever takes Shaytan as an intimate; then what a dreadful intimate he has!) Allah then said,

(And what loss have they if they had believed in Allah and in the Last Day, and they spend out of what Allah has given them for sustenance) This Ayah means, what harm would it cause them if they believe in Allah, go on the righteous path, replace showing off with sincerity, have faith in Allah, and await His promise in the Hereafter, for those who do good and spend what He has given them on what He likes and is pleased with. Allah’s statement:

(And Allah is Ever All-Knower of them.) means, He has perfect knowledge of their intentions, whether good or evil. Indeed, Allah knows those who deserve success, and He grants them success and guidance, directing them to perform righteous actions that will earn them His pleasure. He also knows those who deserve failure and expulsion from His great mercy, which amounts to utter failure in this life and the Hereafter for them, we seek refuge in Allah from this evil end.

(40. Surely! Allah wrongs not even of the weight of a speck of dust, but if there is any good (done), He doubles it, and gives from Him a great reward.) (41. How (will it be) then, when We bring from each nation a witness and We bring you (O Muhammad) as a witness against these people) (42. On that day those who disbelieved and disobeyed the Messenger will wish that they were buried in the earth, but they will never be able to hide a single fact from Allah.)

Allah Wrongs Not Even the Weight of a Speck of Dust

Allah states that He does not treat any of His servants with injustice on the Day of Resurrection, be it the weight of a mustard seed or a speck of dust. Rather, Allah shall reward them for this action and multiply it, if it were a good deed. For instance, Allah said,

(And We shall set up balances of justice) Allah said that Luqman said,

(O my son! If it be (anything) equal to the weight of a mustard seed, and though it be in a rock, or in the heavens or in the earth, Allah will bring it forth). Allah said,

(That Day mankind will proceed in scattered groups that they may be shown their deeds. So whosoever does good equal to the weight of a speck of dust shall see it. And whosoever does evil equal to the weight of a speck of dust shall see it.) The Two Sahihs recorded the long Hadith about the intercession that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri narrated, and in which the Messenger of Allah said,

(Allah then says, “Go back, and take out of the Fire everyone in whose heart you find the weight of a mustard seed of faith”) In another narration, Allah says, ??? ???:

(“Whosoever had the least, least, least speck of faith, take him out of the Fire,” and they will take out many people.) Abu Sa`id then said, “Read, if you will,

(Surely! Allah wrongs not even of the weight of a speck of dust).”

Will Punishment be Diminished for the Disbelievers

Sa`id bin Jubayr commented about Allah’s statement,

(but if there is any good (done), He doubles it,) “As for the disbeliever, his punishment will be lessened for him on the Day of Resurrection, but he will never depart the Fire.” He used as evidence the authentic Hadith in which Al-`Abbas said, “O Messenger of Allah! Your uncle Abu Talib used to protect and support you, did you benefit him at all” The Messenger said,

(Yes. He is in a shallow area in Hell-fire, and were it not for me, he would have been in the deepest depths of the Fire.) However, this Hadith only applies to Abu Talib, not the rest of the disbelievers. To support this, we mention what Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded in his Musnad that Anas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Allah does not wrong the faithful even concerning one good action, for he will be rewarded for it by provision in this life and awarded for it in the Hereafter. As for the disbeliever, he will be provided provision in this life for his good action, and on the Day of Resurrection, he will not have any good deed.)

What Does `Great Reward’ Mean

Abu Hurayrah, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak said that Allah’s statement,

(and gives from Him a great reward.) refers to Paradise. We ask Allah for His pleasure and Paradise. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu `Uthman An-Nahdi said, “No other person accompanied Abu Hurayrah more than I. One year, he went to Hajj before me, and I found the people of Al-Basrah saying that he narrated that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

(Allah rewards the good deed with a million deeds.) So I said, `Woe to you! No person accompanied Abu Hurayrah more than I, and I never heard him narrate this Hadith!’ When I wanted to meet him, I found that he had left for Hajj so I followed him to Hajj to ask him about this Hadith.” Ibn Abi Hatim also recorded this Hadith using another chain of narration leading to Abu `Uthman. In this narration, Abu `Uthman said, “I said, `O Abu Hurayrah! I heard my brethren in Al-Basrah claim that you narrated that you heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

(Allah rewards the good deed with a million deeds.) Abu Hurayrah said, `By Allah! I heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

(Allah rewards the good deed with two million deeds.) He then recited this Ayah,

(But little is the enjoyment of the life of this world as compared to the Hereafter).”

Our Prophet will be a Witness Against, or For his Ummah on the Day of Resurrection, When the Disbelievers Will Wish for Death

Allah said,

(How (will it be) then, when We bring from each nation a witness and We bring you (O Muhammad) as a witness against these people) Allah describes the horrors, hardships and difficulties of the Day of Resurrection, saying, how would it be on that Day when there will be a witness from every nation, meaning the Prophets, just as Allah said;

(And the earth will shine with the light of its Lord, and the Book will be placed (open); and the Prophets and the witnesses will be brought forward), and,

(And (remember) the Day when We shall raise up from every nation a witness against them from amongst themselves). Al-Bukhari recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, “The Messenger of Allah said to me, `Recite to me.’ I said, `O Messenger of Allah! Should I recite (the Qur’an) to you, while it was revealed to you’ He said, `Yes, for I like to hear it from other people.’ I recited Surat An-Nisa’ until I reached this Ayah,

(How (will it be) then, when We bring from each nation a witness and We bring you (O Muhammad) as a witness against these people) He then said, `Stop now.’ I found that his eyes were tearful.” Allah’s statement,

(On that day those who disbelieved and disobeyed the Messenger will wish that they were buried in the earth, but they will never be able to hide a single fact from Allah.) means, they will wish that the earth would open up and swallow them because of the horror of the gathering place and the disgrace, dishonor and humiliation they will suffer on that Day. This is similar to Allah’s statement,

(The Day when man will see that (the deeds) which his hands have sent forth) Allah then said,

(but they will never be able to hide a single fact from Allah.) indicating that they will admit to everything they did and will not hide any of it. `Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Sa`id bin Jubayr said, “A man came to Ibn `Abbas and said to him, `There are things that confuse me in the Qur’an.’ Ibn `Abbas said, `What things do you have doubts about in the Qur’an’ He said, `Not doubts, but rather confusing things.’ Ibn `Abbas said, `Tell me what caused you confusion.’ He said, `I hear Allah’s statement,

(There will then be no test for them but to say: “By Allah, our Lord, we were not those who joined others in worship with Allah.”) but He also says,

(but they will never be able to hide a single fact from Allah.) They have indeed hid something.’ Ibn `Abbas said, `As for Allah’s statement,

(There will then be no test for them but to say: “By Allah, our Lord, we were not those who joined others in worship with Allah.”), when they see that on the Day of Resurrection that Allah does not forgive, except for the people of Islam, and that He forgives the sins, no matter how big they are, except Shirk, then the Mushriks will lie. They will say,

(“By Allah, our Lord, we were not those who joined others in worship with Allah.”), hoping that Allah will forgive them. However, Allah will then seal their mouths, and their hands and feet will disclose what they used to do. Then,

(those who disbelieved and disobeyed the Messenger will wish that they were buried in the earth, but they will never be able to hide a single fact from Allah. )”’

(43. O you who believe! Do not approach Salah while you are in a druken state until you know what you are saying, nor while Junub (sexually impure), except while passing through, until you bathe (your entire body), and if you are ill, or on a journey, or one of you comes from the Gha’it (toilet), or from Lamastum (touching) women, but you do not find water, then perform Tayammum with clean earth, rubbing your faces and hands. Truly, Allah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving.)

The Prohibition of Approaching Prayer When Drunk or Junub

Allah forbade His believing servants from praying while drunk, for one does not know the meaning of what he is saying in that state, and He forbade them from attending the Masjids while sexually impure, except when one is just passing through the Masjid from one door to another. This Ayah was revealed before alcohol consumption was completely prohibited, as evident by the Hadith that we mentioned in Surat Al-Baqarah when we explained Allah’s statement,

(They ask you about alcoholic drink and gambling). In that Hadith, the Messenger of Allah recited this Ayah to `Umar, who said, “O Allah! Explain the ruling about Khamr (intoxicants) for us in a plain manner.” When this Ayah ﴿4:43﴾ was revealed, the Prophet recited it to `Umar, who still said, “O Allah! Explain the ruling about Khamr (intoxicants) for us in a plain manner.” After that, they would not drink alcohol close to the time of prayer. When Allah’s statement,

(O you who believe! alcoholic drinks, gambling, Al-Ansab, and Al-Azlam are an abomination of Shayatan’s handiwork. So avoid that in order that you may be successful. ) ﴿5:90﴾, until,

(So, will you not then abstain) ﴿5:91﴾ was revealed, `Umar said, “We abstain, we abstain.” In another narration, when the Ayah in Surat An-Nisa’ was revealed,

(O you who believe! Do not approach Salah while you are in a druken state until you know what you are saying,) at the time of prayer, the Messenger of Allah would have someone proclaim; “Let not any drunk approach the prayer.” This is the wording collected by Abu Dawud.

Causes of Its Revelation

Ibn Abi Hatim has recorded some reports about the incident of its revelation: Sa`d said, “Four Ayat were revealed concerning me. A man from the Ansar once made some food and invited some Muhajirin and Ansar men to it, and we ate and drank until we became intoxicated. We then boasted about our status.” Then a man held a camel’s bone and injured Sa`d’s nose, which was scarred ever since. This occurred before Al-Khamr was prohibited, and Allah later revealed,

(O you who believe! Approach not AsSalat (the prayer) when you are in a drunken state). Muslim recorded this Hadith, and the collectors of the Sunan recorded it, with the exception of Ibn Majah. Another Reason Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that `Ali bin Abi Talib said, “Abdur-Rahman bin `Awf made some food to which he invited us and served some alcohol to drink. When we became intoxicated, and the time for prayer came, they asked someone to lead us in prayer. He recited `Say, `O disbelievers! I do not worship that which you worship, but we worship that which you worship ﴿refer to the correct wording of the Surah: 109﴾.”’ Allah then revealed,

(O you who believe! Do not approach Salah when you are in a drunken state until you know what you are saying). ” This is the narration collected by Ibn Abi Hatim and At-Tirmidhi, who said “Hasan ﴿Gharib﴾ Sahih.” Allah’s statement,

(until you know what you are saying) is the best description for when one is intoxicated, that is, when he does not know the meaning of what he is saying. When a person is drunk, he makes obvious mistakes in the recitation and will not be able to be humble during the prayer. Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(If one feels sleepy while he is praying, let him sleep for a while so that he knows the meaning of what he is saying.) This was also recorded by Al-Bukhari and An-Nasa’i. In some of the narrations of this Hadith, the Messenger said,

(…For he might want to ask for forgiveness, but instead curses himself!) Allah said,

(nor while Junub (sexually impure), except while passing through, until you bathe (your entire body),) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that Allah’s statement,

(nor while Junub (sexually impure), except while passing through, until you bathe (your entire body,) means, “Do not enter the Masjid when you are Junub, unless you are just passing by, in which case, you pass through without sitting down.” Ibn Abi Hatim said that similar is reported from `Abdullah bin Mas`ud, Anas, Abu `Ubaydah, Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib, Abu Ad-Duha, `Ata’, Mujahid, Masruq, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Zayd bin Aslam, Abu Malik, `Amr bin Dinar, Al-Hakam bin `Utaybah, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Yahya bin Sa`id Al-Ansari, Ibn Shihab and Qatadah. Ibn Jarir recorded that Yazid bin Abi Habib commented on Allah’s statement,

(nor while Junub (sexually impure), except while passing through,) when some men from the Ansar, whose doors literally opened into the Masjid, were sexually impure, and they did not have water, their only way to get water was to pass through the Masjid. So, Allah sent down,

(nor while Junub (sexually impure), except while passing through,).” What supports this statement by Yazid bin Abi Habib, may Allah have mercy upon him, is Al-Bukhari’s report in his Sahih, that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Close all the small doors in this Masjid, except that of Abu Bakr.) This is what the Prophet commanded at the end of his life, knowing that Abu Bakr will be the Khalifah after him, and that he would need to enter the Masjid on numerous occasions to manage the important affairs of the Muslims. Yet, the Messenger of Allah commanded that all the small doors that open into the Masjid be closed, except Abu Bakr’s door. Some of the Sunan compilers recorded the Prophet saying that only `Ali’s door should remain open, but this is an error, what is in the Sahih is what is correct. In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that `A’ishah said, “The Messenger of Allah said to me,

(Bring me the garment from the Masjid.) I said, `I am having my period.’ He said,

(Your period is not in your hand.) Muslim also collected a similar narration from Abu Hurayrah. This Hadith indicates that the woman is allowed to pass through the Masjid during menses or post-natal bleeding, and Allah knows best.

Description of Tayammum

Allah said,

(and if you are ill, or on a journey, or one of you comes from the Gha’it (toilet), or from Lamastum (touching) women, but you do not find water, then perform Tayammum with clean earth, rubbing your face and hands. Truly, Allah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving.) As for the type of illness which would allow Tayammum, it is an illness that one fears would be aggravated by using water, which could be detrimental to a part of the body, or when doing so would prolong an illness. Some scholars said that any type of illness warrants Tayammum, because of the general indications of the Ayah. As for travelling on a journey, it is known, regardless of its length. Allah then said,

(or comes from the Gha’it). The Gha’it is, literally, the flat land, and this part of the Ayah refers to the minor impurity. Allah then said,

(or you Lamastum women), which was recited Lamastum and Lamastum, referring to sexual intercourse. For instance, Allah said in another Ayah,

(And if you divorce them before you have touched them, and you have appointed unto them the dowry, then pay half of that) ﴿2:237﴾, and,

(O you who believe! When you marry believing women, and then divorce them before you have touched them, no `Iddah (period of waiting) have you to count in respect of them) ﴿33:49﴾. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that Allah’s statement,

(or Lamastum women) refers to sexual intercourse. It was reported that `Ali, Ubayy bin Ka`b, Mujahid, Tawus, Al-Hasan, `Ubayd bin `Umayr, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Ash-Sha`bi, Qatadah and Muqatil bin Hayyan said similarly. Allah said,

(but you do not find water,them perform Tayammum with clean earth,) In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that `Imran bin Husayn said, ?? ???? ???? ??? ???? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ????:

???: ???? ?? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ???:

(Allah’s Messenger saw a person sitting away from the people and not praying with them. He asked him, `O so-and-so! What prevented you from offering the prayer with the people, are not you Muslim’ He replied, `Yes, O Allah’s Messenger! I am Junub and there is no water.’ The Prophet said, `Perform Tayammum with clean earth and that will be sufficient for you.’) The linguistic meaning of Tayammum is to intend, as Arabs say, “May Allah Tayammamaka (direct at you) His care.” `Clean earth’ means dust. In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Hudhayfah bin Al-Yaman said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(We were given preference over people in three things. Our lines (in prayer) were arranged in rows to resemble the rows of the angels, all of the earth was made a Masjid for us, and its dust was made clean for us when there is no water.) The Messenger mentioned the favor of making dust a purifyer for us, and if there were any other substance to replace it for Tayammum, he would have mentioned it. Imam Ahmad and the collectors of Sunan, with the exception of Ibn Majah, recorded that Abu Dharr said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Clean earth is pure for the Muslim, even if he does not find water for ten years. When he finds water, let him use it for his skin, for this is better.) At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih”. Allah’s statement,

(rubbing your faces and hands (Tayammum)) indicates that Tayammum is a substitute for normal ablution, not that it involves cleaning the parts that normal ablution does. Therefore, it is sufficient in Tayammum to just wipe the face and hands, as the consensus concurs. The face and hands are wiped with one strike on the sand in this case, as Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdur-Rahman bin Abza said that a man came to `Umar and asked him, “I am Junub, but there is no water.” `Umar said, “Then, do not pray.” `Ammar said, “Do you not remember, O Leader of the Faithful! You and I were on a military expedition when we became Junub and did not find water. You did not pray, but I rolled myself in the sand and then prayed. When we went back to the Prophet, we mentioned to him what had happened. He said to me, S

(This would have been sufficient for you), and the Prophet stroked his hand on the earth once, blew into it and wiped his face and hands.” The Muslim Ummah, rather than all other nations, was favored with the allowance of Tayammum. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

??? ???:

(I have been given five things which were not given to any (Prophet) before me: Allah made me victorious with fright that covers a month’s distance. The earth has been made for me (and for my followers) a place for praying and an object to perform purification with. Therefore let my followers pray wherever the time of a prayer is due – and in another narration – he will have his means of purity and his Masjid. The spoils of war have been made lawful for me and it was not made so for anyone else before me. I have been given the right of intercession (on the Day of Resurrection.) Every Prophet used to be sent to his nation exclusively, but I have been sent to all mankind.) We also mentioned the Hadith of Hudhayfah that Muslim recorded;

(We were preferred with three things over people. Our lines (in prayer) were arranged in rows to resemble the rows of the angels, all of the earth was made a Masjid for us, and its dust was made clean for us when there is no water.) Allah said in this Ayah,

(rubbing your faces and hands. Truly, Allah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving.) meaning, a part of His pardoning and forgiving is that He allows you to use Tayammum and to pray after using it when there is no water, to make things easy for you. This Ayah sanctifies the position of the prayer, it being too sacred than to be performed in a defecient manner, like in a state of drunkenness, until one becomes aware of what he is saying, or sexually impure, until he bathes (Ghusl), or after answering the call of nature, until he performs ablution. There are exceptions when one is ill or when there is no water. In this case, Allah allows us to use Tayammum, out of His mercy and kindness for His servants, and to facilitate them, all praise is due to Allah.

The Reason behind allowing Tayammum

Al-Bukhari recorded that `A’ishah said, “We set out with Allah’s Messenger on one of his journeys until we reached Al-Bayda’ or Dhat-ul-Jaysh, where a necklace of mine was broken (and lost). Allah’s Messenger stayed there to search for it, and so did the people along with him. There was no water source or any water with them at that place, so the people went to Abu Bakr As-Siddiq and said, `Don’t you see what `A’ishah has done! She has made Allah’s Messenger and the people stay where there is no source of water and they have no water with them.’ Abu Bakr came while Allah’s Messenger was sleeping with his head on my thigh. He said to me, `You have detained Allah’s Messenger and the people where there is no source of water and they have no water with them.’ So he admonished me and said what Allah wished him to say and hit me on my flank with his hand. Nothing prevented me from moving (because of pain) but the position of Allah’s Messenger on my thigh. Allah’s Messenger got up when dawn broke and there was no water. So Allah revealed the verses of Tayammum, and they all performed Tayammum. Usayd bin Hudayr said, `O the family of Abu Bakr! This is not the first blessing of yours.’ Then the camel on which I was riding was moved from its place and the necklace was found beneath it.” Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded this Hadith.

(44. Have you not seen those (the Jews) who were given a portion of the Book, purchasing the wrong path, and wishing that you should go astray from the right path.) (45. Allah has full knowledge of your enemies, and Allah is sufficient as a Wali (Protector), and Allah is sufficient as a Helper.) (46. Among those who are Jews, there are some who displace words from (their) right places and say: “We hear your word and disobey,” and “Hear and let you hear nothing.” And Ra`ina with a twist of their tongues and as a mockery of the religion. And if only they had said: “We hear and obey”, and “Do make us understand,” it would have been better for them, and more proper; but Allah has cursed them for their disbelief, so they believe not except a few.)

Chastising the Jews for Choosing Misguidance, Altering Allah’s Words, and Mocking Islam

Allah states that the Jews, may Allah’s continued curse fall on them until the Day of Resurrection, have purchased the wrong path instead of guidance, and ignored what Allah sent down to His Messenger Muhammad . They also ignored the knowledge that they inherited from previous Prophets, about the description of Muhammad , so that they may have a small amount of the delights of this life.

(and wishing that you should go astray from the right path.) for they would like that you disbelieve in what was sent down to you, O believers, and that you abandon the guidance and beneficial knowledge that you have.

(Allah has full knowledge of your enemies) meaning, Allah has better knowledge of your enemies, and He warns you against them.

(and Allah is sufficient as a Wali (Protector), and Allah is Sufficient as a Helper) He is a Sufficient Protector for those who seek refuge with Him and a Sufficient Supporter for those who seek His help. Allah then said,

(there are some who displace words from (their) right places) meaning, they intentionally and falsely alter the meanings of the Words of Allah and explain them in a different manner than what Allah meant,

(And say: “We hear your word and disobey) saying, “We hear what you say, O Muhammad, but we do not obey you in it,” as Mujahid and Ibn Zayd explained. This is the implied meaning of the Ayah, and it demonstrates the Jews’ disbelief, stubbornness and disregard for Allah’s Book after they understood it, all the while aware of the sin and punishment that this behavior will earn for them. Allah’s statement,

(And “Hear and let you hear nothing.”) means, hear our words, may you never hear anything, as Ad-Dahhak reported from Ibn `Abbas. This is the Jews’ way of mocking and jesting, may Allah’s curse descend on them.

(And Ra`ina, with a twist of their tongues and as a mockery of the religion.) meaning, they pretend to say, `Hear us,’ when they say, Ra`ina (an insult in Hebrew, but in Arabic it means `Listen to us.’).’ Yet, their true aim is to curse the Prophet . We mentioned this subject when we explained Allah’s statement,

(O you who believe! Say not Ra`ina but say Unzurna (make us understand)). Therefore, Allah said about them, while they pretend to say other than what they truly mean,

(With a twist of their tongues and as a mockery of the religion) because of their cursing the Prophet . Allah then said,

(And if only they had said: “We hear and obey”, and “Do make us understand,” it would have been better for them, and more proper; but Allah has cursed them for their disbelief, so they believe not except a few.) meaning, their hearts are cast away from the path of righteousness and therefore, no beneficial part of faith enters it. Earlier, when we explained,

(so little is that which they believe) which means they do not have beneficial faith.

(47. O you who have been given the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Believe in what We have revealed confirming what is with you, before We efface faces and turn them backwards or curse them as We cursed the people of the Sabbath. And the commandment of Allah is always executed.) (48. Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him (in worship), but He forgives except that to whom He wills; and whoever sets up partners with Allah in worship, he has indeed invented a tremendous sin.)

Calling the People of the Book to Embrace the Faith, Warning them Against Doing Otherwise

Allah commands the People of the Scriptures to believe in what He has sent down to His servant and Messenger, Muhammad , the Glorious Book that conforms to the good news that they already have about Muhammad . He also warns them,

(before We efface faces and turn them backwards) Al-`Awfi said that Ibn `Abbas said that `effacing’ here refers to blindness,

(and turn them backwards) meaning, We put their faces on their backs, and make them walk backwards, since their eyes will be in their backs. Similar was said by Qatadah and `Atiyah Al-`Awfi. This makes the punishment even more severe, and it is a parable that Allah set for ignoring the truth, preferring the wrong way and turning away from the plain path for the paths of misguidance. Therefore, such people walk backwards. Similarly, some said that Allah’s statement,

(Verily, We have put on their necks iron collars reaching to the chins, so that their heads are raised up. And We have put a barrier before them) that is a parable that Allah gave for their deviation and hindrance from guidance.

Ka`b Al-Ahbar Embraces Islam Upon Hearing this Ayah [4:47]

It was reported that Ka`b Al-Ahbar became Muslim when he heard this Ayah ﴿4:47﴾. Ibn Jarir recorded that `Isa bin Al-Mughirah said: We were with Ibrahim when we talked about the time when Ka`b became Muslim. He said, `Ka`b became Muslim during the reign of `Umar, for he passed by Al-Madinah intending to visit Jerusalem, and `Umar said to him, “Embrace Islam, O Ka`b.’ Ka`b said, `Do you not read in your Book,

(The likeness of those who were entrusted with the Tawrah…) ﴿62:5﴾ until,

(Books) I am among those who were entrusted with the Tawrah.’ `Umar left him alone and Ka`b went on to Hims (in Syria) and heard one of its inhabitants recite this Ayah while feeling sad,

(O you who have been given the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Believe in what We have revealed confirming what is with you, before We efface faces and turn them backwards). Ka`b said, `I believe, O Lord! I embraced Islam, O Lord!’ for He feared that this might be struck by this threat. He then went back to his family in Yemen and returned with them all as Muslims.” Allah’s statement,

(or curse them as We cursed the people of the Sabbath.) refers to those who breached the sanctity of the Sabbath, using deceit, for the purpose of doing more work. Allah changed these people into apes and swine, as we will come to know in the explanation of Surat Al-A`raf (7). Allah’s statement,

(And the commandment of Allah is always executed.) means, when He commands something, then no one can dispute or resist His command.

Allah Does not Forgive Shirk, Except After Repenting From it

Allah said that He,

(forgives not that partners should be set up with Him (in worship),) meaning, He does not forgive a servant if he meets Him while he is associating partners with Him,

(but He forgives except that) of sins,

(to whom He wills) of His servants. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Dharr said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Allah said, “O My servant! As long as you worship and beg Me, I will forgive you, no matter your shortcomings. O My servant! If you meet Me with the earth’s fill of sin, yet you do not associate any partners with Me, I will meet you with its fill of forgiveness.”) Only Ahmad recorded this Hadith with this chain of narration. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Dharr said, “I came to the Messenger of Allah and he said,

???:??? ??? ??? ???? ???:

. ???: ??? ??? ??? ???? ???:

? ?? ??? ?? ???????:

(“No servant proclaims,`There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah,’ and dies on that belief, but will enter Paradise.” I said, “Even if he committed adultery and theft” He said, “Even if he committed adultery and theft.” I asked again, “Even if he committed adultery and theft” He said, “Even if he committed adultery and theft.” The fourth time, he said, “Even if Abu Dharr’s nose was put in the dust.”) Abu Dharr departed while pulling his Izar and saying, “Even if Abu Dharr’s nose was put in the dust.” Ever since that happened, Abu Dharr used to narrate the Hadith and then comment, “Even if Abu Dharr’s nose was put in dust.” The Two Sahihs recorded this Hadith Al-Bazzar recorded that Ibn `Umar said, “We used to refrain from begging (Allah) for forgiveness for those who commit major sins until we heard our Prophet reciting,

(Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him (in worship), but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He wills;), and his saying,

(I have reserved my intercession on the Day of Resurrection for those among my Ummah who commit major sins.)” Allah’s statement,

(and whoever sets up partners with Allah in worship, he has indeed invented a tremendous sin.) is similar to His statement,

(Verily, joining others in worship with Allah is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed.) In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said, “I said, `O Messenger of Allah! Which is the greatest sin’ He said,

(To make a rival with Allah, while He Alone created you.)”

(49. Have you not seen those who claim sanctity for themselves Nay, but Allah sanctifies whom He wills, and they will not be dealt with injustice even equal to the extent of a Fatil.) (50. Look, how they invent a lie against Allah, and enough is that as a manifest sin.) (51. Have you not seen those who were given a portion of the Scripture They believe in Jibt and Taghut and say to those who disbelieve, “These people are better guided on the way, ” than the believers.) (52. They are those whom Allah has cursed, and he whom Allah curses, you will not find for him (any) helper.)

Chastising and Cursing the Jews for Claiming Purity for Themselves and Believing in Jibt and Taghut

Al-Hasan and Qatadah said, “This Ayah,

(Have you not seen those who claim sanctity for themselves) was revealed about the Jews and Christians when they said, `We are Allah’s children and His loved ones.”’ Ibn Zayd also said, “This Ayah was revealed concerning their statement,

(We are the children of Allah and His loved ones) and their statement,

(None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian).” This is why Allah said,

(Nay, but Allah sanctifies whom He wills,) meaning, the decision in this matter is with Allah Alone, because He has perfect knowledge of the true reality and secrets of all things. Allah then said,

(And they will not be dealt with injustice even equal to the extent of a Fatil, ) meaning, He does no injustice with anyone’s compensation in any part of his reward, even if it was the weight of a Fatil. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, `Ata’, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and others among the Salaf said that Fatil means, “The scalish thread in the long slit of the date-stone.” Allah said,

(Look, how they invent a lie against Allah,) claiming purity for themselves, their claim that they are Allah’s children and His loved ones, their statement;

(None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian) their statement;

(The Fire shall not touch us but for a number of days) and their reliance on the righteous deeds of their forefathers. Allah has decreed that the good actions of the fathers do not help the children, when He said,

(That was a nation who has passed away. They shall receive the reward of what they earned and you of what you earn). Allah then said,

(and enough is that as a manifest sin. ) meaning, these lies and fabrications of theirs are sufficent. Allah’s statement,

(Have you not seen those who were given a portion of the Scripture They believe in Jibt and Taghut). Muhammad bin Ishaq said from Hassan bin Fa’id that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, “Jibt is sorcery and Taghut is the Shaytan.” Abu Nasr Isma`il bin Hammad Al-Jawhari, the renowned scholar, said in his book As-Sihah, “Al-Jibt means idol, soothsayer and sorcerer.” Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah was asked about Taghut, and he said, “They are soothsayers upon whom the devils descend.” Mujahid said “Taghut is a devil in the shape of man, and they refer to him for judgment.” Imam Malik said, “Taghut is every object that is worshipped instead of Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored.”

