Surah Ash Shura (“The Council”, “Consultation”) is the 42nd chapter of the Qur’an and is classified as a Meccan Surah. It consists of a total of 53 ayats.
This Surah explains how the message of the Qur’an is no different from the message the other Prophets (may peace be upon them) have revealed throughout history. The religion of Islam has been the same. He has given us freedom of choice to choose which is why we diverged.
And whoever is patient and forgives – indeed, that is of the matters [requiring] determination.
Surah Ash Shura Ayat 43
Read Surah Ash Shura with English Translation and Transliteration
Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Raheem
In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful
1. Ha, Meem.
‘Ayyyn Seeen Qaaaf
2. ‘Ayn, Seen, Qaf.
كَذَٰلِكَ يُوحِىٓ إِلَيْكَ وَإِلَى ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلْعَزِيزُ ٱلْحَكِيمُ
Kazaalika yooheee ilaika wa ilal lazeena min qablikal laahul ‘Azeezul Hakeem
3. Thus has He revealed to you, [O Muhammad], and to those before you – Allah, the Exalted in Might, the Wise.
لَهُۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ ۖ وَهُوَ ٱلْعَلِىُّ ٱلْعَظِيمُ
Lahoo maa fis samaa waati wa maa fil ardi wa Huwal ‘Aliyul ‘Azeem
4. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth, and He is the Most High, the Most Great.
تَكَادُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتُ يَتَفَطَّرْنَ مِن فَوْقِهِنَّ ۚ وَٱلْمَلَـٰٓئِكَةُ يُسَبِّحُونَ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّهِمْ وَيَسْتَغْفِرُونَ لِمَن فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ ۗ أَلَآ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ هُوَ ٱلْغَفُورُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ
Takaadus samaawaatu yatafattarna min fawqihinn; walmalaaa’ikatu yusabbihoona bihamdi Rabbihim wa yastaghfiroona liman fil ard; alaaa innal laaha huwal Ghafoorur Raheem
5. The heavens almost break from above them, and the angels exalt [ Allah ] with praise of their Lord and ask forgiveness for those on earth. Unquestionably, it is Allah who is the Forgiving, the Merciful.
وَٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّخَذُوا۟ مِن دُونِهِۦٓ أَوْلِيَآءَ ٱللَّهُ حَفِيظٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَمَآ أَنتَ عَلَيْهِم بِوَكِيلٍۢ
Wallazeenat takhazoo min dooniheee awliyaaa’al laahu hafeezun ‘alaihim wa maaa anta ‘alaihim biwakeel
6. And those who take as allies other than Him – Allah is [yet] Guardian over them; and you, [O Muhammad], are not over them a manager.
وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَيْكَ قُرْءَانًا عَرَبِيًّۭا لِّتُنذِرَ أُمَّ ٱلْقُرَىٰ وَمَنْ حَوْلَهَا وَتُنذِرَ يَوْمَ ٱلْجَمْعِ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ ۚ فَرِيقٌۭ فِى ٱلْجَنَّةِ وَفَرِيقٌۭ فِى ٱلسَّعِيرِ
Wa kazaalika awhainaaa llaika Qur-aanan ‘Arabiyyal litunzir aUmmal Quraa wa man hawlahaa wa tunzira Yawmal Jam’ilaa raiba feeh; fareequn fil jannati wa fareequn fissa’eer
7. And thus We have revealed to you an Arabic Qur’an that you may warn the Mother of Cities [Makkah] and those around it and warn of the Day of Assembly, about which there is no doubt. A party will be in Paradise and a party in the Blaze.
وَلَوْ شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ لَجَعَلَهُمْ أُمَّةًۭ وَٰحِدَةًۭ وَلَـٰكِن يُدْخِلُ مَن يَشَآءُ فِى رَحْمَتِهِۦ ۚ وَٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ مَا لَهُم مِّن وَلِىٍّۢ وَلَا نَصِيرٍ
Wa law shaaa’al laahu laja’alahum ummatanw waahi datanw walaakiny yudkhilumany yashaaa’u fee rahmatih; waz zaalimoona maa lahum minw waliyyinw wa laa naseer
8. And if Allah willed, He could have made them [of] one religion, but He admits whom He wills into His mercy. And the wrongdoers have not any protector or helper.
أَمِ ٱتَّخَذُوا۟ مِن دُونِهِۦٓ أَوْلِيَآءَ ۖ فَٱللَّهُ هُوَ ٱلْوَلِىُّ وَهُوَ يُحْىِ ٱلْمَوْتَىٰ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىْءٍۢ قَدِيرٌۭ
Amit takhazoo min dooniheee awliyaaa’a fallaahu Huwal Waliyyu wa Huwa yuhyil mawtaa wa Huwa ‘alaa kulli shai’in Qadeer (section 1)
9. Or have they taken protectors [or allies] besides him? But Allah – He is the Protector, and He gives life to the dead, and He is over all things competent.
وَمَا ٱخْتَلَفْتُمْ فِيهِ مِن شَىْءٍۢ فَحُكْمُهُۥٓ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكُمُ ٱللَّهُ رَبِّى عَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلْتُ وَإِلَيْهِ أُنِيبُ
Wa makh-talaftum feehi min shai’in fahukmuhooo ilallaah; zaalikumul laahu Rabbee ‘alaihi tawakkaltu wa ilaihi uneeb
10. And in anything over which you disagree – its ruling is [to be referred] to Allah . [Say], “That is Allah, my Lord; upon Him I have relied, and to Him I turn back.”
فَاطِرُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ أَزْوَٰجًۭا وَمِنَ ٱلْأَنْعَـٰمِ أَزْوَٰجًۭا ۖ يَذْرَؤُكُمْ فِيهِ ۚ لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِۦ شَىْءٌۭ ۖ وَهُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلْبَصِيرُ
Faatirus samaawaati wal ard; ja’ala lakum min anfusikum azwaajanw wa minal an’aami azwaajai yazra’ukum feeh; laisa kamislihee shai’unw wa Huwas Samee’ul Baseer
11. [He is] Creator of the heavens and the earth. He has made for you from yourselves, mates, and among the cattle, mates; He multiplies you thereby. There is nothing like unto Him, and He is the Hearing, the Seeing.
لَهُۥ مَقَالِيدُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ ۖ يَبْسُطُ ٱلرِّزْقَ لِمَن يَشَآءُ وَيَقْدِرُ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلِيمٌۭ
Lahoo maqaaleedus samaawaati wal ardi yabsutur rizqa limai yashaaa’u wa yaqdir; innahoo bikulli shai’in ‘Aleem
12. To Him belong the keys of the heavens and the earth. He extends provision for whom He wills and restricts [it]. Indeed He is, of all things, Knowing.
۞ شَرَعَ لَكُم مِّنَ ٱلدِّينِ مَا وَصَّىٰ بِهِۦ نُوحًۭا وَٱلَّذِىٓ أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا وَصَّيْنَا بِهِۦٓ إِبْرَٰهِيمَ وَمُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰٓ ۖ أَنْ أَقِيمُوا۟ ٱلدِّينَ وَلَا تَتَفَرَّقُوا۟ فِيهِ ۚ كَبُرَ عَلَى ٱلْمُشْرِكِينَ مَا تَدْعُوهُمْ إِلَيْهِ ۚ ٱللَّهُ يَجْتَبِىٓ إِلَيْهِ مَن يَشَآءُ وَيَهْدِىٓ إِلَيْهِ مَن يُنِيبُ
Shara’a lakum minad deeni maa wassaa bihee Noohanw wallazeee awhainaaa ilaika wa maa wassainaa biheee Ibraaheema wa Moosa wa ‘Eesaaa an aqeemud adeena wa laa tatafarraqoo feeh; kabura ‘alal mushrikeena maa tad’oohum ilaih; Allaahu yajtabee ilaihi mai yashaaa’u wa yahdeee ilaihi mai yuneeb
13. He has ordained for you of religion what He enjoined upon Noah and that which We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], and what We enjoined upon Abraham and Moses and Jesus – to establish the religion and not be divided therein. Difficult for those who associate others with Allah is that to which you invite them. Allah chooses for Himself whom He wills and guides to Himself whoever turns back [to Him].
وَمَا تَفَرَّقُوٓا۟ إِلَّا مِنۢ بَعْدِ مَا جَآءَهُمُ ٱلْعِلْمُ بَغْيًۢا بَيْنَهُمْ ۚ وَلَوْلَا كَلِمَةٌۭ سَبَقَتْ مِن رَّبِّكَ إِلَىٰٓ أَجَلٍۢ مُّسَمًّۭى لَّقُضِىَ بَيْنَهُمْ ۚ وَإِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ أُورِثُوا۟ ٱلْكِتَـٰبَ مِنۢ بَعْدِهِمْ لَفِى شَكٍّۢ مِّنْهُ مُرِيبٍۢ
Wa maa tafarraqooo illaa mim ba’di maa jaaa’ahumul ‘ilmu baghyam bainahum; wa law laa Kalimatun sabaqat mir Rabbika ilaaa ajalim musammal laqudiya bainahum; wa innal lazeena oorisul Kitaaba mim ba’dihim lafee shakkim minhu mureeb
14. And they did not become divided until after knowledge had come to them – out of jealous animosity between themselves. And if not for a word that preceded from your Lord [postponing the penalty] until a specified time, it would have been concluded between them. And indeed, those who were granted inheritance of the Scripture after them are, concerning it, in disquieting doubt.
