Surah An Najm (“The Star”) is the 53rd chapter of the Qur’an with total of 62 ayats. It is classified as a Meccan Surah
The Surah discusses Mi’raj and closeness of Prophet Muhammad (may peace be upon him) to Allah. It also warns the disbelievers about the errors in judgement towards the message of Qur’an.
“Those who avoid the major sins and immoralities, only [committing] slight ones. Indeed, your Lord is vast in forgiveness. He was most knowing of you when He produced you from the earth and when you were fetuses in the wombs of your mothers. So do not claim yourselves to be pure; He is most knowing of who fears Him.”
Surah Najm Ayat 32
Surah Najm with English Translation and Transliteration
Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Raheem
In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful
وَٱلنَّجْمِ إِذَا هَوَىٰ
Wannajmi izaa hawaa
1. By the star when it descends,
مَا ضَلَّ صَاحِبُكُمْ وَمَا غَوَىٰ
Maa dalla saahibukum wa maa ghawaa
2. Your companion [Muhammad] has not strayed, nor has he erred,
وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ ٱلْهَوَىٰٓ
Wa maa yyantiqu ‘anilhawaaa
3. Nor does he speak from [his own] inclination.
إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْىٌۭ يُوحَىٰ
In huwa illaa Wahyuny yoohaa
4. It is not but a revelation revealed,
عَلَّمَهُۥ شَدِيدُ ٱلْقُوَىٰ
‘Allamahoo shadeedul quwaa
5. Taught to him by one intense in strength –
ذُو مِرَّةٍۢ فَٱسْتَوَىٰ
Zoo mirratin fastawaa
6. One of soundness. And he rose to [his] true form
وَهُوَ بِٱلْأُفُقِ ٱلْأَعْلَىٰ
Wa huwa bil ufuqil a’laa
7. While he was in the higher [part of the] horizon.
ثُمَّ دَنَا فَتَدَلَّىٰ
Summa danaa fatadalla
8. Then he approached and descended
فَكَانَ قَابَ قَوْسَيْنِ أَوْ أَدْنَىٰ
Fakaana qaaba qawsaini aw adnaa
9. And was at a distance of two bow lengths or nearer.
فَأَوْحَىٰٓ إِلَىٰ عَبْدِهِۦ مَآ أَوْحَىٰ
Fa awhaaa ilaa ‘abdihee maaa awhaa
10. And he revealed to His Servant what he revealed.
مَا كَذَبَ ٱلْفُؤَادُ مَا رَأَىٰٓ
Maa kazabal fu’aadu maa ra aa
11. The heart did not lie [about] what it saw.
أَفَتُمَـٰرُونَهُۥ عَلَىٰ مَا يَرَىٰ
Afatumaaroonahoo ‘alaa maayaraa
12. So will you dispute with him over what he saw?
وَلَقَدْ رَءَاهُ نَزْلَةً أُخْرَىٰ
Wa laqad ra aahu nazlatan ukhraa
13. And he certainly saw him in another descent
عِندَ سِدْرَةِ ٱلْمُنتَهَىٰ
‘Inda sidratil muntaha
14. At the Lote Tree of the Utmost Boundary –
عِندَهَا جَنَّةُ ٱلْمَأْوَىٰٓ
‘Indahaa jannatul maawaa
15. Near it is the Garden of Refuge –
إِذْ يَغْشَى ٱلسِّدْرَةَ مَا يَغْشَىٰ
Iz yaghshas sidrata maa yaghshaa
16. When there covered the Lote Tree that which covered [it].
مَا زَاغَ ٱلْبَصَرُ وَمَا طَغَىٰ
Maa zaaghal basaru wa maa taghaa
17. The sight [of the Prophet] did not swerve, nor did it transgress [its limit].
لَقَدْ رَأَىٰ مِنْ ءَايَـٰتِ رَبِّهِ ٱلْكُبْرَىٰٓ
Laqad ra aa min aayaati Rabbihil kubraaa
18. He certainly saw of the greatest signs of his Lord.
أَفَرَءَيْتُمُ ٱللَّـٰتَ وَٱلْعُزَّىٰ
Afara’aytumul laata wal ‘uzzaa
19. So have you considered al-Lat and al-‘Uzza?
وَمَنَوٰةَ ٱلثَّالِثَةَ ٱلْأُخْرَىٰٓ
Wa manaatas saalisatal ukhraa
20. And Manat, the third – the other one?
أَلَكُمُ ٱلذَّكَرُ وَلَهُ ٱلْأُنثَىٰ
A-lakumuz zakaru wa lahul unsaa
21. Is the male for you and for Him the female?
تِلْكَ إِذًۭا قِسْمَةٌۭ ضِيزَىٰٓ
Tilka izan qismatun deezaa
22. That, then, is an unjust division.
إِنْ هِىَ إِلَّآ أَسْمَآءٌۭ سَمَّيْتُمُوهَآ أَنتُمْ وَءَابَآؤُكُم مَّآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ بِهَا مِن سُلْطَـٰنٍ ۚ إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا ٱلظَّنَّ وَمَا تَهْوَى ٱلْأَنفُسُ ۖ وَلَقَدْ جَآءَهُم مِّن رَّبِّهِمُ ٱلْهُدَىٰٓ
In hiya illaaa asmaaa’un sammaitumoohaaa antum wa aabaaa’ukum maaa anzalal laahu bihaa min sultaan; inyyattabi’oona illaz zanna wa maa tahwal anfusu wa laqad jaaa’ahum mir Rabbihimul hudaa
23. They are not but [mere] names you have named them – you and your forefathers – for which Allah has sent down no authority. They follow not except assumption and what [their] souls desire, and there has already come to them from their Lord guidance.
أَمْ لِلْإِنسَـٰنِ مَا تَمَنَّىٰ
Am lil insaani maa taman naa
24. Or is there for man whatever he wishes?
فَلِلَّهِ ٱلْءَاخِرَةُ وَٱلْأُولَىٰ
Falillaahil aakhiratu wal oolaa
25. Rather, to Allah belongs the Hereafter and the first [life].
۞ وَكَم مِّن مَّلَكٍۢ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ لَا تُغْنِى شَفَـٰعَتُهُمْ شَيْـًٔا إِلَّا مِنۢ بَعْدِ أَن يَأْذَنَ ٱللَّهُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ وَيَرْضَىٰٓ
Wa kam mim malakin fissamaawaati laa tughnee shafaa’atuhum shai’an illaa mim ba’di anyyaazanal laahu limany yashaaa’u wa yardaa
26. And how many angels there are in the heavens whose intercession will not avail at all except [only] after Allah has permitted [it] to whom He wills and approves.
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِٱلْءَاخِرَةِ لَيُسَمُّونَ ٱلْمَلَـٰٓئِكَةَ تَسْمِيَةَ ٱلْأُنثَىٰ
innal lazeena laa yu’minoona bil aakhirati la yusammoonal malaaa’ikata tasmiyatal unsaa
27. Indeed, those who do not believe in the Hereafter name the angels female names,
وَمَا لَهُم بِهِۦ مِنْ عِلْمٍ ۖ إِن يَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا ٱلظَّنَّ ۖ وَإِنَّ ٱلظَّنَّ لَا يُغْنِى مِنَ ٱلْحَقِّ شَيْـًۭٔا
Wa maa lahum bihee min ‘ilmin iny yattabi’oona illaz zanna wa innaz zanna laa yughnee minal haqqi shai’aa
28. And they have thereof no knowledge. They follow not except assumption, and indeed, assumption avails not against the truth at all.