Disbelievers Are not Better Guided Than Believers

Allah said,

(and say to those who disbelieve, “These people are better guided on the way,” than the believers.) preferring the disbelievers over Muslims, because of their ignorance, un-religious nature and disbelief in Allah’s Book which is before them. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Ikrimah said, “Huyay bin Akhtab and Ka`b bin Al-Ashraf (two Jewish leaders) came to the people of Makkah, who said to them, `You (Jews) are people of the Book and knowledge, so judge us and Muhammad.’ They said, `Describe yourselves and describe Muhammad.’ They said, `We keep relation with kith and kin, slaughter camels (for the poor), release the indebted and provide water for the pilgrims. As for Muhammad he is without male children, he severed our relations, and the thieves who rob pilgrims (the tribe of) Ghifar follow him. So who is better, we or him’ They said, `You are more righteous and better guided.’ Thereafter, Allah sent down,

(Have you not seen those who were given a portion).” This story was also reported from Ibn `Abbas and several others among the Salaf. Allah’s Curse on the Jews This Ayah ﴿4:52﴾ contains a curse for the Jews and informs them that they have no supporter in this life or the Hereafter, because they sought the help of the idolators. They uttered this statement ﴿in Ayah 4:51﴾ to lure the disbelievers into supporting them, and they ultimately gathered their forces for the battle of Al-Ahzab, forcing the Prophet and his Companions to dig a defensive tunnel around Al-Madinah. But, Allah saved the Muslims from their evil,

(And Allah drove back those who disbelieved in their rage, they gained no advantage (booty). Allah sufficed for the believers in the fighting. And Allah is Ever All-Strong, All-Mighty).

(53. Or have they a share in the dominion Then in that case they would not give mankind even a Naqir.) (54. Or do they envy men for what Allah has given them of His bounty Then, We have already given the family of Ibrahim the Book and Al-Hikmah, and conferred upon them a great kingdom.) (55. Of them were (some) who believed in it, and of them were (some) who rejected it; and enough is Hell for burning (them).)

The Envy and Miserly Conduct of the Jews

Allah asked the Jews if they have a share in the dominion. That is merely a statement of rebuke, since they do not have any share in the dominion. Allah then described them as misers,

(Then in that case they would not give mankind even a Naqir.) Meaning, if they had a share in the sovereignty and dominion, they would not give anyone anything, especially Muhammad , even if it was the speck on the back of a date-stone, which is the meaning of Naqir according to Ibn `Abbas and the majority of the scholars. This Ayah is similar to another of Allah’s statements,

(Say: “If you possessed the treasure of the mercy of my Lord, then you would surely withold it out of fear of spending it.) meaning, for fear that what you have might end, although there is no such possibility here. This only demonstrates their greedy and stingy nature. This is why Allah said,

(And man is ever Qatur) meaning Bakhil (stingy). Allah then said,

(Or do they envy men for what Allah has given them of His Bounty) referring to their envy of the Prophet for the great prophethood that Allah entrusted him with. Their envy made them reject him, because he was an Arab and not from the Children of Israel. At-Tabarani recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that,

(Or do they envy men) means, “We are the worthy people, rather than the rest of the people.” Allah said,

(Then, We have already given the family of Ibrahim the Book and Al-Hikmah, and conferred upon them a great kingdom.) meaning, We gave the prophethood to the tribes of the Children of Israel, who are among the offspring of Ibrahim and sent down the Books to them. These Prophets ruled the Jews with the prophetic tradition, and We made kings among them. Yet,

(Of them were (some) who believed in it;) referring to Allah’s favor and bounty (Prophets, Books, kingship),

(and of them were (some) who rejected it) by disbelieving in it, ignoring it, and hindering the people from its path, although this bounty was from and for them, the Children of Israel. They disputed with their own Prophets; so what about you, O Muhammad , especially since you are not from the Children of Israel Mujahid said,

(Of them were (some) who believed in ﴿him﴾,) “Muhammad ,

(and of them were (some) who rejected ﴿him﴾.)” Therefore, O Muhammad, the rejection of you because of their disbelief is even more severe and they are even further from the truth that you brought them. This is why Allah threatened them,

(and enough is Hell for burning (them).), meaning, the Fire is a just punishment for them because of their disbelief, rebellion and defiance of Allah’s Books and Messengers.

(56. Surely, those who disbelieved in Our Ayat, We shall burn them in Fire. As often as their skins are roasted through, We shall change them for other skins that they may taste the punishment. Truly, Allah is Ever Most Powerful, All-Wise.) e(57. But those who believe and do deeds of righteousness, We shall admit them to Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise), abiding therein forever. Therein they shall have Azwajun Mutahharatun (purified mates), and We shall admit them to shades, wide and ever deepening.)

The Punishment of Those Who Disbelieve in Allah’s Books and Messengers

Allah describes the torment in the Fire of Jahannam for those who disbelieve in His Ayat and hinder from the path of His Messengers. Allah said,

(Surely, those who disbelieved in Our Ayat ,) meaning, We will place them in the Fire which will encompass every part of their bodies. Allah then states that their punishment and torment are everlasting,

(We shall burn them in Fire. As often as their skins are roasted through, We shall change them for other skins that they may taste the punishment). Al-A`mash said that Ibn `Umar said, “When their skin are burned, they will be given another skin in replacement, and this skin will be as white as paper.” This was collected by Ibn Abi Hatim, who also recorded that Al-Hasan said,

(As often as their skins are roasted through,) “Their skin will be roasted through, seventy thousand times every day.” Husayn said; Fudayl added that Hisham said that Al-Hasan also said that,

(As often as their skins are roasted through, ) means, “Whenever the Fire has roasted them through and consumed their flesh, they will be told, `Go back as you were before,’ and they will.”

The Wealth of the Righteous; Paradise and its Joy

Allah said,

(But those who believe and do deeds of righteousness, We shall admit them to Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise), abiding therein forever.) describing the destination of the happy ones in the gardens of Eden, beneath which rivers flow in all of its areas, spaces and corners, wherever they desire and wish. They will reside in it for eternity, and they will not be transferred or removed from it, nor would they want to move from it. Allah said,

(Therein they shall have Azwajun Mutahharatun (purified mates),) free of menstruation, postnatal bleeding, filth, bad manners and shortcomings. Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah means, “They are purified of filth and foul things.” Similar was said by `Ata’, Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak, An-Nakha`i, Abu Salih, `Atiyah, and As-Suddi. Mujahid said that they are, free of urine, menstruation, spit, mucous and pregnancies.” Allah’s statement,

(And We shall admit them to shades, wide and ever deepening (Paradise).) means, wide, extensive, pure and elegant shade. Ibn Jarir recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,

(There is a tree in Paradise, that if a rider travels under its shade for a hundred years, he will not cross it. It is the Tree of Everlasting Life.)

(58. Verily, Allah commands that you should render back the trusts to those, to whom they are due; and that when you judge between men, you judge with justice. Verily, how excellent is the teaching which He (Allah) gives you! Truly, Allah is Ever All-Hearer, All-Seer.)

The Command to Return the Trusts to Whomever They Are Due

Allah commands that the trusts be returned to their rightful owners. Al-Hasan narrated that Samurah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Return the trust to those who entrusted you, and do not betray those who betrayed you.) Imam Ahmad and the collectors of Sunan recorded this Hadith. This command refers to all things that one is expected to look after, such as Allah’s rights on His servants: praying, Zakah, fasting, penalties for sins, vows and so forth. The command also includes the rights of the servants on each other, such as what they entrust each other with, including the cases that are not recorded or documented. Allah commands that all types of trusts be fulfillled. Those who do not implement this command in this life, it will be extracted from them on the Day of Resurrection. It is recorded in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The rights will be rendered back to those to whom they are due, and even the sheep that does not have horns will take revenge from the horned sheep.) Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn Jurayj said about this Ayah, “It was revealed concerning `Uthman bin Talhah from whom the Messenger of Allah took the key of the Ka`bah and entered it on the Day of the victory of Makkah. When the Prophet went out, he was reciting this Ayah,

(Verily, Allah commands that you should render back the trusts to those, to whom they are due). He then called `Uthman and gave the key back to him.” Ibn Jarir also narrated that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, “When the Messenger of Allah went out of the Ka`bah, he was reciting this Ayah,

(Verily, Allah commands that you should render back the trusts to those, to whom they are due). May I sacrifice my father and mother for him, I never heard him recite this Ayah before that.” It is popular that this is the reason behind revealing the Ayah (4:58). Yet, the application of the Ayah is general, and this is why Ibn `Abbas and Muhammad bin Al-Hanafiyyah said, “This Ayah is for the righteous and wicked,” meaning it is a command that encompasses everyone.

The Order to Be Just

Allah said,

(and that when you judge between men, you judge with justice.) commanding justice when judging between people. Muhammad bin Ka`b, Zayd bin Aslam and Shahr bin Hawshab said; “This Ayah was revealed about those in authority”, meaning those who judge between people. A Hadith states,

(Allah is with the judge as long as he does not commit injustice, for when he does, Allah will make him reliant on himself.) A statement goes, “One day of justice equals forty years of worship.” Allah said,

(Verily, how excellent is the teaching which He (Allah) gives you!) meaning, His commands to return the trusts to their owners, to judge between people with justice, and all of His complete, perfect and great commandments and laws. Allah’s statement,

(Truly, Allah is Ever All-Hearer, All-Seer.) means, He hears your statements and knows your actions.

(59. O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and those of you who are in authority. If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day. That is better and more suitable for final determination.)

The Necessity of Obeying the Rulers in Obedience to Allah

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah,

(Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and those of you who are in authority.) “Was revealed about `Abdullah bin Hudhafah bin Qays bin `Adi, who the Messenger of Allah sent on a military expedition.” This statement was collected by the Group, with the exception of Ibn Majah At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan, Gharib”. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Ali said, “The Messenger of Allah sent a troop under the command of a man from Al-Ansar. When they left, he became angry with them for some reason and said to them, `Has not the Messenger of Allah commanded you to obey me’ They said, `Yes.’ He said, `Collect some wood,’ and then he started a fire with the wood, saying, `I command you to enter the fire.’ The people almost entered the fire, but a young man among them said, `You only ran away from the Fire to Allah’s Messenger. Therefore, do not rush until you go back to Allah’s Messenger, and if he commands you to enter it, then enter it.’ When they went back to Allah’s Messenger , they told him what had happened, and the Messenger said,

(Had you entered it, you would never have departed from it. Obedience is only in righteousness.)” This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs. Abu Dawud recorded that `Abdullah bin `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The Muslim is required to hear and obey in that which he likes and dislikes, unless he was commanded to sin. When he is commanded with sin, then there is no hearing or obeying.) This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs. `Ubadah bin As-Samit said, “We gave our pledge to Allah’s Messenger to hear and obey (our leaders), while active and otherwise, in times of ease and times of difficulty, even if we were deprived of our due shares, and to not dispute this matter (leadership) with its rightful people. The Prophet said,

(Except when you witness clear Kufr about which you have clear proof from Allah.)” This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs. Another Hadith narrated by Anas states that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Hear and obey (your leaders), even if an Ethiopian slave whose head is like a raisin, is made your chief.) Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith. Umm Al-Husayn said that she heard the Messenger of Allah giving a speech during the Farewell Hajj, in which he said;

(Even if a slave was appointed over you, and he rules you with Allah’s Book, then listen to him and obey him.) Muslim recorded this Hadith. In another narration with Muslim, the Prophet said,

(Even if an Ethiopian slave, whose nose was mutilated…) In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Whoever obeys me, obeys Allah, and whoever disobeys me, disobeys Allah. Whoever obeys my commander, obeys me, and whoever disobeys my commander, disobeys me.) This is why Allah said,

(Obey Allah), adhere to His Book,

(and obey the Messenger), adhere to his Sunnah,

(And those of you who are in authority) in the obedience to Allah which they command you, not what constitutes disobedience of Allah, for there is no obedience to anyone in disobedience to Allah, as we mentioned in the authentic Hadith,

(Obedience is only in righteousness.)

The Necessity of Referring to the Qur’an and Sunnah for Judgment

Allah said,

((And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger). Mujahid and several others among the Salaf said that the Ayah means, “(Refer) to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger.” This is a command from Allah that whatever areas the people dispute about, whether major or minor areas of the religion, they are required to refer to the Qur’an and Sunnah for judgment concerning these disputes. In another Ayah, Allah said,

(And in whatsoever you differ, the decision thereof is with Allah). Therefore, whatever the Book and Sunnah decide and testify to the truth of, then it, is the plain truth. What is beyond truth, save falsehood This is why Allah said, u

(if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day.) meaning, refer the disputes and conflicts that arise between you to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger for judgment. Allah’s statement,

(if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day. ) indicates that those who do not refer to the Book and Sunnah for judgment in their disputes, are not believers in Allah or the Last Day. Allah said,

(That is better) meaning, referring to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger for judgment in various disputes is better,

(and more suitable for final determination.) meaning, “Has a better end and destination,” as As-Suddi and several others have stated while Mujahid said, “Carries a better reward.”

(60. Have you not seen those (hyprocrites) who claim that they believe in that which has been sent down to you, and that which was sent down before you, and they wish to go for judgment (in their disputes) to the Taghut while they have been ordered to reject them. But Shaytan wishes to lead them far astray. ) (61. And when it is said to them: “Come to what Allah has sent down and to the Messenger,” you see the hypocrites turn away from you with aversion.) (62. How then, when a catastrophe befalls them because of what their hands have sent forth, they come to you swearing by Allah, “We meant no more than goodwill and conciliation!”) (63. They (hypocrites) are those of whom Allah knows what is in their hearts; so turn aside from them (do not punish them) but admonish them, and speak to them an effective word to reach their inner selves.)

Referring to Other than the Qur’an and Sunnah for Judgment is Characteristic of Non-Muslims

Allah chastises those who claim to believe in what Allah has sent down to His Messenger and to the earlier Prophets, yet they refer to other than the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger for judgment in various disputes. It was reported that the reason behind revealing this Ayah was that a man from the Ansar and a Jew had a dispute, and the Jew said, “Let us refer to Muhammad to judge between us.” However, the Muslim man said, “Let us refer to Ka`b bin Al-Ashraf (a Jew) to judge between us.” It was also reported that the Ayah was revealed about some hypocrites who pretended to be Muslims, yet they sought to refer to the judgment of Jahiliyyah. Other reasons were also reported behind the revelation of the Ayah. However, the Ayah has a general meaning, as it chastises all those who refrain from referring to the Qur’an and Sunnah for judgment and prefer the judgment of whatever they chose of falsehood, which befits the description of Taghut here. This is why Allah said,

(and they wish to go for judgment to the Taghut) until the end of the Ayah. Allah’s statement,

(turn away from you with aversion) means, they turn away from you in arrogance, just as Allah described the polytheists,

(When it is said to them: “Follow what Allah has sent down.” They say: “Nay! We shall follow what we found our fathers following.”) This is different from the conduct of the faithful believers, whom Allah describes as,

(The only saying of the faithful believers, when they are called to Allah and His Messenger, to judge between them, is that they say: “We hear and we obey.”)

Chastising the Hypocrites

Chastising the hypocrites, Allah said,

(How then, when a catastrophe befalls them because of what their hands have sent forth,) meaning, how about it if they feel compelled to join you because of disasters that they suffer due to their sins, then they will be in need of you.

(They come to you swearing by Allah, “We meant no more than goodwill and conciliation!”) apologizing and swearing that they only sought goodwill and reconciliation when they referred to other than the Prophet for judgment, not that they believe in such alternative judgment, as they claim. Allah describes these people to us further in His statement,

(And you see those in whose hearts there is a disease (of hypocrisy), they hurry to their friendship, saying: “We fear”), until,

(Then they will become regretful for what they have been keeping as a secret in themselves). At-Tabarani recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “Abu Barzah Al-Aslami used to be a soothsayer who judged between the Jews in their disputes. When some Muslims came to him to judge between them, Allah sent down,

(Have you not seen those (hyprocrites) who claim that they believe in that which has been sent down to you, and that which was sent down before you), until,

(“We meant no more than goodwill and conciliation!”) Allah then said,

(They (hypocrites) are those of whom Allah knows what is in their hearts;) These people are hypocrites, and Allah knows what is in their hearts and will punish them accordingly, for nothing escapes Allah’s watch. Consequently, O Muhammad! Let Allah be sufficient for you in this regard, because He has perfect knowledge of their apparent and hidden affairs. This is why Allah said,

(so turn aside from them (do not punish them)) meaning, do not punish them because of what is in their hearts.

(but admonish them) means, advise them against the hypocrisy and evil that reside in their hearts,

(and speak to them an effective word to reach their inner selves) advise them, between you and them, using effective words that might benefit them.

(64. We sent no Messenger, but to be obeyed by Allah’s leave. If they, when they were unjust to themselves, had come to you and begged Allah’s forgiveness, and the Messenger had begged forgiveness for them, indeed, they would have found Allah All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) (65. But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith, until they make you judge in all disputes between them, and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.)

The Necessity of Obeying the Messenger

Allah said,

(We sent no Messenger, but to be obeyed) meaning, obeying the Prophet was ordained for those to whom Allah sends the Prophet. Allah’s statement,

(by Allah’s leave) means, “None shall obey, except by My leave,” according to Mujahid. This Ayah indicates that the Prophets are only obeyed by whomever Allah directs to obedience. In another Ayah, Allah said,

(And Allah did indeed fulfill His promise to you when you were killing them (your enemy) with His permission) meaning, by His command, decree, will and because He granted you superiority over them. Allah’s statement,

(If they (hypocrites), when they had been unjust to themselves,) directs the sinners and evildoers, when they commit errors and mistakes, to come to the Messenger , so that they ask Allah for forgiveness in his presence and ask him to supplicate to Allah to forgive them. If they do this, Allah will forgive them and award them His mercy and pardon. This is why Allah said,

(they would have found Allah All-Forgiving (One Who forgives and accepts repentance), Most Merciful).

One Does not Become a Believer Unless He Refers to the Messenger for Judgment and Submits to his Decisions

Allah said,

(But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith, until they make you judge in all disputes between them,) Allah swears by His Glorious, Most Honorable Self, that no one shall attain faith until he refers to the Messenger for judgment in all matters. Thereafter, whatever the Messenger commands, is the plain truth that must be submitted to inwardly and outwardly. Allah said,

(and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions, and accept (them) with full submission.) meaning: they adhere to your judgment, and thus do not feel any hesitation over your decision, and they submit to it inwardly and outwardly. They submit to the Prophet’s decision with total submission without any rejection, denial or dispute. Al-Bukhari recorded that `Urwah said, “Az-Zubayr quarreled with a man about a stream which both of them used for irrigation. Allah’s Messenger said to Az-Zubayr,

(O Zubayr! Irrigate (your garden) first, and then let the water flow to your neighbor.) The Ansari became angry and said, `O Allah’s Messenger! Is it because he is your cousin’ On that, the face of Allah’s Messenger changed color (because of anger) and said,

(Irrigate (your garden), O Zubayr, and then withhold the water until it reaches the walls (surrounding the palms). Then, release the water to your neighbor.) So, Allah’s Messenger gave Az-Zubayr his full right when the Ansari made him angry. Before that, Allah’s Messenger had given a generous judgment, beneficial for Az-Zubayr and the Ansari. Az-Zubayr said, `I think the following verse was revealed concerning that case,

(But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith, until they make you (O Muhammad ) judge in all disputes between them.)”’ Another Reason In his Tafsir, Al-Hafiz Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin `Abdur-Rahman bin Ibrahim bin Duhaym recorded that Damrah narrated that two men took their dispute to the Prophet , and he gave a judgment to the benefit of whoever among them had the right. The person who lost the dispute said, “I do not agree.” The other person asked him, “What do you want then” He said, “Let us go to Abu Bakr As-Siddiq.” They went to Abu Bakr and the person who won the dispute said, “We went to the Prophet with our dispute and he issued a decision in my favor.” Abu Bakr said, “Then the decision is that which the Messenger of Allah issued.” The person who lost the dispute still rejected the decision and said, “Let us go to `Umar bin Al-Khattab.” When they went to `Umar, the person who won the dispute said, “We took our dispute to the Prophet and he decided in my favor, but this man refused to submit to the decision.” `Umar bin Al-Khattab asked the second man and he concurred. `Umar went to his house and emerged from it holding aloft his sword. He struck the head of the man who rejected the Prophet’s decision with the sword and killed him. Consequently, Allah revealed,

(But no, by your Lord, they can have no faith).

(66. And if We had ordered them (saying), “Kill yourselves (i.e. the innnocent ones kill the guilty ones) or leave your homes,” very few of them would have done it; but if they had done what they were told, it would have been better for them, and would have strengthened their conviction;) (67. And indeed We would then have bestowed upon them a great reward from Ourselves.) (68. And indeed We would have guided them to the straight way.) (69. And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger, then they will be in the company of those on whom Allah has bestowed His grace, of the Prophets, the Siddiqin, the martyrs, and the righteous. And how excellent these companions are!) (70. Such is the bounty from Allah, and Allah is sufficient as All-Knower.)

Most People Disobey What They Are Ordered

Allah states that even if the people were commanded to commit what they were prohibited from doing, most of them would not submit to this command, for their wicked nature is such that they dispute orders. Allah has complete knowledge of what has not occured, and how it would be if and when it did occur. This is why Allah said,

(And if We had ordered them (saying), “Kill yourselves (i.e. the innnocent ones kill the guilty ones)) until the end of the Ayah. This is why Allah said,

(but if they had done what they were told,) meaning, if they do what they were commanded and refrain from what they were prohibited,

(it would have been better for them,) than disobeying the command and committing the prohibition,

(and would have strengthened their conviction), stronger Tasdiq (conviction of faith), according to As-Suddi.

(And indeed We should then have bestowed upon them from Ladunna) from Us,

(A great reward), Paradise,

(And indeed We should have guided them to the straight way.) in this life and the Hereafter.

Whoever Obeys Allah and His Messenger Will Be Honored by Allah

Allah then said,

(And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger, then they will be in the company of those on whom Allah has bestowed His grace, of the Prophets, the Siddiqin, the martyrs, and the righteous. And how excellent these companions are!) Consequently, whosoever implements what Allah and His Messenger have commanded him and avoids what Allah and His Messenger have prohibited, then Allah will grant him a dwelling in the Residence of Honor. There, Allah will place him in the company of the Prophets, and those who are lesser in grade, the true believers, then the martyrs and then the righteous, who are righteous inwardly and outwardly. Allah then praised this company,

(And how excellent these companions are!) Al-Bukhari recorded that `A’ishah said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

(Every Prophet who falls ill is given the choice between this life and the Hereafter.) During the illness that preceded his death, his voice became weak and I heard him saying,

(in the company of those on whom Allah has bestowed His grace, the Prophets, the true believers (Siddiqin), the martyrs and the righteous) I knew then that he was being given the choice.” Muslim recorded this Hadith. This Hadith explains the meaning of another Hadith; the Prophet said before his death;

(O Allah! In the Most High Company) three times, and he then died, may Allah’s best blessings be upon him.

The Reason Behind Revealing this Honorable Ayah

Ibn Jarir recorded that Sa`id bin Jubayr said, “An Ansari man came to the Messenger of Allah while feeling sad. The Prophet said to him, `Why do I see you sad’ He said, `O Allah’s Prophet! I was contemplating about something.’ The Prophet said, `What is it’ The Ansari said, `We come to you day and night, looking at your face and sitting by you. Tomorrow, you will be raised with the Prophets, and we will not be able to see you.’ The Prophet did not say anything, but later Jibril came down to him with this Ayah,

(And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger then they will be in the company of those on whom Allah has bestowed His grace, of the Prophets), and the Prophet sent the good news to the Ansari man.” This Hadith was narrated in Mursal form from Masruq, `Ikrimah, `Amir Ash-Sha`bi, Qatadah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas. This is the version with the best chain of narrators. Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah recorded it with a different chain from `A’ishah, who said; “A man came to the Prophet and said to him, `O Messenger of Allah! You are more beloved to me than myself, my family and children. Sometimes, when I am at home, I remember you, and I cannot wait until I come and look at you. When I contemplate about my death and your death, I know that you will be with the Prophets when you enter Paradise. I fear that I might not see you when I enter Paradise.’ The Prophet did not answer him until the Ayah,

(And whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger, then they will be in the company of those on whom Allah has bestowed His grace, of the Prophets, the true believers, the martyrs, and the righteous. And how excellent these companions are!) was revealed to him.” This was collected by Al-Hafiz Abu `Abdullah Al-Maqdisi in his book, Sifat Al-Jannah, he then commented, “I do not see problems with this chain.” And Allah knows best. Muslim recorded that Rabi`ah bin Ka`b Al-Aslami said, “I used to sleep at the Prophet’s house and bring him his water for ablution and his needs. He once said to me, `Ask me.’ I said, `O Messenger of Allah! I ask that I be your companion in Paradise.’ He said, `Anything except that’ I said, `Only that.’ He said,

(Then help me (fulfill this wish) for you by performing many prostrations.)” Imam Ahmad recorded that `Amr bin Murrah Al-Juhani said, “A man came to the Prophet and said, `O Allah’s Messenger! I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and that you are the Messenger of Allah, pray the five (daily prayers), give the Zakah due on my wealth and fast the month of Ramadan.’ The Messenger of Allah said,

(Whoever dies in this state will be with the Prophets, the truthful and martyrs on the Day of Resurrection, as long as – and he raised his finger – he is not disobedient to his parents.)” Only Ahmad recorded this Hadith. Greater news than this is in the authentic Hadith collected in the Sahih and Musnad compilations, in Mutawatir form, narrated by several Companions that the Messenger of Allah was asked about the person who loves a people, but his status is not close to theirs. The Messenger said,

(One is with those whom he loves.) Anas commented, “Muslims were never happier than with this Hadith.” In another narration, Anas said, “I love the Messenger of Allah, Abu Bakr and `Umar, and I hope that Allah will resurrect me with them, even though I did not perform actions similar to theirs.” Allah said,

(Such is the bounty from Allah) meaning, from Allah by His mercy, for it is He who made them suitable for this, not their good deeds.

(and Allah is sufficient as All-Knower), He knows those who deserve guidance and success.

(71. O you who believe! Take your precautions, and either go forth (on an expedition) in parties, or go forth all together.) (72. There is certainly among you he who would linger behind. If a misfortune befalls you, he says, “Indeed Allah has favored me in that I was not present among them.”) (73. But if a bounty comes to you from Allah, he would surely say ? as if there had never been ties of affection between you and him, “Oh! I wish I had been with them; then I would have achieved a great success.”) (74. So fight those who trade the life of this world with the Hereafter, in the cause of Allah, and whoever fights in the cause of Allah, and is killed or gets victory, We shall bestow on him a great reward.)

The Necessity of Taking Necessary Precautions Against the Enemy

Allah commands His faithful servants to take precautions against their enemies, by being prepared with the necessary weapons and supplies, and increasing the number of troops fighting in His cause.

(in parties) means, group after group, party after party, and expedition after expedition. `Ali bin Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said that,

(and either go forth in parties) means, “In groups, expedition after expedition,

(or go forth all together), means, all of you.” Similar was reported from Mujahid, `Ikrimah, As-Suddi, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, `Ata’ Al-Khurrasani, Muqatil bin Hayyan and Khusayf Al-Jazari.

Refraining from Joining Jihad is a Sign of Hypocrites

Allah said,

(There is certainly among you he who would linger behind.) Mujahid and others said that this Ayah was revealed about the hypocrites. Muqatil bin Hayyan said that,

(linger behind) means, stays behind and does not join Jihad. It is also possible that this person himself lingers behind, while luring others away from joining Jihad. For instance, `Abdullah bin Ubayy bin Salul, may Allah curse him, used to linger behind and lure other people to do the same and refrain from joining Jihad, as Ibn Jurayj and Ibn Jarir stated. This is why Allah said about the hypocrite, that when he lingers behind from Jihad, then:

(If a misfortune befalls you) death, martyrdom, or – by Allah’s wisdom – being defeated by the enemy,

(he says, “Indeed Allah has favored me that I was not present among them.”) meaning, since I did not join them in battle. Because he considers this one of Allah’s favors on him, unaware of the reward that he might have gained from enduring war or martyrdom, if he was killed.

(But if a bounty comes to you from Allah) such as victory, triumph and booty,

(he would surely say – as if there had never been ties of affection between you and him,) meaning, as if he was not a follower of your religion,

(“Oh! I wish I had been with them; then I would have achieved a great success.”) by being assigned a share of the booty and taking possession of that share. This is his ultimate aim and objective.

The Encouragement to Participation in Jihad

Allah then said,

(So fight) the believer with an aversion (to fighting),

(those who trade the life of this world with the Hereafter) referring to those sell their religion for the meager goods of the world, and they only do this because of their disbelief and lack of faith. Allah then said;

(And whoever fights in the cause of Allah, and is killed or gets victory, We shall bestow on him a great reward.) meaning, whoever fights in the cause of Allah, whether he was killed or triumphant, he will earn an immense compensation and a great reward with Allah. The Two Sahihs recorded,

(Allah has guaranteed the Mujahid in His cause that He will either bring death to him, admitting into Paradise; or, He will help him return safely to his home with whatever reward and booty he gained.)