فَلِذَٰلِكَ فَٱدْعُ ۖ وَٱسْتَقِمْ كَمَآ أُمِرْتَ ۖ وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَآءَهُمْ ۖ وَقُلْ ءَامَنتُ بِمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ مِن كِتَـٰبٍۢ ۖ وَأُمِرْتُ لِأَعْدِلَ بَيْنَكُمُ ۖ ٱللَّهُ رَبُّنَا وَرَبُّكُمْ ۖ لَنَآ أَعْمَـٰلُنَا وَلَكُمْ أَعْمَـٰلُكُمْ ۖ لَا حُجَّةَ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمُ ۖ ٱللَّهُ يَجْمَعُ بَيْنَنَا ۖ وَإِلَيْهِ ٱلْمَصِيرُ
Falizaalika fad’u wastaqim kamaaa umirta wa laa tattabi’ ahwaaa’ahum wa qul aamantu bimaaa anzalal laahu min Kitaab, wa umirtu li a’dila bainakum Allaahu Rabbunaa wa Rabbukum lanaaa a’maa lunaa wa lakum a’maalukum laa hujjata bainanaa wa baina kumul laahu yajma’u bainanaa wa ilaihil maseer
15. So to that [religion of Allah ] invite, [O Muhammad], and remain on a right course as you are commanded and do not follow their inclinations but say, “I have believed in what Allah has revealed of the Qur’an, and I have been commanded to do justice among you. Allah is our Lord and your Lord. For us are our deeds, and for you your deeds. There is no [need for] argument between us and you. Allah will bring us together, and to Him is the [final] destination.”
وَٱلَّذِينَ يُحَآجُّونَ فِى ٱللَّهِ مِنۢ بَعْدِ مَا ٱسْتُجِيبَ لَهُۥ حُجَّتُهُمْ دَاحِضَةٌ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَعَلَيْهِمْ غَضَبٌۭ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌۭ شَدِيدٌ
Wallazeena yuhaaajjoona fil laahi mim ba’di mastujeeba lahoo hujjatuhum daahidatun ‘inda Rabbihim wa ‘alaihim ghadabunw wa lahum ‘azaabun shadeed
16. And those who argue concerning Allah after He has been responded to – their argument is invalid with their Lord, and upon them is [His] wrath, and for them is a severe punishment.
ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَنزَلَ ٱلْكِتَـٰبَ بِٱلْحَقِّ وَٱلْمِيزَانَ ۗ وَمَا يُدْرِيكَ لَعَلَّ ٱلسَّاعَةَ قَرِيبٌۭ
Allahul lazeee anzalal Kitaaba bilhaqqi wal Meezaan; wa ma yudreeka la’allas Saa’ata qareeb
17. It is Allah who has sent down the Book in truth and [also] the balance. And what will make you perceive? Perhaps the Hour is near.
يَسْتَعْجِلُ بِهَا ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِهَا ۖ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ مُشْفِقُونَ مِنْهَا وَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّهَا ٱلْحَقُّ ۗ أَلَآ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يُمَارُونَ فِى ٱلسَّاعَةِ لَفِى ضَلَـٰلٍۭ بَعِيدٍ
Yasta’jilu bihal lazeena laa yu’minoona bihaa wallazeena aamanoo mushfiqoona minhaa wa ya’lamoona annahal haqq; alaaa innal lazeena yumaaroona fis Saa’ati lafee dalaalim ba’eed
18. Those who do not believe in it are impatient for it, but those who believe are fearful of it and know that it is the truth. Unquestionably, those who dispute concerning the Hour are in extreme error.
ٱللَّهُ لَطِيفٌۢ بِعِبَادِهِۦ يَرْزُقُ مَن يَشَآءُ ۖ وَهُوَ ٱلْقَوِىُّ ٱلْعَزِيزُ
Allahu lateefum bi’ibaadihee yarzuqu mai yashaaa’u wa Huwal Qawiyyul ‘Azeez (Section 2)
19. Allah is Subtle with His servants; He gives provisions to whom He wills. And He is the Powerful, the Exalted in Might.
مَن كَانَ يُرِيدُ حَرْثَ ٱلْءَاخِرَةِ نَزِدْ لَهُۥ فِى حَرْثِهِۦ ۖ وَمَن كَانَ يُرِيدُ حَرْثَ ٱلدُّنْيَا نُؤْتِهِۦ مِنْهَا وَمَا لَهُۥ فِى ٱلْءَاخِرَةِ مِن نَّصِيبٍ
Man kaana yureedu harsal Aakhirati nazid lahoo fee harsihee wa man kaana yureedu harsad dunyaa nu’tihee minhaa wa maa lahoo fil Aakhirati min naseeb
20. Whoever desires the harvest of the Hereafter – We increase for him in his harvest. And whoever desires the harvest of this world – We give him thereof, but there is not for him in the Hereafter any share.
أَمْ لَهُمْ شُرَكَـٰٓؤُا۟ شَرَعُوا۟ لَهُم مِّنَ ٱلدِّينِ مَا لَمْ يَأْذَنۢ بِهِ ٱللَّهُ ۚ وَلَوْلَا كَلِمَةُ ٱلْفَصْلِ لَقُضِىَ بَيْنَهُمْ ۗ وَإِنَّ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌۭ
Am lahum shurakaaa’u shara’oo lahum minad deeni maa lam yaazam bihil laah; wa law laa kalimatul fasli laqudiya bainahum; wa innaz zaalimeena lahum ‘azaabun aleem
21. Or have they other deities who have ordained for them a religion to which Allah has not consented? But if not for the decisive word, it would have been concluded between them. And indeed, the wrongdoers will have a painful punishment.
تَرَى ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ مُشْفِقِينَ مِمَّا كَسَبُوا۟ وَهُوَ وَاقِعٌۢ بِهِمْ ۗ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَعَمِلُوا۟ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ فِى رَوْضَاتِ ٱلْجَنَّاتِ ۖ لَهُم مَّا يَشَآءُونَ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ ٱلْفَضْلُ ٱلْكَبِيرُ
Taraz zaalimeena mushfiqeena mimmaa kasaboo wa huwa waaqi’um bihim; wallazeena aamanoo wa ‘amilus saalihaati fee rawdaatil jannaati lahum maa yashaaa’oona ‘inda Rabbihim; zaalika huwal fadlul kabeer
22. You will see the wrongdoers fearful of what they have earned, and it will [certainly] befall them. And those who have believed and done righteous deeds will be in lush regions of the gardens [in Paradise] having whatever they will in the presence of their Lord. That is what is the great bounty.
ذَٰلِكَ ٱلَّذِى يُبَشِّرُ ٱللَّهُ عِبَادَهُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَعَمِلُوا۟ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ ۗ قُل لَّآ أَسْـَٔلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا إِلَّا ٱلْمَوَدَّةَ فِى ٱلْقُرْبَىٰ ۗ وَمَن يَقْتَرِفْ حَسَنَةًۭ نَّزِدْ لَهُۥ فِيهَا حُسْنًا ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٌۭ شَكُورٌ
Zaalikal lazee yubash shirul laahu ‘ibaadahul lazeena aamanoo wa ‘amilus saalihaat; qul laaa as’alukum ‘alaihi ajran illal mawaddata fil qurbaa; wa mai yaqtarif hasanatan nazid lahoo feehaa husnaa; innal laaha Ghafoorun Shakoor
23. It is that of which Allah gives good tidings to His servants who believe and do righteous deeds. Say, [O Muhammad], “I do not ask you for this message any payment [but] only good will through kinship.” And whoever commits a good deed – We will increase for him good therein. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Appreciative.
أَمْ يَقُولُونَ ٱفْتَرَىٰ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ كَذِبًۭا ۖ فَإِن يَشَإِ ٱللَّهُ يَخْتِمْ عَلَىٰ قَلْبِكَ ۗ وَيَمْحُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلْبَـٰطِلَ وَيُحِقُّ ٱلْحَقَّ بِكَلِمَـٰتِهِۦٓ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ عَلِيمٌۢ بِذَاتِ ٱلصُّدُورِ
Am yaqooloonaf tara ‘alal laahi kaziban fa-iny yasha il laahu yakhtim ‘alaa qalbik; wa yamhul laahul baatila wa yuhiqqul haqqa bi Kalimaatih; innahoo ‘Aleemum bizaatis sudoor
24. Or do they say, “He has invented about Allah a lie”? But if Allah willed, He could seal over your heart. And Allah eliminates falsehood and establishes the truth by His words. Indeed, He is Knowing of that within the breasts.
وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى يَقْبَلُ ٱلتَّوْبَةَ عَنْ عِبَادِهِۦ وَيَعْفُوا۟ عَنِ ٱلسَّيِّـَٔاتِ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا تَفْعَلُونَ
Wa Huwal lazee yaqbalut tawbata ‘an ‘ibaadihee wa ya’foo ‘anis saiyiaati wa ya’lamu maa taf’aloon
25. And it is He who accepts repentance from his servants and pardons misdeeds, and He knows what you do.
وَيَسْتَجِيبُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَعَمِلُوا۟ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ وَيَزِيدُهُم مِّن فَضْلِهِۦ ۚ وَٱلْكَـٰفِرُونَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌۭ شَدِيدٌۭ
Wa yastajeebul lazeena aamanoo wa ‘amilu saalihaati wa yazeeduhum min fadlih; wal kaafiroona lahum ‘azaabun shadeed
26. And He answers [the supplication of] those who have believed and done righteous deeds and increases [for] them from His bounty. But the disbelievers will have a severe punishment.