فَأَعْرِضْ عَن مَّن تَوَلَّىٰ عَن ذِكْرِنَا وَلَمْ يُرِدْ إِلَّا ٱلْحَيَوٰةَ ٱلدُّنْيَا
Fa a’rid ‘am man tawallaa ‘an zikrinaa wa lam yurid illal hayaatad dunyaa
29. So turn away from whoever turns his back on Our message and desires not except the worldly life.
ذَٰلِكَ مَبْلَغُهُم مِّنَ ٱلْعِلْمِ ۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن ضَلَّ عَن سَبِيلِهِۦ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنِ ٱهْتَدَىٰ
Zalika mablaghuhum minal ‘ilm; inna rabbaka huwa a’lamu biman dalla ‘an sabee lihee wa huwa a’lamu bimanih tadaa
30. That is their sum of knowledge. Indeed, your Lord is most knowing of who strays from His way, and He is most knowing of who is guided.
وَلِلَّهِ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ لِيَجْزِىَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَسَـٰٓـُٔوا۟ بِمَا عَمِلُوا۟ وَيَجْزِىَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَحْسَنُوا۟ بِٱلْحُسْنَى
Wa lillaahi maa fis samaawaati wa maa fil ardi liyajziyal lazeena asaaa’oo bimaa ‘amiloo wa yajziyal lazeena ahsanoo bilhusnaa
31. And to Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth – that He may recompense those who do evil with [the penalty of] what they have done and recompense those who do good with the best [reward] –
ٱلَّذِينَ يَجْتَنِبُونَ كَبَـٰٓئِرَ ٱلْإِثْمِ وَٱلْفَوَٰحِشَ إِلَّا ٱللَّمَمَ ۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ وَٰسِعُ ٱلْمَغْفِرَةِ ۚ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِكُمْ إِذْ أَنشَأَكُم مِّنَ ٱلْأَرْضِ وَإِذْ أَنتُمْ أَجِنَّةٌۭ فِى بُطُونِ أُمَّهَـٰتِكُمْ ۖ فَلَا تُزَكُّوٓا۟ أَنفُسَكُمْ ۖ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَنِ ٱتَّقَىٰٓ
Allazeena yajtaniboona kabaaa’iral ismi walfawaa hisha illal lamam; inna rabbaka waasi’ul maghfirah; huwa a’lamu bikum iz ansha akum minal ardi wa iz antum ajinnatun fee butooni umma haatikum falaa tuzakkooo anfusakum huwa a’lamu bimanit taqaa
32. Those who avoid the major sins and immoralities, only [committing] slight ones. Indeed, your Lord is vast in forgiveness. He was most knowing of you when He produced you from the earth and when you were fetuses in the wombs of your mothers. So do not claim yourselves to be pure; He is most knowing of who fears Him.
أَفَرَءَيْتَ ٱلَّذِى تَوَلَّىٰ
Afara’ayatal lazee tawallaa
33. Have you seen the one who turned away
وَأَعْطَىٰ قَلِيلًۭا وَأَكْدَىٰٓ
Wa a’taa qaleelanw wa akdaa
34. And gave a little and [then] refrained?
أَعِندَهُۥ عِلْمُ ٱلْغَيْبِ فَهُوَ يَرَىٰٓ
A’indahoo ‘ilmul ghaibi fahuwa yaraa
35. Does he have knowledge of the unseen, so he sees?
أَمْ لَمْ يُنَبَّأْ بِمَا فِى صُحُفِ مُوسَىٰ
Am lam yunabbaa bimaa fee suhuhfi Moosa
36. Or has he not been informed of what was in the scriptures of Moses
وَإِبْرَٰهِيمَ ٱلَّذِى وَفَّىٰٓ
Wa Ibraaheemal lazee waffaaa
37. And [of] Abraham, who fulfilled [his obligations] –
أَلَّا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌۭ وِزْرَ أُخْرَىٰ
Allaa taziru waaziratunw wizra ukhraa
38. That no bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another
وَأَن لَّيْسَ لِلْإِنسَـٰنِ إِلَّا مَا سَعَىٰ
Wa al laisa lil insaani illaa maa sa’aa
39. And that there is not for man except that [good] for which he strives
وَأَنَّ سَعْيَهُۥ سَوْفَ يُرَىٰ
Wa anna sa’yahoo sawfa yuraam
40. And that his effort is going to be seen –
ثُمَّ يُجْزَىٰهُ ٱلْجَزَآءَ ٱلْأَوْفَىٰ
Summa yujzaahul jazaaa ‘al awfaa
41. Then he will be recompensed for it with the fullest recompense
وَأَنَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكَ ٱلْمُنتَهَىٰ
Wa anna ilaa rabbikal muntahaa
42. And that to your Lord is the finality
وَأَنَّهُۥ هُوَ أَضْحَكَ وَأَبْكَىٰ
Wa annahoo huwa adhaka wa abkaa
43. And that it is He who makes [one] laugh and weep
وَأَنَّهُۥ هُوَ أَمَاتَ وَأَحْيَا
Wa annahoo huwa amaata wa ahyaa
44. And that it is He who causes death and gives life
وَأَنَّهُۥ خَلَقَ ٱلزَّوْجَيْنِ ٱلذَّكَرَ وَٱلْأُنثَىٰ
Wa annahoo khalaqaz zawjainiz zakara wal unsaa
45. And that He creates the two mates – the male and female –
مِن نُّطْفَةٍ إِذَا تُمْنَىٰ
Min nutfatin izaa tumnaa
46. From a sperm-drop when it is emitted
وَأَنَّ عَلَيْهِ ٱلنَّشْأَةَ ٱلْأُخْرَىٰ
Wa anna ‘alaihin nash atal ukhraa
47. And that [incumbent] upon Him is the next creation
وَأَنَّهُۥ هُوَ أَغْنَىٰ وَأَقْنَىٰ
Wa annahoo huwa aghnaa wa aqnaa
48. And that it is He who enriches and suffices
وَأَنَّهُۥ هُوَ رَبُّ ٱلشِّعْرَىٰ
Wa annahoo huwa rabbush shi’raa
49. And that it is He who is the Lord of Sirius
وَأَنَّهُۥٓ أَهْلَكَ عَادًا ٱلْأُولَىٰ
Wa annahooo ahlak a ‘Aadanil oolaa
50. And that He destroyed the first [people of] ‘Aad
وَثَمُودَا۟ فَمَآ أَبْقَىٰ
Wa samooda famaaa abqaa
51. And Thamud – and He did not spare [them] –
وَقَوْمَ نُوحٍۢ مِّن قَبْلُ ۖ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا۟ هُمْ أَظْلَمَ وَأَطْغَىٰ