(75. And what is wrong with you that you fight not in the cause of Allah, and for those weak, ill-treated and oppressed among men, women, and children, whose cry is: “Our Lord! Rescue us from this town whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from You one who will protect, and raise for us from You one who will help.”) (76. Those who believe, fight in the cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve, fight in the cause of the Taghut. So fight against the friends of Shaytan; ever feeble indeed is the plot of Shaytan.)

Encouraging Jihad to Defend the Oppressed

Allah encouraged His believing servants to perform Jihad in His cause and to strive hard to save the oppressed Muslims in Makkah, men, women and children who were restless because of having to remain there. This is why Allah said,

(whose cry is: “Our Lord! Rescue us from this town), referring to Makkah. In a similar Ayah, Allah said,

(And many a town, stronger than your town which has driven you out) Allah then describes this town,

(whose people are oppressors; and raise for us from You one who will protect, and raise for us from You one who will help) meaning, send protectors and helpers for us. Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “I and my mother were from the oppressed (in Makkah).” Allah then said,

(Those who believe, fight in the cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve, fight in the cause of the Taghut. ) Therefore, the believers fight in obedience to Allah and to gain His pleasure, while the disbelievers fight in obedience to Shaytan. Allah then encourages the believers to fight His enemies,

(So fight against the friends of Shaytan; ever feeble indeed is the plot of Shaytan).

(77. Have you not seen those who were told to hold back their hands (from fighting) and perform Salah and give Zakah, but when the fighting was ordained for them, behold! a section of them fear men as they fear Allah or even more. They say: “Our Lord! Why have You ordained for us fighting Would that You granted us respite for a short period” Say: “Short is the enjoyment of this world. The Hereafter is (far) better for him who fears Allah, and you shall not be dealt with unjustly even equal to the Fatil.) (78. “Wheresoever you may be, death will overtake you even if you are in fortresses built up strong and high!” And if some good reaches them, they say, “This is from Allah,” but if some evil befalls them, they say, “This is from you.” Say: “All things are from Allah,” so what is wrong with these people that they fail to understand any word) (79. Whatever of good reaches you, is from Allah, but whatever of evil befalls you, is from yourself. And We have sent you as a Messenger to mankind, and Allah is sufficient as a Witness.)

The Wish that the Order for Jihad be Delayed

In the beginning of Islam, Muslims in Makkah were commanded to perform the prayer and pay some charity, so as to comfort the poor among them. They were also commanded to be forgiving and forbearing with the idolators and to observe patience with them at the time. However, they were eager and anticipating the time when they would be allowed to fight, so that they could punish their enemies. The situation at that time did not permit armed conflict for many reasons. For instance, Muslims were few at the time, compared to their numerous enemies. The Muslims’ city was a sacred one and the most honored area on the earth, and this is why the command to fight was not revealed in Makkah. Later on when the Muslims controlled a town of their own, Al-Madinah, and had strength, power and support, Jihad was then legislated. Yet, when the command to fight was revealed, just as Muslims wished, some of them became weary and were very fearful of facing the idolators in battle.

(They say: “Our Lord! Why have You ordained for us fighting Would that You had granted us respite for a short period”) meaning, we wish that Jihad was delayed until a later time, because it means bloodshed, orphans and widows. In a similar Ayah, Allah said,

(Those who believe say: “Why is not a Surah sent down (for us) But when a decisive is sent down, and fighting is mentioned). Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that `Abdur-Rahman bin `Awf and several of his companions came to the Prophet while in Makkah and said, “O Allah’s Prophet! We were mighty when we were pagans, but when we embraced the faith, we became weak.” The Prophet said,

(I was commanded to pardon the people, so do not fight them.) When Allah transferred the Prophet to Al-Madinah, He commanded him to fight (the idolators), but they (some Muslims) held back. So, Allah revealed the Ayah;

(Have you not seen those who were told to hold back their hands) This Hadith was collected by An-Nasa’i and Al-Hakim. Allah’s statement,

(Say: “Short is the enjoyment of this world. The Hereafter is (far) better for him who fears Allah,) means, the destination of the one who with Taqwa is better for him than this life.

(and you shall not be dealt with unjustly even equal to the Fatil.) for your good deeds. Rather, you will earn your full rewards for them. This promise directs the focus of believers away from this life and makes them eager for the Hereafter, all the while encouraging them to fight in Jihad.

There is No Escaping Death

Allah said,

(Wheresoever you may be, death will overtake you even if you are in fortresses built up strong and high!) meaning, you shall certainly die and none of you shall ever escape death. Allah said,

(Whatsooever is on it (the earth) will perish),

(Everyone shall taste death), and,

(And We granted not to any human being immortality before you). Therefore, every soul shall taste death and nothing can save any person from it, whether he performed Jihad or not. Everyone has an appointed time, and a limited term of life. In the illness that preceded his death, Khalid bin Al-Walid said, while in his bed, “I participated in so and so number of battles, and every part of my body sustained an injury due to a stab or a shot. Yet here I am, I die in my bed! Let not the eyes of the cowards ever taste sleep.” Allah’s statement,

(even if you are in fortresses built up strong and high!) means, entrenched, fortified, high and towering. No caution or fortification can ever avert death.

The Hypocrites Sense a Bad Omen Because of the Prophet !

Allah said,

(And if some good reaches them) meaning, fertile years and provision of fruits, produce, children, etc., as said by Ibn `Abbas, Abu Al-`Aliyah and As-Suddi.

(they say, “This is from Allah,” but if some evil befalls them) drought, famine, shortages of fruits and produce, death that strikes their children or animals, and so forth, as Abu Al-`Aliyah and As-Suddi stated.

(they say, “This is from you,”) meaning, because of you and because we followed you and embraced your religion. Allah said about the people of Fir`awn,

(But whenever good came to them, they said: “Ours is this.” And if evil afflicted them, they ascribed it to evil omens connected with Musa and those with him.) Allah said,

(And among mankind is he who worships Allah as it were upon the edge (i. e. in doubt)). The same is the statement uttered by the hypocrites, who embraced Islam outwardly, but disliked it inwardly. This is why when a calamity befell them, they attributed it to following the Prophet . Consequently, Allah revealed,

Say: All things are from Alla0h, Allah’s statement that all things are from Him means, everything occurs by the decision and decree of Allah, and His decision shall come to pass for both the righteous and the wicked, the faithful and the disbelievers. Allah then said while addressing His Messenger , but refering to mankind in general,

(Whatever of good reaches you, is from Allah,) meaning, of Allah’s bounty, favor, kindness and mercy.

(But whatever of evil befalls you, is from yourself.), meaning because of you and due to your actions. Similarly, Allah said,

(And whatever of misfortune befalls you, it is because of what your hands have earned. And He pardons much.) As-Suddi, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Ibn Jurayj and Ibn Zayd said that,

(from yourself) means, because of your errors. Qatadah said that,

(From yourself) means, as punishment for you, O son of Adam, because of your sins. Allah said,

(And We have sent you as a Messenger to mankind,) so that you convey to them Allah’s commandments, what He likes and is pleased with, and what He dislikes and refuses.

(and Allah is sufficient as a Witness.) that He has sent you. He is also Witness over you and them, having full knowledge in what you convey to them and the disbelief and rebellion with which they respond to the truth.

(80. He who obeys the Messenger, has indeed obeyed Allah, but he who turns away, then We have not sent you as a watcher over them.) (81. They say: “We are obedient,” but when they leave you, a section of them spends all night in planning other than what you say. But Allah records their nightly (plots). So turn aside from them (do not punish them), and put your trust in Allah. And Allah is Ever All-Sufficient as a Disposer of affairs.)

Obeying the Messenger is Obeying Allah

Allah states that whoever obeys His servant and Messenger, Muhammad , obeys Allah; and whoever disobeys him, disobeys Allah. Verily, whatever the Messenger utters is not of his own desire, but a revelation inspired to him. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Whoever obeys me, obeys Allah; and whoever disobeys me, disobeys Allah. Whoever obeys the Amir (leader, ruler), obeys me; and whoever disobeys the Amir, disobeys me.) This Hadith was recorded in the Two Sahihs. Allah’s statement,

(But he who turns away, then We have not sent you as a watcher over them.) means, do not worry about him. Your job is only to convey, and whoever obeys you, he will acquire happiness and success and you will gain a similar reward to that he earns. As for the one who turns away from you, he will gain failure and loss and you will not carry a burden because of what he does. A Hadith states,

(Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, will acquire guidance; and whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger, will only harm himself.)

The Foolishness of the Hypocrites

Allah said,

(They say: “We are obedient,”). Allah states that the hypocrites pretend to be loyal and obedient.

(but when they leave you), meaning, when they depart and are no longer with you,

(a section of them spends all night in planning other than what you say). They plot at night among themselves for other than what they pretend when they are with you. Allah said,

(But Allah records their nightly (plots).) meaning, He has full knowledge of their plots and records it through His command to His scribes, the angels who are responsible for recording the actions of the servants. This is a threat from Allah, stating that He knows what the hypocrites try to hide, their plotting in the night to defy the Messenger and oppose him, even though they pretend to be loyal and obedient to him. Allah will certainly punish them for this conduct. In a similar Ayah, Allah said,

(They (hypocrites) say: “We have believed in Allah and in the Messenger, and we obey,”) until the end of the Ayah. Allah’s statement,

(So turn aside from them) means, pardon them, be forbearing with them, do not punish them, do not expose them to the people and do not fear them.

(and put your trust in Allah. And Allah is Ever All-Sufficient as a Disposer of affairs.) meaning, He is sufficient as Protector, Supporter and Helper for those who rely on Him and return to Him.

(82. Do they not then consider the Qur’an carefully Had it been from other than Allah, they would surely, have found therein contradictions in abundance). (83. When there comes to them some matter touching (public) safety or fear, they make it known (among the people); if only they had referred it to the Messenger or to those charged with authority among them, the proper investigators would have understood it from them (directly). Had it not been for the grace and mercy of Allah upon you, you would have followed Shaytan, except a few of you.)

The Qur’an is True

Allah commands them to contemplate about the Qur’an and forbids them from ignoring it, or ignoring its wise meanings and eloquent words. Allah states that there are no inconsistencies, contradictions, conflicting statements or discrepancies in the Qur’an, because it is a revelation from the Most-Wise, Worthy of all praise. Therefore, the Qur’an is the truth coming from the Truth, Allah. This is why Allah said in another Ayah,

(Do they not then think deeply in the Qur’an, or are their hearts locked up (from understanding it)) Allah then said,

(Had it been from other than Allah,) meaning, had it been fraudulent and made up, as the ignorant idolators and hypocrites assert in their hearts,

(they would surely, have found therein contradictions), discrepancies and inconsistencies,

(in abundance). However, this Qur’an is free of shortcomings, and therefore, it is from Allah. Similarly, Allah describes those who are firmly grounded in knowledge,

(We believe in it, all of it is from our Lord.)(3:7) meaning, the Muhkam sections (entirely clear) and the Mutashabih sections (not entirely clear) of the Qur’an are all true. So they understand the not entirely clear from the clear, and thus gain guidance. As for those in whose heart is the disease of hypocrisy, they understand the Muhkam from the Mutashabih; thus only gaining misguidance. Allah praised those who have knowledge and criticized the wicked. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Amr bin Shu`ayb said that his father said that his grandfather said, “I and my brother were present in a gathering, which is more precious to me than red camels. My brother and I came and found that some of the leaders of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah were sitting close to a door of his. We did not like the idea of being separate from them, so we sat near the room. They then mentioned an Ayah and began disputing until they raised their voices. The Messenger of Allah was so angry that when he went out his face was red. He threw sand on them and said to them,

(Behold, O people! This is how the nations before you were destroyed, because of their disputing with their Prophets and their contradicting parts of the Books with other parts. The Qur’an does not contradict itself. Rather, it testifies to the truth of itself. Therefore, whatever of it you have knowledge in, then implement it, and whatever you do not know of it, then refer it to those who have knowledge in it. )” Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr said, “I went to the Messenger of Allah one day. When we were sitting, two men disputed about an Ayah, and their voices became loud. The Prophet said,

(Verily, the nations before you were destroyed because of their disagreements over the Book.) Muslim and An-Nasa’i recorded this Hadith.

The Prohibition of Disclosing Unreliable and Uninvestigated News

Allah said,

(When there comes to them some matter touching (public) safety or fear, they make it known (among the people);) chastising those who indulge in things before being sure of their truth, disclosing them, making them known and spreading their news, even though such news might not be true at all. In the introduction to his Sahih, Imam Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,

(Narrating everything one hears is sufficient to make a person a liar.) This is the same narration collected by Abu Dawud in the section of Adab (manners) in his Sunan. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah said that the Messenger of Allah prohibited, “It was said,” and, “So-and-so said.” This Hadith refers to those who often convey the speech that people utter without investigating the reliability and truth of what he is disclosing. The Sahih also records,

(Whoever narrates a Hadith while knowing it is false, then he is one of the two liars (who invents and who spreads the lie).) We should mention here the Hadith of `Umar bin Al-Khattab collected in the Two Sahihs. When `Umar was informed that the Messenger of Allah divorced his wives, he came from his house, entered the Masjid and found the people talking about this news. He could not wait and went to the Prophet to ask him about what had truly happened, asking him, “Have you divorced your wives” The Prophet said, “No.” `Umar said, “I said, Allahu Akbar…” and mentioned the rest of the Hadith. In the narration that Muslim collected, `Umar said, “I asked, `Have you divorced them’ He said, `No.’ So, I stood by the door of the Masjid and shouted with the loudest voice, `The Messenger of Allah did not divorce his wives.’ Then, this Ayah was revealed,

(When there comes to them some matter touching (public) safety or fear, they make it known (among the people), if only they had referred it to the Messenger or to those charged with authority among them, the proper investigators would have understood it from them (directly).) So I properly investigated that matter.” This Ayah refers to proper investigation, or extraction of matters from their proper resources. Allah’s statement,

(you would have followed Shaytan except a few of you. ) refers to the believers, as `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas.

(84. Then fight in the cause of Allah, you are not tasked (held responsible) except for yourself, and incite the believers (to fight along with you), it may be that Allah will restrain the evil might of the disbelievers. And Allah is Stronger in might and Stronger in punishing.) (85. Whosoever intercedes for a good cause, will have the reward thereof; and whosoever intercedes for an evil cause, will have a share in its burden. And Allah is Ever All-Able to do everything.) (86. When you are greeted with a greeting, greet in return with what is better than it, or (at least) return it equally. Certainly, Allah is Ever a Careful Account Taker of all things.) (87. Allah! None has the right to be worshipped but He. Surely, He will gather you together on the Day of Resurrection about which there is no doubt. And who is truer in statement than Allah)

Allah Commands His Messenger to Perform Jihad

Allah commands His servant and Messenger, Muhammad , to himself fight in Jihad and not to be concerned about those who do not join Jihad. Hence Allah’s statement,

(you are not tasked (held responsible except for yourself,) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Ishaq said, “I asked Al-Bara bin `Azib about a man who meets a hundred enemies and still fights them, would he be one of those referred to in Allah’s statement,

(And do not throw yourselves into destruction (by not spending your wealth in the cause of Allah)) He said, `Allah said to His Prophet,

(Then fight in the cause of Allah, you are not tasked (held responsible) except for yourself, and incite the believers (to fight along with you)).” Imam Ahmad recorded Sulayman bin Dawud saying that Abu Bakr bin `Ayyash said that Abu Ishaq said, “I asked Al-Bara’, `If a man attacks the lines of the idolators, would he be throwing himself to destruction’ He said, `No because Allah has sent His Messenger and commanded him,

(Then fight in the cause of Allah, you are not tasked (held responsible) except for yourself,) That Ayah is about spending ﴿in Allah’s cause﴾.”

Inciting the Believers to Fight

Allah said,

(and incite the believers) to fight, by encouraging them and strengthening their resolve in this regard. For instance, the Prophet said to the believers at the battle of Badr, while organizing their lines,

(Stand up and march forth to a Paradise, as wide as the heavens and Earth.) There are many Hadiths that encourage Jihad. Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Whoever believes in Allah and His Messenger, offers prayer, pays the Zakah and fasts the month of Ramadan, will rightfully be granted Paradise by Allah, no matter whether he migrates in Allah’s cause or remains in the land where he is born.) The people said, `O Allah’s Messenger! Shall we acquaint the people with this good news’ He said,

(Paradise has one hundred grades which Allah has reserved for the Mujahidin who fight in His cause, the distance between each two grades is like the distance between the heaven and the Earth. So, when you ask Allah, ask for Al-Firdaws, which is the best and highest part of Paradise, above it is the Throne of the Most Beneficent (Allah) and from it originate the rivers of Paradise.) There are various narrations for this Hadith from `Ubadah, Mu`adh, and Abu Ad-Darda’. Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri narrated that the Messenger of Allah said,

(O Abu Sa`id! Whoever accepts Allah as his Lord, Islam as his religion and Muhammad as the Prophet, then he would rightfully acquire Paradise.) Abu Sa`id liked these words and said, “O Allah’s Messenger! Repeat them for me.” The Prophet repeated his words, then said,

(And (there is) another deed for which Allah raises the servant a hundred grades in Paradise, between each two grades is the distance between heaven and Earth.) Abu Sa`id said, “What is it, O Allah’s Messenger ” He said,

(Jihad in Allah’s cause.) This Hadith was collected by Muslim. Allah’s statement,

(it may be that Allah will restrain the evil might of the disbelievers. ) means, by your encouraging them to fight, their resolve will be strengthened to meet the enemy in battle, to defend Islam and its people and to endure and be patient against the enemy. Allah’s statement,

(And Allah is Stronger in might and Stronger in punishing.) means, He is able over them in this life and the Hereafter, just as He said in another Ayah,

(But if it had been Allah’s will, He Himself could certainly have punished them (without you). But (He lets you fight) in order to test some of you with others) (47:4).

Interceding for a Good or an Evil Cause

Allah said,

(Whosoever intercedes for a good cause, will have the reward thereof;) meaning, whoever intercedes in a matter that produces good results, will acquire a share in that good.

(And whosoever intercedes for an evil cause, will have a share in its burden.) meaning, he will carry a burden due to what resulted from his intercession and intention. For instance, it is recorded in the Sahih that the Prophet said,

(Intercede and you will gain a reward of it. Yet, Allah shall decide whatever He wills by the words of His Prophet.) Mujahid bin Jabr said, “This Ayah was revealed about the intercession of people on behalf of each other.” Allah then said,

(And Allah is Ever Muqit over everything.) Ibn `Abbas, `Ata’, `Atiyah, Qatadah and Matar Al-Warraq said that,

(Muqit) means, “Watcher.” Mujahid said that Muqit means, `Witness’, and in another narration, `Able to do.’

Returning the Salam, With a Better Salam

Allah said,

(When you are greeted with a greeting, greet in return with what is better than it, or (at least) return it equally.) meaning, if the Muslim greets you with the Salam, then return the greeting with a better Salam, or at least equal to the Salam that was given. Therefore, the better Salam is recommended, while returning it equally is an obligation. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Raja’ Al-`Utaridi said that `Imran bin Husayn said that a man came to the Messenger of Allah and said, “As-Salamu `Alaykum”. The Prophet returned the greeting, and after the man sat down he said, “Ten.” Another man came and said, “As-Salamu `Alaykum wa Rahmatullah, O Allah’s Messenger.” The Prophet returned the greeting, and after the man sat down he said, “Twenty.” Then another man came and said, “As-Salamu `Alaykum wa Rahmatullah wa Barakatuh.” The Prophet returned the greeting, and after the man sat down he said, “Thirty.” This is the narration recorded by Abu Dawud. At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i and Al-Bazzar also recorded it. At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Gharib”. There are several other Hadiths on this subject from Abu Sa`id, `Ali, and Sahl bin Hanif. When the Muslim is greeted with the full form of Salam, he is obliged to return the greeting equally. As for Ahl Adh-Dhimmah the Salam should not be initiated nor should the greeting be added to when returning their greeting. Rather, as recorded in the Two Sahihs their greeting is returned to them equally. Ibn `Umar narrated that the Messenger of Allah said,

(When the Jews greet you, one of them would say, `As-Samu `Alayka (death be unto you).’ Therefore, say, `Wa `Alayka (and the same to you).’) In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Do not initiate greeting the Jews and Christians with the Salam, and when you pass by them on a road, force them to its narrowest path.) Abu Dawud recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(By He in Whose Hand is my soul! You will not enter Paradise until you believe, and you will not believe until you love each other. Should I direct you to an action that would direct you to love each other Spread the Salam among yourselves.) Allah said,

(Allah! none has the right to be worshipped but He) informing that He is singled out as the sole God of all creation. Allah then said,

(Surely, He will gather you together on the Day of Resurrection about which there is no doubt.) swearing that He will gather the earlier and latter generations in one area, rewarding or punishing each person according to his or her actions. Allah said,

(And who is truer in statement than Allah) meaning, no one utters more truthful statements than Allah, in His promise, warning, stories of the past and information of what is to come; there is no deity worthy of worship nor Lord except Him.

(88. Then what is the matter with you that you are divided into two parties about the hypocrites Allah has cast them back because of what they have earned. Do you want to guide him whom Allah has made to go astray And he whom Allah has made to go astray, you will never find for him a way.) (89. They wish that you reject faith, as they have rejected, and thus that you all become equal (like one another). So take not Awliya’ from them, till they emigrate in the way of Allah. But if they turn back, take (hold of) them and kill them wherever you find them, and take neither Awliya’ nor helpers from them.) (90. Except those who join a group, between you and whom there is a treaty (of peace), or those who approach you with their breasts restraining from fighting you as well as fighting their own people. Had Allah willed, indeed He would have given them power over you, and they would have fought you. So, if they withdraw from you, and fight not against you, and offer you peace, then Allah has made no way for you against them.) (91. You will find others that wish to have security from you and security from their people. Every time they are sent back to Fitnah, they yield thereto. If they withdraw not from you, nor offer you peace, nor restrain their hands, take (hold of) them and kill them wherever you Thaqiftumuhum. In their case, We have provided you with a clear warrant against them.)

Censuring the Companions for Disagreeing over the Hypocrites who Returned to Al-Madinah Before Uhud

Allah criticizes the believers for disagreeing over the hypocrites. There are conflicting opinions over the reason behind revealing this Ayah. Imam Ahmad recorded that Zayd bin Thabit said that Messenger of Allah marched towards Uhud. However, some people who accompanied him went back to Al-Madinah, and the Companions of the Messenger of Allah divided into two groups concerning them, one saying they should be killed and the other objecting. Allah sent down,

(Then what is the matter with you that you are divided into two parties about the hypocrites) The Messenger of Allah said,

(She (Al-Madinah) is Taybah, and she expels filth, just as the billow expels rust from iron.) The Two Sahihs also recorded this Hadith. Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah was revealed about some people in Makkah who said they embraced Islam, yet they gave their support to the idolators. One time, theses people went out of Makkah to fulfill some needs and said to each other, “If we meet the Companions of Muhammad, there will be no harm for us from their side.” When the believers got news that these people went out of Makkah, some of them said, “Let us march to these cowards and kill them, because they support your enemy against you.” However, another group from the believers said, “Glory be to Allah! Do you kill a people who say as you have said, just because they did not perform Hijrah or leave their land Is it allowed to shed their blood and confiscate their money in this case” So they divided to two groups, while the Messenger was with them, and did not prohibit either group from reiterating their argument. Thereafter, Allah revealed,

(Then what is the matter with you that you are divided into two parties about the hypocrites) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded this Hadith. Allah said,

(Allah has cast them back because of what they have earned.) meaning, He made them revert to, and fall into error. Ibn `Abbas said that,

(Arkasahum) means, `cast them’ . Allah’s statement,

(because of what they have earned) means, because of their defiance and disobedience to the Messenger and following falsehood.

(Do you want to guide him whom Allah has made to go astray And he whom Allah has made to go astray, you will never find for him a way.) meaning, there will be no path for him, or way to guidance. Allah’s statement,

(They wish that you reject faith, as they have rejected, and thus that you all become equal.) means, they wish that you fall into misguidance, so that you and they are equal in that regard. This is because of their extreme enmity and hatred for you. Therefore, Allah said,

(So take not Awliya’ from them, till they emigrate in the way of Allah. But if they turn back,) if they abandon Hijrah, as Al-`Awfi reported from Ibn `Abbas. As-Suddi said that this part of the Ayah means, “If they make their disbelief public.”

Combatants and Noncombatants

Allah excluded some people;

(Except those who join a group, between you and whom there is a treaty (of peace),) meaning, except those who join and take refuge with a people with whom you have a pact of peace, or people of Dhimmah, then treat them as you treat the people with whom you have peace. This is the saying of As-Suddi, Ibn Zayd and Ibn Jarir. In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari recorded the story of the treaty of Al-Hudaybiyyah, where it was mentioned that whoever liked to have peace with Quraysh and conduct a pact with them, then they were allowed. Those who liked to have peace with Muhammad and his Companions and enter a pact with them were allowed. It was reported that Ibn `Abbas said that this Ayah was later abrogated by Allah’s statement,

(Then when the Sacred Months have passed, kill the idolators wherever you find them) Allah said,

(or those who approach you with their breasts restraining) referring to another type of people covered by the exclusion from fighting. They are those who approach the Muslims with hesitation in their hearts because of their aversion to fighting the Muslims. They do not have the heart to fight with the Muslims against their own people. Therefore, they are neither with nor against Muslims.

(Had Allah willed, indeed He would have given them power over you, and they would have fought you.) meaning, it is from Allah’s mercy that He has stopped them from fighting you.

(So, if they withdraw from you, and fight not against you, and offer you peace,) meaning, they revert to peace,

(then Allah has opened no way for you against them), you do not have the right to kill them, as long as they take this position. This was the position of Banu Hashim (the tribe of the Prophet ), such as Al-`Abbas, who accompanied the idolators in the battle of Badr, for they joined the battle with great hesitation. This is why the Prophet commanded that Al-`Abbas not be killed, but only captured. Allah’s statement, d

(You will find others that wish to have security from you and security from their people.) refers to a type of people who on the surface appear to be like the type we just mentioned. However, the intention of each type is different, for the latter are hypocrites. They pretend to be Muslims with the Prophet and his Companions, so that they could attain safety with the Muslims for their blood, property and families. However, they support the idolators in secret and worship what they worship, so that they are at peace with them also. These people have secretly sided with the idolators, just as Allah described them,

(But when they are alone with their Shayatin, they say: “Truly, we are with you.”). In this Ayah, Allah said,

(Every time they are sent back to Fitnah, they yield thereto.) meaning, they dwell in Fitnah. As-Suddi said that the Fitnah mentioned here refers to Shirk. Ibn Jarir recorded that Mujahid said that the Ayah was revealed about a group from Makkah who used to go to the Prophet ﴿in Al-Madinah﴾ pretending to be Muslims. However, when they went back to Quraysh, they reverted to worshipping idols. They wanted to be at peace with both sides. Allah commanded they should be fought against, unless they withdraw from combat and resort to peace. This is why Allah said,

(If they withdraw not from you, nor offer you peace) meaning, revert to peaceful and complacent behavior,

(nor restrain their hands) refrain from fighting you,

(take (hold of) them), capture them,

(and kill them wherever you Thaqiftumuhum.), wherever you find them,

(In their case, We have provided you with a clear warrant against them), meaning an unequivocal and plain warrant.

(92. It is not for a believer to kill a believer except by mistake; and whosoever kills a believer by mistake, he must set free a believing slave and submit compensation (blood money) to the deceased’s family unless they remit it. If the deceased belonged to a people at war with you and he was a believer, the freeing of a believing slave (is prescribed); and if he belonged to a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance, then compensation (blood money) must be paid to his family, and a believing slave must be freed. And whoso finds this beyond his means, he must fast for two consecutive months in order to seek repentance from Allah. And Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.) (93. And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell to abide therein; and the wrath and the curse of Allah are upon him, and a great punishment is prepared for him.)