۞ وَلَوْ بَسَطَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلرِّزْقَ لِعِبَادِهِۦ لَبَغَوْا۟ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ وَلَـٰكِن يُنَزِّلُ بِقَدَرٍۢ مَّا يَشَآءُ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ بِعِبَادِهِۦ خَبِيرٌۢ بَصِيرٌۭ
Wa law basatal laahur rizqa li’ibaadihee labaghaw fil ardi wa laakiny yunazzilu biqadarim maa yashaaa’; innahoo bi’ibaadihee Khabeerum Baseer
27. And if Allah had extended [excessively] provision for His servants, they would have committed tyranny throughout the earth. But He sends [it] down in an amount which He wills. Indeed He is, of His servants, Acquainted and Seeing.
وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى يُنَزِّلُ ٱلْغَيْثَ مِنۢ بَعْدِ مَا قَنَطُوا۟ وَيَنشُرُ رَحْمَتَهُۥ ۚ وَهُوَ ٱلْوَلِىُّ ٱلْحَمِيدُ
Wa Huwal lazee yunazzilul ghaisa mim ba’di maa qanatoo wa yanshuru rahmatah; wa Huwal Waliyyul Hameed
28. And it is He who sends down the rain after they had despaired and spreads His mercy. And He is the Protector, the Praiseworthy.
وَمِنْ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦ خَلْقُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَثَّ فِيهِمَا مِن دَآبَّةٍۢ ۚ وَهُوَ عَلَىٰ جَمْعِهِمْ إِذَا يَشَآءُ قَدِيرٌۭ
Wa min Aayaatihee khalqus samaawaati wal ardi wa maa bassa feehimaa min daaabbah; wa Huwa ‘alaa jam’ihim izaa yashaaa’u Qadeer (section 3)
29. And of his signs is the creation of the heavens and earth and what He has dispersed throughout them of creatures. And He, for gathering them when He wills, is competent.
وَمَآ أَصَـٰبَكُم مِّن مُّصِيبَةٍۢ فَبِمَا كَسَبَتْ أَيْدِيكُمْ وَيَعْفُوا۟ عَن كَثِيرٍۢ
Wa maaa asaabakum mim museebatin fabimaa kasabat aydeekum wa ya’foo ‘an kaseer
30. And whatever strikes you of disaster – it is for what your hands have earned; but He pardons much.
وَمَآ أَنتُم بِمُعْجِزِينَ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ ۖ وَمَا لَكُم مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ مِن وَلِىٍّۢ وَلَا نَصِيرٍۢ
Wa maaa antum bimu’jizeena fil ardi wa maa lakum min doonil laahi minw wa liyyinw wa laa naseer
31. And you will not cause failure [to Allah ] upon the earth. And you have not besides Allah any protector or helper.
وَمِنْ ءَايَـٰتِهِ ٱلْجَوَارِ فِى ٱلْبَحْرِ كَٱلْأَعْلَـٰمِ
Wa min Aayaatihil ja waarifil bahri kal a’lam
32. And of His signs are the ships in the sea, like mountains.
إِن يَشَأْ يُسْكِنِ ٱلرِّيحَ فَيَظْلَلْنَ رَوَاكِدَ عَلَىٰ ظَهْرِهِۦٓ ۚ إِنَّ فِى ذَٰلِكَ لَءَايَـٰتٍۢ لِّكُلِّ صَبَّارٍۢ شَكُورٍ
Iny yashaaa yuskinir reeha fa yazlalna rawaakida ‘alaa zahirhi; inna fee zaalika la Aayaatil likulli sabbaarin shakoor
33. If He willed, He could still the wind, and they would remain motionless on its surface. Indeed in that are signs for everyone patient and grateful.
أَوْ يُوبِقْهُنَّ بِمَا كَسَبُوا۟ وَيَعْفُ عَن كَثِيرٍۢ
Aw yoobiqhunna bimaa kasaboo wa ya’fu ‘an kaseer
34. Or He could destroy them for what they earned; but He pardons much.
وَيَعْلَمَ ٱلَّذِينَ يُجَـٰدِلُونَ فِىٓ ءَايَـٰتِنَا مَا لَهُم مِّن مَّحِيصٍۢ
Wa ya’lamal lazeena yujaadiloona feee Aayaatinaa maa lahum mim mahees
35. And [that is so] those who dispute concerning Our signs may know that for them there is no place of escape.
فَمَآ أُوتِيتُم مِّن شَىْءٍۢ فَمَتَـٰعُ ٱلْحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنْيَا ۖ وَمَا عِندَ ٱللَّهِ خَيْرٌۭ وَأَبْقَىٰ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ
Famaa ooteetum min shai’in famataa’ul hayaatid dunyaa wa maa ‘indal laahi khairunw wa abqaa lillazeena aamanoo wa ‘alaa Rabbihim yatawakkaloon
36. So whatever thing you have been given – it is but [for] enjoyment of the worldly life. But what is with Allah is better and more lasting for those who have believed and upon their Lord rely
وَٱلَّذِينَ يَجْتَنِبُونَ كَبَـٰٓئِرَ ٱلْإِثْمِ وَٱلْفَوَٰحِشَ وَإِذَا مَا غَضِبُوا۟ هُمْ يَغْفِرُونَ
Wallazeena yajtaniboona kabaaa’iral ismi wal fawaa hisha wa izaa maa ghadiboo hum yaghfiroon
37. And those who avoid the major sins and immoralities, and when they are angry, they forgive,
وَٱلَّذِينَ ٱسْتَجَابُوا۟ لِرَبِّهِمْ وَأَقَامُوا۟ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَأَمْرُهُمْ شُورَىٰ بَيْنَهُمْ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَـٰهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ
Wallazeenas tajaaboo li Rabbihim wa aqaamus Salaata wa amruhum shooraa bainahum wa mimmaa razaqnaahum yunfiqoon
38. And those who have responded to their lord and established prayer and whose affair is [determined by] consultation among themselves, and from what We have provided them, they spend.
وَٱلَّذِينَ إِذَآ أَصَابَهُمُ ٱلْبَغْىُ هُمْ يَنتَصِرُونَ
Wallazeena izaa asaabahumul baghyu hum yantasiroon
39. And those who, when tyranny strikes them, they defend themselves,
وَجَزَٰٓؤُا۟ سَيِّئَةٍۢ سَيِّئَةٌۭ مِّثْلُهَا ۖ فَمَنْ عَفَا وَأَصْلَحَ فَأَجْرُهُۥ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ لَا يُحِبُّ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
Wa jazaaa’u saiyi’atin saiyi’tum misluha faman ‘afaa wa aslaha fa ajruhoo ‘alal laah; innahoo laa yuhibbuz zaalimeen
40. And the retribution for an evil act is an evil one like it, but whoever pardons and makes reconciliation – his reward is [due] from Allah . Indeed, He does not like wrongdoers.
وَلَمَنِ ٱنتَصَرَ بَعْدَ ظُلْمِهِۦ فَأُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ مَا عَلَيْهِم مِّن سَبِيلٍ
Wa lamanin tasara ba’da zulmihee fa ulaaa’ika maa ‘alaihim min sabeel
41. And whoever avenges himself after having been wronged – those have not upon them any cause [for blame].
إِنَّمَا ٱلسَّبِيلُ عَلَى ٱلَّذِينَ يَظْلِمُونَ ٱلنَّاسَ وَيَبْغُونَ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ بِغَيْرِ ٱلْحَقِّ ۚ أُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌۭ
Innamas sabeelu ‘alal lazeena yazlimoonan naasa wa yabghoona fil ardi bighairil haqq; ulaaa’ika lahum ‘azaabun aleem
42. The cause is only against the ones who wrong the people and tyrannize upon the earth without right. Those will have a painful punishment.
وَلَمَن صَبَرَ وَغَفَرَ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ لَمِنْ عَزْمِ ٱلْأُمُورِ
Wa laman sabara wa ghafara inna zaalika lamin ‘azmil umoor (section 4)
43. And whoever is patient and forgives – indeed, that is of the matters [requiring] determination.
وَمَن يُضْلِلِ ٱللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُۥ مِن وَلِىٍّۢ مِّنۢ بَعْدِهِۦ ۗ وَتَرَى ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ لَمَّا رَأَوُا۟ ٱلْعَذَابَ يَقُولُونَ هَلْ إِلَىٰ مَرَدٍّۢ مِّن سَبِيلٍۢ
Wa mai yudlilil laahu famaa lahoo minw waliyyim mim ba’dih; wa taraz zaalimeena lammaa ra awul ‘azaaba yaqooloona hal ilaa maraddim min sabeel
44. And he whom Allah sends astray – for him there is no protector beyond Him. And you will see the wrongdoers, when they see the punishment, saying, “Is there for return [to the former world] any way?”
وَتَرَىٰهُمْ يُعْرَضُونَ عَلَيْهَا خَـٰشِعِينَ مِنَ ٱلذُّلِّ يَنظُرُونَ مِن طَرْفٍ خَفِىٍّۢ ۗ وَقَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓا۟ إِنَّ ٱلْخَـٰسِرِينَ ٱلَّذِينَ خَسِرُوٓا۟ أَنفُسَهُمْ وَأَهْلِيهِمْ يَوْمَ ٱلْقِيَـٰمَةِ ۗ أَلَآ إِنَّ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ فِى عَذَابٍۢ مُّقِيمٍۢ
Wa taraahum yu’radoona ‘alaihaa khaashi’eena minazzulli yanzuroona min tarfin khaifiyy; wa qaalal lazeena aamanooo innal khaasireenal lazeena khasiroon anfusahum wa ahleehim Yawmal Qiyaamah; alaaa innaz zaalimeena fee’azaabim muqeem
45. And you will see them being exposed to the Fire, humbled from humiliation, looking from [behind] a covert glance. And those who had believed will say, “Indeed, the [true] losers are the ones who lost themselves and their families on the Day of Resurrection. Unquestionably, the wrongdoers are in an enduring punishment.”