Wa qawma Noohim min qablu innahum kaanoo hum azlama wa atghaa
52. And the people of Noah before. Indeed, it was they who were [even] more unjust and oppressing.
Wal mu’tafikata ahwaa
53. And the overturned towns He hurled down
فَغَشَّىٰهَا مَا غَشَّىٰ
Faghashshaahaa maa ghashshaa
54. And covered them by that which He covered.
فَبِأَىِّ ءَالَآءِ رَبِّكَ تَتَمَارَىٰ
Fabi ayyi aalaaa’i Rabbika tatamaaraa
55. Then which of the favors of your Lord do you doubt?
هَـٰذَا نَذِيرٌۭ مِّنَ ٱلنُّذُرِ ٱلْأُولَىٰٓ
Haazaa nazeerum minan nuzuril oolaa
56. This [Prophet] is a warner like the former warners.
57. The Approaching Day has approached.
لَيْسَ لَهَا مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ كَاشِفَةٌ
Laisa lahaa min doonil laahi kaashifah
58. Of it, [from those] besides Allah, there is no remover.
أَفَمِنْ هَـٰذَا ٱلْحَدِيثِ تَعْجَبُونَ
Afamin hazal hadeesi ta’jaboon
59. Then at this statement do you wonder?
وَتَضْحَكُونَ وَلَا تَبْكُونَ
Wa tadhakoona wa laa tabkoon
60. And you laugh and do not weep
Wa antum saamidoon
61. While you are proudly sporting?
فَٱسْجُدُوا۟ لِلَّهِ وَٱعْبُدُوا۟ ۩
Fasjudoo lillaahi wa’budoo (make sajda)
62. So prostrate to Allah and worship [Him].
The Tafsir of Surat An-Najm
Chapter – 53
Which was revealed in Makkah
The First Surah in which a Prostration is revealed
Al-Bukhari recorded that `Abdullah ﴿bin Mas`ud﴾ said, “Surat An-Najm was the first Surah in which a prostration was revealed. The Prophet (recited it in Makkah) and prostrated. Those who were with him did the same, except an old man who took a handful of soil and prostrated on it. Later on, I saw him killed as a disbeliever; he was Umayyah bin Khalaf.” Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith in several places of his Sahih, as did Muslim, Abu Dawud and An-Nasa’i, using various chains of narration through Abu Ishaq from `Abdullah.
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. By the star when it goes down.) (2. Your companion has neither gone astray nor has he erred.) (3. Nor does he speak of desire.) (4. It is only a revelation revealed.)
Allah swears the Messenger is True and His Words are a Revelation from Him
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ash-Sha`bi and others stated that the Creator swears by whatever He wills among His creation, but the created only vow by the Creator. Allah said,
(By the star when it goes down.) Ibn Abi Najih reported that Mujahid said, “The star refers to Pleiades when it sets at Fajr.” Ad-Dahhak said “When the Shayatin are shot with it.” And this Ayah is like Allah’s saying;
(So, I swear by the setting of the stars. And verily, that is indeed a great oath, if you but know. That is indeed an honorable recitation. In a Book well-guarded. Which none can touch but the pure. A revelation from the Lord of all that exists.)(56:75-80) Allah said;
(Your companion has neither gone astray nor has erred.) This contains the subject of the oath. This part of the Ayah is the witness that the Messenger of Allah is sane and a follower of Truth. He is neither led astray, such as in the case of the ignorant who does not proceed on any path with knowledge, nor is he one who erred, such as in the case of the knowledgeable, who knows the Truth, yet deviates from it intentionally to something else. Therefore, Allah exonerated His Messenger and his Message from being similar to the misguided ways of the Christians and the erroneous paths of the Jews, such as knowing the Truth and hiding it, while abiding by falsehood. Rather, he, may Allah’s peace and blessings be on him, and his glorious Message that Allah has sent him with, are on the perfect straight path, following guidance and what is correct.
Muhammad was sent as a Mercy for all that exists; He does not speak of His Desire
(Nor does he speak of desire), asserting that nothing the Prophet utters is of his own desire or wish,
(It is only a revelation revealed.), means, he only conveys to the people what he was commanded to convey, in its entirety without additions or deletions. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Umamah said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say,
(Verily, numbers similar to the two tribes, or one of them, Rabi`ah and Mudar, will enter Paradise on account of the intercession of one man, who is not a Prophet.) A man asked, “O Allah’s Messenger! Is not Rabi`ah a subtribe of Mudar.” The Prophet said,
(I said what I said.) Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr said, “I used to record everything I heard from the Messenger of Allah so it would be preserved. The Quraysh discouraged me from this, saying, `You record everything you hear from the Messenger of Allah , even though he is human and sometimes speaks when he is angry’ I stopped recording the Hadiths for a while, but later mentioned what they said to the Messenger of Allah , who said,
(Write! By He in Whose Hand is my soul, every word that comes out of me is the Truth.)” Abu Dawud also collected this Hadith.
(5. He has been taught by one mighty in power.) (6. Dhu Mirrah then he Istawa.) (7. While he was in the highest part of the horizon,) (8. Then he approached and came closer,) (9. And was at a distance of two bows’ length or less.) (10. So (Allah) revealed to His servant whatever He revealed.) (11. The heart lied not in what he saw.) (12. Will you then dispute with him about what he saw) (13. And indeed he saw him at a second descent.) (14. Near Sidrat Al-Muntaha.) (15. Near it is the Paradise of Abode.) (16. When that covered the lote tree which did cover it!) (17. The sight turned not aside, nor it transgressed beyond the limit.) (18. Indeed he saw of the greatest Ssgns of his Lord.)
The Trustworthy Angel brought Allah’s Revelation to the Trustworthy Messenger
Allah the Exalted states that the Message His servant and Messenger Muhammad brought to people was taught to him by,
(mighty in power), he is Jibril, peace be upon him,
(Verily, this is the Word a most honorable messenger, owner of power, with (Allah) the Lord of the Throne, obeyed (by the angels) and trustworthy.)(81:19-21) Allah said here,
(Dhu Mirrah), meaning, he is mighty in power, according to Mujahid, Al-Hasan and Ibn Zayd. In an authentic Hadith from `Abdullah bin `Umar and Abu Hurayrah, the Prophet said,
(Charity is not allowed for a rich person nor Dhu Mirrah (a strong person) of sound mind and body.) Allah said;
(then he Istawa (rose).) this refers to the angel Jibril, according to Al-Hasan, Mujahid, Qatadah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas,
(While he was in the highest part of the horizon.) meaning, Jibril rose to the highest part of the horizon, according to `Ikrimah and several others; `Ikrimah said, “The highest horizon where the morning comes from.” Mujahid said, “It is (the place of) sunrise.” Qatadah said, “That from which the day comes.” Ibn Zayd and several others said similarly. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, “The Messenger of Allah saw Jibril in his original shape having six hundred wings, each wing filling the side of the horizon, with a colorful array, and pearls and rubies falling from each wing as much as only Allah knows.” Only Imam Ahmad collected this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Abbas said, “The Prophet asked Jibril to appear himself to him in his original shape and Jibril said to him, `Invoke your Lord.’ The Prophet invoked his Lord the Exalted and Most Honored, and a great huge figure appeared to him from the east and kept rising and spreading. When the Prophet saw Jibril in his original shape, he was knocked unconscious. Jibril came down and revived the Prophet and wiped the saliva off of his cheeks.”’ Only Ahmad collected this Hadith.