The Ruling Concerning Killing a Believer by Mistake

Allah states that the believer is not allowed to kill his believing brother under any circumstances. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The blood of a Muslim who testifies that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and that I am the Messenger of Allah, is sacred, except in three instances. (They are:) life for life, the married adulterer, and whoever reverts from the religion and abandons the Jama`ah (community of the faithful believers).) When one commits any of these three offenses, it is not up to ordinary citizens to kill him or her, because this is the responsibility of the Muslim Leader or his deputy. Allah said,

(except by mistake). There is a difference of opinion concerning the reason behind revealing this part of the Ayah. Mujahid and others said that it was revealed about `Ayyash bin Abi Rabi`ah, Abu Jahl’s half brother, from his mother’s side, Asma’ bint Makhrabah. `Ayyash killed a man called Al-Harith bin Yazid Al-`Amiri, out of revenge for torturing him and his brother because of their Islam. That man later embraced Islam and performed Hijrah, but `Ayyash did not know this fact. On the Day of the Makkan conquest, `Ayyash saw that man and thought that he was still a disbeliever, so he attacked and killed him. Later, Allah sent down this Ayah. `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said that this Ayah was revealed about Abu Ad-Darda’ because he killed a man after he embraced the faith, just as Abu Ad-Darda’ held the sword above him. When this matter was conveyed to the Messenger of Allah , Abu Ad-Darda’ said, “He only said that to avert death.” The Prophet said to him,

(Have you opened his heart) The basis for this story is in the Sahih, but it is not about Abu Ad-Darda’. Allah said,

(and whosoever kills a believer by mistake, he must set free a believing slave and submit compensation (blood money) to the deceased’s family) thus, ordaining two requirements for murder by mistake. The first requirement is the Kaffarah (fine) for the great sin that has been committed, even if it was a mistake. The Kaffarah is to free a Muslim slave, not a non-Muslim slave. Imam Ahmad recorded that a man from the Ansar said that he brought a slave and said, “O Messenger of Allah! I have to free a believing slave, so if you see that this slave is a believer, I will free her.” The Messenger of Allah asked her,

(Do you testify that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah) She said, “Yes.” He asked her,

(Do you testify that I am the Messenger of Allah) She said, “Yes.” He asked,

(Do you believe in Resurrection after death) She said, “Yes.” The Prophet said,

(Then free her.) This is an authentic chain of narration, and not knowing the name of the Ansari Companion does not lessen its authenticity. Allah’s statement,

(and submit compensation (blood money) to the deceased’s family) is the second obligation which involves the killer and the family of the deceased, who will receive blood money as compensation for their loss. The compensation is only obligatory for the one who possesses one of five; as Imam Ahmad, and the Sunan compilers recorded from Ibn Mas`ud. He said; “Allah’s Messenger determined that the Diyah (blood money) for unintentional murder is twenty camels which entered their fourth year, twenty camels which entered their fifth year, twenty camels which entered their second year, and twenty camels which entered their third year.” This is the wording of An-Nasa’i. This Diyah is required from the elders of the killer’s tribe, not from his own money. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, “Two women from Hudhayl quarreled and one of them threw a stone at the other and killed her and her unborn fetus. They disputed before the Messenger of Allah and he decided that the Diyah of the fetus should be to free a male or a female slave. He also decided that the Diyah of the deceased is required from the elders of the killer’s tribe.” This Hadith indicates that in the case of what appears to be intentional murder, the Diyah is the same as that for killing by virtual mistake. The former type requires three types of Diyah, just like intentional murder, because it is somewhat similar to intentional murder. Al-Bukhari recorded in his Sahih that `Abdullah bin `Umar said, “The Messenger of Allah sent Khalid bin Al-Walid to Banu Jadhimah and he called them to Islam, but they did not know how to say, `We became Muslims.’ They started saying, `Saba’na, Saba’na (we became Sabians). Khalid started killing them, and when this news was conveyed to the Messenger of Allah , he raised his hands and said,

(O Allah! I declare my innocence before You of what Khalid did.) The Messenger sent `Ali to pay the Diyah of those who were killed and to compensate for the property that was destroyed, to the extent of replacing the dog’s bowl. This Hadith indicates that the mistake of the Leader or his deputy (Khalid in this case) is paid from the Muslim Treasury. Allah said,

(unless they remit it), meaning, the Diyah must be delivered to the family of the deceased, unless they forfeit their right, in which case the Diyah does not become necessary. Allah’s statement,

(If the deceased belonged to a people at war with you and he was a believer, the freeing of a believing slave (is prescribed);) means, if the murdered person was a believer, yet his family were combatant disbelievers, then they will receive no Diyah. In this case, the murderer only has to free a believing slave. Allah’s statement,

(and if he belonged to a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance,) meaning, if the family of the deceased were from Ahl Adh-Dhimmah or with whom there is a peace treaty, then they deserve his Diyah; full Diyah if the deceased was a believer, in which case the killer is required to free a believing slave also.

(And whoso finds this beyond his means, he must fast for two consecutive months) without breaking the fast (in the days of) the two months. If he breaks the fast without justification, i.e. illness, menstruation, post-natal bleeding, then he has to start all over again. Allah’s statement,

(to seek repentance from Allah. And Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.) means, this is how the one who kills by mistake can repent, he fasts two consecutive months if he does not find a slave to free.

(And Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise), we mentioned the explanation of this before.

Warning Against Intentional Murder

After Allah mentioned the ruling of unintentional murder, He mentioned the ruling for intentional murder. Allah said,

(And whoever kills a believer intentionally,) This Ayah carries a stern warning and promise for those who commit so grave a sin that it is mentioned along with Shirk in several Ayat of Allah’s Book. For instance, in Surat Al-Furqan, Allah said,

(And those who invoke not any other god along with Allah, nor kill such person as Allah has forbidden, except for just cause). Allah said,

(Say: “Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited you from: Join not anything in worship with Him.) ﴿6:151﴾. There are many Ayat and Hadiths that prohibit murder. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Blood offenses are the first disputes to be judged between the people on the Day of Resurrection. ) In a Hadith that Abu Dawud recorded, `Ubadah bin As-Samit states that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The believer will remain unburdened in righteousness as long as he does not shed prohibited blood. When he sheds forbidden blood, he will become burdened.) Another Hadith, states,

(The destruction of this earthly life is less significant before Allah than killing a Muslim man (or woman).)

Will the Repentance of those who Commit Intentional Murder, be Accepted

Ibn `Abbas held the view that the repentance of one who intentionally murders a believer, will not be accepted. Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Jubayr said, “The people of knowledge of Al-Kufah differed on this subject, I traveled to Ibn `Abbas to ask him about it. He said, `This Ayah,

(And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell) was the last revealed ﴿on this subject﴾ and nothing abrogated it.”’ Muslim and An-Nasa’i also recorded it. However, the majority of scholars of the earlier and later generations said that the killer’s repentance can be accepted. If he repents, and goes back to Allah humbly, submissively, and performing righteous deeds, then Allah will change his evil deeds into good deeds and compensate the deceased for his loss by rewarding him for his suffering. Allah said, R

(And those who invoke not any other god along with Allah), until,

(Except those who repent and believe, and do righteous deeds). The Ayah we just mentioned should not be considered abrogated or only applicable to the disbelievers ﴿who become Muslim﴾, for this contradicts the general, encompassing indications of the Ayah and requires evidence to support it. Allah knows best. Allah said,

(Say: “O My servants who have transgressed against themselves! Despair not of the mercy of Allah). This Ayah is general, covering all types of sins, including Kufr, Shirk, doubt, hypocrisy, murder, sin, and so forth. Therefore, everyone who repents sincerely from any of these errors, then Allah will forgive him. Allah said,

(Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him (in worship), but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He wills). This Ayah is general and includes every sin except Shirk, and it has been mentioned in this Surah, both after this Ayah and before it, in order to encourage hope in Allah, and Allah knows best. It is confirmed in the Two Sahihs, that an Israeli killed one hundred people then he asked a scholar, “Is it possible for me to repent” So he replied, “What is there that would prevent you from repentance” So he told him to go to another land where Allah was worshipped. He began to emigrate to it but died on the way, and the angel of mercy was the one to take him. Although this Hadith is about an Israeli, it is even more suitable for the Muslim community that their repentance be accepted. Indeed, Allah relieved Muslims from the burdens and restrictions that were placed on the Jews, and He sent our Prophet with the easy Hanifiyyah way (Islamic Monotheism). As for the honorable Ayah,

(And whoever kills a believer intentionally), Abu Hurayrah and several among the Salaf said that this is his punishment, if Allah decides to punish him. And this is the case with every threat that is issued for every sin. For instance, there could be good deeds that this person has done that would prevent him from being punished for that, and Allah knows best. Even if the murderer inevitably enters the Fire — as Ibn `Abbas stated because his repentance was not accepted, or he did not have good deeds to save him, he will not remain there for eternity, but only for a long time. There are Mutawatir Hadiths stating that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Whoever has the least speck of faith in his heart shall ultimately depart the Fire.)

(94. O you who believe! When you go (to fight) in the cause of Allah, verify (the truth), and say not to anyone who greets you: “You are not a believer;” seeking the perishable goods of the worldly life. There is much more benefit with Allah. Even as he is now, so were you yourselves before, till Allah conferred on you His Favors, therefore, be cautious in discrimination. Allah is Ever Well-Aware of what you do.)

Greeting with the Salam is a Sign of Islam

Imam Ahmad recorded that `Ikrimah said that Ibn `Abbas said, “A man from Bani Sulaym, who was tending a flock of sheep, passed by some of the Companions of the Prophet and said Salam to them. They said (to each other), `He only said Salam to protect himself from us.’ Then they attacked him and killed him. They brought his sheep to the Prophet , and this Ayah was revealed,

(O you who believe!), until the end of the Ayah.” At-Tirmidhi recorded this in his (chapter on) Tafsir, and said, “This Hadith is Hasan, and it is also reported from Usamah bin Zayd.” Al-Hakim also recorded it and said, “Its chain is Sahih, but they did not collect it.” Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas commented;

(and say not to anyone who greets you: “You are not a believer;”), “A man was tending his sheep and the Muslims caught up with him. He said, `As-Salamu `Alaykum.’ However, they killed him and took his sheep. Allah revealed the Ayah;

(And say not to anyone who greets you: “You are not a believer; seeking the perishable goods of the worldly life).” Ibn `Abbas said; “The goods of this world were those sheep.” And he recited,

(Peace) Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Qa`qa` bin Abdullah bin Abi Hadrad narrated that his father `Abdullah bin Abi Hadrad said, “The Messenger of Allah sent us to (the area of) Idam. I rode out with a group of Muslims that included Abu Qatadah, Al-Harith bin Rab`i and Muhallam bin Juthamah bin Qays. We continued on until we reached the area of Idam, where `Amr bin Al-Adbat Al-Ashja`i passed by us on his camel. When he passed by us he said Salam to us, and we did not attack him. Because of some previous problems with him, Muhallam bin Juthamah killed him and took his camel. When we went back to the Messenger of Allah and told him what had happened, a part of the Qur’an was revealed about us,

(O you who believe! When you go (to fight) in the cause of Allah), until,

(Well-Aware).” Only Ahmad recorded this Hadith. Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said to Al-Miqdad,

(You killed a believing man who hid his faith with disbelieving people, after he had announced his faith to you. Remember that you used to hide your faith in Makkah before.) Al-Bukhari recorded this shorter version without a complete chain of narrators. However a longer version with a connected chain of narrators has also been recorded. Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bazzar recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “The Messenger of Allah sent a military expedition under the authority of Al-Miqdad bin Al-Aswad and when they reached the designated area, they found the people had dispersed. However, a man with a lot of wealth did not leave and said, `I bear witness that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.’ Yet, Al-Miqdad killed him, and a man said to him, `You killed a man after he proclaimed: “There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah. By Allah I will mention what you did to the Prophet .’ When they went back to the Messenger of Allah, they said, `O Messenger of Allah! Al-Miqdad killed a man who testified that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.’ He said,

(Summon Al-Miqdad before me. O Miqdad! Did you kill a man who proclaimed, “There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah” What would you do when you face, “There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah tomorrow”) Allah then revealed;

(O you who believe! When you go (to fight) in the cause of Allah, verify (the truth), and say not to anyone who greets you: “You are not a believer;” seeking the perishable goods of the worldly life. There are much more profits and booties with Allah. Even as he is now, so were you yourselves before till Allah conferred on you His Favors, therefore, be cautious in discrimination). The Messenger of Allah said to Al-Miqdad,

(He was a believing man who hid his faith among disbelieving people, and he announced his faith to you, but you killed him, although you used to hide your faith before, in Makkah.)” Allah’s statement,

(There is much more benefit with Allah.) means, better than what you desired of worldly possessions which made you kill the one who greeted you with the Salam and pronounced his faith to you. Yet, you ignored all this and accused him of hypocrisy, to acquire the gains of this life. However, the pure wealth with Allah is far better than what you acquired. Allah’s statement,

(so were you yourselves before, till Allah conferred on you His Favors.) means, beforehand, you used to be in the same situation like this person who hid his faith from his people. We mentioned the relevant Hadiths above. Allah said,

(And remember when you were few and were reckoned weak in the land). `Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Sa`id bin Jubayr commented about Allah’s statement,

(so were you yourselves before), “You used to hide your faith, just as this shepherd hid his faith.” Allah said,

(therefore, be cautious in discrimination), then said,

(Allah is Ever Well-Aware of what you do.) and this part of the Ayah contains a threat and a warning, as Sa`id bin Jubayr stated.

(95. Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home), except those who are disabled, and those who strive hard and fight in the cause of Allah with their wealth and their lives. Allah has preferred in grades those who strive hard and fight with their wealth and their lives above those who sit (at home). Unto each, Allah has promised good (Paradise), but Allah has preferred those who strive hard and fight, above those who sit (at home), by a huge reward.) (96. Degrees of (higher) grades from Him, and forgiveness and mercy. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)

The Mujahid and those Who Do not Join Jihad are Not the Same, [and Jihad is Fard Kifayah]

Al-Bukhari recorded that Al-Bara’ said, “When the Ayah,

(Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home),) was revealed, the Messenger of Allah called Zayd and commanded him to write it. Then, Ibn Umm Maktum came and mentioned that he was blind. Allah revealed,

(except those who are disabled (by injury or are blind or lame)).” Al-Bukhari recorded that Sahl bin Sa`d As-Sa`di said, “I saw Marwan bin Al-Hakam sitting in the Masjid. I came and sat by his side. He told us that Zayd bin Thabit told him that Allah’s Messenger dictated this Ayah to him,

(Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home), except those who are disabled, and those who strive hard and fight in the cause of Allah) Ibn Umm Maktum came to the Prophet as he was dictating that very Ayah to me. Ibn Umm Maktum said, `O Allah’s Messenger! By Allah, if I had power, I would surely take part in Jihad.’ He was a blind man. So Allah sent down revelation to His Messenger while his thigh was on mine and it became so heavy for me that I feared that my thigh would be broken. That ended after Allah revealed,

(except those who are disabled).” This was recorded by Al-Bukhari. At-Tirmidhi recorded that Ibn `Abbas said,

(Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home), except those who are disabled), refers to those who did not go to the battle of Badr and those who went to Badr. When the battle of Badr was about to occur, Abu Ahmad bin Jahsh and Ibn Umm Maktum said, `We are blind, O Messenger of Allah! Do we have an excuse’ The Ayah,

(Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home), except those who are disabled) was revealed. Allah made those who fight, above those who sit in their homes not hindered by disability.

(but Allah has preferred those who strive hard and fight, above those who sit (at home), by a huge reward. Degrees of (higher) grades from Him), above the believers who sit at home without a disability hindering them.” This is the wording recorded by At-Tirmidhi, who said, “Hasan Gharib. Allah’s statement,

(Not equal are those of the believers who sit (at home),) this is general. Soon after, the revelation came down with,

(except those who are disabled). So whoever has a disability, such as blindness, a limp, or an illness that prevents them from joining Jihad, they were not compared to the Mujahidin who strive in Allah’s cause with their selves and wealth, as those who are not disabled and did not join the Jihad were. In his Sahih, Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

?????: ??? ???????? ?? ???? ????? (There are people who remained in Al-Madinah, who were with you in every march you marched and every valley you crossed.) They said, “While they are still in Al-Madinah, O Messenger of Allah” He said,

(Yes. Only their disability hindered them (from joining you).) Allah said,

(Unto each, Allah has promised good) meaning, Paradise and tremendous rewards. This Ayah indicates that Jihad is not Fard on each and every individual, but it is Fard Kifayah (which is a collective duty). Allah then said,

(but Allah has preferred those who strive hard and fight, above those who sit (at home), by a huge reward). Allah mentions what He has given them rooms in Paradise, along with His forgiveness and the descent of mercy and blessing on them, as a favor and honor from Him. So He said;

(Degrees of (higher) grades from Him, and forgiveness and mercy. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.). In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(There are a hundred grades in Paradise that Allah has prepared for the Mujahidin in His cause, between each two grades is the distance between heaven and Earth.)

(97. Verily, as for those whom the angels take (in death) while they are wronging themselves, they (angels) say (to them): “In what (condition) were you” They reply: “We were weak and oppressed on the earth.” They (angels) say: “Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you to emigrate therein” Such men will find their abode in Hell – what an evil destination!) (98. Except the weak ones among men, women and children who cannot devise a plan, nor are they able to direct their way.) (99. These are they whom Allah is likely to forgive them, and Allah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving.) (100. He who emigrates in the cause of Allah, will find on earth many dwelling places and plenty to live by. And whosoever leaves his home as an emigrant unto Allah and His Messenger, and death overtakes him, his reward is then surely incumbent upon Allah. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.)

The Prohibition of Residing Among the Disbelievers While Able to Emigrate

Al-Bukhari recorded that Muhammad bin `Abdur-Rahman, Abu Al-Aswad, said, “The people of Al-Madinah were forced to prepare an army (to fight against the people of Ash-Sham during the Khilafah of Abdullah bin Az-Zubayir at Makkah), and I was enlisted in it. Then I met `Ikrimah, the freed slave of Ibn `Abbas, and informed him (about it), and he forbade me strongly from doing so (i.e., to enlist in that army), and then he said to me, `Ibn `Abbas told me that some Muslims used to go out with the idolators increasing the size of their army against the Messenger of Allah . Then, an arrow would hit one of them and kill him, or he would be struck on his neck (with a sword) and killed, and Allah sent down the Ayah,

(Verily, as for those whom the angels take (in death) while they are wronging themselves).” Ad-Dahhak stated that this Ayah was revealed about some hypocrites who did not join the Messenger of Allah but remained in Makkah and went out with the idolators for the battle of Badr. They were killed among those who were killed. Thus, this honorable Ayah was revealed about those who reside among the idolators, while able to perform Hijrah and unable to practice the faith. Such people will be committing injustice against themselves and falling into a prohibition according to the consensus and also according to this Ayah,

(Verily, as for those whom the angels take (in death) while they are wronging themselves,) by refraining from Hijrah,

(They (angels) say (to them): “In what (condition) were you”) meaning, why did you remain here and not perform Hijrah

(They reply: “We were weak and oppressed on the earth.”) meaning, we are unable to leave the land or move about in the earth,

(They (angels) say: “Was not the earth of Allah spacious enough for you). Abu Dawud recorded that Samurah bin Jundub said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Whoever mingles with the idolator and resides with him, he is just like him.) Allah’s statement,

(Except the weak) until the end of the Ayah, is an excuse that Allah gives for this type of people not to emigrate, because they are unable to free themselves from the idolators. And even if they did, they would not know which way to go. This is why Allah said,

(Who cannot devise a plan, nor are they able to direct their way), meaning, they do not find the way to emigrate, as Mujahid, `Ikrimah and As-Suddi stated. Allah’s statement,

(These are they whom Allah is likely to forgive them,) means, pardon them for not migrating, and here, `likely’ means He shall,

(and Allah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Oft-Forgiving). Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, “While the Messenger of Allah was praying `Isha’, he said, `Sami` Allahu Liman Hamidah.’ He then said before he prostrated,

(O Allah! Save `Ayyash bin Abi Rabi`ah. O Allah! Save Salamah bin Hisham. O Allah! Save Al-Walid bin Al-Walid. O Allah! Save the weak Muslims. O Allah! Be very hard on Mudar tribe. O Allah! Afflict them with years (of famine) similar to the (famine) years of the time of Prophet Yusuf.)” Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu An-Nu`man said that Hammad bin Zayd said that Ayyub narrated that Ibn Abi Mulaykah said that Ibn `Abbas commented on the verse,

(Except the weak ones among men), “I and my mother were among those (weak ones) whom Allah excused.” Allah’s statement,

(He who emigrates in the cause of Allah, will find on earth many dwelling places and plenty to live by.) this encourages the believers to perform Hijrah and abandon the idolators, for wherever the believer emigrates, he will find a safe refuge to resort to. Mujahid said that,

(many dwelling places) means, he will find a way out of what he dislikes. Allah’s statement,

(and plenty to live by.) refers to provision. Qatadah also said that,

(…will find on earth many dwelling places and plenty to live by.) means, Allah will take him from misguidance to guidance and from poverty to richness. Allah’s statement,

(And whosoever leaves his home as an emigrant unto Allah and His Messenger, and death overtakes him, his reward is then surely, incumbent upon Allah. ) means, whoever starts emigrating and dies on the way, he will acquire the reward of those who emigrate for Allah. The Two Sahihs, along with the Musnad and Sunan compilers, recorded that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions, and every person will be rewarded according to what he has intended. So, whoever emigrated to Allah and His Messenger, then his emigration is for Allah and His Messenger. And whoever emigrated for worldly benefits or for a woman to marry, his emigration is for what he emigrated for.) This Hadith is general, it applies to Hijrah as well as every other deed. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that a man killed ninety-nine people and completed the number one hundred when he killed a worshipper. He then asked a scholar if he has a chance to repent. The scholar said, “What prevents you from repentance” The scholar told the killer to emigrate from his land to another land where Allah is worshipped. When he left his land and started on the migration to the other land, death overtook him on the way. The angels of mercy and the angels of torment disputed about the man, whereas the former said that he went out in repentance, while the latter said that he did not arrive at his destination. They were commanded to measure the distance between the two lands and to whichever land he is closer to, he will be considered part of that land. Allah commanded that the righteous land to move closer and the land of evil to move farther. The angels found that he died closer to the land that he intended to emigrate to by a hand-span, and thus the angels of mercy captured his soul. In another narration, when death came to that man, he moved his chest towards the righteous village that he emigrated to.

(101. And when you Darabtum in the land, there is no sin on you if you shorten the Salah if you fear that the disbelievers may put you in trial, verily, the disbelievers are ever unto you open enemies.)

Salat Al-Qasr, Shortening the Prayer

Allah said,

(And when you Darabtum in the land,) meaning if you travel in the land. In another Ayah, Allah said,

(He knows that there will be some among you sick, others Yadribuna (traveling) through the land, seeking of Allah’s bounty…) ﴿73:20﴾. Allah’s statement,

(there is no sin on you if you shorten the Salah (prayer)) by reducing (the units of the prayer) from four to two. Allah’s statement,

(if you fear that the disbelievers may put you in trial (attack you)), refers to the typical type of fear prevalent when this Ayah was revealed. In the beginning of Islam, and after the Hijrah, Muslims used to experience fear during most of their travels. Rather, they restricted their movements to large or short military expeditions. During that era, most areas were areas of combatant enemies of Islam and its people. But when the prevalent circumstances cease, or a new situation is prevalent, decrees of this nature may not be understood, as Allah said;

(And force not your slave girls to prostitution, if they desire chastity). And His saying;

(And your stepdaughters, under your guardianship, born of your wives whom you have gone into) Imam Ahmad recorded that Ya`la bin Umayyah said, “I asked `Umar bin Al-Khattab about the verse:

(there is no sin on you if you shorten the prayer. If you fear that the disbelievers may put you in trial,) e `Allah granted Muslims safety now’ `Umar said to me, `I wondered about the same thing and asked the Messenger of Allah about it and he said,

(A gift that Allah has bestowed on you, so accept His gift).” Muslim and the collectors of Sunan recorded this Hadith. At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih”. `Ali bin Al-Madini said, “This Hadith is Hasan Sahih from the narration of `Umar, and it is not preserved by any other route besides this one, and its narrators are all known.” Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Shaybah recorded that Abu Hanzalah Al-Hadha’ said, “I asked Ibn `Umar about the Qasr prayer and he said, `It consists of two Rak`ahs.’ I said, what about Allah’s statement,

(if you fear that the disbelievers may put you in trial (attack you),) `We are safe now.’ He said, `This is the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah .”’. Al-Bukhari recorded that Anas said, “We went out with the Messenger of Allah from Al-Madinah to Makkah; he used to pray two Rak`ahs until we went back to Al-Madinah.” When he was asked how long they remained in Makkah, he said, “We remained in Makkah for ten days.” This was recorded by the Group. Imam Ahmad recorded that Harithah bin Wahb Al-Khuza`i said, “I prayed behind the Prophet for the Zuhr and `Asr prayers in Mina, when the people were numerous and very safe, and he prayed two Rak`ahs.” This was recorded by the Group, with the exception of Ibn Majah. Al-Bukhari’s narration of this Hadith reads, “The Prophet led us in the prayer at Mina during the peace period by offering two Rak`ahs. ”

(102. When you (O Messenger Muhammad ) are among them, and lead them in Salah, let one party of them stand up ﴿in prayer﴾ with you, taking their arms with them; when they finish their prostrations, let them take their positions in the rear and let the other party come up which have not yet prayed, and let them pray with you, taking all the precautions and bearing arms. Those who disbelieve wish, if you were negligent of your arms and your baggage, to attack you in a single rush, but there is no sin on you if you put away your arms because of the inconvenience of rain or because you are ill, but take every precaution for yourselves. Verily, Allah has prepared a humiliating torment for the disbelievers.)

The Description of The Fear Prayer

The Fear prayer has different forms, for the enemy is sometimes in the direction of the Qiblah and sometimes in another direction. The Fear prayer consists sometimes of four Rak`ahs, three Rak`ahs, as for Maghrib, and sometimes two Rak`ah like Fajr and prayer during travel. The Fear prayer is sometimes prayed in congregation, but when the battle is raging, congregational prayer may not be possible. In this case, they pray each by himself, facing the Qiblah or otherwise, riding or on foot. In this situation, they are allowed to walk and fight, all the while performing the acts of the prayer. Some scholars said that in the latter case, they pray only one Rak`ah, for Ibn `Abbas narrated, “By the words of your Prophet , Allah has ordained the prayer of four Rak`ah while residing, two Rak`ah during travel, and one Rak`ah during fear.” Muslim, Abu Dawud, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah recorded it. This is also the view of Ahmad bin Hanbal. Al-Mundhiri said, “This is the saying of `Ata’, Jabir, Al-Hasan, Mujahid, Al-Hakam, Qatadah and Hammad; and Tawus and Ad-Dahhak also prefered it.” Abu `Asim Al-`Abadi mentioned that Muhammad bin Nasr Al-Marwazi said the Fajr prayer also becomes one Rak`ah during fear. This is also the opinion of Ibn Hazm. Ishaq bin Rahwayh said, “When a battle is raging, one Rak`ah during which you nod your head is sufficient for you. If you are unable, then one prostration is sufficient, because the prostration is remembrance of Allah.”

The Reason behind Revealing this Ayah

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu `Ayyash Az-Zuraqi said, “We were with the Messenger of Allah in the area of `Usfan (a well known place near Makkah), when the idolators met us under the command of Khalid bin Al-Walid, and they were between us and the Qiblah. The Messenger of Allah led us in Zuhr prayer, and the idolators said, `They were busy with something during which we had a chance to attack them.’ They then said, `Next, there will come a prayer (`Asr) that is dearer to them than their children and themselves.’ However, Jibril came down with these Ayat between the prayers of Zuhr and `Asr,

(When you (O Messenger Muhammad ) are among them, and lead them in Salah (prayer)). When the time for prayer came, the Messenger of Allah commanded Muslims to hold their weapons and he made us stand in two lines behind him. When he bowed, we all bowed behind him. When he raised his head, we all raised our heads. The Prophet then prostrated with the line that was behind him while the rest stood in guard. When they finished with the prostration and stood up, the rest sat and performed prostration, while those who performed it stood up in guard after the two lines exchanged position. The Prophet then bowed and they all bowed after him, then raised their heads after he raised his head. Then the Prophet performed prostration with the line that was behind him, while the rest stood in guard. When those who made prostration sat, the rest prostrated. The Prophet then performed the Taslim and ended the prayer. The Messenger of Allah performed this prayer twice, once in `Usfan and once in the land of Banu Sulaym.”’ This is the narration recorded by Abu Dawud and An-Nasa’i, and it has an authentic chain of narration and many other texts to support it. Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “Once the Prophet led the Fear prayer and the people stood behind him. He said Allahu-Akbar and the people said the same. He bowed and some of them bowed. Then he prostrated and they also prostrated. Then he stood for the second Rak`ah and those who had prayed the first Rak`ah left and guarded their brothers. The second party joined him and performed bowing and prostration with him. All the people were in prayer, but they were guarding one another during the prayer.” Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah led them in the Fear prayer. A group of them stood before him and a group behind him. The Prophet led those who were behind him with one Rak`ah and two prostrations. They then moved to the position of those who did not pray, while the others stood in their place, and the Messenger of Allah performed one Rak`ah and two prostrations and then said the Salam. Therefore, the Prophet prayed two Rak`ah while they prayed one. An-Nasa’i recorded this Hadith, while Muslim collected other wordings for it. Collectors of the Sahih, Sunan and Musnad collections recorded this in a Hadith from Jabir. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Salim said that his father said,

(When you (O Messenger Muhammad ) are among them, and lead them in Salah (prayer)) refers to the Fear prayer. The Messenger of Allah led one group and prayed one Rak`ah, while the second group faced the enemy. Then the second group that faced the enemy came and Allah’s Messenger led them, praying one Rak`ah, and then said the Salam. Each of the two groups then stood up and prayed one more Rak`ah each (while the other group stood in guard).” The Group collected this Hadith with Ma`mar in its chain of narrators. This Hadith also has many other chains of narration from several Companions, and Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Ibn Marduwyah collected these various narrations, as did Ibn Jarir. As for the command to hold the weapons during the Fear prayer, a group of scholars said that it is obligatory according to the Ayah. What testifies to this is that Allah said;

(But there is no sin on you if you put away your arms because of the inconvenience of rain or because you are ill, but take every precaution for yourselves) meaning, so that when necessary, you will be able to get to your weapons easily,

(Verily, Allah has prepared a humiliating torment for the disbelievers).