وَمَا كَانَ لَهُم مِّنْ أَوْلِيَآءَ يَنصُرُونَهُم مِّن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ ۗ وَمَن يُضْلِلِ ٱللَّهُ فَمَا لَهُۥ مِن سَبِيلٍ
Wa maa kaana lahum min awliyaaa’a yansuroonahum min doonil laah; wa mai yudlilil laahu famaa lahoo min sabeel
46. And there will not be for them any allies to aid them other than Allah . And whoever Allah sends astray – for him there is no way.
ٱسْتَجِيبُوا۟ لِرَبِّكُم مِّن قَبْلِ أَن يَأْتِىَ يَوْمٌۭ لَّا مَرَدَّ لَهُۥ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ ۚ مَا لَكُم مِّن مَّلْجَإٍۢ يَوْمَئِذٍۢ وَمَا لَكُم مِّن نَّكِيرٍۢ
Istajeeboo li Rabbikum min qabli any yaatiya Yawmul laa maradda lahoo minal laah; maa lakum mim malja iny yawma’izinw wa maa lakum min nakeer
47. Respond to your Lord before a Day comes from Allah of which there is no repelling. No refuge will you have that day, nor for you will there be any denial.
فَإِنْ أَعْرَضُوا۟ فَمَآ أَرْسَلْنَـٰكَ عَلَيْهِمْ حَفِيظًا ۖ إِنْ عَلَيْكَ إِلَّا ٱلْبَلَـٰغُ ۗ وَإِنَّآ إِذَآ أَذَقْنَا ٱلْإِنسَـٰنَ مِنَّا رَحْمَةًۭ فَرِحَ بِهَا ۖ وَإِن تُصِبْهُمْ سَيِّئَةٌۢ بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ فَإِنَّ ٱلْإِنسَـٰنَ كَفُورٌۭ
Fa-in a’radoo famaaa arsalnaaka ‘alaihim hafeezan in ‘alaika illal balaagh; wa innaaa izaaa azaqnal insaana minnaa rahmatan fariha bihaa wa in tusibhum saiyi’atum bimaa qaddamat aydeehim fa innal insaana kafoor
48. But if they turn away – then We have not sent you, [O Muhammad], over them as a guardian; upon you is only [the duty of] notification. And indeed, when We let man taste mercy from us, he rejoices in it; but if evil afflicts him for what his hands have put forth, then indeed, man is ungrateful.
لِّلَّهِ مُلْكُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ يَخْلُقُ مَا يَشَآءُ ۚ يَهَبُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ إِنَـٰثًۭا وَيَهَبُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ ٱلذُّكُورَ
Lillaahi mulkus samaawaati wal ard; yakhluqu maa yashaaa’; yahabu limai yashaaa’u inaasanw wa yahabu limai yashaaa’uz zukoor
49. To Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth; He creates what he wills. He gives to whom He wills female [children], and He gives to whom He wills males.
أَوْ يُزَوِّجُهُمْ ذُكْرَانًۭا وَإِنَـٰثًۭا ۖ وَيَجْعَلُ مَن يَشَآءُ عَقِيمًا ۚ إِنَّهُۥ عَلِيمٌۭ قَدِيرٌۭ
Aw yuzawwijuhum zukraananw wa inaasanw wa yaj’alu mai yashaaa’u ‘aqeemaa; innahoo ‘Aleemun Qadeer
50. Or He makes them [both] males and females, and He renders whom He wills barren. Indeed, He is Knowing and Competent.
۞ وَمَا كَانَ لِبَشَرٍ أَن يُكَلِّمَهُ ٱللَّهُ إِلَّا وَحْيًا أَوْ مِن وَرَآئِ حِجَابٍ أَوْ يُرْسِلَ رَسُولًۭا فَيُوحِىَ بِإِذْنِهِۦ مَا يَشَآءُ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ عَلِىٌّ حَكِيمٌۭ
Wa maa kaana libasharin any yukallimahul laahu illaa wahyan aw minw waraaa’i hijaabin aw yursila Rasoolan fa yoohiya bi iznuhee maa yashaaa’; innahoo ‘Aliyyun Hakeem
51. And it is not for any human being that Allah should speak to him except by revelation or from behind a partition or that He sends a messenger to reveal, by His permission, what He wills. Indeed, He is Most High and Wise.
وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَيْكَ رُوحًۭا مِّنْ أَمْرِنَا ۚ مَا كُنتَ تَدْرِى مَا ٱلْكِتَـٰبُ وَلَا ٱلْإِيمَـٰنُ وَلَـٰكِن جَعَلْنَـٰهُ نُورًۭا نَّهْدِى بِهِۦ مَن نَّشَآءُ مِنْ عِبَادِنَا ۚ وَإِنَّكَ لَتَهْدِىٓ إِلَىٰ صِرَٰطٍۢ مُّسْتَقِيمٍۢ
Wa kazaalika awhainaaa ilaika rooham min amrinaa; maa kunta tadree mal Kitaabu wa lal eemaanu wa laakin ja’alnaahu nooran nahdee bihee man nashaaa’u min ‘ibaadinaa; wa innaka latahdeee ilaaa Siraatim Mustaqeem
52. And thus We have revealed to you an inspiration of Our command. You did not know what is the Book or [what is] faith, but We have made it a light by which We guide whom We will of Our servants. And indeed, [O Muhammad], you guide to a straight path –
صِرَٰطِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلَّذِى لَهُۥ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ ۗ أَلَآ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ تَصِيرُ ٱلْأُمُورُ
Siraatil laahil lazee lahoo maa fis samaawaati wa maa fil ard; alaaa ilal laahi taseerul umoor (section 5)
53. The path of Allah, to whom belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Unquestionably, to Allah do [all] matters evolve.
The Tafsir of Surat Ash-Shura
Chapter – 42
Which was revealed in Makkah
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. Ha Mim.) (2. `Ain Sin Qaf.) (3. Likewise Allah, the Almighty, the All-Wise sends revelation to you as to those before you.) (4. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth, and He is the Most High, the Most Great.) (5. Nearly the heavens might be rent asunder from above them, and the angels glorify the praises of their Lord, and ask for forgiveness for those on the earth. Lo, Verily, Allah is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.) (6. And as for those who take as protecting friends others besides Him — Allah is Hafiz over them, and you are not a trustee over them.)
The Revelation and Allah’s Might
We have previously discussed the individual letters.
(Likewise Allah, the Almighty, the All-Wise sends revelation to you as to those before you.) means, `just as this Qur’an has been revealed to you, so too the Books and Scriptures were revealed to the Prophets who came before you.’
(Allah, the Almighty) means, in His vengeance
(the All-Wise) means, in all that He says and does. Imam Malik, may Allah have mercy on him, narrated that `A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said, “Al-Harith bin Hisham asked the Messenger of Allah , `O Messenger of Allah, how does the revelation come to you’ The Messenger of Allah said:
(Sometimes it comes to me like the ringing of a bell, which is the most difficult for me; then it goes away, and I understand what was said. And sometimes the angel comes to me in the image of a man, and he speaks to me and I understand what he says.)” `A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said, “I saw him receiving the revelation on a very cold day, and when it departed from him, there were beads of sweat on his forehead.” It was also reported in the Two Sahihs, and the version quoted here is that recorded by Al-Bukhari.
(To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth,) means, everything is subject to His dominion and control.
(and He is the Most High, the Most Great.) This is like the Ayat:
(the Most Great, the Most High) (13:9), and
(He is the Most High, the Most Great) (22:62). And there are many similar Ayat.
(Nearly the heavens might be rent asunder from above them,) Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ka`b Al-Ahbar said, “Out of fear of His might.”
(and the angels glorify the praises of their Lord, and ask for forgiveness for those on the earth.) This is like the Ayah:
(Those who bear the Throne and those around it glorify the praises of their Lord, and believe in Him, and ask forgiveness for those who believe (saying): “Our Lord! You comprehend all things in mercy and knowledge,”) (40:7)
(Lo! Verily, Allah is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.) This is a reminder, to take heed of this fact.
(And as for those who take as protecting friends others besides Him) This refers to the idolators,
(Allah is Hafiz over them.) meaning, He is Witness to their deeds, recording and enumerating them precisely, and He will requite them for them in full.
(and you are not a trustee over them.) meaning, `you are just a warner, and Allah is the Trustee of all affairs.’
(7. And thus We have revealed to you a Qur’an in Arabic that you may warn the Mother of the Towns and all around it, and warn (them) of the Day of Assembling of which there is no doubt, a party will be in Paradise and a party in the blazing Fire.) (8. And if Allah had willed, He could have made them one nation, but He admits whom He wills to His mercy. And the wrongdoers will have neither a protector nor a helper.)