Meaning of “at a distance of two bows’ length or less
(And was at a distance of two bows` length or less.) means, Jibril came closer to Muhammad when Jibril was descending to him on earth. At that time, the distance between them became only two bow lengths, when the bows are extended to full length, according to Mujahid and Qatadah. It was said that the meaning here is the distance between the bow’s string and its wood center. Allah’s statement,
(or less) indicates that the distance was as only as far described, not more. This type of usage is found in several instances in the Qur’an, such as,
(Then, after that, your hearts were hardened and became as stones or even worse in hardness.)(2:74) The Ayah says that their hearts became not softer than rocks, but as hard and difficult as rocks, and more. There is a similar Ayah,
(fear men as they fear Allah or even more.)(4:77), and Allah’s statement,
(And We sent him to hundred thousand (people) or even more.)(37:147), indicating that they were not less than a hundred thousand, but that amount or more. Therefore, this verifies the facts mentioned, leaving no doubt or means of refute. Similarly, Allah said,
(And was at a distance of two bow lengths or less.) We stated before that it was Jibril who came down near the Prophet , according to `A’ishah, the Mother of the faithful, `Abdullah bin Mas`ud, Abu Dharr and Abu Hurayrah. We will mention their statements about this soon afterwards, Allah willing. Ibn Jarir recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said about this Ayah,
(And was at a distance of two bow lengths or less.) “Allah’s Messenger said,
(I saw Jibril; he had six hundred wings.)” Al-Bukhari recorded that Talq bin Ghannam said that Za’idah said that Ash-Shaybani said, “I asked Zirr about the Ayah,
(And was at a distance of two bow lengths or less. So (Allah) revealed to His servant whatever He revealed.) Zirr said, “Abdullah narrated to us that Muhammad saw Jibril having six hundred wings.” Allah’s statement,
(So he revealed to His servant whatever He revealed.) means, Jibril conveyed to Allah’s servant Muhammad whatever he conveyed. Or, the meaning here could be: Allah revealed to His servant Muhammad whatever He revealed through Jibril. Both meanings are correct. Sa`id bin Jubayr said about Allah’s statement,
(So He revealed to His servant whatever He revealed.) “Allah revealed to him,
(Did He not find you an orphan.)(93:6), and,
(And have We not raised high your fame)(94:4)” Someone else said, “Allah revealed to the Prophet that the Prophets will not enter Paradise until he enters it first, and the nations will not enter it until his Ummah enters it first.”
Did the Prophet see His Lord during the Night of Isra
Allah said next,
(The heart lied not in what he saw. Will you then dispute with him about what he saw) Muslim recorded from Ibn `Abbas about:
(The heart lied not in what he saw), and,
(And indeed he saw him at a second descent.) “He saw Allah twice in his heart.” Simak reported a similar from `Ikrimah from Ibn `Abbas. Abu Salih, As-Suddi and several others said similarly that the Prophet saw Allah twice in his heart.Masruq said, “I went to `A’ishah and asked her, `Did Muhammad see his Lord’ She said, `You said something that caused my hair to rise!’ I said, `Behold!’ and recited this Ayah,
(Indeed he saw of the greatest signs of his Lord.) She said, `Where did your mind wander It was Jibril. Whoever says to you that Muhammad saw his Lord, or hid any part of what he was commanded (i.e., Allah’s Message), or knew any of the five things which only Allah knows,
(Verily, Allah, with Him is the knowledge of the Hour, He sends down the rain…)(31:34), Then he invents a great lie against Allah! The Prophet only saw Jibril twice, in his original shape, once near Sidrat Al-Muntaha and another time in Ajyad (in Makkah) while Jibril had six hundred wings that covered the horizon.”’ Muslim recorded that Abu Dharr said, “I asked the Messenger of Allah , `Have you seen your Lord’ He said,
(How can I see Him since there was a light)” In another narration, the Prophet said,
(I only saw a light.) Allah’s statement,
(And indeed he saw him at a second descent. Near Sidrat Al-Muntaha.) “The Messenger of Allah said,
(I saw Jibril while he had six hundred wings and a colorful array of pearls and rubies falling from the feathers of his wings.)” This Hadith has a good, strong chain of narration. Ahmad also recorded that `Abdullah ﴿Ibn Mas`ud﴾ said, “The Messenger of Allah saw Jibril in his original shape while Jibril had six hundred wings, each wing covering the side of the horizon. From his wings, precious stones were dropping of which only Allah has knowledge.” This Hadith has a good chain of narration. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, “The Messenger of Allah said,
(I saw Jibril over Sidrat Al-Muntaha while he had six hundred wings.)” One of the subnarrators of the Hadith asked `Asim about Jibril’s wings and `Asim refused to elaborate. So some of his companions were asked and one of them said, “Each wing was covering what is between the east and the west.” This Hadith has a good chain of narration. Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said that Allah’s Messenger said:
(Jibril came to me wearing green with pearls hanging down.) This Hadith has a good chain of narration. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Amir said that Masruq asked `A’ishah, “O Mother of the faithful, has Muhammad seen his Lord, the Exalted and Most Honored” She said, “Glorious is Allah! My hair is standing on end because of what you said. Three matters, if one tells you about any of them, will have lied. Whoever tells you that Muhammad has seen his Lord, will have lied.” She then recited these two Ayat,
(No vision can grasp Him, but He grasps all vision.)(6:103), and,
(It is not given to any human being that Allah should speak to him unless (it be) by revelation, or from behind a veil.)(42:51) She went one, “And whoever tells you that Muhammad knew what the morrow will bring, will have uttered a lie.” She then recited,
(Verily, Allah, with Him is the knowledge of the Hour, He sends down the rain, and knows that which is in the wombs.)(31:34) `A’ishah said, “And whoever tells you that Muhammad has hidden any part of the Message will have lied,” and she then recited this Ayah,
(O Messenger proclaim which has been sent down to you from your Lord.)(5:67).She went one, “However, he saw Jibril twice in his original shape.” Imam Ahmad also recorded that Masruq said, “I asked `A’ishah, `Did not Allah say,
(And indeed he saw him in the clear horizon.)(81:23), and,
(And indeed he saw him at a second descent)’ She said, `I was the first among this Ummah to ask Allah’s Messenger about it. He said,
(That was Jibril.) He only saw him twice in his actual and real figure. He saw Jibril descend from heaven to earth and was so huge that he covered the whole horizon between the sky and earth.)”’ This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs via Ash-Sha`bi.