(103. When you have finished the Salah, remember Allah standing, sitting down, and on your sides, but when you are free from danger, perform the Salah. Verily, Salah is kitaban on the believers at fixed hours.) (104. And don’t be weak in the pursuit of the enemy; if you are suffering (hardships) then surely they (too) are suffering (hardships) as you are suffering, but you have a hope from Allah (for the reward, i.e. Paradise) that for which they hope not; and Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.)

The Order for Ample Remembrance After the Fear Prayer

Allah commands Dhikr after finishing the Fear prayer, in particular, even though such Dhikr is encouraged after finishing other types of prayer in general. In the case of Fear prayer, Dhikr is encouraged even more because the pillars of the prayer are diminished since they move about while performing it, etc., unlike other prayers. Allah said about the Sacred Months,

(so wrong not yourselves therein), even though injustice is prohibited all year long. However, injustice is particularly outlawed during the Sacred Months due to their sanctity and honor. So Allah’s statement,

(When you have finished Salah, remember Allah standing, sitting down, and on your sides,) means, in all conditions,

(But when you are free from danger perform the Salah.) when you are safe, tranquil and fear subsides,

(perform the Salah) by performing it as you were commanded; fulfilling its obligations, with humbleness, completing the bowing and prostration positions etc. Allah’s statement,

(Verily, the Salah is Kitaban on the believers at fixed hours.) means, enjoined, as Ibn `Abbas stated. Ibn `Abbas also said, “The prayer has a fixed time, just as the case with Hajj.” Similar is reported from Mujahid, Salim bin `Abdullah, `Ali bin Al-Husayn, Muhammad bin `Ali, Al-Hasan, Muqatil. As-Suddi and `Atiyah Al-`Awfi.

The Encouragement to Pursue the Enemy Despite Injuries

Allah’s statement,

(And don’t be weak in the pursuit of the enemy;) means, do not weaken your resolve in pursuit of your enemy. Rather, pursue them vigorously, fight them and be wary of them.

(if you are suffering then surely they are suffering as you are suffering,) meaning, just as you suffer from injuries and death, the same happens to the enemy. In another Ayah, Allah said,

(If you suffer a harm, be sure a similar harm has struck the others). Allah then said,

(but you have a hope from Allah that for which they hope not;) meaning, you and they are equal regarding the injuries and pain that you suffer from. However, you hope for Allah’s reward, victory and aid, just as He has promised you in His Book and by the words of his Messenger . Surely, Allah’s promise is true. On the other hand, your enemies do not have hope for any of this. So, it is you, not they, who should be eager to fight so that you establish the Word of Allah and raise it high. i

(And Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.) means, He is most knowledgeable and wise in all what He decides, decrees, wills and acts on concerning various worldly and religious ordainments, and He is worthy of praise in all conditions.

(105. Surely, We have sent down to you (O Muhammad ) the Book in truth that you might judge between men by that which Allah has shown you, so be not a pleader for the treacherous.) (106. And seek the forgiveness of Allah, certainly, Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) (107. And argue not on behalf of those who deceive themselves. Verily, Allah does not like anyone who is a betrayer, sinner.) (108. They may hide (their crimes) from men, but they cannot hide (them) from Allah; for He is with them (by His knowledge), when they plot by night in words that He does not approve. And Allah ever encompasses what they do.) (109. Lo! You are those who have argued for them in the life of this world, but who will argue for them on the Day of Resurrection against Allah, or who will then be their defender)

The Necessity of Referring to What Allah has Revealed for Judgement

Allah says to His Messenger, Muhammad ,

(Surely, We have sent down to you the Book in truth) meaning, it truly came from Allah and its narrations and commandments are true. Allah then said,

(that you might judge between men by that which Allah has shown you,) In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Zaynab bint Umm Salamah said that Umm Salamah said that the Messenger of Allah heard the noise of disputing people close to the door of his room, and he went out to them saying,

(Verily, I am only human and I judge based on what I hear. Some of you might be more eloquent in presenting his case than others, so that I judge in his favor. If I judge in one’s favor concerning the right of another Muslim, then it is a piece of the Fire. So let one take it or leave it.) Imam Ahmad recorded that Umm Salamah said, “Two men from the Ansar came to the Messenger of Allah with a dispute regarding some old inheritance, but they did not have evidence. The Messenger of Allah said,

(You bring your disputes to me, but I am only human. Some of you might be more persuasive in their arguments than others. I only judge between you according to what I hear. Therefore, whomever I judge in his favor and give him a part of his brother’s right, let him not take it, for it is a part of the Fire that I am giving him and it will be tied around his neck on the Day of Resurrection.) The two men cried and each one of them said, `I forfeit my right to my brother.’ The Messenger of Allah said,

(Since you said that, then go and divide the inheritance, and try to be just in your division. Then draw lots, and each one of you should forgive his brother thereafter (regardless of who got the best share).)” Allah’s statement,

(They may hide (their crimes) from men, but they cannot hide (them) from Allah;) chastises the hypocrites because they hide their evil works from the people so that they will not criticize them. Yet, the hypocrites disclose this evil with Allah, Who has perfect watch over their secrets and knows what is in their hearts. This is why Allah said,

(for He is with them (by His knowledge), when they plot by night in words that He does not approve. And Allah ever encompasses what they do) threatening and warning them. Allah then said,

(Lo! You are those who have argued for them in the life of this world,) meaning, suppose these people gain the verdict from the rulers in their favor in this life, since the rulers judge according to what is apparent to them. However, what will their condition be on the Day of Resurrection before Allah, Who knows the secret and what is even more hidden Who will be his advocate on that Day Verily, none will support them that Day. Hence, Allah’s statement,

(or who will then be their defender)

(110. And whoever does evil or wrongs himself but afterwards seeks Allah’s forgiveness, he will find Allah Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) 111. And whoever earns sin, he earns it only against himself. And Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.) (112. And whoever earns a fault or a sin and then blames it on someone innocent, he has indeed burdened himself with falsehood and a manifest sin.) (113. Had not the grace of Allah and His mercy been upon you, a party of them would certainly have made a decision to mislead you, but they mislead none except their own selves, and no harm can they do to you in the least. Allah has sent down to you the Book, and the Hikmah, and taught you that which you knew not. And ever great is the grace of Allah unto you.)

The Encouragement to Seek Allah’s Forgiveness, and Warning those who Falsely Accuse Innocent People

Allah emphasizes His generosity and kindness, in that He forgives whoever repents to Him from whatever evil they commit. Allah said,

(And whoever does evil or wrongs himself but afterwards seeks Allah’s forgiveness, he will find Allah Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas commented about this Ayah, “Allah informs His servants of His forgiveness, forbearing generosity and expansive mercy. So whoever commits a sin, whether minor or major,

(but afterwards seeks Allah’s forgiveness, he will find Allah Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) even if his sins were greater than the heavens, the earth and the mountains.” Imam Ahmad recorded that `Ali said, “Whenever I hear anything from the Messenger of Allah, Allah benefits me with whatever He wills of that. Abu Bakr told me, and Abu Bakr has said the truth, that the Messenger of Allah said,

(No Muslim commits a sin and then performs ablution, prays two Rak`ahs and begs Allah for forgiveness for that sin, but He forgives him.) He then recited these two Ayat,

(And whoever does evil or wrongs himself), and,

(And those who, when they have committed Fahishah or wronged themselves with evil).” Allah’s statement,

(And whoever earns sin, he earns it only against himself.) is similar to His statement,

(And no bearer of burdens shall bear the burden of another). So no one will avail anyone else. Rather, every soul, and none else, shall carry its own burden. This is why Allah said,

(And Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.) meaning, this occurs due to His knowledge, wisdom, fairness and mercy.

(and taught you that which you knew not.), before this revelation was sent down to you. Similarly, Allah said,

(And thus We have sent to you (O Muhammad ) a Ruh (a revelation, and a mercy) of Our command. You knew not what is the Book) until the end of the Surah. Allah said,

(And you were not expecting that the Book (this Qur’an) would be sent down to you, but it is a mercy from your Lord). So Allah said;

(And ever great is the grace of Allah unto you (O Muhammad )).

(114. There is no good in most of their secret talks save (in) him who orders Sadaqah, or goodness, or conciliation between mankind; and he who does this, seeking the good pleasure of Allah, We shall give him a great reward. (115. And whoever contradicts and opposes the Messenger after the right path has been shown clearly to him, and follows other than the believers’ way, We shall keep him in the path he has chosen, and burn him in Hell what an evil destination!)

Righteous Najwa, Secret Talk

Allah said,

(There is no good in most of their secret talks) meaning, what the people say to each other.

(save him who orders Sadaqah (charity), or goodness, or reconciliation between mankind;) meaning, except for this type of talk. Imam Ahmad recorded that Umm Kulthum bint `Uqbah said that she heard the Messenger of Allah saying,

(He who brings about reconciliation between people by embellishing good or saying good things, is not a liar.) She also said, “I never heard him allow what the people say (lies) except in three cases: in war, bringing peace between people and the man’s speech (invented compliments) to his wife and her speech to her husband.” Umm Kulthum bint `Uqbah was among the immigrant women who gave their pledge of allegiance to the Messenger of Allah . The Group also recorded this Hadith, with the exception of Ibn Majah. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Ad-Darda’ said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Should I tell you what is better than the grade of fasting, praying and Sadaqah) They said, “Yes, O Allah’s Messenger!” He said,

(Bringing reconciliation between people.) He also said,

(Spoiling the relationship (between people) is the destroyer.) Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi also recorded this Hadith, and At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih”. Allah said,

(and he who does this, seeking the good pleasure of Allah,) with sincerity and awaiting the reward with Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored,

(We shall give him a great reward.) meaning, an immense, enormous and tremendous reward.

The Punishment for Contradicting and Opposing the Messenger and Following a Path Other than That of the Believers

Allah’s statement,

(And whoever contradicts and opposes the Messenger after the right path has been shown clearly to him.) refers to whoever intentionally takes a path other than the path of the Law revealed to the Messenger, after the truth has been made clear, apparent and plain to him. Allah’s statement,

(and follows other than the believers’ way,) refers to a type of conduct that is closely related to contradicting the Messenger . This contradiction could be in the form of contradicting a text (from the Qur’an or Sunnah) or contradicting what the Ummah of Muhammad has agreed on. The Ummah of Muhammad is immune from error when they all agree on something, a miracle that serves to increase their honor, due to the greatness of their Prophet. There are many authentic Hadiths on this subject. Allah warned against the evil of contradicting the Prophet and his Ummah, when He said, e

(We shall keep him in the path he has chosen, and burn him in Hell — what an evil destination!) meaning, when one goes on this wicked path, We will punish him by making the evil path appear good in his heart, and will beautify it for him so that he is tempted further. For instance, Allah said,

(Then leave Me Alone with such as belie this Qur’an. We shall punish them gradually from directions they perceive not),

(So when they turned away (from the path of Allah), Allah turned their hearts away), and,

(And We shall leave them in their trespass to wander blindly). Allah made the Fire the destination of such people in the Hereafter. Indeed, the path of those who avoid the right guidance will only lead to the Fire on the Day of Resurrection, as evident by Allah’s statements,

((It will be said to the angels): “Assemble those who did wrong, together with their companions (from the devils)), and,

(And the criminals, shall see the Fire and apprehend that they have to fall therein. And they will find no way of escape from there).

(116. Verily, Allah forgives not (the sin of) setting up partners (in worship) with Him, but He forgives whom He wills, sins other than that, and whoever sets up partners in worship with Allah, has indeed strayed far away.) (117. They invoke nothing but female deities besides Him (Allah), and they invoke nothing but Shaytan, a persistent rebel!) (118. Allah cursed him. And he ﴿Shaytan﴾ said: “I will take an appointed portion of your servants.”) (119. “Verily, I will mislead them, and surely, I will arouse in them false desires; and certainly, I will order them to slit the ears of cattle, and indeed I will order them to change the nature created by Allah.” And whoever takes Shaytan as a Wali instead of Allah, has surely suffered a manifest loss.) (120. He ﴿Shaytan﴾ makes promises to them, and arouses in them false desires; and Shaytan’s promises are nothing but deceptions.) (121. The dwelling of such (people) is Hell, and they will find no way of escape from it.) (122. And those who believe and do righteous good deeds, We shall admit them to the Gardens under which rivers flow (i.e. in Paradise) to dwell therein forever. Allah’s promise is the truth; and whose words can be truer than those of Allah)

Shirk Shall not be Forgiven, in Reality the Idolators Worship Shaytan

We talked about Allah’s statement,

(Verily, Allah forgives not (the sin of) setting up partners (in worship) with Him, but He forgives whom He wills, sins other than that,) before and mentioned the relevant Hadiths in the beginning of this Surah. Allah’s statement,

(and whoever sets up partners in worship with Allah, has indeed strayed far away.) means, he will have taken other than the true path, deviated from guidance and righteousness, destroyed himself in this life and the Hereafter, and lost contentment in this life and the Hereafter. Juwaybir said that Ad-Dahhak said about Allah’s statement,

(They invoke nothing but female deities besides Him (Allah),) “The idolators claimed that the angels are Allah’s daughters, saying, `We only worship them so that they bring us closer to Allah.’ So they took the angels as gods, made the shapes of girls and decided, `These (idols) resemble the daughters of Allah (i.e., the angels), Whom we worship. ”’ This is similar to Allah’s statements,

(Have you then considered Al-Lat and Al-`Uzza)

(And they make the angels who themselves are servants of the Most Gracious (Allah) females) and,

(And they have invented a kinship between Him and the Jinn). Allah’s statement,

(and they invoke nothing but Shaytan, a persistent rebel!) means, Shaytan has commanded them to do this and made it seem fair and beautiful in their eyes. Consequently, they are worshipping Shaytan in reality, just as Allah said in another Ayah,

(Did I not command you, O Children of Adam, that you should not worship Shaytan) Allah said that, on the Day of Resurrection, the angels shall proclaim about the idolators who worshipped them in this life:

(Nay, but they used to worship the Jinn; most of them were believers in them). Allah’s statement,

(Allah cursed him), means, He expelled him and banished him from His mercy and His grace.

(I will take an appointed portion of your servants) means, a fixed and known share. Muqatil bin Hayyan commented, “From every one thousand, nine hundred and ninety-nine will go to the Fire and one to Paradise.”

(Verily, I will mislead them) from the true path,

(and surely, I will arouse in them false desires;) tempting them to feign repentance, arousing false hopes in them, encouraging them to delay and procrastinate with righteous deeds, deceiving them.

(and certainly, I will order them to slit the ears of cattle,) meaning, slitting their ears to designate them as Bahirah, Sa’ibah, and a Wasilah, as Qatadah and As-Suddi stated.

(And indeed I will order them to change the nature created by Allah.) means tattooing, according to Al-Hasan bin Abi Al-Hasan Al-Basri. In his Sahih, Muslim recorded the prohibition of tattooing the face, which in one of its wordings states: “May Allah curse whoever does this.” It is also recorded in the Sahih that Ibn Mas`ud said, “May Allah curse those who have tattoos and those who do it, who pluck their (facial) hairs and the one who does it for them, and those who make spaces between their teeth for the purpose of beauty, changing what Allah has created.” He then said, “Why should not I curse whom the Messenger of Allah has cursed, when the Book of Allah commands it,” referring to the Ayah,

(And whatsoever the Messenger gives you, take it; and whatsoever he forbids you, abstain (from it)). Allah’s statement,

(And whoever takes Shaytan as a Wali (protector or helper) instead of Allah, has surely suffered a manifest loss.) means, he will have lost this life and the Hereafter. Indeed, this is a type of loss that cannot be compensated or restored. Allah’s statement,

(He ﴿Shaytan﴾ makes promises to them, and arouses in them false desires;) explains the true reality. Surely, Shaytan deceitfully promises his supporters and tempts them into believing that they are winners in this and the Hereafter. This is why Allah said,

(and Shaytan’s promises are nothing but deceptions.) Allah states that on the Day of Return,

(And Shaytan will say when the matter has been decided: “Verily, Allah promised you a promise of truth. And I too promised you, but I betrayed you. I had no authority over you), until,

(Verily, there is a painful torment for the wrongdoers.) Allah’s statement,

(of such (people)) refers to those who like and prefer what Shaytan is promising and assuring them of,

(The dwelling of such (people) is Hell), as their destination and abode on the Day of Resurrection,

(and they will find no way of escape from it.), meaning, they will not be able to avoid, avert, evade or elude the Hellfire.

The Reward of Righteous Believers

Allah then mentions the condition of the content righteous believers and the perfect honor they will earn in the end. Allah said,

(And those who believe and do righteous good deeds,) meaning, their hearts were truthful and their limbs obedient with the righteous acts they were commanded, all the while abandoning the evil they were prohibited from doing.

(We shall admit them to Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise)) meaning, they will think of where they want these rivers to flow and they will flow there,

(to dwell therein forever), without end or being removed from it.

(Allah’s promise is the truth), meaning, this is a true promise from Allah, and verily, Allah’s promise shall come to pass. Allah then said,

(and whose words can be truer than those of Allah) meaning, none is more truthful in statement and narration than Allah. There is no deity worthy of worship, or Lord except Him. The Messenger of Allah used to proclaim in his speech,

(The most truthful speech is Allah’s Speech, and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad. The worst matters are the newly invented (in religion), every newly invented matter is an innovation, and every innovation is a heresy, and every heresy is in the Fire.)

(123. It will not be in accordance with your desires, nor those of the People of the Scripture, whosoever works evil, will have the recompense thereof, and he will not find any protector or helper besides Allah.) (124. And whoever does righteous good deeds, male or female, and is a believer, such will enter Paradise and not the least injustice, even to the size of a Naqir, will be done to them.) (125. And who can be better in religion than one who submits his face (himself) to Allah; and he is a Muhsin (a doer of good). And follows the religion of Ibrahim the Hanif (Monotheist). And Allah did take Ibrahim as a Khalil (an intimate friend)!) (126. And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And Allah is Ever Encompassing all things.)

Success is Only Achieved by Performing Righteous Deeds, not Wishful Thinking

Qatadah said, “We were told that the Muslims and the People of the Scriptures mentioned their own virtues to each other. People of the Scriptures said, `Our Prophet came before your Prophet and our Book before your Book. Therefore, we should have more right to Allah than you have.’ Muslims said, `Rather, we have more right to Allah than you, our Prophet is the Final Prophet and our Book supersedes all the Books before it.’ Allah sent down,

(It will not be in accordance with your desires (Muslims), nor those of the People of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), whosoever works evil, will have the recompense thereof),

(And who can be better in religion than one who submits his face (himself) to Allah; and he is a Muhsin.) Allah then supported the argument of the Muslims against their opponents of the other religions.” Similar statements were attributed to As-Suddi, Masruq, Ad-Dahhak and Abu Salih. Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on this Ayah ﴿4:123﴾, “The followers of various religions disputed, the people of the Tawrah said, `Our Book is the best Book and our Prophet (Musa) is the best Prophet. ‘ The people of the Injil said similarly, the people of Islam said, `There is no religion except Islam, our Book has abrogated every other Book, our Prophet is the Final Prophet, and you were commanded to believe in your Books and adhere to our Book.’ Allah judged between them, saying, o

(It will not be in accordance with your desires, nor those of the People of the Scripture, whosoever works evil, will have the recompense thereof).” This Ayah indicates that the religion is not accepted on account of wishful thinking or mere hopes. Rather, the accepted religion relies on what resides in the heart and which is made truthful through actions. It is not true that when one utters a claim to something, he attains it merely on account of his claim. It is not true that every person who claims to be on the truth is considered as such, merely on account of his words, until his claim gains merit with proof from Allah. Hence Allah’s statement,

(It will not be in accordance with your desires, nor those of the People of the Scripture, whosoever works evil, will have the recompense thereof), meaning safety will not be acquired by you or them just by wishful thinking. Rather, the key is in obeying Allah and following what He has legislated through the words of His honorable Messengers. This is why Allah said afterwards,

(whosoever works evil, will have the recompense thereof,) Similarly, Allah said,

(So whosoever does good equal to the weight of an atom, shall see it. And whosoever does evil equal to the weight of an atom, shall see it.) and it was reported that when these Ayat were revealed, they became hard on many Companions. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `A’ishah said, “I said, `O Messenger of Allah! I know the hardest Ayah in the Qur’an.’ He said, `What is it, O `A’ishah!’ I said,

(whoever works evil, will have the recompense thereof,) He said,

(That is what strikes the believing servant, even the problems that bother him.)” Ibn Jarir and Abu Dawud also recorded this Hadith. Sa`id bin Mansur recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, “When the Ayah,

(whosoever works evil, will have the recompense thereof,) was revealed, it was hard on Muslims. The Messenger of Allah said to them,

(Be steadfast and seek closeness. Everything that afflicts the Muslim, even the thorn that pierces his skin and the hardship he suffers, will be an expiation for him.)” This is the wording collected by Ahmad through Sufyan bin `Uyaynah. Muslim and At-Tirmidhi also recorded it. Allah’s statement,

(and he will not find any protector or helper besides Allah,) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas said; “Unless he repents and Allah forgives him.” Ibn Abi Hatim recorded it. Allah then said,

(And whoever does righteous good deeds, male or female, and is a believer). Allah mentions the recompense for evil actions and that He will surely inflict its punishment on the servant, either in this life, which is better for him, or in the Hereafter, we seek refuge with Allah from this end. We also beg Allah for our well-being in this life and the Hereafter and for His forgiveness, mercy and pardon. Allah then mentions His kindness, generosity and mercy in accepting the good deeds from His servants, whether male or female, with the condition that they embrace the faith. He also stated that He will admit the believers into Paradise and will not withhold any of their righteous deeds, even the weight of a Naqir – speck on the back of a date-stone. Earlier, we discussed the Fatil – the scalish thread in the long slit of a date-stone, and both of these, along with the Qitmir — the thin membrane over the date-stone were mentioned in the Qur’an. Allah then said,

(And who can be better in religion than one who submits his face to Allah.) meaning, performs the good actions in sincerity for his Lord with faith and awaiting the reward with Allah,

(and he is a Muhsin) following the correct guidance that Allah legislated in the religion of truth which He sent His Messenger with. These are the two conditions, in the absence of which no deed will be accepted from anyone; sincerity and correctness. The work is sincere when it is performed for Allah alone and it becomes correct when it conforms to the Shari`ah. So, the deed becomes outwardly correct with following the Sunnah and inwardly correct with sincerity. When any deed lacks either of these two conditions, the deed becomes null and void. For instance, when one lacks the pillar of sincerity in his work, he becomes a hypocrite who shows off for people. Whoever does not follow the Shari`ah, he becomes an ignorant, wicked person. When one combines both pillars, his actions will be the deeds of the faithful believers whose best deeds are accepted from them and their errors erased. Consequently, Allah said,

(And follows the religion of Ibrahim the Hanif (Monotheist). ) referring to Muhammad and his following, until the Day of Resurrection. Allah said,

(Verily, among mankind who have the best claim to Ibrahim are those who followed him, and this Prophet), and,

(Then, We have sent the Revelation to you (saying): “Follow the religion of Ibrahim the Hanif (Monotheist) and he was not of the Mushrikin). The Hanif, intentionally and with knowledge, avoids Shirk, he goes attentively to the truth, allowing no one to hinder him or stop him from it.

Ibrahim is Allah’s Khalil

Allah’s statement,

(And Allah did take Ibrahim as a Khalil (an intimate friend)!) encourages following Ibrahim Al-Khalil, because he was and still is an Imam whose conduct is followed and imitated. Indeed, Ibrahim reached the ultimate closeness to Allah that the servants seek, for he attained the grade of Khalil, which is the highest grade of love. He acquired all this due to his obedience to His Lord, just as Allah has described him,

(And of Ibrahim, the one who fulfilled),

(And (remember) when the Lord of Ibrahim tried him with (certain) commands, which he fulfilled), and,

(Verily, Ibrahim was an Ummah, obedient to Allah, a Hanif, and he was not one of the Mushrikin). Al-Bukhari recorded that `Amr bin Maymun said that when Mu`adh came back from Yemen, he led them in the Fajr prayer and recited,

(And Allah did take Ibrahim as a Khalil!) One of the men present commented, “Surely, the eye of Ibrahim’s mother has been comforted.” Ibrahim was called Allah’s Khalil due to his Lord’s great love towards him, on account of the acts of obedience he performed that Allah loves and prefers. We should mention here that in the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said that when the Messenger of Allah gave them his last speech, he said,

(O people! If I were to take a Khalil from the people of the earth, I would have taken Abu Bakr bin Abi Quhafah as my Khalil. However, your companion (meaning himself) is the Khalil of Allah.) Jundub bin `Abdullah Al-Bajali, `Abdullah bin `Amr bin Al-`As and `Abdullah bin Mas`ud narrated that the Prophet said,

(Allah has chosen me as His Khalil, just as He has chosen Ibrahim as His Khalil.) Allah’s statement,

(And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth.) means, everything and everyone are His property, servants and creation, and He has full authority over all of this. There is no one who can avert Allah’s decision or question His judgment. He is never asked about what He does due to His might, ability, fairness, wisdom, compassion and mercy. Allah’s statement,

(And Allah is Ever Encompassing all things.) means, His knowledge encompasses everything and nothing concerning His servants is ever hidden from Him. Nothing, even the weight of an atom, ever escapes His observation in the heavens and earth, nor anything smaller or bigger than that.

(127. They ask your legal instruction concerning women. Say: “Allah instructs you about them, and about what is recited unto you in the Book concerning the orphan girls whom you give not what they deserve and yet whom you desire to marry, and the children who are weak and oppressed, and that you stand firm for justice to orphans. And whatever good you do, Allah is Ever All-Aware of it.)

The Ruling Concerning Female Orphans

Al-Bukhari recorded that `A’ishah said about the Ayah,

(They ask your instruction concerning women. Say, “Allah instructs you about them…) until,

(whom you desire to marry…) “It is about the man who is taking care of a female orphan, being her caretaker and inheritor. Her money is joined with his money to such an extent, that she shares with him even the branch of a date that he has. So he likes (for material gain) to marry her himself, and hates to marry her to another man who would have a share in his money, on account of her share in his money. Therefore, he refuses to let her marry anyone else. So, this Ayah was revealed.” Muslim also recorded it. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `A’ishah said, “The people asked Allah’s Messenger (about orphan girls), so Allah revealed,

(They ask your instruction concerning women. Say, “Allah instructs you about them and about what is recited unto you in the Book…”) What is meant by Allah’s saying, `And about what is recited unto you in the Book’ is the former verse which said,

(If you fear that you shall not be able to deal justly with the orphan girls, then marry (other) women of your choice.)” `A’ishah said, “Allah’s statement,

(whom you desire to marry…) also refers to the desire of the guardian not to marry an orphan girl under his supervision when she lacks property or beauty. The guardians were forbidden to marry their orphan girls possessing property and beauty without being just to them, as they generally refrain from marrying them (when they are neither beautiful nor wealthy).” The basis of this is recorded in Two Sahihs. Consequently, when a man is the caretaker of a female orphan, he might like to marry her himself. In this case, Allah commands him to give her a suitable dowry that other women of her status get. If he does not want to do that, then let him marry other women, for Allah has made this matter easy for Muslims. Sometimes, the caretaker does not desire to marry the orphan under his care, because she is not attractive to his eye. In this case, Allah forbids the caretaker from preventing the female orphan from marrying another man for fear that her husband would share in the money that is mutually shared between the caretaker and the girl. `Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas said, “During the time of Jahiliyyah, the caretaker of a female orphan would cover her with his rope, and when he did that, no man would marry her. If she was beautiful and he desired to marry her, he married her and took control of her wealth. If she was not beautiful, he did not allow her to marry until she died, and when she died he inherited her money. Allah prohibited and outlawed this practice. ” He also said about Allah’s statement,

(and the children who are weak and oppressed,) that during the time of Jahiliyyah, they used to deny young children and females a share of inheritance. So Allah’s statement,

(you give not what they deserve) thus prohibiting this practice and designating a fixed share for each,

(To the male, a portion equal to that of two females..) whether they were young or old, as Sa`id bin Jubayr and others stated. Sa`id bin Jubayr said about Allah’s statement,

(and that you stand firm for justice to orphans.) “Just as when she is beautiful and wealthy you would want to marry her and have her for yourself, so when she is not wealthy or beautiful, marry her and have her for yourself.” Allah’s statement,

r(And whatever good you do, Allah is Ever All-Aware of it.) encourages performing the good deeds and fulfilling the commandments, and states that Allah is knowledgeable of all of this and He will reward for it in the best and most perfect manner.

(128. And if a woman fears cruelty or desertion on her husband’s part, there is no sin on them both if they make terms of peace between themselves; and making peace is better. And human souls are swayed by greed. But if you do good and have Taqwa, verily, Allah is Ever Well-Acquainted with what you do.) (129. You will never be able to do perfect justice between wives even if it is your ardent desire, so do not incline too much to one of them so as to leave the other hanging. And if you do justice, and do all that is right and have Taqwa, then Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) (130. But if they separate (by divorce), Allah will provide abundance for everyone of them from His bounty. And Allah is Ever All-Sufficient for His creatures’ needs, All-Wise.)