The Qur’an was revealed to serve as a Warning
Allah says, `just as We sent revelation to the Prophets before you,’
(thus We have revealed to you a Qur’an in Arabic) meaning, plain, clear, and manifest
(that you may warn the Mother of the Towns), i.e., Makkah,
(and all around it,) means, all the lands, east and west. Makkah is called Umm Al-Qura (the Mother of the Towns) because it is nobler than all other lands, as indicated by much evidence that has been discussed elsewhere. Among the most concise and clear proofs of that is the report recorded by Imam Ahmad from `Abdullah bin `Adi bin Al-Hamra’ Az-Zuhri, who heard the Messenger of Allah say, as he was standing in the market place of Makkah;
(By Allah, you are the best land of Allah, the most beloved land to Allah; were it not for the fact that I was driven out from you, I would never have left you.) This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa’i and Ibn Majah; At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih. ”
(and warn (them) of the Day of Assembling) i.e., the Day of Resurrection, when Allah will assemble the first and the last in one plain.
(of which there is no doubt,) means, there is no doubt that it will happen and will most certainly come to pass.
(a party will be in Paradise and a party in the blazing Fire.) This is like the Ayah:
((And remember) the Day when He will gather you (all) on the Day of Gathering, — that will be the Day of mutual loss and gain) (64:9). which means that the people of Paradise and the people of Hell will gain and lose, respectively. And it is like the Ayah:
(Indeed in that (there) is a sure lesson for those who fear the torment of the Hereafter. That is a Day whereon will be gathered together, and that is a Day when all (the dwellers of the heavens and the earth) will be present. And We delay it only for a term fixed. On the Day when it comes, no person shall speak except by His leave. Some among them will be wretched and (others) blessed.) (11:103-105) Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah came out to us, holding two books in his hand. He said,
(Do you know what these two books are) We said, “We do not know unless you tell us, O Messenger of Allah.” Concerning the book in his right hand, He said:
(This is a book from the Lord of the worlds, containing the names of the people of Paradise and of their fathers and tribes; all of them are detailed, down to the last one of them, and nothing will be added or taken away from it.) Then concerning the book in his left hand, he said:
(This is the book of the people of Hell, containing their names and the names of their fathers and tribes, all of them are detailed down to the last one of them, and nothing will be added or taken away from it.) The Companions of the Messenger of Allah said, “Why should we strive if it is something that is already cut and dried” The Messenger of Allah said:
(Strive with your deeds as hard as you can for middle course or close to it, for the person who is destined for Paradise will die doing the deeds of the people of Paradise, regardless of what he did before, and the person who is destined for Hell will die doing the deeds of the people of Hell, regardless of what he did before.) Then he made a gesture with his fist and said,
(Your Lord has settled the matter of His servants) and he opened his right hand as if throwing something;
(A party in Paradise.) and he made a similar gesture with his left hand;
(And a party in the blazing Fire.)” This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, and An-Nasa’i; At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih Gharib.” Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Nadrah said, “One of the Companions of the Prophet , whose name was Abu Abdullah, was visited by some of his friends, and they found him weeping. They asked him, `What has caused you to weep Didn’t the Messenger of Allah say to you,
(Trim your moustache and adhere to that practice until you meet me)’ He said, `Yes, but I heard the Messenger of Allah say;
(Allah picked up a handful in His Right Hand and another in His other Hand, and said, “This is for this and this is for this, and I do not care.”) `And I do not know in which of the two handfuls I am.”’ There are several Hadiths about Al-Qadr (the Divine Decree) in the books of Sahih, Sunan and Musnad. Including those narrated by `Ali, Ibn Mas`ud, `A’ishah and a large number of Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all.
(And if Allah had willed, He could have made them one nation,) means, either all following guidance or all following misguidance, but He made them all different, and He guides whomsoever He wills to the truth and He sends astray whomsoever He wills, and He has complete wisdom and perfect proof. Allah says:
(but He admits whom He wills to His mercy. And the wrongdoers will have neither a protector nor a helper.)
(9. Or have they taken protecting friends besides Him But Allah — He Alone is the protector. And He Who gives life to the dead, and He is Able to do all things.) (10. And in whatsoever you differ, the decision thereof is with Allah. Such is Allah, my Lord in Whom I put my trust, and to Him I turn in repentance.) (11. The Creator of the heavens and the earth. He has made for you mates from yourselves, and for the cattle (also) mates. By this means He creates you. There is nothing like Him, and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.) (12. To Him belong the keys of the heavens and the earth. He enlarges provision for whom He wills, and straitens. Verily, He is the All-Knower of everything.)
Allah is the Protector, Ruler and Creator
Here Allah denounces the idolators for taking other gods instead of Allah, and declares that He is the True God, and it is not right to worship anyone except Him Alone. He is the One Who is able to bring the dead back to life and He is Able to do all things. Then He says:
(And in whatsoever you differ, the decision thereof is with Allah.) means, in whatever issue you differ. This is general in meaning and applies to all things.
(the decision thereof is with Allah.) means, He is the Judge of that, according to His Book and the Sunnah of His Prophet . This is like the Ayah:
((And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger) (4:59).
(Such is Allah, my Lord) means, (He is) the Judge of all things.
(in Whom I put my trust, and to Him I turn in repentance. ) means, `I refer all matters to Him.’
(The Creator of the heavens and the earth.) means, the Maker of them both and everything in between.
(He has made for you mates from yourselves,) means, of your own kind. As a blessing and a favor from Him, He has made your kind male and female.
(and for the cattle (also) mates.) means, and He has created for you eight pairs of cattle.
(By this means He creates you.) means, in this manner He creates you, male and female, generation after generation of men and cattle.
(There is nothing like Him,) means, there is nothing like the Creator of these pairs, for He is the Unique, the Self-Sufficient Master, Who has no peer or equal.
(He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.)
(To Him belong the keys of the heavens and the earth. ) We have already discussed the interpretation of this phrase in Surat Az-Zumar (39:63), the conclusion of which is that He is the One Who is controlling and governing them.
(He expands provision for whom He wills, and straitens.) means, He gives plentiful provision to whomsoever He wills and He reduces it for whomsoever He wills, and He is perfectly Wise and Just.
(Verily, He is the All-Knower of everything.)
(13. He (Allah) has ordained for you the same religion which He ordained for Nuh, and that which We have revealed to you, and that which We ordained for Ibrahim, Musa and `Isa saying you should establish religion and make no divisions in it. Intolerable for the idolators is that to which you call them. Allah chooses for Himself whom He wills, and guides unto Himself who turns to Him in repentance.) (14. And they divided not till after knowledge had come to them, through transgression between themselves. And had it not been for a Word that went forth before from your Lord for an appointed term, the matter would have been settled between them. And verily, those who were made to inherit the Scripture after them, are in grave doubt concerning it.)
The Religion of the Messengers is One
Allah says to this Ummah:
(He (Allah) has ordained for you the same religion which He ordained for Nuh, and that which We have revealed to you,) Allah mentions the first Messenger who was sent after Adam, that is, Nuh, peace be upon them, and the last of them is Muhammad . Then He mentions those who came in between them who were the Messengers of strong will, namely Ibrahim, Musa and `Isa bin Maryam. This Ayah mentions all five, just as they are also mentioned in the Ayah in Surat Al-Ahzab, where Allah says:
(And (remember) when We took from the Prophets their covenant, and from you, and from Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa, and `Isa son of Maryam.) (33:7). The Message which all the Messengers brought was to worship Allah Alone, with no partner or associate, as Allah says:
(And We did not send any Messenger before you but We revealed to him (saying): None has the right to be worshipped but I, so worship Me.) (21:25). And according to a Hadith (the Prophet said):
(We Prophets are brothers and our religion is one.) In other words, the common bond between them is that Allah Alone is to be worshipped, with no partner or associate, even though their laws and ways may differ, as Allah says.
(To each among you, We have prescribed a law and a clear way) (5:48). Allah says here:
(saying you should establish religion and make no divisions in it.) meaning, Allah enjoined all the Prophets (peace and blessings of Allah be upon them all) to be as one and He forbade them to differ and be divided. t
(Intolerable for the idolators is that to which you call them.) means, `it is too much for them to bear, and they hate that to which you call them, O Muhammad, i.e., Tawhid.’
(Allah chooses for Himself whom He wills, and guides unto Himself who turns to Him in repentance.) means, He is the One Who decrees guidance for those who deserve it, and decrees misguidance for those who prefer it to the right path. Allah says here;
(And they divided not till after knowledge had come to them,) means, their opposition to the truth arose after it had come to them and proof had been established against them. Nothing made them resist in this manner except their transgression and stubbornness.
(And had it not been for a Word that went forth before from your Lord for an appointed term,) means, were it not for the fact that Allah had already decreed that He would delay the reckoning of His servants until the Day of Resurrection, the punishment would have been hastened for them in this world.
(And verily, those who were made to inherit the Scripture after them,) means, the later generation which came after the earlier generation which had rejected the truth.
(are in grave doubt concerning it. ) means, they do not have any firm conviction in matters of religion; they merely imitate their forefathers, without any evidence or proof. So they are very confused and doubtful.
(15. So unto this then invite (people), and stand firm as you are commanded, and follow not their desires but say: “I believe in whatsoever Allah has sent down of the Book and I am commanded to do justice among you. Allah is our Lord and your Lord. For us our deeds and for you your deeds. There is no dispute between us and you. Allah will assemble us (all), and to Him is the final return.”)
This Ayah includes ten separate and independent ideas, each of which is a ruling on its own.
They (the scholars) said that there is nothing else like it in the Qur’an, apart from Ayat Al-Kursi ﴿2:255﴾, which also includes ten ideas.