Angels, Light and colors covered Sidrat Al-Muntaha
(When that covered the lote tree which did cover it!) We mentioned before, in the Hadiths about Al-Isra’ that the angels, Allah’s Light, and spectacular colors covered the Sidrah. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud said, “When the Messenger of Allah was taken on the Isra’ journey, he ascended to Sidrat Al-Muntaha, which is in the seventh heaven. There everything terminates that ascends from the earth and is held there, and terminates everything that descends from above it is held there,
(When that covered the lote tree which did cover it!) He said, “Golden butterflies. The Messenger of Allah was given three things: He was given the five prayers, he was given the concluding verses of Surat Al-Baqarah (2:284-286), and remission of serious sins for those among his Ummah who do not associate anything with Allah.” Muslim collected this Hadith. Allah’s statement,
(The sight turned not aside, nor it transgressed beyond the limit.) indicates that the Prophet’s sight did not turn right or left, according to `Ibn `Abbas,
(nor it transgressed beyond the limit.) not exceeding what has been ordained for it. This is a tremendous quality that demonstrates the Prophet’s firm obedience to Allah, because he only did what was commanded and did ask beyond what he was given. Allah’s statement,
(Indeed he saw of the greatest signs of his Lord.) is similar to another Ayah,
(In order that We might show him of Our Ayat.)(17:1), meaning, signs that testify to Allah’s might and greatness. Relying on these two Ayat, some scholars of Ahl us-Sunnah said that the Prophet did not see Allah during the Isra’ journey, because Allah said,
(Indeed he saw of the greatest signs of his Lord.) They said that, had the Prophet seen his Lord, Allah would have conveyed this news and the Prophet would have narrated it to the people.
(19. Have you then considered Al-Lat, and Al-`Uzza.) (20. And Manat, the other third) (21. Is it for you the males and for Him the females) (22. That indeed is a division most unfair!) (23. They are but names which you have named – you and your fathers – for which Allah has sent down no authority. They follow but a guess and that which they themselves desire, whereas there has surely come to them the guidance from their Lord!) (24. Or shall man have what he wishes) (25. But to Allah belongs the last (Hereafter) and the first (the world).) (26. And there are many angels in the heavens, whose intercession will avail nothing, except after Allah has given leave for whom He wills and is pleased with.)
Refuting Idolatry, Al-Lat and Al-`Uzza
Allah the Exalted rebukes the idolators for worshipping idols and taking rivals to Him. They built houses for their idols to resemble the Ka`bah built by Prophet Ibrahim, Allah’s Khalil.
(Have you then considered Al-Lat,) Al-Lat was a white stone with inscriptions on. There was a house built around Al-Lat in At-Ta’if with curtains, servants and a sacred courtyard around it. The people of At-Ta’if, the tribe of Thaqif and their allies, worshipped Al-Lat. They would boast to Arabs, except the Quraysh, that they had Al-Lat. Ibn Jarir said, “They derived Al-Lat’s name from Allah’s Name, and made it feminine. Allah is far removed from what they ascribe to Him. It was reported that Al-Lat is pronounced Al-Lat because, according to `Abdullah bin `Abbas, Mujahid, and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Al-Lat was a man who used to mix Sawiq (a kind of barley mash) with water for the pilgrims during the time of Jahiliyyah. When he died, they remained next to his grave and worshipped him.” Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said about Allah’s statement,
(Al-Lat, and Al-`Uzza.) “Al-Lat was a man who used to mix Sawiq for the pilgrims.” Ibn Jarir said, “They also derived the name for their idol Al-`Uzza from Allah’s Name Al-`Aziz. Al-`Uzza was a tree on which the idolators placed a monument and curtains, in the area of Nakhlah, between Makkah and At-Ta’if. The Quraysh revered Al-`Uzza.” During the battle of Uhud, Abu Sufyan said, “We have Al-`Uzza, but you do not have Al-`Uzza.” Allah’s Messenger replied,
(Say, “Allah is Our Supporter, but you have no support.”) Manat was another idol in the area of Mushallal near Qudayd, between Makkah and Al-Madinah. The tribes of Khuza`ah, Aws and Khazraj used to revere Manat during the time of Jahiliyyah. They used to announce Hajj to the Ka`bah from next to Manat. Al-Bukhari collected a statement from `A’ishah with this meaning. There were other idols in the Arabian Peninsula that the Arabs revered just as they revered the Ka`bah, besides the three idols that Allah mentioned in His Glorious Book. Allah mentioned these three here because they were more famous than the others. An-Nasa’i recorded that Abu At-Tufayl said, “When the Messenger of Allah conquered Makkah, he sent Khalid bin Al-Walid to the area of Nakhlah where the idol of Al-`Uzza was erected on three trees of a forest. Khalid cut the three trees and approached the house built around it and destroyed it. When he went back to the Prophet and informed him of the story, the Prophet said to him,
(Go back and finish your mission, for you have not finished it.) Khalid went back and when the custodians who were also its servants of Al-`Uzza saw him, they started invoking by calling Al-`Uzza! When Khalid approached it, he found a naked woman whose hair was untidy and who was throwing sand on her head. Khalid killed her with the sword and went back to the Messenger of Allah , who said to him,
(That was Al-`Uzza!)” Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated, “Al-Lat belonged to the tribe of Thaqif in the area of At-Ta’if. Banu Mu`attib were the custodians of Al-Lat and its servants.” I say that the Prophet sent Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah and Abu Sufyan Sakhr bin Harb to destroy Al-Lat. They carried out the Prophet’s command and built a Masjid in its place in the city of At-Ta’if. Muhammad bin Ishaq said that Manat used to be the idol of the Aws and Khazraj tribes and those who followed their religion in Yathrib (Al-Madinah). Manat was near the coast, close to the area of Mushallal in Qudayd. The Prophet sent Abu Sufyan Sakhr bin Harb or `Ali bin Abi Talib to demolish it. Ibn Ishaq said that Dhul-Khalasah was the idol of the tribes of Daws, Khath`am and Bajilah, and the Arabs who resided in the area of Tabalah. I say that Dhul-Khalasah was called the Southern Ka`bah, and the Ka`bah in Makkah was called the Northern Ka`bah. The Messenger of Allah sent Jarir bin `Abdullah Al-Bajali to Dhul-Khalasah and he destroyed it. Ibn Ishaq said that Fals was the idol of Tay’ and the neighboring tribes in the Mount of Tay’, such as Salma and Ajja. Ibn Hisham said that some scholars of knowledge told him that the Messenger of Allah sent `Ali bin Abi Talib to Fals and he destroyed it and found two swords in its treasure, which the Prophet then gave to `Ali as war spoils. Muhammad bin Ishaq also said that the tribes of Himyar, and Yemen in general, had a house of worship in San`a’ called Riyam. He mentioned that there was a black dog in it and that the religious men who went with Tubba` removed it, killed it and demolished the building. Ibn Ishaq said that Ruda’ was a structure of Bani Rabi`ah bin Ka`b bin Sa`d bin Zayd Manat bin Tamim, which Al-Mustawghir bin Rabi`ah bin Ka`b bin Sa`d demolished after Islam. In Sindad there was Dhul-Ka`bat, the idol of the tribes of Bakr and Taghlib, the sons of the Wa’il, and also the Iyad tribes.