The Ruling Concerning Desertion on the Part of the Husband

Allah states, and thus legislates accordingly, that sometimes, the man inclines away from his wife, sometimes towards her and sometimes he parts with her. In the first case, when the wife fears that her husband is steering away from her or deserting her, she is allowed to forfeit all or part of her rights, such as provisions, clothing, dwelling, and so forth, and the husband is allowed to accept such concessions from her. Hence, there is no harm if she offers such concessions, and if her husband accepts them. This is why Allah said,

(there is no sin on them both if they make terms of peace between themselves;) He then said,

(and making peace is better) than divorce. Allah’s statement,

(And human souls are swayed by greed.) means, coming to peaceful terms, even when it involves forfeiting some rights, is better than parting. Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “Sawdah feared that the Messenger of Allah might divorce her and she said, `O Messenger of Allah! Do not divorce me; give my day to `A’ishah.’ And he did, and later on Allah sent down,

(And if a woman fears cruelty or desertion on her husband’s part, there is no sin on them both) Ibn `Abbas said, “Whatever (legal agreement) the spouses mutually agree to is allowed.”. At-Tirmidhi recorded it and said, “Hasan Gharib”. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that `A’ishah said that when Sawdah bint Zam`ah became old, she forfeited her day to `A’ishah, and the Prophet used to spend Sawdah’s night with `A’ishah. There is a similar narration also collected by Al-Bukhari. Al-Bukhari also recorded that `A’ishah commented;

(And if a woman fears cruelty or desertion on her husband’s part), that it refers to, “A man who is married to an old woman, and he does not desire her and wants to divorce her. So she says, `I forfeit my right on you.’ So this Ayah was revealed.”

Meaning of “Making Peace is Better

Allah said,

(And making peace is better). `Ali bin Abi Talhah related that Ibn `Abbas said that the Ayah refers to, “When the husband gives his wife the choice between staying with him or leaving him, as this is better than the husband preferring other wives to her.” However, the apparent wording of the Ayah refers to the settlement where the wife forfeits some of the rights she has over her husband, with the husband agreeing to this concession, and that this settlement is better than divorce. For instance, the Prophet kept Sawdah bint Zam`ah as his wife after she offered to forfeit her day for `A’ishah. By keeping her among his wives, his Ummah may follow this kind of settlement. Since settlement and peace are better with Allah than parting, Allah said,

(and making peace is better). Divorce is not preferred with Allah. The meaning of Allah’s statement,

(But if you do good and have Taqwa, verily, Allah is Ever Well-Acquainted with what you do) if you are patient with the wife you dislike and treat her as other wives are treated, then Allah knows what you do and will reward you for it perfectly. Allah’s statement,

(You will never be able to do perfect justice between wives even if it is your ardent desire,) means, O people! You will never be able to be perfectly just between wives in every respect. Even when one divides the nights justly between wives, there will still be various degrees concerning love, desire and sexual intimacy, as Ibn `Abbas, `Ubaydah As-Salmani, Mujahid, Al-Hasan Al-Basri and Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim stated. Imam Ahmad and the collectors of the Sunan recorded that `A’ishah said, “The Messenger of Allah used to treat his wives equally and proclaim,

(O Allah! This is my division in what I own, so do not blame me for what You own and I do not own) referring to his heart. This was the wording that Abu Dawud collected, and its chain of narrators is Sahih. Allah’s statement,

(so do not incline too much to one of them) means, when you like one of your wives more than others, do not exaggerate in treating her that way,

(so as to leave the other hanging. ) referring to the other wives. Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, As-Suddi and Muqatil bin Hayyan said that Mu`allaqah ﴿hanging﴾ means, “She is neither divorced nor married.” Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Whoever has two wives and inclines to one of them (too much), will come on the Day of Resurrection with one of his sides dragging.) Allah’s statement,

(And if you do justice, and do all that is right and have Taqwa, then Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) The Ayah states: If you do justice and divide equally in what you have power over, while fearing Allah in all conditions, then Allah will forgive you the favoritism that you showed to some of your wives. Allah then said,

(But if they separate (divorce), Allah will provide abundance for everyone of them from His bounty. And Allah is Ever All-Sufficient for His creatures’ needs, All-Wise. ) This is the third case between husband and wife, in which divorce occurs. Allah states that if the spouses separate by divorce, then Allah will suffice them by giving him a better wife and her a better husband. The meaning of,

(And Allah is Ever All-Sufficient for His creatures’ needs, All-Wise.) is: His favor is tremendous, His bounty is enormous and He is All-Wise in all His actions, decisions and commandments.

(131. And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And verily, We have recommended to the People of the Scripture before you, and to you that you have Taqwa of Allah. But if you disbelieve, then unto Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth, and Allah is Ever Rich (free of any needs), Worthy of all praise.) (132. And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And Allah is Ever All-Sufficient as Disposer of affairs.) (133. If He wills, He can take you away, O people, and bring others. And Allah is Ever All-Potent over that.) (134. Whoever desires the rewards of this life, then with Allah is the reward of this worldly life and of the Hereafter. And Allah is Ever All-Hearer, All-Seer.)

The Necessity of Taqwa of Allah

Allah states that He is the Owner of the heavens and earth and that He is the Supreme Authority over them. Hence Allah’s statement,

(And verily, We have recommended to the People of the Scripture before you, and to you) meaning, We have recommended to you what We recommended to the People of Scriptures; Taqwa of Allah, by worshipping Him Alone without partners. Allah then said,

(But if you disbelieve, then unto Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth). In another Ayah, Allah said that Musa said to his people,

(“If you disbelieve, you and all on the earth together, then verily, Allah is Rich (free of any need), Owner of all praise.”). Allah said,

(So they disbelieved and turned away. But Allah was not in need (of them). And Allah is Rich (free of any need), Worthy of all praise) meaning, He is far too Rich than to need His servants, and worthy of all praise in all His decisions and commandments. The meaning of Allah’s statement,

(And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And Allah is Ever All-Sufficient as a Disposer of affairs.) He has perfect watch over every soul, knowing what it deserves, He is the Watcher, and Witness of all things. Allah’s statement,

(If He wills, He can take you away, O people, and bring others. And Allah is Ever All-Potent over that.) means, He is able to take you away and replace you with other people if you disobey Him. In a similar Ayah, Allah said,

(And if you turn away, He will exchange you for some other people and they will not be your likes) Allah’s statement,

(Whoever desires the rewards of this life, then with Allah is the reward of this worldly life and of the Hereafter.) means, O those whose ultimate desire is this life, know that Allah owns the rewards of this life and the Hereafter. Therefore, if you ask Allah for both, He will enrich you, award you and suffice for you. As Allah said,

(But of mankind there are some who say: “Our Lord! Give us in this world!” and for such there will be no portion in the Hereafter. And of them there are some who say: “Our Lord! Give us in this world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good, and save us from the torment of the Fire!” For them there will be alloted a share for what they have earned),

(Whosoever desires (by his deeds) the reward of the Hereafter, We give him increase in his reward), and

(Whoever desires the quick-passing (transitory enjoyment of this world), We readily grant him what We will for whom We like) until,

(See how We prefer one above another (in this world)). So Allah said here,

(And Allah is Ever All-Hearer, All-Seer.)

(135. O you who believe! Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allah, even though it be against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, be he rich or poor, Allah is a better Protector to both. So follow not the lusts, lest you may avoid justice; and if you Talwu or Tu`ridu, it, verily, Allah is Ever Well-Acquainted with what you do.)

Commanding Justice and Conveying the Witness for Allah

Allah commands His believing servants to stand up for justice and fairness and not to deviate from it, right or left. They should not fear the blame of anyone or allow anyone to prevent them from doing something for the sake of Allah. They are also required to help, support and aid each other for Allah’s sake. Allah’s statement,

(as witnesses to Allah) is similar to His statement,

(And establish the testimony for Allah). Testimony should be delivered precisely, for the sake of Allah, thus making the testimony correct, truly just, and free of alterations, changes or deletions. This is why Allah said,

(even though it be against yourselves,) meaning, give correct testimony, and say the truth when you are asked about it, even if harm will effect you as a consequence. Indeed, Allah shall make a way out and give relief for those who obey Him in every matter. Allah’s statement,

(or your parents, or your kin,) means, even if you have to testify against your parents and kin, do not compromise for their sake. Rather, give the correct and just witness even if they are harmed in the process, for the truth presides above everyone and is preferred to everyone. Allah’s statement,

(be he rich or poor, Allah is a better Protector to both.) means, do not favor someone (in your testimony) because he is rich, or feel pity for him because he is poor, for Allah is their caretaker, a better Protector of them than you, and has better knowledge of what is good for them. Allah’s statement,

(So follow not the lusts, lest you may avoid justice;) means, let not desire, lust or the hatred you have against others, lure you into injustice in your affairs. Rather, stand for justice in all situations. Allah said;

(And let not the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just: that is nearer to piety) when the Prophet sent `Abdullah bin Rawahah to collect the tax on the fruits and produce of the Jews of Khaybar, they offered him a bribe so that he would go easy on them. He said; “By Allah! I have come to you from the dearest of the creation to me (Muhammad), and you are more hated by me than an equivelent number of apes and swine. However, my love for him (the Prophet ) and hatred for you shall not prevent me from being just with you.” On that, they said, “This (justice) is the basis which the heavens and earth were created. ” We will mention this Hadith later in Surat Al-Ma’idah (chapter 5) Allah willing. Allah’s statement afterwards,

(and if you Talwu or Tu`ridu) means, “Distort your testimony and change it”, according to Mujahid and several others among the Salaf. Talwu, includes distortion and intentional lying. For instance, Allah said,

(And verily, among them is a party who Yalwuna (distort) the Book with their tongues (as they read)). Tu`ridu, includes hiding and withholding the testimony. Allah said,

(Who hides it, surely, his heart is sinful) The Prophet said,

(The best witness is he who discloses his testimony before being asked to do so.) Allah then warned,

(Verily, Allah is Ever Well-Acquainted with what you do.) and will reward or punish you accordingly.

(136. O you who believe! Believe in Allah, and His Messenger, and the Book (the Qur’an) which He has sent down to His Messenger, and the Scripture which He sent down to those before; and whosoever disbelieves in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, and the Last Day, then indeed he has strayed far away.)

The Order to Have Faith after Believing

Allah commands His faithful servants to adhere to all the elements of faith, its branches, pillars and cornerstones. This is not stated as mere redundancy, but from the view of completing faith and the continual maintenence of it. For instance, the believer proclaims in every prayer,

(Guide us to the straight way.) which means, make us aware of the straight path and increase us in guidance and strengthen us on it. In this Ayah ﴿4:136﴾, Allah commands the believers to believe in Him and in His Messenger, just as He said elsewhere,

(O you who believe! Have Taqwa of Allah, and believe in His Messenger, ). Allah’s statement,

(and the Book which He has sent down to His Messenger,) refers to the Qur’an, while,

(and the Scripture which He sent down to those before (him);) refers to the previously revealed divine Books. Allah then said,

(and whosoever disbelieves in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers, and the Last Day, then indeed he has strayed far away.) meaning, he will have deviated from the correct guidance and strayed far away from its path.

(137. Verily, those who believe, then disbelieve, then believe (again), and (again) disbelieve, and go on increasing in disbelief; Allah will not forgive them, nor guide them on the (right) way.) (138. Give to the hypocrites the tidings that there is for them a painful torment.) (139. Those who take disbelievers for friends instead of believers, do they seek honor with them Verily, then to Allah belongs all honor). (140. And it has already been revealed to you in the Book that when you hear the verses of Allah being denied and mocked at, then sit not with them, until they engage in talk other than that; certainly in that case you would be like them. Surely, Allah will collect the hypocrites and disbelievers all together in Hell.)

Characteristics of the Hypocrites and Their Destination

Allah states that whoever embraces the faith, reverts from it, embraces it again, reverts from it and remains on disbelief and increases in it until death, then he will never have a chance to gain accepted repentance after death. Nor will Allah forgive him, or deliver him from his plight to the path of correct guidance. This is why Allah said,

(Allah will not forgive them, nor guide them on the (right) way). Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that his father said that Ahmad bin `Abdah related that Hafs bin Jami’ said that Samak said that `Ikrimah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented;

(and go on increasing in disbelief), “They remain on disbelief until they die.” Mujahid said similarly. Allah then said,

(Give to the hypocrites the tidings that there is for them a painful torment.) Hence, the hypocrites have this characteristic, for they believe, then disbelieve, and this is why their hearts become sealed. Allah describes the hypocrites as taking the disbelievers as friends instead of the believers, meaning they are the disbelievers’ supporters in reality, for they give them their loyalty and friendship in secret. They also say to disbelievers when they are alone with them, “We are with you, we only mock the believers by pretending to follow their religion.” Allah said, while chastising them for being friends with the disbelievers,

(do they seek honor, with them) Allah then states that honor, power and glory is for Him Alone without partners, and for those whom Allah grants such qualities to. Allah said,

(Whosoever desires honor, then to Allah belong all honor), and,

(But honor belongs to Allah, and to His Messenger, and to the believers, but the hypocrites know not). The statement that honor is Allah’s Alone, is meant to encourage the servants to adhere to their servitude to Allah and to be among His faithful servants who will gain victory in this life and when the Witnesses stand up to testify on the Day of Resurection. Allah’s statement,

(And it has already been revealed to you in the Book that when you hear the verses of Allah being denied and mocked at, then sit not with them, until they engage in talk other than that; certainly in that case you would be like them.) The Ayah means, if you still commit this prohibition after being aware of its prohibition, sitting with them where Allah’s Ayat are rejected, mocked at and denied, and you sanction such conduct, then you have participated with them in what they are doing. So Allah said,

((But if you stayed with them) certainly in that case you would be like them.) concerning the burden they will earn. What has already been revealed in the Book — as the Ayah says — is the Ayah in Surat Al-An`am ﴿6﴾, which was revealed in Makkah,

(And when you see those who engage in false conversation about Our verses (of the Qur’an) by mocking at them, stay away from them). Muqatil bin Hayyan said that this Ayah ﴿4:140﴾ abrogated the Ayah in Surat Al-An`am, referring to the part that says here,

((But if you stayed with them) certainly in that case you would be like them), and Allah’s statement in Al-An`am,

(Those who fear Allah, keep their duty to Him and avoid evil, are not responsible for them (the disbelievers) in any case, but (their duty) is to remind them, that they may have Taqwa). Allah’s statement,

(Surely, Allah will collect the hypocrites and disbelievers all together in Hell.) means, just as the hypocrites participate in the Kufr of disbelievers, Allah will join them all together to reside in the Fire for eternity, dwelling in torment, punishment, enchained, restrained and in drinking boiling water.

(141. Those who wait and watch about you; if you gain a victory from Allah, they say: “Were we not with you” But if the disbelievers gain a success, they say (to them): “Did we not gain mastery over you and did we not protect you from the believers” Allah will judge between you (all) on the Day of Resurrection. And never will Allah grant to the disbelievers a way (to triumph) over the believers.)

Hypocrites Wait and Watch what Happens to Muslims

Allah states that the hypocrites watch and await the harm that occurs to the believers, awaiting the time when the Muslim circumstances and religion are dissolved and the state of Kufr takes over.

(if you gain a victory from Allah) triumph, aid and booty,

(they say, “Were we not with you”) trying to come closer to the believers with this statement. However,

(But if the disbelievers gain a success,) by gaining victory over the believers sometimes, just as occurred during Uhud, for surely, the Messengers are tested, but the final victory is theirs.

(they say (to them), “Did we not gain mastery over you and did we not protect you from the believers”) meaning, did we not help you in secret and try our best to confuse the believers and weaken their resolve, until you gained victory over them This statement of the hypocrites is an attempt to strengthen relations with the disbelievers, because they pretend to be friends with both parties so that they will be safe from their harm, due to their weak faith and lack of certainty. Allah said,

(Allah will judge between you (all) on the Day of Resurrection) meaning, by what He knows about you, O hypocrites. Therefore, do not be deceived by being shaded under the protection of Islamic Law in this life, which is such only out of Allah’s wisdom. Surely, on the Day of Resurrection, your pretending shall not benefit you, because on that Day, the secrets of the souls will be disclosed and the contents of the hearts will be collected. Allah said,

(And never will Allah grant to the disbelievers a way (to triumph) over the believers). `Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Yasi` Al-Kindi said, “A man came to `Ali bin Abi Talib and said, `What about this Ayah,

(And never will Allah grant to the disbelievers a way (to triumph) over the believers.) `Ali said, `Come closer, come closer. Allah will judge between you on the Day of Resurrection, and He will not grant victory for the disbelievers over the believers.’ ” Ibn Jurayj recorded that `Ata’ Al-Khurasani said that Ibn `Abbas said that,

(And never will Allah grant to the disbelievers a way (to triumph) over the believers.) “Will occur on the Day of Resurrection.” As-Suddi recorded that Abu Malik Al-Ashja`i said that it occurs on the Day of Resurrection. As-Suddi said that “way” means, proof. It is possible that the meaning of, `and never will Allah grant to the disbelievers a way (to triumph) over the believers’, is in this life by being unable to exterminate the believers completely, although they sometimes gain victory over some Muslims. However, the Final Triumph will be for the believers in this life and the Hereafter. Allah said,

(Verily, We will indeed make victorious Our Messengers and those who believe in the worldly life) This provides a rebuttal to the wishes of the hypocrites for the destruction of the believers, and their loyalty to the disbelievers, fearing for themselves if they are victorious. In another Ayah, Allah said,

(And you see those in whose hearts there is a disease (of hypocrisy), they hurry to their friendship), until,

(Regretful)

(142. Verily, the hypocrites seek to deceive Allah, but it is He Who deceives them. And when they stand up for Salah, they stand with laziness and to be seen of men, and they do not remember Allah but little.) (143. (They are) swaying between this and that, belonging neither to these nor to those; and he whom Allah sends astray, you will not find for him a way.)

The Hypocrites Try to Deceive Allah and Sway Between Believers and Disbelievers

In the beginning of Surat Al-Baqarah ﴿2﴾, we mentioned Allah’s statement,

(They (think to) deceive Allah and those who believe). Here, Allah states,

(Verily, the hypocrites seek to deceive Allah, but it is He Who deceives them.) There is no doubt that Allah can never be deceived, for He has perfect knowledge of the secrets and what the hearts conceal. However, the hypocrites, due to their ignorance, scarce knowledge and weak minds, think that since they were successful in deceiving people, using Islamic Law as a cover of safety for themselves, they will acquire the same status with Allah on the Day of Resurrection and deceive Him too. Allah states that on that Day, the hypocrites will swear to Him that they were on the path of righteousness and correctness thinking that such statement will benefit them with Allah. For instance, Allah said,

(On the Day when Allah will resurrect them all together; then they will swear to Him as they swear to you) Allah’s statement,

(but it is He Who deceives them) means, He lures them further into injustice and misguidance. He also prevents them from reaching the truth in this life and on the Day of Resurrection. Allah said,

(On the Day when the hypocrites ? men and women ? will say to the believers: “Wait for us! Let us get something from your light!” It will be said: “Go back to your rear! Then seek a light!”) until,

(And worst indeed is that destination). A Hadith states;

(Whoever wants to be heard of, Allah will make him heard of, and whoever wants to be seen, Allah will show him.) Allah’s statement,

(And when they stand up for Salah, they stand with laziness). This is the characteristic of the hypocrites with the most honored, best and righteous act of worship, the prayer. When they stand for prayer, they stand in laziness because they neither truly intend to perform it nor do they believe in it, have humility in it, or understand it. This is the description of their outward attitude! As for their hearts, Allah said,

(to be seen of men) meaning, they do not have sincerity when worshipping Allah. Rather, they show off to people so that they gain closeness to them. They are often absent from the prayers that they can hide away from, such as the `Isha’ prayer and the Dawn prayer that are prayed in darkness. In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that the Messenger of Allah said,

. (The heaviest prayers on the hypocrites are the `Isha’ and Dawn prayers. If they know their rewards, they will attend them even if they have to crawl. I was about to order someone to pronounce the Adhan for the prayer, then order someone to lead the prayer for the people, then order some men to collect fire-wood (fuel); then I would burn the houses around men who did not attend the (compulsory congregational) prayer.) In another narration, the Prophet said,

(By Him, in Whose Hand my soul is, if anyone of them had known that he would get a bone covered with good meat or two (small) pieces of meat between two ribs, he would have turned up for the prayer, and had it not been that the houses have women and children in them, I would burn their homes around them.) Allah’s statement,

(And they do not remember Allah but little) means, during the prayer they do not feel humbleness or pay attention to what they are reciting. Rather, during their prayer, they are inattentive, jesting and avoid the good that they are meant to receive from prayer. Imam Malik reported that Al-`Ala’ bin `Abdur-Rahman said that Anas bin Malik said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(This is the prayer of the hypocrite, this is the prayer of the hypocrite, this is the prayer of the hypocrite. He sits watching the sun until when it goes down between the two horns of the devil, he stands up pecks out four Rak`ahs (for `Asr) without remembering Allah during them except little.) Muslim, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i also recorded it. At-Tirmidhi said “Hasan Sahih”. Allah’s statement,

((They are) swaying between this and that, belonging neither to these) means that the hypocrites are swaying between faith and disbelief. So they are neither with believers inwardly or outwardly nor with disbelievers inwardly or outwardly. Rather, they are with the believers outwardly and with the disbelievers inwardly. Some of them would suffer fits of doubt, leaning towards these sometimes and towards those sometimes,

(Whenever it flashes for them, they walk therein, and when darkness covers them, they stand still). Mujahid said;

((They are) swaying between this and that, belonging neither to these) “The Companions of Muhammad ,

(nor to those): the Jews.” Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn `Umar said that the Prophet said,

(The example of the hypocrite is the example of the sheep wandering between two herds, sometimes she goes to one of them, and sometimes the other, confused over whom she should follow.) Muslim also recorded it. This is why Allah said afterwards,

(and he whom Allah sends astray, you will not find for him a way.) meaning, whomever He leads astray from the guidance,

(For him you will find no Wali (guiding friend) to lead him (to the right path)) because,

(Whomsoever Allah sends astray, none can guide him). So the hypocrites whom Allah has led astray from the paths of safety will never find a guide to direct them, nor someone to save them. There is none who can resist Allah’s decision, and He is not asked about what He does, while they all will be asked.

(144. O you who believe! Do not take disbelievers as friends instead of believers. Do you wish to offer Allah a manifest Sultan against yourselves) (145. Verily, the hyprocrites will be in the lowest depth (grade) of the Fire; no helper will you find for them.) (146. Except those who repent, do righteous good deeds, depend on Allah, and purify their religion for Allah, then they will be with the believers. And Allah will grant the believers a great reward.) (147. Why should Allah punish you if you have thanked (Him) and have believed in Him. And Allah is Ever All-Appreciative (of good), All-Knowing.)

The Prohibition of Wilayah with the Disbelievers

Allah forbids His believing servants from taking the disbelievers as friends instead of the believers. This includes being friends and associates of the disbelievers, advising them, being intimate with them and exposing the secrets of the believers to them. In another Ayah, Allah said,

(Let not the believers take the disbelievers as friends instead of the believers, and whoever does that, will never be helped by Allah in any way, except if you indeed fear a danger from them. And Allah warns you against Himself). meaning, He warns you against His punishment if you fall into what He has prohibited. This is why Allah said here,

(Do you wish to offer Allah a manifest Sultan against yourselves) meaning, proof against you that warrants receiving His torment. Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Ibn `Abbas commented;

(manifest Sultan), “The word Sultan in the Qur’an means proof. ” There is an authentic chain of narration for this statement, which is also the saying of Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi and An-Nadr bin `Arabi.

The Hypocrites and the Friends of Disbelievers are in the Lowest Depth of the Fire, Unless they Repent

Allah then states that,

(Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths of the Fire;) on the Day of Resurrection due to their tremendous Kufr. Al-Walibi ﴿`Ali bin Abi Talhah﴾ said that Ibn `Abbas said,

(in the lowest depths (grade) of the Fire;) means, in the bottom of the Fire. Other scholars said that the Fire has ever lower depths just as Paradise had ever higher grades. Ibn Jarir recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said that,

(Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depths (grade) of the Fire), “Inside coffins of Fire that surround them, for they are closed and sealed in them.” Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that when Ibn Mas`ud was asked about the hypocrites, he said, “They will be placed in coffins made of fire and they will be closed in them in the lowest depth of the Fire.”

(no helper will you find for them. ) to save them from their misery and painful torment. Allah then states that whoever among the hypocrites repents in this life, Allah will accept his repentance and sorrow, if his repentance were sincere and he then follows it by performing righteous deeds, all the while depending on his Lord. Allah said, a

(Except those who repent (from hypocrisy), do righteous good deeds, depend on Allah, and purify their religion for Allah) replacing showing off with sincerity, so that their good deeds will benefit them, even if they were minute.

(then they will be with the believers.) on the Day of Resurrection,

(And Allah will grant to the believers a great reward.) Allah then states that He is too Rich to need anyone and that He only punishes the servants because of their sins,

(Why should Allah punish you if you have thanked (Him) and have believed in Him.) by correcting your actions and having faith in Allah and His Messenger ,

(And Allah is Ever All-Appreciative (of good), All-Knowing.) Allah appreciates those who appreciate Him, and has knowledge of those whose hearts believe in Him, and He will give them perfect rewar.

(148. Allah does not like that the evil should be uttered in public except by him who has been wronged. And Allah is Ever All-Hearer, All-Knower.) (149. Whether you disclose a good deed or conceal it, or pardon an evil, verily, Allah is Ever Pardoning, All-Powerful.)

The Permission to Utter Evil in Public, For One Who Was Wronged

`Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah,

(Allah does not like that the evil should be uttered in public) “Allah does not like that any one should invoke Him against anyone else, unless one was wronged. In this case, Allah allows one to invoke Him against whoever wronged him. Hence Allah’s statement,

(except by him who has been wronged.) Yet, it is better for one if he observes patience.” Al-Hasan Al-Basri commented, “One should not invoke Allah (for curses) against whoever wronged him. Rather, he should supplicate, `O Allah! Help me against him and take my right from him.”’ In another narration, Al-Hasan said, “Allah has allowed one to invoke Him against whoever wronged him without transgressing the limits.” `Abdul-Karim bin Malik Al-Jazari said about this Ayah; “When a man curses you, you could curse him in retaliation. But if he lies about you, you may not lie about him.

(And indeed whosoever takes revenge after he has suffered wrong, for such there is no way (of blame) against them. )” Abu Dawud recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Whatever words are uttered by those who curse each other, then he who started it will carry the burden thereof, unless the one who was wronged transgresses the limit.) Allah said,

(Whether you disclose a good deed, or conceal it, or pardon an evil; verily, Allah is Ever Pardoning, All-Powerful.) Meaning when you, mankind, admit to a good favor done to you, or conceal it, and forgive those who wrong you, then this will bring you closer to Allah and increase your reward with Him. Among Allah’s attributes is that He forgives and pardons His servants, although He is able to punish them. Hence Allah’s statement,

(Verily, Allah is Ever Pardoning, All-Powerful.) It was reported that some of the angels who carry Allah’s Throne praise Him saying, “All praise is due to You for Your forbearing even though You have perfect knowledge (in all evil committed).” Some of them supplicate, “All praise is due to You for Your forgiving even though You have perfect ability (to punish).” An authentic Hadith states,

(No charity shall ever decrease wealth, and Allah will only increase the honor of a servant who pardons, and he who is humble for Allah’s sake, then Allah will elevate his grade.)

(150. Verily, those who disbelieve in Allah and His Messengers and wish to make distinction between Allah and His Messengers saying, “We believe in some but reject others,” and wish to adopt a way in between.) (151. They are in truth disbelievers. And We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating torment.) (152. And those who believe in Allah and His Messengers and make no distinction between any of them (Messengers), We shall give them their rewards; and Allah is Ever Forgiving, Most Merciful.)