(So unto this then invite (people),) means, `so call people to this which We have revealed to you and which We enjoined upon all the Prophets before you,’ the Prophets of major ways ﴿of Shari`ah﴾ that were followed, such as the Messengers of strong will, and others.
(and stand firm as you are commanded, ) means, `adhere firmly, you and those who follow you, to the worship of Allah as He has commanded you.’
(and follow not their desires) means, the desires of the idolators, in the falsehoods that they have invented and fabricated by worshipping idols.
(but say: “I believe in whatsoever Allah has sent down of the Book…”) means, `I believe in all the Books that have been revealed from heaven to the Prophets; we do not differentiate between any of them.’
(and I am commanded to do justice among you.) means, when judging according to the commands of Allah.
(Allah is our Lord and your Lord.) means, `He is the One Who is to be worshipped, and there is no true God but He. We affirm this willingly, and even though you do not do so willingly, everyone in the universe prostrates to Him obediently and willingly.’
(For us our deeds and for you your deeds.) means, `we have nothing to do with you. ‘ This is like the Ayah:
(And if they demy you, say: “For me are my deeds and for you are your deeds! You are innocent of what I do, and I am innocent of what you do!”) (10:41)
(There is no dispute between us and you.) Mujahid said, “This means, no argument.” As-Suddi said, “This was before Ayah of the sword was revealed.” This fits the context, because this Ayah was revealed in Makkah, and Ayah of the sword ﴿22:39-40﴾ was revealed after the Hijrah.
(Allah will assemble us (all),) means, on the Day of Resurrection. This is like the Ayah:
(Say: “Our Lord will assemble us all together, then He will judge between us with truth. And He is the Just Judge, the All-Knower of the true state of affairs.”) (34:26).
(and to Him is the final return.) means, the final return on the Day of Reckoning.
(16. And those who dispute concerning Allah, after it has been accepted, of no use is their dispute before their Lord and on them is wrath, and for them will be a severe torment.) (17. It is Allah Who has sent down the Book in truth, and the Balance. And what can make you know that perhaps the Hour is close at hand) (18. Those who believe not therein seek to hasten it, while those who believe are fearful of it, and know that it is the very truth. Verily, those who dispute concerning the Hour are certainly in error far away.)
A Warning to Those Who dispute concerning Matters of Religion
Here Allah warns those who try to hinder those who believe in Allah, from following His path.
(And those who dispute concerning Allah, after it has been accepted,) means, those who dispute with the believers who have responded to Allah and His Messenger, and try to stop them from following the path of guidance.
(no use is their dispute before their Lord) means, it is futile before Allah.
(and on them is wrath,) means, from Him.
(and for them will be a severe torment.) means, on the Day of Resurrection. Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, and Mujahid said, “They disputed with the believers after they responded to Allah and His Messenger, and tried to prevent them from following the path of guidance, hoping that they would return to Jahiliyyah.” Qatadah said, “These were the Jews and Christians who said to them, `Our religion is better than your religion, our Prophet came before your Prophet, and we are better than you and closer to Allah than you. ”’ This was nothing but lies. Then Allah says:
(It is Allah Who has sent down the Book in truth,) referring to all the Books which were revealed from Him to His Prophets.
(and the Balance.) means, justice and fairness. This was the view of Mujahid and Qatadah. This is like the Ayat:
(Indeed We have sent Our Messengers with clear proofs, and revealed with them the Scripture and the Balance that mankind may keep up justice) (57:25).
(And the heaven He has raised high, and He has set up the Balance. In order that you may not transgress (due) balance. And observe the weight with equity and do not make the balance deficient.)(55:7-9)
(And what can make you know that perhaps the Hour is close at hand) This is encouragement (to strive) for its sake, a terrifying warning, and advice to think little of this world.
(Those who believe not therein seek to hasten it,) means, they say, `when will this promise be fulfilled, if you are telling the truth’ But they say this by way of disbelief and stubbornness, thinking that it is unlikely to happen.
(while those who believe are fearful of it) means, they are afraid of it happening.
(and know that it is the very truth.) means, that it will undoubtedly come to pass, so they prepare themselves for it and strive for its sake. It was reported through various chains of narration, a number reaching the level of being Mutawatir, in Sahih and Hasan narrations, in the Books of Sunan and Musnad. According to some versions, a man addressed the Messenger of Allah in a loud voice, when he was on one of his journeys, calling out to him, “O Muhammad!” The Messenger of Allah replied in a similar manner, “Here I am!” The man said, “When will the Hour come” The Messenger of Allah said,
(Woe to you! It will most certainly come. What have you done to prepare for it) He said, “Love for Allah and His Messenger.” He said:
(You will be with those whom you love.) According to another Hadith:
(“A man will be with those whom he loves.) This is Mutawatir beyond a doubt. The point is that he did not answer his question about when the Hour would happen, but he commanded him to prepare for it.
(Verily, those who dispute concerning the Hour) means, who dispute whether it will happen and think it is unlikely ever to come,
(are certainly in error far away.) means, they are clearly ignorant, because the One Who created the heavens and the earth is even more able to give life to the dead, as Allah says:
(And He it is Who originates the creation, then He will repeat it; and this is easier for Him) (30:27).
(19. Allah is very Gracious and Kind to His servants. He gives provisions to whom He wills. And He is the All-Strong, the Almighty.) (20. Whosoever desires the reward of the Hereafter, We give him increase in his reward, and whosoever desires the reward of this world, We give him thereof, and he has no portion in the Hereafter.) (21. Or have they partners with Allah who have instituted for them a religion which Allah has not ordained And had it not been for a decisive Word, the matter would have been judged between them. And verily, for the wrongdoers there is a painful torment.) (22. You will see the wrongdoers fearful of that which they have earned, and it will surely befall them. But those who believe and do righteous deeds (will be) in the flowering meadows of the Gardens. They shall have whatsoever they desire with their Lord. That is the supreme grace.)
The Provision of Allah in this World and the Hereafter
Here Allah speaks of His kindness towards His creation, in that He provides for every last one of them and does not forget anyone. When it comes to His provision, the righteous and the sinner are alike. Allah says:
(And no moving creature is there on the earth but its provision is due from Allah. And He knows its dwelling place and its deposit. All is in a Clear Book.) (11:6) And there are many similar Ayat.
(He gives provisions to whom He wills.) means, He gives generously to whomsoever He wills.
(And He is the All-Strong, the Almighty.) means, there is nothing that can overpower Him. Then Allah says:
(Whosoever desires the reward of the Hereafter,) means, whoever does things for the sake of the Hereafter,
(We give him increase in his reward, ) meaning, `We will give him strength and help him to do what he wants to do, and We will increase it for him. So for every good, We will multiply it and give him between ten and seven hundred good rewards,’ as much as Allah wills.
(and whosoever desires the reward of this world, We give him thereof, and he has no portion in the Hereafter.) means, whoever strives for the purpose of worldly gains, and never pays any heed to the Hereafter at all, Allah will deny him the Hereafter; and in this world, if He wills He will give to him and if He does not will, he will gain neither. So the one who strives with this intention in mind will have the worst deal in this world and in the Hereafter. The evidence for that is the fact that this Ayah is reinforced by the passage in Subhan (i.e., Surat Al-Isra’) in which Allah says: y
(Whoever desires the quick-passing, We readily grant him what We will for whom We like. Then, afterwards, We have appointed for him Hell; he will (enter) burn therein disgraced and rejected. And whoever desires the Hereafter and strives for it, with the necessary effort due for it while he is a believer — then such are the ones whose striving shall be appreciated. On each — these as well as those — We bestow from the bounties of your Lord. And the bounties of your Lord can never be forbidden. See how We prefer one above another (in this world), and verily, the Hereafter will be greater in degrees and greater in preferment.) (17:18-21) It was reported that Ubayy bin Ka`b, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah said:
(Give the glad tidings to this Ummah of sublimity, high status, victory and power in the land. But whoever among them does the deeds of the Hereafter for the sake of worldly gain, will have no portion of the Hereafter.)”
Making Legislation for the Creatures is Shirk Allah says:
(Or have they partners with Allah who have instituted for them a religion which Allah has not ordained) means, they do not follow what Allah has ordained for you of upright religion; on the contrary, they follow what their devils (Shayatin), of men and Jinn, have prescribed for them. They instituted taboos, such as the Bahirah, Sa’ibah, Wasilah or Ham. They also permitted eating flesh and blood of animals not slaughtered for consumption, gambling and other kinds of misguidance, ignorance and falsehood. These are things that they invented during Jahiliyyah, when they came up with all kinds of false rulings on what was permitted and what was forbidden, and false rites of worship and other corrupt ideas. It was recorded in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah said:
(I saw `Amr bin Luhayy bin Qama`ah dragging his intestines in Hell) — because he had been the first one to introduce the idea of the Sa’ibah. This man was one of the kings of the Khuza`ah tribe, and he was the first one to do these things. He was the one who had made the Quraysh worship idols, may the curse of Allah be upon him. Allah said:
(And had it not been for a decisive Word, the matter would have been judged between them.) means, the punishment would have been hastened for them, were it not for the fact that it had already been decreed that it would be delayed until the Day of Resurrection.
(And verily, for the wrongdoers there is a painful torment.) i.e., an agonizing torment in Hell, what a terrible destination.
The Terror of the Idolators in the Place of Gathering
(You will see the wrongdoers fearful of that which they have earned,) means, in the arena of Resurrection.