Refuting the Idolators Who appoint Rivals to Allah and claim that the Angels were Females
Allah the Exalted said,
(Have you then considered Al-Lat, and Al-`Uzza. And Manat, the other third), then Allah said,
(Is it for you the males and for Him the females) Allah asked the idolators, `do you choose female offspring for Allah and give preference to yourselves with the males If you made this division between yourselves and the created, it would be,
(a division most unfair!)’ meaning, it would be an unfair and unjust division. `How is it then that you make this division between you and Allah, even though this would be foolish and unjust, if you made it between yourselves and others’ Allah the Exalted refutes such innovated lies, falsehood and atheism they invented through worshipping the idols and calling them gods,
(They are but names which you have named — you and your fathers) of your own desire,
(for which Allah has sent down no authority.) meaning, proof,
(They follow but a guess and that which they themselves desire,) they have no proof, except their trust in their forefathers who took this false path in the past, as well as, their lusts and desires to become leaders, and thereby gain honor and reverence for their forefathers,
(whereas there has surely come to them the guidance from their Lord!), meaning, Allah has sent them Messengers with the clear truth and unequivocal evidence. However, they did not adhere to or follow the guidance that came to them through the Prophets.
Wishful Thinking does not earn One Righteousness
Allah the Exalted said,
(Or shall man have what he wishes), asserting that not everyone gets the goodness that he wishes,
(It will not be in accordance with desires (of Muslims), nor those of the People of Scripture.)(4:123) Allah says, not everyone who claims to be guided is truly guided, and not everyone gets what he wishes for himself. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(When one of you wishes for something, let him be careful with what he wishes for, because he does not know what part of his wish will be written for him.)Only Ahmad collected this Hadith. Allah’s statement,
(But to Allah belongs the last and the first.) meaning, all matters belong to Allah and He is the King and Owner of this world and the Hereafter, Who does what He will in both lives. Whatever He wills, occurs and whatever He does not will, never occurs.
No Interecession except with Allah’s Leave
(And there are many angels in the heavens, whose intercession will avail nothing except after Allah has given leave for whom He wills and is pleased with.) As He said;
(Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His permission )(2:255) and,
(Intercession with Him profits not except for him whom He permits.) (34:23) `If this is the case with the angels who are close to Him, how can you, O ignorant ones, hope for Allah to grant you the intercession of the idols and rivals you worship with Him without having His permission or any divine legislation permitting you to worship them’ Rather, Allah has forbidden idol worshipping by the tongues of all of His Messengers and He revealed this prohibition in all of His Books.
(27. Verily, those who believe not in the Hereafter, name the angels with female names.) (28. But they have no knowledge thereof. They follow but conjecture, and verily, conjecture is no substitute for the truth.) (29. Therefore withdraw from him who turns away from Our Reminder and desires nothing but the life of this world.) (30. That is what they could reach of knowledge. Verily, your Lord is He, Who knows best him who goes astray from His path, and He knows best him who receives guidance.)
Refuting the Claim of the Idolators that the Angels are Allah’s Daughters
Allah the Exalted admonishes the idolators for calling the angels female names and claiming that they are Allah’s daughters. Allah is far removed from what they ascribe to Him. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah,
(And they make females the angels, who themselves are servants of the Most Gracious. Did they witness their creation Their testimony will be recorded, and they will be questioned!)(43:19) Allah’s statement here,
(But they have no knowledge thereof.) meaning, they have no correct knowledge testifying to their statements. What they say is all lies, falsehood, fake and utter atheism,
(They follow but conjecture, and verily, conjecture is no substitute for the truth.) meaning, conjecture is of no benefit and never takes the place of truth. In a Hadith recorded in the Sahih, the Messenger of Allah said,
(Beware of suspicion, for suspicion is the most lying speech.)
The Necessity of turning away from the People of Misguidance
(Therefore withdraw from him who turns away from Our Reminder), means, stay away from those who turn away from the Truth and shun them,
(and desires nothing but the life of this world.) meaning, whose aim and knowledge are concentrated on this life; this is the goal of those who have no goodness in them,
(That is what they could reach of knowledge.) meaning, seeking this life and striving hard in its affairs is the best knowledge they have acquired. There is also the reported supplication:
(O Allah! Make not this life the greatest of our concerns nor the best knowledge that we can attain.) Allah’s statement,
(Verily, your Lord is He, Who knows best him who goes astray from His path, and He knows best him who receives guidance.) meaning, He is the Creator of all creatures and He knows whatever benefits His servants. Allah is the One Who guides whom He wills and misguides whom He wills, and all of this indicates His power, knowledge and wisdom. Certainly, He is Just and never legislates or decrees unjustly.
(31. And to Allah belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth, that He may requite those who do evil with that which they have done, and reward those who do good, with what is best.) (32. Those who avoid great sins and Al-Fawahish (immoral sins) except Al-Lamam — verily, your Lord is of vast forgiveness. He knows you well when He created you from the earth (Adam), and when you were fetuses in your mothers’ wombs. So, ascribe not purity to yourselves. He knows best him who has Taqwa.)
Allah knows Every Matter, whether Small or Big, and He rewards Each according to His or Her Deeds
Allah asserts that He is the King and Owner of the heavens and earth and that He is independent of the need for anyone. He is the authority over His creation and rules them with justice. He created the creation in truth,
(that He may requite those who do evil with that which they have done, and reward those who do good, with what is best.) He recompenses each according to his or her deeds, good for good and evil for evil.
Qualities of the Good-doers; Allah forgives the Small Faults
Allah stated that the gooddoers are those who avoid major sins and immoral sins. They sometimes commit minor sins, but they will be forgiven these minor sins and covered from exposure, as Allah mentioned in another Ayah;
(If you avoid the great sins which you are forbidden to do, We shall expiate from you your (small) sins, and admit you to a Noble Entrance.)(4:31) Allah said here,
(Those who avoid great sins and Al-Fawahish (immoral sins) except Al-Lamam), Al-Lamam means, small faults and minor errors. Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “I have not seen anything that resembles Al-Lamam better than the Hadith that Abu Hurayrah narrated from the Prophet ,
(Verily, Allah the Exalted has decreed for the Son of Adam his share of Zina and he will certainly earn his share. The Zina of the eye is by looking, the Zina of the tongue is by talking and the heart wishes and lusts, but the sexual organ either substantiates all this or not.)” This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs. Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said, “The eyes commit Zina by looking, the lips by kissing, the hands by transgressing, the feet by walking, and the sexual organ either materializes all of this or not. When one commits sexual intercourse, he will be someone who committed Zina. Otherwise, it is Al-Lamam.” Masruq and Ash-Sha`bi also held the same view. `Abdur-Rahman bin Nafi`, who is also known as Ibn Lubabah At-Ta’ifi, said, “I asked Abu Hurayrah about Allah’s statement,
(except the Lamam), and he said, `It pertains to kissing, winking one’s eye, looking and embracing. When the sexual organ meets the sexual organ in intercourse then Ghusl is obligatory, and that is Zina.”