Believing in Some Prophets and Rejecting Others is Pure Kufr

Allah threatens those who disbelieve in Him and in His Messengers, such as the Jews and Christians, who differentiate between Allah and His Messengers regarding faith. They believe in some Prophets and reject others, following their desires, lusts and the practices of their forefathers. They do not follow any proof for such distinction, because there is no such proof. Rather, they follow their lusts and prejudices. The Jews, may Allah curse them, believe in the Prophets, except `Isa and Muhammad, peace be upon them. The Christians believe in the Prophets but reject their Final and Seal, and the most honored among the prophets, Muhammad, peace be upon him. In addition, the Samirah (Samaritans) do not believe in any Prophet after Yuwsha` (Joshua), the successor of Musa bin `Imran. The Majus (Zoroastrians) are said to believe only in a Prophet called Zoroaster, although they do not believe in the law he brought them casting it behind them, and Allah knows best. Therefore, whoever rejects only one of Allah’s Prophets, he will have disbelieved in all of them, because it is required from mankind to believe in every prophet whom Allah sent to the people of the earth. And whoever rejects one Prophet, out of envy, bias and personal whim, he only demonstrates that his faith in other Prophets is not valid, but an act of following desire and whim. This is why Allah said,

(Verily, those who disbelieve in Allah and His Messengers…) Thus, Allah describes these people as disbelievers in Allah and His Messengers;

(and wish to make distinction between Allah and His Messengers) in faith,

(saying, “We believe in some but reject others,” and wish to adopt a way in between.) Allah then describes them;

(They are in truth disbelievers.) meaning, their disbelief in the Prophet they claim to believe in is clear. This is because their claimed faith in a certain Messenger is not true, for had they truly believed in him, they would have believed in other Messengers, especially if the other Messenger has a stronger proof for his truthfulness. Or at least, they would have strived hard to acquire knowledge of the truth of the other Messenger. Allah said,

(And We have prepared for the disbelievers a humiliating torment.) This is just punishment for belittling the Prophets whom they disbelieved in, by ignoring what the Prophet brought to them from Allah, and because they are interested in the insignificant possessions of this world. Or, their behavior could be the result of their disbelief in the Prophet after they were aware of his truth, just as the Jewish rabbis did during the time of Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah . The Jews envied the Messenger because of the great prophethood that Allah gave him, and as a consequence, they denied the Messenger, defied him, became his enemies and fought against him. Allah sent humiliation upon them in this life, that shall be followed by disgrace in the Hereafter,

(And they were covered with humiliation and misery, and they drew on themselves the wrath of Allah.) in this life and the Hereafter. Allah’s statement,

(And those who believe in Allah and His Messengers and make no distinction between any of them,) This refers to the Ummah of Muhammad who believe in every Book that Allah has revealed and in every Prophet whom Allah has sent. Allah said,

(The Messenger believes in what has been revealed to him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers. All of them believe in Allah.) (2:285). Allah then states that He has prepared great rewards for them, tremendous favor and a handsome bounty,

(We shall give them their rewards;) because of their faith in Allah and His Messengers,

(and Allah is Ever Forgiving, Most Merciful.) for their sin, if they have any.

(153. The People of the Scripture (Jews) ask you to cause a book to descend upon them from heaven. Indeed, they asked Musa for even greater than that, when they said: “Show us Allah in public,” but they were struck with a bolt of lightning for their wickedness. Then they worshipped the calf even after Al-Bayyinat had come to them. (Even) so We forgave them. And We gave Musa a clear proof of authority.) (154. And for their covenant, We raised over them the mount and (on the other occasion) We said: “Enter the gate prostrating (or bowing) with humility;” and We commanded them: “Transgress not on the Sabbath (Saturday).” And We took from them a firm covenant.)

The Stubbornness of the Jews

Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi, As-Suddi and Qatadah said that the Jews asked the Messenger of Allah to cause a book to come down to them from heaven, just as the Tawrah was sent down to Musa. Ibn Jurayj said that the Jews asked the Messenger to cause books to come down to them addressed to so-and-so among them, testifying to the truth of what he was sent with. The Jews only asked for this because of their stubbornness, defiance, rejection and disbelief. The disbelievers of Quraysh also asked for similar things from the Prophet, as is mentioned in Surat Al-Isra’,

(And they say: “We shall not believe in you, until you cause a spring to gush forth from the earth for us;) (17:90) Allah said,

(Indeed, they asked Musa for even greater than that, when they said, “Show us Allah in public,” but they were struck with a bolt of lightning for their wickedness.) injustice, transgression, defiance and rebellion. This part was explained in Surat Al-Baqarah,

(And (remember) when you said: “O Musa! We shall never believe in you until we see Allah plainly.” But you were struck by a bolt of lightning while you were looking. Then We raised you up after your death, so that you might be grateful.) (2:55,56) Allah’s statement,

(Then they worshipped the calf even after Al-Bayyinat had come to them.) meaning, after they witnessed the tremendous miracles and unequivocal proofs at the hand of Musa in Egypt. They also witnessed the demise of their enemy, Fir`awn and his soldiers, when they all drowned in the sea. Yet soon after, when they passed by a people who were worshipping idols, they said to Musa,

(Make for us a god as they have gods.) Allah explains the story of the Jews worshipping the calf in Surat Al-A`raf (7) and Surah Ta Ha (20) after Musa went to meet with his Lord. When Musa returned, Allah decreed that in order for the Jews to earn accepted repentance, then those who did not worship the calf would have to kill those who worshipped it. They complied with this command, and Allah resurrected them afterwards. Allah said here,

((Even) so We forgave them. And We gave Musa a clear proof of authority. ) Allah then said,

(And for their covenant, We raised over them the mount,) This was when they refrained from implementing the rulings of the Tawrah and refused what Musa brought them from Allah. So Allah raised the mountain above their heads and they were ordered to prostrate, which they did. Even so, they were looking above when they were prostrating for fear that the mountain might fall on them,

(And (remember) when We raised the mountain over them as if it had been a canopy, and they thought that it was going to fall on them. (We said): “Hold firmly to what We have given you.”) Allah then said,

(and We said, “Enter the gate prostrating (or bowing) with humility;”) meaning that they also defied this command in word and action. They were commanded to enter Bayt Al-Quds (in Jerusalem) while bowing and saying “Hittah”, meaning: `O Allah! take from us our sin of abandoning Jihad.’ This was the cause of their wandering in the desert of Tih for forty years. Yet, they entered the House while crawling on their rear ends and saying `Hintah (a wheat grain) in Sha`rah (the hair)’.

(and We commanded them, “Transgress not the Sabbath (Saturday).”) meaning, We commanded them to honor the Sabbath and honor what Allah prohibited them on that day.

t(And We took from them a firm covenant.) meaning, strong covenant. They rebelled, transgressed and committed what Allah prohibited by using deceit and trickery, as is mentioned in Surat Al-A`raf (7),

(And ask them about the town that was by the sea.)

(155. Because of their breaking the covenant, and their rejecting the Ayat of Allah, and their killing the Prophets unjustly, and their saying: “Our hearts are Ghulf,” nay, Allah has set a seal upon their hearts because of their disbelief, so they believe not but a little.) (156. And because of their disbelief and uttering against Maryam a grave false charge.) (157. And because of their saying, “We killed Al-Masih `Isa, son of Maryam, the Messenger of Allah,” but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but it appeared as that to them, and those who differ therein are full of doubts. They have no (certain) knowledge, they follow nothing but conjecture. For surely; they killed him not.) (158. But Allah raised him up unto Himself. And Allah is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise.) (159. And there is none of the People of the Scripture, but must believe in him, before his death. And on the Day of Resurrection, he will be a witness against them.)

The Crimes of the Jews

The sins mentioned here are among the many sins that the Jews committed, which caused them to be cursed and removed far away from right guidance. The Jews broke the promises and vows that Allah took from them, and also rejected Allah’s Ayat, meaning His signs and proofs, and the miracles that they witnessed at the hands of their Prophets. Allah said,

(and their killing the Prophets unjustly,) because their many crimes and offenses against the Prophets of Allah, for they killed many Prophets, may Allah’s peace be upon them Their saying:

(“Our hearts are Ghulf,”) meaning, wrapped with covering, according to Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Ikrimah, As-Suddi and Qatadah. This is similar to the what the idolators said,

(And they say: “Our hearts are under coverings (screened) from that to which you invite us.”) Allah said,

(nay, Allah has set a seal upon their hearts because of their disbelief,) It is as if they had given an excuse that their hearts do not understand what the Prophet says since their hearts are wrapped with coverings, so they claim. Allah said that their hearts are sealed because of their disbelief, as we mentioned before in the explanation of Surat Al-Baqarah. Allah then said,

(so they believe not but a little.) for their hearts became accustomed to Kufr, transgression and weak faith.

The Evil Accusation the Jews Uttered Against Maryam and Their Claim that They Killed `Isa

Allah said,

(And because of their (Jews) disbelief and uttering against Maryam a grave false charge.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn `Abbas stated that the Jews accused Maryam of fornication.This is also the saying of As-Suddi, Juwaybir, Muhammad bin Ishaq and several others. This meaning is also apparent in the Ayah, as the Jews accused Maryam and her son of grave accusations: They accused her of fornication and claimed that `Isa was an illegitimate son. Some of them even claimed that she was menstruating while fornicating. May Allah’s continued curse be upon them until the Day of Resurrection. The Jews also said,

(“We killed Al-Masih, `Isa, son of Maryam, the Messenger of Allah,”) meaning, we killed the person who claimed to be the Messenger of Allah. The Jews only uttered these words in jest and mockery, just as the polytheists said,

(O you to whom the Dhikr (the Qur’an) has been sent down! Verily, you are a mad man!) When Allah sent `Isa with proofs and guidance, the Jews, may Allah’s curses, anger, torment and punishment be upon them, envied him because of his prophethood and obvious miracles; curing the blind and leprous and bringing the dead back to life, by Allah’s leave. He also used to make the shape of a bird from clay and blow in it, and it became a bird by Allah’s leave and flew. `Isa performed other miracles that Allah honored him with, yet the Jews defied and bellied him and tried their best to harm him. Allah’s Prophet `Isa could not live in any one city for long and he had to travel often with his mother, peace be upon them. Even so, the Jews were not satisfied, and they went to the king of Damascus at that time, a Greek polytheist who worshipped the stars. They told him that there was a man in Bayt Al-Maqdis misguiding and dividing the people in Jerusalem and stirring unrest among the king’s subjects. The king became angry and wrote to his deputy in Jerusalem to arrest the rebel leader, stop him from causing unrest, crucify him and make him wear a crown of thorns. When the king’s deputy in Jerusalem received these orders, he went with some Jews to the house that `Isa was residing in, and he was then with twelve, thirteen or seventeen of his companions. That day was a Friday, in the evening. They surrounded `Isa in the house, and when he felt that they would soon enter the house or that he would sooner or later have to leave it, he said to his companions, “Who volunteers to be made to look like me, for which he will be my companion in Paradise” A young man volunteered, but `Isa thought that he was too young. He asked the question a second and third time, each time the young man volunteering, prompting `Isa to say, “Well then, you will be that man.” Allah made the young man look exactly like `Isa, while a hole opened in the roof of the house, and `Isa was made to sleep and ascended to heaven while asleep. Allah said,

(And (remember) when Allah said: “O `Isa! I will take you and raise you to Myself.”) When `Isa ascended, those who were in the house came out. When those surrounding the house saw the man who looked like `Isa, they thought that he was `Isa. So they took him at night, crucified him and placed a crown of thorns on his head. The Jews then boasted that they killed `Isa and some Christians accepted their false claim, due to their ignorance and lack of reason. As for those who were in the house with `Isa, they witnessed his ascension to heaven, while the rest thought that the Jews killed `Isa by crucifixion. They even said that Maryam sat under the corpse of the crucified man and cried, and they say that the dead man spoke to her. All this was a test from Allah for His servants out of His wisdom. Allah explained this matter in the Glorious Qur’an which He sent to His honorable Messenger, whom He supported with miracles and clear, unequivocal evidence. Allah is the Most Truthful, and He is the Lord of the worlds Who knows the secrets, what the hearts conceal, the hidden matters in heaven and earth, what has occurred, what will occur, and what would occur if it was decreed. He said,

(but they killed him not, nor crucified him, but it appeared as that to them,) referring to the person whom the Jews thought was `Isa. This is why Allah said afterwards,

(and those who differ therein are full of doubts. They have no (certain) knowledge, they follow nothing but conjecture.) referring to the Jews who claimed to kill `Isa and the ignorant Christians who believed them. Indeed they are all in confusion, misguidance and bewilderment. This is why Allah said,

(For surely; they killed him not.) meaning they are not sure that `Isa was the one whom they killed. Rather, they are in doubt and confusion over this matter.

(But Allah raised him up unto Himself. And Allah is Ever All-Powerful,) meaning, He is the Almighty, and He is never weak, nor will those who seek refuge in Him ever be subjected to disgrace,

(All-Wise.) in all that He decides and ordains for His creatures. Indeed, Allah’s is the clearest wisdom, unequivocal proof and the most glorious authority. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “Just before Allah raised `Isa to the heavens, `Isa went to his companions, who were twelve inside the house. When he arrived, his hair was dripping water and he said, `There are those among you who will disbelieve in me twelve times after he had believed in me.’ He then asked, `Who volunteers that his image appear as mine, and be killed in my place. He will be with me (in Paradise)’ One of the youngest ones among them volunteered and `Isa asked him to sit down. `Isa again asked for a volunteer, and the young man kept volunteering and `Isa asking him to sit down. Then the young man volunteered again and `Isa said, `You will be that man,’ and the resemblance of `Isa was cast over that man while `Isa ascended to heaven from a hole in the house. When the Jews came looking for `Isa, they found that young man and crucified him. Some of `Isa’s followers disbelieved in him twelve times after they had believed in him. They then divided into three groups. One group, Al-Ya`qubiyyah (Jacobites), said, `Allah remained with us as long as He willed and then ascended to heaven.’ Another group, An-Nasturiyyah (Nestorians), said, `The son of Allah was with us as long as he willed and Allah took him to heaven.’ Another group, Muslims, said, `The servant and Messenger of Allah remained with us as long as Allah willed, and Allah then took him to Him.’ The two disbelieving groups cooperated against the Muslim group and they killed them. Ever since that happened, Islam was then veiled until Allah sent Muhammad .” This statement has an authentic chain of narration leading to Ibn `Abbas, and An-Nasa’i narrated it through Abu Kurayb who reported it from Abu Mu`awiyah. Many among the Salaf stated that `Isa asked if someone would volunteer for his appearance to be cast over him, and that he will be killed instead of `Isa, for which he would be his companion in Paradise.

All Christians Will Believe in `Isa Before He Dies

Allah said,

(And there is none of the People of the Scripture, but must believe in him, before his death. And on the Day of Resurrection, he will be a witness against them.) Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn `Abbas commented,

(And there is none of the People of the Scripture, but must believe in him, before his death.) before the death of `Isa, son of Maryam, peace be upon him. Al-`Awfi reported similar from Ibn `Abbas. Abu Malik commented;

(but must believe in him, before his death.) “This occurs after `Isa returns and before he dies, as then, all of the People of the Scriptures will believe in him.”

The Hadiths Regarding the Descent of `Isa Just Before the Day of Judgement, and his Mission

In the chapter about the Prophets in his Sahih, under, “The Descent of `Isa, Son of Maryam,” Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(By Him in Whose Hands my soul is, the son of Maryam (`Isa) will shortly descend among you as a just ruler, and will break the cross, kill the pig and abolish the Jizyah. Then there will be an abundance of wealth and nobody will accept charitable gifts any more. At that time, one prostration will be better for them than this life and all that is in it.) Abu Hurayrah then said, “Read if you will,

(And there is none of the People of the Scripture, but must believe in him, before his death. And on the Day of Resurrection, he will be a witness against them.)” Muslim recorded this Hadith. So, Allah’s statement,

(before his death) refers to the death of `Isa, son of Maryam.

Another Hadith by Abu Hurayrah

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(`Isa will say Ihlal from the mountain highway of Ar-Rawha’ for Hajj, `Umrah or both.) Muslim also recorded it. Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,

(`Isa, son of Maryam, will descend and will kill the pig, break the cross, lead the prayer in congregation and give away wealth until it is no longer accepted by anyone. He will also abolish the Jizyah and go to Ar-Rawha’ from where he will go to perform Hajj, `Umrah or both.) Abu Hurayrah then recited,

(And there is none of the People of the Scripture, but must believe in him, before his death.) Hanzalah said, “Abu Hurayrah added, `Will believe in `Isa before `Isa dies,’ but I do not know if this was a part of the Prophet’s Hadith or if it was something that Abu Hurayrah said on his own. ” Ibn Abi Hatim also recorded this Hadith.

Another Hadith

Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(How will you be when Al-Masih, son of Maryam (`Isa) descends among you while your Imam is from among yourselves) Imam Ahmad and Muslim also recorded this Hadith.

Another Hadith

(The Prophets are paternal brothers; their mothers are different, but their religion is one. I, more than any of mankind, have more right to `Isa, son of Maryam, for there was no Prophet between him and I. He will descend, and if you see him, know him. He is a well-built man, (the color of his skin) between red and white. He will descend while wearing two long, light yellow garments. His head appears to be dripping water, even though no moisture touched it. He will break the cross, kill the pig, and banish the Jizyah and will call the people to Islam. During his time, Allah will destroy all religions except Islam and Allah will destroy Al-Masih Ad-Dajjal (the False Messiah). Safety will then fill the earth, so much so that the lions will mingle with camels, tigers with cattle and wolves with sheep. Children will play with snakes, and they will not harm them. `Isa will remain for forty years and then will die, and Muslims will offer the funeral prayer for him.) Abu Dawud also recorded it.Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,

Another Hadith

In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah related to the Messenger of Allah that he said,

(The (Last) Hour will not start until the Romans occupy Al-A`maq or Dabiq. An army, comprised of the best of the people of the earth then, will come from Al-Madinah and challenge them. When they camp face to face, the Romans will say, `Let us fight those who captured some of us.’ The Muslims will say, `Nay! By Allah, we will never let you get to our brothers.’ They will fight them. A third of the (Muslim) army will flee in defeat, and those are the ones whom Allah will never forgive. Another third will be killed, and those are the best martyrs before Allah. The last third will be victorious, and this third will never be stricken with Fitnah, and they will capture Constantinople (Istanbul). While they are dividing war booty, after hanging their swords on olive trees, Shaytan will shout among them, saying, `Al-Masih (Ad-Dajjal) has cornered your people’. They will leave to meet Ad-Dajjal in Ash-Sham. This will be a false warning, and when they reach Ash-Sham, Ad-Dajjal will then appear. When the Muslims are arranging their lines for battle and the prayer is called for, `Isa, son of Maryam, will descend and lead them in prayer. When the enemy of Allah (the False Messiah) sees him, he will dissolve just as salt dissolves in water, and if any of him were left, he would continue dissolving until he died. Allah will kill him with the hand of `Isa and will show the Muslims his blood on his spear.) Muslim recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(You will fight the Jews and will kill them, until the stone will say, `O Muslim! There is a Jew here, so come and kill him.’) Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(The Hour will not start, until after the Muslims fight the Jews and the Muslims kill them. The Jew will hide behind a stone or tree, and the tree will say, `O Muslim! O servant of Allah! This is a Jew behind me, come and kill him.’ Except Al-Gharqad, for it is a tree of the Jews.) Muslim bin Al-Hajjaj recorded in his Sahih that An-Nawwas bin Sam`an said, “The Messenger of Allah , mentioned Ad-Dajjal one day and kept belittling him (because being blind, yet claiming to be Allah) and speaking in grave terms about him until we thought that he was hiding in gardens of date-trees (in Al-Madinah). When we went by the Messenger, he sensed this anxiety in us and said,

(What is the matter with you) We said, `O Messenger of Allah! Earlier, you mentioned Ad-Dajjal and while belittling him you spoke gravely about him until we thought that he was hiding in gardens of date-trees (of Al-Madinah).’ He said,

(I fear other than Ad-Dajjal for you! If he appears while I am still among you, I will be his adversary on your behalf. If he appears while I am not among you, each one will depend on himself and Allah will be the Helper of every Muslim after me. He is young, with very curly hair and his eye is smashed. I thought that he looked like `Abdul-`Uzza bin Qatan. Whoever lives long and meets Ad-Dajjal, then let him recite the beginnings of Surat Al-Kahf. He will appear on a pass between Ash-Sham (Syria) and Al-`Iraq. He will wreak havoc to the right and left. O Servants of Allah! Hold fast.) We said, `O Messenger of Allah! How long will he stay on earth’ He said,

(Forty days: One day as long as a year, one day as long as a month and one day as long as a week. The rest of his days will be as long as one of your ordinary days.) We said, `O Messenger of Allah! As for the day that is like a year, will the prayers of one day suffice for it’ He said,

(No. Count for its due measure.) We said, `O Messenger of Allah, how will his speed be on earth’ He said,

(Like the storm when driven by the wind. He will come to a people and will call them (to his worship), and they will believe in him and accept his call. He will order the sky and it will rain, the land and it will grow (vegetation). Their cattle will return to them with their hair the longest, their udders the fullest (with milk) and their stomachs the fattest. He will come to a different people and will call them (to his worship), and they will reject his call. He will then leave them. They will wake up in the morning destitute, missing all of their possessions. He will pass by a deserted land and will say to it, `Bring out your treasures’, and its treasures will follow him just like swarms of bees. He will summon a man full of youth and will strike him with the sword once and will cut him into two pieces (and will separate between them like) the distance (between the hunter and) the game. He will call the dead man and he will come, and his face will radiant with pleasure and laughter. Afterwards (while all this is happening with Ad-Dajjal), Allah will send Al-Masih (`Isa), son of Maryam down. He will descend close to the white minaret to the east of Damascus. He will be wearing garments lightly colored with saffron and his hands will be placed on the wings of two angels. Whenever he lowers his head droplets fall. Whenever he raises his head, precious stones that look like pearls fall. No disbeliever can survive `Isa’s breath, which reaches the distance of his sight. He will pursue Ad-Dajjal and will follow him to the doors of (the Palestinian city of) Ludd where he will kill him. A group of people who, by Allah’s help, resisted and survived Ad-Dajjal, will pass by `Isa and he will anoint their faces and inform them about their grades in Paradise. Shortly afterwards, while this is happening with `Isa, Allah will reveal to him, `I raised a people of My creation that no one can fight. Therefore, gather My servants to At-Tur (the mountain of Musa in Sinai).’ Then, Allah will raise Gog and Magog and they will swiftly swarm from every mound. Their front forces will reach Lake Tabariah (Sea of Galilee) and will drink all its water. The last of their forces will say as they pass by the lake, `This lake once had water!’

Meanwhile, `Isa, Allah’s Prophet, will be cornered along with his companions until the head of a bull will be more precious to them than a hundred Dinars to you today. `Isa, Allah’s Prophet, and his companions will invoke Allah for help and Allah will send An-Naghaf (a worm) into the necks of Gog and Magog! The morning will come, and they will all be dead as if it was the death of one soul. Afterwards, `Isa, the Prophet of Allah, will come down with his companions to the low grounds (from Mount At-Tur). They will find that no space of a hand-span on the earth was free of their fat and rot (rotten corpses). `Isa, the Prophet of Allah, and his companions will seek Allah in supplication. Allah will send birds as large as the necks of camels. They will carry them (the corpses of Gog and Magog) and will throw them wherever Allah wills. Afterwards, Allah will send rain that no house made of mud or animal hair will be saved from, and it will cleanse the earth until it is as clean as a mirror. The earth will be commanded (by Allah), `Produce your fruits and regain your blessing.’ Then, the group will eat from a pomegranate and will take shelter under the shade of its skin. Milk will be blessed, so much so that the milk-producing camel will yield large amounts that suffice for a large group of people. Meanwhile, Allah will send a pure wind that will overcome Muslims from under their arms and will take the soul of every believer and Muslim. Only the evildoers among people will remain. They will indulge in shameless public sex like that of donkeys. On them, the Hour will begin.)

Imam Ahmad and the collectors of the Sunan also recorded this Hadith. We will mention this Hadith again using the chain of narration collected by Ahmad explaining Allah’s statement in Surat Al-Anbiya’ (chapter 21),

(Until, when Ya`juj and Ma`juj (Gog and Magog people) are let loose (from their barrier).) In our time, in the year seven hundred and forty-one, a white minaret was built in the Umayyad Masjid (in Damascus) made of stone, in place of the minaret that was destroyed by a fire which the Christians were suspected to have started. May Allah’s continued curses descend on the Christians until the Day of Resurrection. There is a strong feeling that this minaret is the one that `Isa will descend on, according to this Hadith.

Another Hadith

Muslim recorded in his Sahih that Ya`qub bin `Asim bin `Urwah bin Mas`ud Ath-Thaqafi said, “I heard `Abdullah bin `Amr saying to a man who asked him, `What is this Hadith that you are narrating You claim that the Hour will start on such and such date.’ He said, `Subhan Allah (glory be to Allah),’ or he said, `There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah.’ I almost decided to never narrate anything to anyone. I only said, “Soon, you will witness tremendous incidents, the House (the Ka`bah) will be destroyed by fire, and such and such things will occur.” He then said, `The Messenger of Allah said,

????

(Ad-Dajjal will appear in my nation and will remain for forty. (The narrator doubts whether it is forty days, months, or years).Then, Allah will send down `Isa, son of Maryam, looking just like `Urwah bin Mas`ud and he will seek Ad-Dajjal and will kill him. People will remain for seven years with no enmity between any two. Allah will send a cool wind from As-Sham that will leave no man on the face of the earth who has even the weight of an atom of good or faith, but will capture (his soul). Even if one of you takes refuge in the middle of a mountain, it will find him and capture (his soul). Afterwards, only the most evil people will remain. They will be as light as birds, with the comprehension of beasts. They will not know or enjoin righteousness or forbid or know evil. Shaytan will appear to them and will say to them, `Would you follow me.’ They will say, `What do you command us’ He will command them to worship the idols. Meanwhile, their provision will come to them in abundance and their life will be good. Then the Trumpet will be blown and every person who hears it, will lower one side of his head and raise the other side (trying to hear that distant sound). The first man who will hear the Trumpet is someone who is preparing the water pool for his camels, and he and the people will swoon away. Allah will send down heavy rain and the bodies of people will grow with it. The Trumpet will be blown in again and the people will be resurrected and looking all about, staring. It will be said to them, `O people! Come to your Lord,’

(But stop them, verily, they are to be questioned.)

(It will then be said, `Bring forth the share of the Fire.’ It will be asked, `How many’ It will be said, `From every one thousand, nine hundred and ninety-nine.’ That Day is when,)

(the children will turn grey-headed,) and,

(The Day when the Shin shall be laid bare).)”

The Description of `Isa, upon him be Peace

As mentioned earlier, `Abdur-Rahman bin Adam narrated that Abu Hurayrah said that the Prophet said,

(If you see `Isa, know him. He is a well-built man, (the color of his skin) between red and white. He will descend while wearing light yellow garments. His head looks like it is dripping water, even though no moisture touched it.) In the Hadith that An-Nawwas bin Sam`an narrated,

(He will descend close to the white minaret to the east of Damascus. He will be wearing two garments lightly colored with saffron, having his hands on the wings of two angels. Whenever he lowers his head, drops will fall off of it. Whenever he raises his head, precious jewels like pearls will fall off of it. No disbeliever can survive `Isa’s breath, and his breath reaches the distance of his sight.) Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(I met Musa on the night of my Ascension to heaven.) The Prophet then described him saying, as I think,

(He was a tall person with hair as if he was one of the men from the tribe of Shanu’ah. ) The Prophet further said,

????

(`I met `Isa.’ The Prophet described him saying, `He was of moderate height and was red-faced as if he had just come out of a bathroom. I saw Ibrahim whom I resembled more than any of his children did.’) Al-Bukhari recorded that Mujahid said that Ibn `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(I saw Musa, `Isa and Ibrahim. `Isa was of red complexion and had curly hair and a broad chest. Musa was of brown complexion and had straight hair and a tall stature, as if he was from the people of Az-Zutt.) Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded that Ibrahim said that `Abdullah bin `Umar said, “The Prophet once mentioned the False Messiah (Al-Masih Ad-Dajjal) to people, saying,

(Allah is not blind in His Eye. Al-Masih Ad-Dajjal is blind in his right eye. His eye is like a protruding grape.)” Muslim recorded that the Messenger of Allah said,

(In a dream, I was at the Ka`bah and Allah made me see a light – colored man, a color that is as beautiful as a light – colored man could be, with combed hair that reached his shoulders. His hair was dripping water, and he was leaning on the shoulders of two men while circling the Ka`bah. I asked, `Who is this man’ I was told, `This is the Al-Masih, son of Maryam.’ Behind him, I saw a man with very curly hair who was blind in his right eye. He looked exactly as Ibn Qatan, and he was leaning on the shoulder of a man while circling the House. I asked, `Who is this man’ I was told, `He is Al-Masih Ad-Dajjal.’) Al-Bukhari recorded that Salim said that his father said, “No, By Allah! The Prophet did not say that `Isa was of red complexion but said,

(While I was asleep circumambulating the Ka`bah (in my dream), I suddenly saw a man of brown complexion and ample hair walking between two men with water dripping from his head. I asked, `Who is this’ The people said, `He is the son of Maryam.’ Then I looked behind and I saw a red-complexioned, fat, curly-haired man, blind in the right eye, which looked like a bulging out grape. I asked, `Who is this’ They replied, `He is Ad-Dajjal.’ The person he most resembled is Ibn Qatan.)” Az-Zuhri commented that Ibn Qatan was a man from the tribe of Khuza`ah who died during the time of Jahiliyyah. This is the wording of Al-Bukhari. Allah’s statement,

(And on the Day of Resurrection, he (`Isa) will be a witness against them) Qatadah said, “He will bear witness before them that he has delivered the Message from Allah and that he is but a servant of His.” In a similar statement in the end of Surat Al-Ma’idah,

(And (remember) when Allah will say (on the Day of Resurrection): “O `Isa, son of Maryam! Did you say unto men…”) until,

(Almighty, the All-Wise.)