(and it will surely befall them.) means, the thing that they fear will undoubtedly happen to them. This is how they will be on the Day of Resurrection; they will be in a state of utter fear and terror.
(But those who believe and do righteous deeds (will be) in the flowering meadows of the Gardens. They shall have whatsoever they desire with their Lord.) What comparison can there be between the former and the latter How can the one who will be in the arena of resurrection in a state of humiliation and fear, deserving it for his wrongdoing, be compared with the one who will be in the gardens of Paradise, enjoying whatever he wants of food, drink, clothing, dwellings, scenery, spouses and other delights such as no eye has seen, no ear has heard, and has never crossed the minds of men. Allah says:
(That is the supreme grace.) means, the ultimate victory and complete blessing.
(23. That is whereof Allah gives glad tidings to His servants who believe and do righteous good deeds. Say: “No reward do I ask of you for this except to be kind to me for my kinship with you.” And whoever earns a good righteous deed, We shall give him an increase of good in respect thereof. Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Ready to appreciate.) (24. Or say they: “He has invented a lie against Allah” If Allah willed, He could have sealed up your heart. And Allah wipes out falsehood, and establishes the truth by His Word. Verily, He knows well what are in the breasts.)
Good News of the Blessings of Paradise for the People of Faith
Having mentioned the gardens of Paradise, Allah then says to His servants who believe and do righteous deeds:
(That is whereof Allah gives glad tidings to His servants who believe and do righteous good deeds.) meaning, this will undoubtedly come to them, because it is glad tidings from Allah to them.
(Say: “No reward do I ask of you for this except to be kind to me for my kinship with you.”) means, `say, O Muhammad, to these idolators among the disbeliever of Quraysh: I do not ask you for anything in return for this message and sincere advice which I bring to you. All I ask of you is that you withhold your evil from me and let me convey the Messages of my Lord. If you will not help me, then do not disturb me, for the sake of the ties of kinship that exist between you and I.’ Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, was asked about the Ayah:
(except to be kind to me for my kinship with you.) Sa`id bin Jubayr said, “To be kind to the family of Muhammad.” Ibn `Abbas said, “No, you have jumped to a hasty conclusion. There was no clan among Quraysh to whom the Prophet did not have some ties of kinship.” Ibn `Abbas said, “Except that you uphold the ties of kinship that exist between me and you.” This was recorded by Al-Bukhari. It was also recorded by Imam Ahmad with a different chain of narration.
(And whoever earns a good righteous deed, We shall give him an increase of good in respect thereof) means, `whoever does a good deed, We will increase him in good for it, i.e., in reward.’ This is like the Ayah:
(Surely, Allah wrongs not even of the weight of a speck of dust, but if there is any good, He doubles it, and gives from Him a great reward.) (4:40)
(Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Ready to appreciate.) means, He forgives many bad deeds and increases a small amount of good deeds; He conceals and forgives sins and He multiplies and increases the reward of good deeds.
The Accusation that the Prophet fabricated the Qur’an — and the Response to that
(Or say they: “He has invented a lie against Allah” If Allah willed, He could have sealed up your heart.) means, `if you had invented any lies against Him, as these ignorant people claim,’
(He could have sealed up your heart.) means, `and thus caused you to forget what had already come to you of the Qur’an.’ This is like the Ayah:
(And if he had forged a false saying concerning Us (Allah), We surely would have seized him by his right hand, and then We certainly would have cut off his life artery, And none of you could have withheld Us from (punishing) him.) (69:44-47) which means, `We would have wrought the utmost vengeance upon him, and no one among mankind would have been able to protect him.’ And Allah said:
(and establishes the truth by His Word.) means, He establishes it and strengthens it and makes it clear by His Words, i.e., by His evidence and signs.
(Verily, He knows well what are in the breasts.) means, all that is hidden in the hearts of men.
(25. And He it is Who accepts repentance from His servants, and forgives sins, and He knows what you do.) (26. And He answers those who believe and do righteous good deeds, and gives them increase of His bounty. And as for the disbelievers, theirs will be a severe torment.) (27. And if Allah were to extend the provision for His servants, they would surely rebel in the earth, but He sends down by measure as He wills. Verily, He is, in respect of His servants, the Well-Aware, the All-Seer.) (28. And He it is Who sends down the rain after they have despaired, and spreads His mercy. And He is the Wali, Worthy of all praise.)
Allah accepts Repentance and responds to Supplications
Here Allah reminds His servants that He accepts repentance. If they turn to Him and come back to Him, then by His kindness and generosity He forgives, overlooks and conceals (their sins), as He says:
(And whoever does evil or wrongs himself but afterwards seeks Allah’s forgiveness, he will find Allah Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) (4:110) It was reported in Sahih Muslim that Anas bin Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah said:
(Allah is more pleased with the repentance of His servant than anyone of you who loses his riding beast in a barren land, and it was carrying his food and drink; he despairs of ever finding it, so he comes to a tree and lies down in its shade, having given up all hope of finding his riding beast; then whilst he is there like that, suddenly he sees it standing near him, so he takes hold of its reins and because of his great joy he says, “O Allah,You are my slave and I am Your Lord!” — i.e,. he makes a mistake because of his great joy. )” A similar report was also narrated in the Sahih from `Abdullah bin Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him.
(And He it is Who accepts repentance from His servants,) It was reported that Az-Zuhri said, concerning this Ayah, that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah said:
(Allah rejoices more over the repentance of His servant than one of you feels when he finds his lost camel in a place where he had feared that he would die of thirst.)” Hammam bin Al-Harith said, “Ibn Mas`ud was asked about a man who commits immoral sins with a woman and then marries her. He said, `There is nothing wrong with that,’ and recited:
(And He it is Who accepts repentance from His servants).”
(and forgives sins,) means, He will accept repentance in the future, and He forgives past sins.
(and He knows what you do. ) means, He knows all your deeds and actions and words, yet He still accepts the repentance of those who repent to Him.
(And He answers those who believe and do righteous good deeds,) As-Suddi said, “This means, He responds to them.” This was also the view of Ibn Jarir: “It means that He answers their supplication for themselves, their companions and their brothers.”
(and gives them increase of His bounty.) means, He answers their supplications and gives them more besides. Qatadah said, narrating from Ibrahim An-Nakha`i Al-Lakhmi about the Ayah:
(And He answers those who believe and do righteous good deeds,) — (this means) they intercede for their brothers; r
(and gives them increase of His bounty.) — (this means) they intercede for their brothers’ brothers.
(And as for the disbelievers, theirs will be a severe torment.) — having mentioned the believers and the great reward that is theirs, Allah then mentions the disbelievers and the severe, painful, agonizing torment that they will find with Him on the Day of Resurrection, the Day when they are brought to account.
The Reason why Provision is not Increased
(And if Allah were to extend the provision for His servants, they would surely rebel in the earth,) means, `if We gave them more provision than they need, this would make them rebel and transgress against one another in an arrogant and insolent manner.’
(but He sends down by measure as He wills. Verily, He is, in respect of His servants, the Well-Aware, the All-Seer.) means, but He gives them provision according to what is in their best interests, and He knows best about that. So He makes rich those who deserve to be rich, and He makes poor those who deserve to be poor.
(And He it is Who sends down the rain after they have despaired,) means, after the people have given up hope that rain will fall, He sends it down upon them at their time of need. This is like the Ayah:
(And verily, before that (rain) — just before it was sent down upon them — they were in despair!) (30:49)
(and spreads His mercy. ) means, He bestows it upon all the people who live in that region. Qatadah said, “We were told that a man said to `Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, `O Commander of the faithful, no rain has come and the people are in despair.’ `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, said, `Rain will be sent upon you,’ and he recited:
(And He it is Who sends down the rain after they have despaired, and spreads His mercy. And He is the Protector, Worthy of all praise).” Meaning He is the One Who is in control of His creation, taking care of what will benefit them in this world and the Hereafter, and the consequences of all His decrees and actions are good, for which He is worthy of all praise.
(29. And among His Ayat is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and whatever moving creatures He has dispersed in them both. And He is Able to assemble them whenever He wills.) (30. And whatever of misfortune befalls you, it is because of what your hands have earned. And He pardons much.) (31. And you cannot escape from Allah in the earth, and besides Allah you have neither any protector nor any helper.)
Among the Signs of Allah is the Creation of the Heavens and the Earth
(And among His Ayat) the signs which point to His great might and power,
(is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and whatever moving creatures He has dispersed in them both.) means, whatever He has created in them, i.e., in the heavens and the earth.
(and whatever moving creatures) this includes the angels, men, Jinn and all the animals with their different shapes, colors, languages, natures, kinds and types. He has distributed them throughout the various regions of the heavens and earth.
(And He) means, yet despite all that,
(is Able to assemble them whenever He wills.) means, on the Day of Resurrection, He will gather the first and the last of them, and bring all His creatures together in one place where they will all hear the voice of the caller and all of them will be seen clearly; then He will judge between them with justice and truth.
The Cause of Misfortune is Sin
(And whatever of misfortune befalls you, it is because of what your hands have earned.) means, `whatever disasters happen to you, O mankind, are because of sins that you have committed in the past.’
(And He pardons much.) means, of sins; `He does not punish you for them, rather He forgives you.’