Encouraging Repentance and forbidding Claims of Purity for Oneself
(verily, your Lord is of vast forgiveness.) asserts that His Mercy encompasses everything, and His forgiveness entails every type of sin, if one repents,
(Say: “O My servants who have transgressed against them- selves! Despair not of the mercy of Allah: verily, Allah forgives all sins. Truly, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”) (39:53) Allah said,
(He knows you well when He created you from the earth,) Allah says, `He was and still is the All-Knowing Whose knowledge encompasses your affairs, statements and all of the actions that will be committed by you, even when He created your father `Adam from the earth and took his offspring from his loin, as small as ants. He then divided them into two groups, a group destined for Paradise and a group to Hellfire,’
(and when you were fetuses in your mothers’ wombs.) when He commanded the angel to record one’s provisions, age, actions and if he would be among the miserable or the happy. Allah said,
(So, ascribe not purity to yourselves.) forbidding one from ascribing purity and praising himself and thinking highly of his actions,
(He knows best him who has Taqwa.) Allah said in another Ayah,
(Have you not seen those who claim sanctity for themselves. Nay, but Allah sanctifies whom He wills, and they will not be dealt with unjustly, even equal to the extent of a Fatil.) (4:49) In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Muhammad bin `Amr bin `Ata said, “I called my daughter, Barrah (the pious one), and Zaynab bint Abu Salamah said to me, `The Messenger of Allah forbade using this name. I was originally called Barrah and he said,
(Do not ascribe purity to yourselves; Allah knows best who the pious people among you are)’ They said, `What should we call her’ He said,
(Call her Zaynab.)” Imam Ahmad recorded a Hadith from `Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Bakrah, from his father who said, “A man praised another man before the Prophet . The Messenger of Allah said,
(Woe to you, you have cut off the neck of your friend! (He repeated this) If one of you must praise a friend of his, let him say, “I think that so-and-so is this and that; Allah knows best about him and I will never purify anyone before Allah,” if he knows his friend to be as he is describing him.)” Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah collected this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that Hammam bin Al-Harith said, “A man came before `Uthman bin `Affan and praised him. Al-Miqdad bin Al-Aswad started throwing sand in the face of that man, saying, `The Messenger of Allah ordered us to throw sand in their faces when we see those who praise.”’ Muslim and Abu Dawud also collected this Hadith.
(33. Did you observe him who turned away (from Islam).) (34. And gave a little, then stopped) (35. Is with him the knowledge of the Unseen so that he sees) (36. Or is he not informed with what is in the Suhuf of Musa,) (37. And of Ibrahim who fulfilled all that:) (38. That no burdened person (with sins) shall bear the burden (sins) of another.) (39. And that man can have nothing but what he does.) (40. And that his deeds will be seen.) (41. Then he will be recompensed with a full and the best recompense.)
Chastising Those Who disobey Allah and stop giving Charity
Allah the Exalted chastises those who turn away from His obedience,
(So he (the disbeliever) neither believed nor prayed! But on the contrary, he belied and turned away!)(75:31-32),
(And gave a little, then stopped) Ibn `Abbas said, “Gave a little, then stopped giving.” Similar was said by Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Ikrimah, Qatadah and several others. `Ikrimah and Sa`id said: “Like the case of a people who dig a well, during the course of which they find a rock preventing them from completing their work. So they say, `We are finished’ and they abandon the work.” Allah’s statement,
(Is with him the knowledge of the Unseen so that he sees) means, does this person, who stopped giving for fear of poverty and ended his acts of charity have knowledge of the Unseen and thus knows that if he does not stop giving, his wealth will go away No. Such a person has stopped giving in charity for righteous causes and did not keep relations with kith and kin because of his miserliness, being stingy and out of fear of poverty. The Prophet said in a Hadith,
(O Bilal, spend and fear not less provisions from the Owner of the Thone.) Allah the Exalted and Most honored said,
(And whatsoever you spend of anything (in Allah’s cause), He will replace it. And He is the Best of providers.)(34:39)
The Meaning of `fulfilled
Allah the Exalted said,
(Or is he not informed with what is in the Suhuf of Musa. And of Ibrahim who fulfilled), Sa`id bin Jubayr and Ath-Thawri said it means: “Conveyed all that he was ordered to convey.” Ibn `Abbas said about:
(fulfilled) “He delivered all that Allah ordered him to deliver.” Sa`id bin Jubayr said about:
(fulfilled), “What he was ordered.” Qatadah said about:
(fulfilled), “He obeyed Allah and delivered His Message to His creatures.” This is the view preferred by Ibn Jarir because it includes the statement before it and supports it. Allah said,
(And (remember) when the Lord of Ibrahim tried him with (certain) commands, which he fulfilled. He said: “Verily, I am going to make you an Imam (a leader) for mankind.”)(2:124) Therefore, Ibrahim fulfilled all the commands of his Lord, stayed away from all the prohibitions, and conveyed Allah’s Message in its entirety. Therefore, he is worthy of being made a leader for mankind in all of his affairs, statements and actions. Allah the Exalted said,
(Then, We have sent the revelation to you (saying): “Follow the religion of Ibrahim, a Hanif, and he was not of the idolators.”)(16:123)
None shall carry the Burden of Any Other on the Day of Resurrection
Allah the Exalted explained what He has revealed in the Scripture of Ibrahim and Musa,
(That no burdened person shall bear the burden of another.) Meaning, every soul shall carry its own injustices, whether disbelief or sin, and none else shall carry its burden of sin, as Allah states
(And if one heavily laden calls another to (bear) his load, nothing of it will be lifted even though he be near of kin.)(35:18) Allah said,
(And that man can have nothing but what he does.) So just as no soul shall carry the burden of any other, the soul shall only benefit from the good that one earns for himself. As for the Hadith recorded by Muslim in the Sahih, that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(When a person dies, his deeds will cease except in three cases: from a righteous son who invokes Allah for him, or an ongoing charity after his death, or knowledge that people benefit from.) These three things are, in reality, a result of one’s own deeds, efforts and actions. For example, a Hadith states,
(Verily, the best type of provision that one consumes is from what he himself has earned, and one’s offspring are among what he has earned.) The ongoing charity that one leaves behind, like an endowment, for example, are among the traces of his own actions and deeds. Allah the Exalted said,
(Verily, We give life to the dead, and We record that which they send before (them) and their traces.)(36:12) The knowledge that one spreads among people which they are guided by is among his actions and deeds. A Hadith collected in the Sahih states,
(Whoever invites to guidance, he will earn as much reward as those who follow him, without decreasing anything out of their own rewards.) Allah said,
(And that his deeds will be seen.) meaning, on the Day of Resurrection,
(And say: “Do deeds! Allah will see your deeds, and (so will) His Messenger and the believers. And you will be brought back to the All-Knower of the unseen and the seen. Then He will inform you of what you used to do.”)(9:105), Then Allah will remind you of your actions and recompense you for them in the best manner, good for good and evil for evil. Allah’s statement here,
(Then he will be recompensed with a full and the best recompense.)