(160. For the wrongdoing of the Jews, We made unlawful for them certain good foods which had been lawful for them?and for their hindering many from Allah’s way;) (161. And their taking of Riba though they were forbidden from taking it, and their devouring men’s substance wrongfully. And We have prepared for the disbelievers among them a painful torment.) (162. But those among them who are well-grounded in knowledge, and the believers, believe in what has been sent down to you and what was sent down before you; and those who perform the Salah, and give Zakah and believe in Allah and in the Last Day, it is they to whom We shall give a great reward.)

Some Foods Were Made Unlawful for the Jews Because of their Injustice and Wrongdoing

Allah states that because of the injustice and transgression of the Jews, demonstrated by committing major sins, He prohibited some of the lawful, pure things which were previously allowed for them. This prohibition could be only that of decree, meaning that Allah allowed the Jews to falsely interpret their Book and change and alter the information about what was allowed for them. They thus, out of exaggeration and extremism in the religion, prohibited some things for themselves. It could also mean that in the Tawrah, Allah prohibited things that were allowed for them before. Allah said,

(All food was lawful to the Children of Israel, except what Isra’il made unlawful for himself before the Tawrah was revealed.) We mentioned this Ayah before, which means that all types of food were allowed for the Children of Israel before the Tawrah was revealed, except the camel’s meat and milk that Isra’il prohibited for himself. Later, Allah prohibited many things in the Tawrah. Allah said in Surat Al-An`am (chapter 6),

(And unto those who are Jews, We forbade every (animal) with undivided hoof, and We forbade them the fat of the ox and the sheep except what adheres to their backs or their entrails, or is mixed up with a bone. Thus We recompensed them for their rebellion. And verily, We are Truthful.) This means, We prohibited these things for them because they deserved it due to their transgression, injustice, defying their Messenger and disputing with him. So Allah said;

(For the wrongdoing of the Jews, We made unlawful to them certain good foods which had been lawful to them, and for their hindering many from Allah’s way.) This Ayah states that they hindered themselves and others from following the truth, and this is the behavior that they brought from the past to the present. This is why they were and still are the enemies of the Messengers, killing many of the Prophets. They also denied Muhammad and `Isa, peace be upon them. mAllah said,

(And their taking of Riba’ though they were forbidden from taking it,) Allah prohibited them from taking Riba’, yet they did so using various kinds of tricks, ploys and cons, thus devouring people’s property unjustly. Allah said,

(And We have prepared for the disbelievers among them a painful torment. ) Allah then said,

(But those among them who are well-grounded in knowledge…) firm in the religion and full of beneficial knowledge. We mentioned this subject when we explained Surah Al `Imran (3). The Ayah;

(and the believers…) refers to the well-grounded in knowledge;

(believe in what has been sent down to you and what was sent down before you;) Ibn `Abbas said, “This Ayah was revealed concerning `Abdullah bin Salam, Tha`labah bin Sa`yah, Zayd bin Sa`yah and Asad bin `Ubayd who embraced Islam and believed what Allah sent Muhammad with. Allah said,

(and give Zakah,) This could be referring to the obligatory charity due on one’s wealth and property, or those who purify themselves, or both. Allah knows best.

(and believe in Allah and in the Last Day,) They believe that there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah, believe in Resurrection after death and the reward or punishment for the good or evil deeds. Allah’s statement,

(It is they,) those whom the Ayah described above,

(To whom We shall give a great reward.) means Paradise.

(163. Verily, We have sent the revelation to you as We sent the revelation to Nuh and the Prophets after him; We (also) sent the revelation to Ibrahim, Isma`il, Ishaq, Ya`qub, and Al-Asbat, (the offspring of the twelve sons of Ya`qub) `Isa, Ayyub, Yunus, Harun, and Sulayman; and to Dawud We gave the Zabur.) (164. And Messengers We have mentioned to you before, and Messengers We have not mentioned to you, and to Musa Allah spoke directly.) (165. Messengers as bearers of good news and warning, in order that mankind should have no plea against Allah after the (coming of) Messengers. And Allah is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise.)

Revelation Came to Prophet Muhammad , Just as it Came to the Prophets Before Him

Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated that Muhammad bin Abi Muhammad said that `Ikrimah, or Sa`id bin Jubayr, related to Ibn `Abbas that he said, “Sukayn and `Adi bin Zayd said, `O Muhammad! We do not know that Allah sent down anything to any human after Musa.’ Allah sent down a rebuttal of their statement,

(Verily, We have inspired you (O Muhammad) as We inspired Nuh and the Prophets after him.)” Allah states that He sent down revelation to His servant and Messenger Muhammad just as He sent down revelation to previous Prophets. Allah said,

(Verily, We have inspired you (O Muhammad) as We inspired Nuh and the Prophets after him,) until,

(…and to Dawud We gave the Zabur. ) The `Zabur’ (Psalms) is the name of the Book revealed to Prophet Dawud, peace be upon him.

Twenty-Five Prophets Are Mentioned in the Qur’an

Allah said,

(And Messengers We have mentioned to you before, and Messengers We have not mentioned to you) Before the revelation of this Ayah. The following are the names of the Prophets whom Allah named in the Qur’an. They are: Adam, Idris, Nuh (Noah), Hud, Salih, Ibrahim (Abraham), Lut, Isma`il (Ishmael), Ishaq (Isaac), Ya`qub (Jacob), Yusuf (Joesph), Ayyub (Job), Shu`ayb, Musa (Moses), Harun (Aaron), Yunus (Jonah), Dawud (David), Sulayman (Solomon), Ilyas (Elias), Al-Yasa` (Elisha), Zakariya (Zachariya), Yahya (John) and `Isa (Jesus), and their leader, Muhammad . Several scholars of Tafsir also listed Dhul-Kifl among the Prophets. Allah’s statement,

(and Messengers We have not mentioned to you,) means, `there are other Prophets whom We did not mention to you in the Qur’an.’

The Virtue of Musa

Allah said,

(and to Musa Allah spoke directly.) This is an honor to Musa, and this is why he is called the Kalim, he whom Allah spoke to directly. Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr bin Marduwyah recorded that `Abdul-Jabbar bin `Abdullah said, “A man came to Abu Bakr bin `Ayyash and said, `I heard a man recite (this Ayah this way): ????????? ??????? ?????? ????????? “and to Allah, Musa spoke directly.” Abu Bakr said, `Only a disbeliever would recite it like this.’ Al-A`mash recited it with Yahya bin Withab, who recited it with Abu `Abdur-Rahman As-Sulami who recited it with `Ali bin Abi Talib who recited with the Messenger of Allah ,

(and to Musa Allah spoke directly.)”’ Abu Bakr bin Abi Ayyash was so angry with the man who recited the Ayah differently, because he altered its words and meanings. That person was from the group of Mu`tazilah who denied that Allah spoke to Musa or that He speaks to any of His creation. We were told that some of the Mu`tazilah once recited the Ayah that way, so one teacher present said to him, “O son of a stinking woman! What would you do concerning Allah’s statement,

(And when Musa came at the time and place appointed by Us, and his Lord spoke to him,) ﴿7:143﴾” The Shaykh meant that the later Ayah cannot be altered or changed.

The Reason Behind Sending the Prophets is to Establish the Proof

Allah said,

(Messengers as bearers of good news as well as of warning,) meaning, the Prophets bring good news to those who obey Allah and practice the good things that please Him. They also warn against His punishment and torment for those who defy His commandments. Allah said next,

(in order that mankind should have no plea against Allah after the Messengers. And Allah is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise.) Allah sent down His Books and sent His Messengers with good news and warnings. He explained what He likes and is pleased with and what He dislikes and is displeased with. This way, no one will have an excuse with Allah. Allah said in other Ayat,

(And if We had destroyed them with a torment before this, they would surely have said: “Our Lord! If only You had sent us a Messenger, we should certainly have followed Your Ayat, before we were humiliated and disgraced.”) and,

(And if (We had) not (sent you to the people of Makkah) in case a calamity should seize them for (the deeds) that their hands have sent forth. ) It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Ibn Mas`ud said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(No one is more jealous than Allah. This is why He prohibited all types of sin committed in public or secret. No one likes praise more than Allah, and this is why He has praised Himself. No one likes to give excuse more than Allah, and this is why He sent the Prophets as bearers of good news and as warners.) In another narration, the Prophet said,

(And this is why He sent His Messengers and revealed His Books.)

(166. But Allah bears witness to that which He has sent down unto you; He has sent it down with His knowledge, and the angels bear witness. And Allah is All-Sufficient as a Witness.) (167. Verily, those who disbelieve and prevent (others) from the path of Allah; they have certainly strayed far away.) (168. Verily, those who disbelieve and did wrong; Allah will not forgive them, nor will He guide them to a way.) (169. Except the way of Hell, to dwell therein forever; and this is ever easy for Allah.) (170. O mankind! Verily, there has come to you the Messenger with the truth from your Lord. So believe in him, it is better for you. But if you disbelieve, then certainly to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth. And Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.) Allah’s statement

(Verily, We have inspired you…) emphasized the Prophet’s prophethood and refuted the idolators and People of the Scripture who denied him. Allah said,

(But Allah bears witness to that which He has sent down unto you,) meaning, even if they deny, defy and disbelieve in you, O Muhammad, Allah testifies that you are His Messenger to whom He sent down His Book, the Glorious Qur’an that,

(Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it, (it is) sent down by the All-Wise, Worthy of all praise.) Allah then said,

(He has sent it down with His knowledge,) The knowledge of His that He willed His servants to have access to. Knowledge about the clear signs of guidance and truth, what Allah likes and is pleased with, what He dislikes and is displeased with, and knowledge of the Unseen, such as the past and the future. This also includes knowledge about His honorable attributes that no sent Messenger or illustrious angel can even know without Allah’s leave. Similarly, Allah said,

(And they will never compass anything of His knowledge except that which He wills.) and,

(but they will never compass anything of His knowledge.) Allah’s statement,

(and the angels bear witness.) to the truth of what you came with and what was revealed and sent down to you, along with Allah’s testimony to the same,

(And Allah is All-Sufficient as a Witness.) Allah said,

(Verily, those who disbelieve and prevent (others) from the path of Allah, they have certainly strayed far away.) For they are disbelievers themselves and do not follow the truth. They strive hard to prevent people from following and embracing Allah’s path. Therefore, they have defied the truth, deviated, and strayed far away from it. Allah also mentions His judgment against those who disbelieve in His Ayat, Book and Messenger, those who wrong themselves by their disbelief and hindering others from His path, committing sins and violating His prohibitions. Allah states that He will not forgive them;

(nor will He guide them to a way (that is, of good).)

(Except the way of Hell, to dwell therein forever…) and this is the exception. Allah then said,

(O mankind! Verily, there has come to you the Messenger with the truth from your Lord, so believe in him, it is better for you.) This Ayah means, Muhammad has come to you with guidance, the religion of truth and clear proof from Allah. Therefore, believe in what he has brought you and follow him, for this is better for you. Allah then said,

(But if you disbelieve, then certainly to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and the earth.) Allah is far too rich than to need you or your faith, and no harm could ever affect Him because of your disbelief. Allah said in another Ayah,

(And Musa said: “If you disbelieve, you and all on earth together, then verily, Allah is Rich (Free of all needs), Owner of all praise.”) Allah said here,

(And Allah is Ever All-Knowing,) He knows those who deserve to be guided, and He will guide them. He also knows those who deserve deviation, and He leads them to it,

(All-Wise) in His statements, actions, legislation and all that He decrees.

(171. O People of the Scripture! Do not exceed the limits in your religion, nor say of Allah except the truth. Al-Masih `Isa, son of Maryam, was (no more than) a Messenger of Allah and His Word, which He bestowed on Maryam and a spirit from ﴿created by﴾ Him; so believe in Allah and His Messengers. Say not: “Three!” Cease! (it is) better for you. For Allah is (the only) One God, hallowed be He above having a son. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And Allah is All-Sufficient as a Disposer of affairs.)

Prohibiting the People of the Book From Going to Extremes in Religion

Allah forbids the People of the Scriptures from going to extremes in religion, which is a common trait of theirs, especially among the Christians. The Christians exaggerated over `Isa until they elevated him above the grade that Allah gave him. They elevated him from the rank of prophethood to being a god, whom they worshipped just as they worshipped Allah. They exaggerated even more in the case of those who they claim were his followers, claiming that they were inspired, thus following every word they uttered whether true or false, be it guidance or misguidance, truth or lies. This is why Allah said,

(They took their rabbis and their monks to be their lords besides Allah.) Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that `Umar said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Do not unduly praise me like the Christians exaggerated over `Isa, son of Maryam. Verily, I am only a servant, so say, `Allah’s servant and His Messenger.’) This is the wording of Al-Bukhari. Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik said that a man once said, “O Muhammad! You are our master and the son of our master, our most righteous person and the son of our most righteous person…” The Messenger of Allah said,

(O people! Say what you have to say, but do not allow Shaytan to trick you. I am Muhammad bin `Abdullah, Allah’s servant and Messenger. By Allah! I do not like that you elevate me above the rank that Allah has granted me.) Allah’s statement,

(nor say of Allah except the truth.) means, do not lie and claim that Allah has a wife or a son, Allah is far holier than what they attribute to Him. Allah is glorified, praised, and honored in His might, grandure and greatness, and there is no deity worthy of worship nor Lord but Him. Allah said;

(Al-Masih `Isa, son of Maryam, was (no more than) a Messenger of Allah and His Word, which He bestowed on Maryam and a spirit from ﴿created by﴾ Him;) `Isa is only one of Allah’s servants and one of His creatures. Allah said to him, `Be’, and he was, and He sent him as a Messenger. `Isa was a word from Allah that He bestowed on Maryam, meaning He created him with the word `Be’ that He sent with Jibril to Maryam. Jibril blew the life of `Isa into Maryam by Allah’s leave, and `Isa came to existence as a result. This incident was in place of the normal conception between man and woman that results in children. This is why `Isa was a word and a Ruh (spirit) created by Allah, as he had no father to conceive him. Rather, he came to existence through the word that Allah uttered, `Be,’ and he was, through the life that Allah sent with Jibril. Allah said,

(Al-Masih ﴿`Isa﴾, son of Maryam, was no more than a Messenger; many were the Messengers that passed away before him. His mother ﴿Maryam﴾ was a Siddiqah. They both ate food.) And Allah said,

(Verily, the likeness of `Isa before Allah is the likeness of Adam. He created him from dust, then (He) said to him: “Be! ? and he was.)

(And she who guarded her chastity, We breathed into her (garment) and We made her and her son ﴿`Isa﴾ a sign for all that exits.) (21:91)

(And Maryam, the daughter of `Imran who guarded her chastity,) and Allah said concerning the Messiah,

(He ﴿`Isa﴾ was not more than a servant. We granted Our favor to him.)

The Meaning of “His Word and a spirit from Him

`Abdur-Razzaq narrated that Ma`mar said that Qatadah said that the Ayah,

(And His Word, which He bestowed on Maryam and a spirit from ﴿created by﴾ Him;) means, He said,

(Be) and he was. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ahmad bin Sinan Al-Wasiti said that he heard Shadh bin Yahya saying about Allah’s statement,

(and His Word, which He bestowed on Maryam and a spirit from ﴿created by﴾ Him;) “`Isa was not the word. Rather, `Isa came to existence because of the word.” Al-Bukhari recorded that `Ubadah bin As-Samit said that the Prophet said,

(If anyone testifies that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah Alone Who has no partners, and that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger, and that `Isa is Allah’s servant and Messenger and His Word which He bestowed on Maryam and a spirit created by Him, and that Paradise is true and Hell is true, then Allah will admit him into Paradise with the deeds which he performed.) In another narration, the Prophet said,

(…through any of the eight doors of Paradise he wishes.) Muslim also recorded it. Therefore, `Ruh from Allah’, in the Ayah and the Hadith is similar to Allah’s statement,

(And has subjected to you all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth; it is all from Him.) meaning, from His creation. `from Him’ does not mean that it is a part of Him, as the Christians claim, may Allah’s continued curses be upon them. Saying that something is from Allah, such as the spirit of Allah, the she-camel of Allah or the House of Allah, is meant to honor such items. Allah said,

(This is the she-camel of Allah…) and,

(and sanctify My House for those who circumambulate it.) An authentic Hadith states,

(I will enter on my Lord in His Home) All these examples are meant to honor such items when they are attributed to Allah in this manner. Allah said,

(so believe in Allah and His Messengers.) believe that Allah is One and Alone and that He does not have a son or wife. Know and be certain that `Isa is the servant and Messenger of Allah. Allah said after that,

(Say not: “Three!”) do not elevate `Isa and his mother to be gods with Allah. Allah is far holier than what they attribute to Him. In Surat Al-Ma’idah (chapter 5), Allah said,

(Surely, disbelievers are those who said: “Allah is the third of the three.” But there is none who has the right to be worshipped but One God.) Allah said by the end of the same Surah,

(And (remember) when Allah will say (on the Day of Resurrection): “O `Isa, son of Maryam! Did you say unto men: `Worship me”’) and in its beginning,

(Surely, in disbelief are they who say that Allah is the Messiah, son of Maryam.) The Christians, may Allah curse them, have no limit to their disbelief because of their ignorance, so their deviant statements and their misguidance grows. Some of them believe that `Isa is Allah, some believe that he is one in a trinity and some believe that he is the son of Allah. Their beliefs and creeds are numerous and contradict each other, prompting some people to say that if ten Christians meet, they would end up with eleven sects!

The Christian Sects

Sa`id bin Batriq, the Patriarch of Alexandria and a famous Christian scholar, mentioned in the year four hundred after the Hijrah, that a Christian Council convened during the reign of Constantine, who built the city that bears his name. In this Council, the Christians came up with what they called the Great Trust, which in reality is the Great Treachery. There were more than two thousand patriarchs in this Council, and they were in such disarray that they divided into many sects, where some sects had twenty, fifty or a hundred members, etc.! When the king saw that there were more than three hundred Patriarchs who had the same idea, he agreed with them and adopted their creed. Constantine who was a deviant philosopher — gave his support to this sect for which, as an honor, churches were built and doctrines were taught to young children, who were baptized on this creed, and books were written about it. Meanwhile, the king oppressed all other sects. Another Council produced the sect known as the Jacobites, while the Nestorians were formed in a third Council. These three sects agreed that `Isa was divine, but disputed regarding the manner in which `Isa’s divinity was related to his humanity; were they in unity or did Allah incarnate in `Isa! All three of these sects accuse each other of heresy and, we believe that all three of them are disbelievers. Allah said,

(Cease! (it is) better for you.) meaning, it will be better for you,

(For Allah is (the only) One God, hallowed be He above having a son.) and He is holier than such claim,

(To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. And Allah is All-Sufficient as a Disposer of affairs,) for all are creatures, property and servants under His control and disposal, and He is the Disposer of the affairs. Therefore, how can He have a wife or a son among them,

(He is the originator of the heavens and the earth. How can He have children.) and

(And they say: “The Most Gracious (Allah) has begotten a son. Indeed you have brought forth (said) a terrible evil thing.”) Up to His saying, (Alone.)

(172. Al-Masih will never be too proud to be a servant of Allah, nor the angels who are the near (to Allah). And whosoever rejects His worship and is proud, then He will gather them all together unto Himself.) (173. So, as for those who believed and did deeds of righteousness, He will give them their (due) rewards and more out of His bounty. But as for those who refused His worship and were proud, He will punish them with a painful torment. And they will not find for themselves besides Allah any protector or helper.)

The Prophets and Angels Are Never too Proud to Worship Allah

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said that, `proud’, means insolent. Qatadah said that,

(Al-Masih will never be too proud to be a servant of Allah nor the angels who are near (to Allah).) ﴿they﴾ will never be arrogant, Allah then said,

(And whosoever rejects His worship and is proud, then He will gather them all together unto Himself.) on the Day of Resurrection. Then, Allah will judge between them with His just judgment that is never unjust or wrong.

(So, as for those who believed and did deeds of righteousness, He will give their (due) rewards, and more out of His bounty.) Allah will award them their full rewards for their righteous actions and will give them more of His bounty, kindness, ample mercy and favor.

(But as for those who refused His worship and were proud, ) out of arrogance, they refused to obey and worship Him,

(He will punish them with a painful torment. And they will not find for themselves besides Allah any protector or helper.) In another Ayah, Allah said,

(Verily! Those who scorn My worship, they will surely enter Hell in humiliation,) degradation, disgrace and dishonor, for they were arrogant and rebellious.

(174. O mankind! Verily, there has come to you a convincing proof from your Lord; and We sent down to you a manifest light.) (175. So, as for those who believed in Allah and held fast to ﴿depend on﴾ Him, He will admit them to His mercy and grace (i.e. Paradise), and guide them to Himself by a straight path.)

The Description of the Revelation that Came From Allah

Allah informs all people that a plain, unequivocal proof has come to them from Him. One that eradicates all possibility of having an excuse, or falling prey to evil doubts. Allah said,

(and We sent down to you a manifest light.) that directs to the Truth. Ibn Jurayj and others said, “It is the Qur’an.”

(So, as for those who believed in Allah and held fast to ﴿depend on﴾ Him,) by worshipping Him and relying on Him for each and every thing. Ibn Jurayj said that this part of the Ayah means, “They believe in Allah and hold fast to the Qur’an.”

(He will admit them to His mercy and grace,) meaning, He will grant them His mercy and admit them into Paradise, and will increase and multiply their rewards and their ranks, as a favor and bounty from Him.

(and guide them to Himself by a straight path.) and a clear way that has no wickedness in it or deviation. This, indeed, is the description of the believers in this life and the Hereafter, as they are on the straight and safe path in matters of action and creed. In the Hereafter, they are on the straight path of Allah that leads to the gardens of Paradise.

(176. They ask you for a legal verdict. Say: “Allah directs (thus) about Al-Kalalah. If it is a man that dies leaving a sister, but no child, she shall have half the inheritance, and ﴿in her case﴾ he will be her heir if she has no children. If there are two sisters, they shall have two-thirds of the inheritance; if there are brothers and sisters, the male will have twice the share of the female. (Thus) does Allah make clear to you (His Law) lest you go astray. And Allah is the All-Knower of everything.”)

This is the Last Ayah Ever Revealed, the Ruling on Al-Kalalah

Al-Bukhari recorded that Al-Bara’ said that the last Surah to be revealed was Surah Bara’ah (chapter 9) and the last Ayah to be revealed was,

(They ask you for a legal verdict…) Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah said, “The Messenger of Allah came visiting me when I was so ill that I fell unconscious. He performed ablution and poured the remaining water on me, or had it poured on me. When I regained consciousness, I said, `I will only leave inheritance through Kalalah, so what about the inheritance that I leave behind’ Allah later revealed the Ayah about Fara’id (inheritance ﴿4:11﴾).”’ The Two Sahihs and also the Group recorded it. In one of the wordings, Jabir said that the Ayah on inheritance was revealed;

(They ask you for a legal verdict. Say: “Allah directs (thus) about Al-Kalalah.) The wording of the Ayah indicates that the question was about the Kalalah,

(Say: “Allah directs (thus)…) We mentioned the meaning of Kalalah before, that it means the crown that surrounds the head from all sides. This is why the scholars stated that Kalalah pertains to one who dies and leaves behind neither descendants, nor ascendants. Some said that the Kalalah pertains to one who has no offspring, as the Ayah states,

(If it is a man that dies, leaving no child,) The meaning and ruling of Kalalah was somewhat confusing to the Leader of the Faithful `Umar bin Al-Khattab. It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that `Umar said, “There are three matters that I wished the Messenger of Allah had explained to us, so that we could abide by his explanation. (They are: the share in the inheritance of) the grandfather, the Kalalah and a certain type of Riba.” Imam Ahmad recorded that Ma`dan bin Abi Talhah said that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, “There is nothing that I asked the Messenger of Allah about its meaning more than the Kalalah, until he stabbed me with his finger in my chest and said,

(The Ayah that is in the end of Surat An-Nisa’ should suffice for you.)” Ahmad mentioned this short narration for this Hadith, Muslim recorded a longer form of it.

The Meaning of This Ayah

Allah said,

(If it is a man that dies.) Allah said in another Ayah,

(Everything will perish save His Face.) Therefore, everything and everyone dies and perishes except Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored. Allah said, (Whatsoever is on it (the earth) will perish. And the Face of your Lord full of majesty and honor will remain forever.) Allah said here, (leaving no child,) referring to the person who has neither children, nor parents. What testifies to this, is that Allah said afterwards,

(Leaving a sister, she shall have half the inheritance.) Had there been a surviving ascendant, the sister would not have inherited anything, and there is a consensus on this point. Therefore, this Ayah is referring to the man who dies leaving behind neither descendants nor ascendants, as is apparent for those who contemplate its meaning. This is because when there is a surviving parent, the sister does not inherit anything, let alone half of the inheritance. Ibn Jarir and others mentioned that Ibn `Abbas and Ibn Az-Zubayr used to judge that if a person dies and leaves behind a daughter and a sister, the sister does not inherit anything. They would recite,

(If it is a man that dies, leaving a sister, but no child, she shall have half the inheritance.) They said that if one leaves behind a daughter, then he has left behind a child. Therefore the sister does not get anything. The majority of scholars disagreed with them, saying the daughter gets one half and the sister the other half, relying on other evidence. This Ayah (4:176 above) gives the sister half of the inheritance in the case that it specifies. As for giving the sister half in other cases, Al-Bukhari recorded that Sulayman said that Ibrahim reported to Al-Aswad that he said, “During the time of the Messenger of Allah , Mu`adh bin Jabal gave a judgment that the daughter gets one half and the sister the other half.” Al-Bukhari recorded that Huzayl bin Shurahbil said, “Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari was asked about the case when there was a daughter, grand-daughter and sister to inherit. He said, `The daughter gets one-half and the sister one-half.’ Go and ask Ibn Mas`ud, although I think he is going to agree with me.’ So Ibn Mas`ud was asked and was told about Abu Musa’s answer, and Ibn Mas`ud commented, `I would have deviated then and would not have become among those who are rightly guided. I will give a judgment similar to the judgment given by the Prophet . The daughter gets one-half, the grand-daughter gets one-sixth, and these two shares will add up to two-thirds. Whatever is left will be for the sister.’ We went back to Abu Musa and conveyed to him Ibn Mas`ud’s answer and he said, `Do not ask me (for legal verdicts) as long as this scholar is still among you.”’ Allah then said,

(… and he will be her heir if she has no children.) This Ayah means, the brother inherits all of that his sister leaves behind if she has no surviving offspring or parents. If she has a surviving parent, her brother would not inherit anything. If there is someone who gets a fixed share in the inheritance, such as a husband or half brother from the mother’s side, they take their share and the rest goes to the brother. It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Ibn `Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Give the Farai’d to its people, and whatever is left is the share of the nearest male relative.) Allah said, (If there are two sisters, they shall have two-thirds of the inheritance;) meaning, if the person who dies in Kalalah has two sisters, they get two-thirds of the inheritance. More than two sisters share in the two-thirds. From this Ayah, the scholars took the ruling regarding the two daughters, or more, that they share in the two-thirds, just as the share of the sisters (two or more) was taken from the Ayah about the daughters,

(if (there are) only daughters, two or more, their share is two thirds of the inheritance.) ﴿4:11﴾. Allah said, (if there are brothers and sisters, the male will have twice the share of the female.) This is the share that the male relatives (sons, grandsons, brothers) regularly get, that is, twice as much as the female gets. Allah said, ((Thus) does Allah make clear to you…) His Law and set limits, clarifying His legislation, (Lest you go astray.) from the truth after this explanation,

(And Allah is the All-Knower of everything.) Allah has perfect knowledge in the consequences of everything and in the benefit that each matter carries for His servants. He also knows what each of the relatives deserves from the inheritance, according to the degree of relation he or she has with the deceased. Ibn Jarir recorded that Tariq bin Shihab said that `Umar gathered the Companions of the Messenger of Allah once and said, “I will give a ruling concerning the Kalalah that even women will talk about it in their bedrooms.”

A snake then appeared in the house and the gathering had to disperse. `Umar commented, `Had Allah willed this (`Umar’s verdict regarding the Kalalah) to happen, it would have happened.” The chain of narration for this story is authentic. Al-Hakim, Abu `Abdullah An-Naysaburi recorded that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, `Had I asked the Messenger of Allah regarding three things, it would have been better for me than red camels. (They are:) who should be the Khalifah after him; about a people who said, `We agree to pay Zakah, but not to you (meaning to the Khalifah),’ if we are allowed to fight them; and about the Kalalah.” Al-Hakim said, “Its chain is Sahih according to the Two Shaykhs, and they did not recorded it.” Ibn Jarir also said that it was reported that `Umar said, “I feel shy to change a ruling that Abu Bakr issued.

Abu Bakr used to say that the Kalalah is the person who has no descendants or ascendants.” Abu Bakr’s saying is what the majority of scholars among the Companions, their followers and the earlier and later Imams agree with. This is also the ruling that the Qur’an indicates. For Allah stated that He has explained and made plain the ruling of the Kalalah, when He said, ((Thus) does Allah makes clear to you (His Law) lest you go astray. And Allah is the All-Knower of everything.) And Allah knows best.

This is the End of Tafsir of Surah An-Nisa