(42. And that to your Lord is the End.) (43. And that it is He Who makes laugh, and makes weep.) (44. And that it is He Who causes death and gives life.) (45. And that He creates the pairs, male and female,) (46. From Nutfah when it is emitted.) (47. And that upon Him is another bringing forth (Resurrection).) (48. And that it is He Who Aghna and Aqna.) (49. And that He is the Lord of Ash-Shi`ra.) (50. And that it is He Who destroyed the former `Ad,) (51. And Thamud. He spared none of them.) (52. And the people of Nuh aforetime. Verily, they were more unjust and more rebellious and transgressing.) (53. And He destroyed the overthrown cities.) (54. So, there covered them that which did cover.) (55. Then which of the graces of your Lord will you doubt)
Some Attributes of the Lord, that He returns Man as He originated Him, and some of what He does with His Servants
Allah the Exalted said,
(And that to your Lord is the End.) meaning, the return of everything on the Day of Resurrection. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Amr bin Maymun Al-Awdi said, “Once, Mu`adh bin Jabal stood up among us and said, `O Children of Awd! I am the emissary of Allah’s Messenger to you; know that the Return is to Allah, either to Paradise or the Fire.”’ Allah’s statement,
(And that it is He Who makes you laugh, and makes you weep.) means that He created in His creatures the ability to laugh or weep and the causes for each of these opposites,
(And that it is He Who causes death and gives life.) In a similar statement, Allah said,
(Who has created death and life.)(67:2) Allah said,
(And that He creates the pairs, male and female. From Nutfah when it is emitted.) as He said:
(Does man think that he will be left neglected Was he not a Nutfah Then he became an `Alaqah (something that clings); then (Allah) shaped and fashioned (him) in due proportion. And made of him two sexes, male and female. Is not He (Allah) able to give life to the dead)(75:36-40) Allah the Exalted said,
(And that upon Him is another bringing forth.) meaning, just as He first originated creation, He is able to bring it back to life, resurrecting it for the Day of Judgement,
(And that it is He Who Aghna (gives much) and Aqna (a little).) It is Allah Who gives wealth to His servants and this wealth remains with them. This means they are able to use it to their benefit, is this out of the completeness of His favor. Most of the statements of the scholars of Tafsir revolve around this meaning, such as those from Abu Salih, Ibn Jarir and others. Mujahid said that,
(Aghna) meaning: He gives wealth.
(Aqna) meaning: He gives servants. Similar was said by Qatadah. Ibn `Abbas and Mujahid said;
(Aghna) means: He granted; while,
(Aqna) means: He gave contentment.
(And that He is the Lord of Ash-Shi`ra.) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah and Ibn Zayd said about Ash-Shi`ra that it is the bright star, named Mirzam Al-Jawza’ (Sirius), which a group of Arabs used to worship.
(And that it is He Who destroyed the former `Ad) the people of Hud. They are the descendants of `Ad, son of Iram, son of Sam, son of Nuh. As Allah the Exalted said,
(Saw you not how your Lord dealt with `Ad. Of Iram, with the lofty pillars, the like of which were not created in the land)(89:6-8) The people of `Ad were among the strongest, fiercest people and the most rebellious against Allah the Exalted and His Messenger. Allah destroyed them,
(By a furious violent wind! Which Allah imposed in them for seven nights and eight days in succession.)(69:6-7) Allah’s statement,
(And Thamud. He spared none), declares that He destroyed them all and spared none of them,
(And the people of Nuh aforetime.) before `Ad and Thamud,
(Verily, they were more unjust and more rebellious and transgressing.) more unjust in disobeying Allah than those who came after them,
(And He destroyed the overthrown cities.) meaning, the cities (of Sodom and Gomorrah) to which Prophet Lut was sent. Allah turned their cities upside down over them and sent on them stones of Sijjil. Allah’s statement that whatever has covered it, has covered it, is like the case with the stones of Sijjil that He sent on them,
(And We rained on them a rain (of torment). And how evil was the rain of those who had been warned!)(26:173) Allah said,
(Then which of the graces of your Lord will you doubt) meaning, `which of Allah’s favors for you, O man, do you doubt,’ according to Qatadah. Ibn Jurayj said that the Ayah,
(Then which of the graces of your Lord will you doubt), is directed towards the Prophet saying: “O Muhammad!” However, the first ex- planation is better, and it is the meaning that Ibn Jarir preferred.
(56. This is a warner from the warners of old.) (57. The Azifah draws near.) (58. None besides Allah can avert it.) (59. Do you then wonder at this reci- tation) (60. And you laugh at it and weep not,) (61. While you are Samidun.) (62. So fall you down in prostration to Allah and worship Him.)
A Warning and Exhortation, the Order to prostrate and to be humble
(This is a warner) in reference to Muhammad ,
(from the warners of old.) means, just like the warners of old, he was sent as a Messenger as they were sent as Messengers. Allah the Exalted said,
(Say: “I am not a new thing among the Messengers.”)(46:9) Allah said;
(The Azifah draws near.) that which is near, the Day of Resurrection, has drawn nearer,
(None besides Allah can avert it.) no one besides Allah can prevent it from coming, nor does anyone know when it will come, except Him. The warner is eager to convey his knowledge of the imminence of a calamity, so that it does not befall those to whom he is a warner. As He said;
(He is only a warner to you in face of a severe torment.) (34:46) And in the Hadith:
(I am the naked warner,) meaning, I was in such a hurry to warn against the evil I saw coming, that I did not wear anything. In this case, one rushes to warn his people in such haste that he will be naked. This meaning befits the meaning of the A0yah,
(the Azifah draws near.), in reference to the nearing Day of Resurrection. Allah said in the beginning of the Surah:
(The Hour has drawn near.)(54:1) Imam Ahmad recorded that Sahl bin Sa`d said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Beware of small sins! The example of the effect of small sin is that of people who settled near the bottom of a valley. One of them brought a piece of wood, and another brought another piece of wood, until they cooked their bread! Verily, small sins will destroy its companion, if one is held accountable for them.) Allah the Exalted admonishes the idolators because they hear the Qur’an, yet they turn away from it in heedless play,
(wonder) doubting that it is true.
(And you laugh) in jest and mock at it,
(and weep not,) just as those who believe in it weep,
(And they fall down on their faces weeping and it increases their humility.)(17:109) Allah said;
(While you are Samidun.) Sufyan Ath-Thawri reported that his father narrated that Ibn `Abbas said about Samidun, “Singing; in Yemenite dialect `Ismid for us’ means `Sing for us.”’ `Ikrimah said something similar. In another narration from Ibn `Abbas, he said that,
(Samidun) means, “Turning away.” Similar was reported from Mujahid and `Ikrimah. Allah the Exalted ordered His servants to prostrate to Him, worship Him according to the way of His Messenger, and to fulfill the requirement of Tawhid and sincerity,
(So fall you down in prostration to Allah and worship Him.) meaning, with submission, sincerity, and Tawhid. Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Ma`mar said that `Abdul-Warith said that Ayyub said that `Ikrimah said that, Ibn `Abbas said, “The Prophet prostrated upon reciting An-Najm and the Muslims, idolators, Jinns and mankind who were present prostrated along with him.” Only Muslim collected this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Muttalib bin Abi Wada`ah said, “While in Makkah, the Messenger of Allah once recited Surat An-Najm, then prostrated along with all those who were with him at the time. I raised my head, however, and I refused to prostrate.” Al-Muttalib had not embraced Islam yet, but ever since he became Muslim, he would never hear anyone recite this Surah until the end, without prostrating with whomever was prostrating after reciting it. An-Nasa’i also collected this Hadith in the Book of Al-Bukhari, excluding prayer in his Sunan. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat An-Najm. All praise and thanks are due to Allah.