(And if Allah were to punish men for that which they earned, He would not leave a moving creature on the surface of the earth) (35:45). According to a Sahih Hadith:
(By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, no believer is stricken with fatigue, exhaustion, worry or grief, but Allah will forgive him for some of his sins thereby — even a thorn which pricks him.) Imam Ahmad recorded that Mu`awiyah bin Abi Sufyan, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah say:
(No physical harm befalls a believer, but Allah will expiate for some of his sins because of it.)” Imam Ahmad also recorded that `A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said, “The Messenger of Allah said:
(If a person commits many sins and has nothing that will expiate for them, Allah will test him with some grief that will expiate for them.)”
(32. And among His signs are the ships in the sea like mountains.) (33. If He wills, He causes the wind to cease, then they would become motionless on the surface (of the sea). Verily, in this are signs for everyone patient and grateful.) (34. Or He may destroy them because of that which their (people) have earned. And He pardons much.) (35. And those who dispute as regards Our Ayat may know that there is no place of refuge for them.)
Ships are also among the Signs of Allah
Allah tells us that another sign of His great power and dominion is the fact that He has subjugated the sea so that ships may sail in it by His command, so they sail in the sea like mountains. This was the view of Mujahid, Al-Hasan, As-Suddi and Ad-Dahhak. In other words, these ships on the sea are like mountains on land.
(If He wills, He causes the wind to cease,) means, the winds that cause the ships to travel on the sea. If He willed, He could cause the winds to cease, then the ships would not move and would remain still, neither coming nor going, staying where they are on the surface of the water.
(Verily, in this are signs for everyone patient) means, who is patient in the face of adversity
(and grateful.) means, in the fact that Allah has subjugated the sea and He sends as much wind as they need in order to travel, there are signs of His blessings to His creation for everyone who is patient, i.e., at times of difficulty, and grateful, i.e., at times of ease.
(Or He may destroy them because of that which their (people) have earned. ) means, if He wills, He may destroy the ships and drown them, because of the sins of the people on board.
(And He pardons much.) means, of their sins; if He were to punish them for all of their sins, He would destroy everyone who sails on the sea. Some of the scholars interpreted the Ayah
(Or He may destroy them because of that which their (people) have earned.) as meaning, if He willed, He could send the wind to blow fiercely so that it would take the ships and divert them from their courses, driving them to the right or the left, so that they would be lost and would not be able to follow their intended path. This interpretation also includes the idea of their being destroyed. This also fits the first meaning, which is that if Allah willed, He could cause the wind to cease, in which case the ships would stop moving, or He could make the wind fierce, in which case the ships would be lost and destroyed. But by His grace and mercy, He sends the wind according to their needs, just as He sends rain that is sufficient. If He sent too much rain, it would destroy their houses, and if He sent too little, their crops and fruits would not grow. In the case of lands such as Egypt, He sends water from another land, because they do not need rain; if rain were to fall upon them, it would destroy their houses and cause walls to collapse.
(And those who dispute as regards Our Ayat may know that there is no place of refuge for them. ) means, they have no means of escape from Our torment and vengeance, for they are subdued by Our power.
(36. So whatever you have been given is but (a passing) enjoyment for this worldly life, but that which is with Allah is better and more lasting for those who believe and put their trust in their Lord.) (37. And those who shun the greater sins, and Al-Fawahish, and when they are angry, they forgive.) (38. And those who answer the Call of their Lord, and perform the Salah, and who (conduct) their affairs by mutual consultation, and who spend of what We have bestowed on them.) (39. And those who, when an oppressive wrong is done to them, take revenge.)
The Attributes of Those Who deserve that which is with Allah
Here Allah points out the insignificance of this worldly life and its transient adornments and luxuries.
(So whatever you have been given is but (a passing) enjoyment for this worldly life.) means, no matter what you achieve and amass, do not be deceived by it, for it is only the enjoyment of this life, which is the lower, transient realm that will undoubtedly come to an end.
(but that which is with Allah is better and more lasting) means, the reward of Allah is better than this world, and it will last forever, so do not give preference to that which is transient over that which is lasting. Allah says:
(for those who believe) means, for those who are patient in forgoing the pleasures of this world,
(and put their trust in their Lord.) means, so that He will help them to be patient in doing what is obligatory and avoiding what is forbidden. Then Allah says:
(And those who shun the greater sins, and Al-Fawahish,) We have already discussed sin and Al-Fawahish in Surat Al-A`raf.
(and when they are angry, they forgive.) means, their nature dictates that they should forgive people and be tolerant. Vengeance is not in their nature. It was reported in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah never took revenge for his own sake, only when the sacred Laws of Allah were violated.
(And those who answer the Call of their Lord,) means, they follow His Messenger and obey His commands and avoid that which He has prohibited.
(and perform As-Salah) — which is the greatest act of worship of Allah, may He be glorified.
(and who (conduct) their affairs by mutual consultation,) means, they do not make a decision without consulting one another on the matter so that they can help one another by sharing their ideas concerning issues such as wars and other matters. This is like the Ayah:
(and consult them in the affairs) (3:159). The Prophet used to consult with them concerning wars and other matters, so that they would feel confidant. When `Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, was dying, after he had been stabbed, he entrusted the choice of the next Khalifah to six people who were to be consulted. They were `Uthman, `Ali, Talhah, Az-Zubayr, Sa`id and `Abdur-Rahman bin `Awf, may Allah be pleased with them all. Then all of the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, agreed to appoint `Uthman as their leader.
(and who spend of what We have bestowed on them.) this means kindly treating the creation of Allah, starting with those who are closest, then the next closest, and so on.
(And those who, when an oppressive wrong is done to them, take revenge.) ameans, they have the strength to take revenge on those who commit aggressive wrong and hostile acts against them. They are not incapable of doing so and they are not helpless; they are able to take revenge against those who transgress against them, even though when they have the power to take revenge, they prefer to forgive, as when Yusuf, peace be upon him, said to his brothers:
(No reproach on you this day; may Allah forgive you) (12: 92). even though he was in a position to take revenge on them for what they had done to him. The Messenger of Allah forgave the eighty people who intended to do him harm during the year of Al-Hudaybiyah, camping by the mountain of At-Tan`im. When he overpowered them, he set them free, even though he was in a position to take revenge on them. He also forgave Ghawrath bin Al-Harith who wanted to kill him and unsheathed his sword while he was sleeping. The Prophet woke up to find him pointing the sword at him. He reproached him angrily and the sword dropped. Then the Messenger of Allah picked up the sword and called his Companions He told them what had happened, and he forgave the man. There are many similar Hadiths and reports. And Allah knows best.
(40. The recompense for an evil is an evil like thereof; but whoever forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is with Allah. Verily, He likes not the wrongdoers.) (41. And indeed whosoever takes revenge after he has suffered wrong, for such there is no way (of blame) against them.) (42. The way is only against those who oppress men and rebel in the earth without justification; for such there will be a painful torment.) (43. And verily, whosoever shows patience and forgives, that would truly be from the things recommended by Allah.)
Forgiving or exacting Revenge on Wrongdoers
(The recompense for an evil is an evil like thereof). This is like the Ayat:
(Then whoever transgresses the prohibition against you, you transgress likewise against him) (2:194), and
(And if you punish, then punish them with the like of that with which you were afflicted) (16:126). Justice, has been prescribed, in the form of the prescribed laws of equality in punishment (Al-Qisas), but the better way, which means forgiving, is recommended, as Allah says:
(and wounds equal for equal. But if anyone remits the retaliation by way of charity, it shall be for him an expiation) (5:45). Allah says here:
(but whoever forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is with Allah. ) means, that will not be wasted with Allah. As it says in a Sahih Hadith:
(Allah does not increase the person who forgives except in honor.)”
(Verily, He likes not the wrongdoers.) means, the aggressors, i.e., those who initiate the evil actions.
(And indeed whosoever takes revenge after he has suffered wrong, for such there is no way (of blame) against them.) means, there is no sin on him for taking revenge against the one who wronged him.
(The way) means, the burden of sin,
(is only against those who oppress men and rebel in the earth without justification;) means, those who initiate wrongful actions against others, as it says in the Sahih Hadith:
(When two persons indulge in abusing each other, the one who initiated the wrongful action is to blame, unless the one who was wronged oversteps the mark in retaliation.)
(for such there will be a painful torment.) means, intense and agonizing. It was reported that Muhammad bin Wasi` said, “I came to Makkah and there was a security out post over the trench whose guards took me to Marwan bin Al-Muhallab, who was the governor of Basrah. He said, `What do you need, O Abu `Abdullah’ I said, `If you can do it, I need you to be like the brother of Banu `Adiy.’ He said, `Who is the brother of Banu `Adiy’ He said, `Al-`Ala’ bin Ziyad; he once appointed a friend of his to a position of authority, and he wrote to him: If you can, only go to sleep after you make sure that there is nothing on your back ﴿i.e., you do not owe anything to anyone﴾, your stomach is empty and your hands are untainted by the blood or wealth of the Muslims. If you do that, then there will be no way (of blame) against you —
(The way is only against those who oppress men and rebel in the earth without justification; for such there will be a painful torment.)’ Marwan said, `He spoke the truth, by Allah, and gave sincere advice. ‘ Then he said, `What do you need, O Abu `Abdullah’ I said, `I need you to let me join my family.’ He said, `Yes ﴿I will do that﴾.”’ This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim. When Allah condemned wrongdoing and the people who do it, and prescribed Al-Qisas, He encouraged forgiveness:
(And verily, whosoever shows patience and forgives,) meaning, whoever bears the insult with patience and conceals the evil action,
(that would truly be from the things recommended by Allah.) Sa`id bin Jubayr said, “This means, one of the things enjoined by Allah,” i.e., good actions for which there will be a great reward and much praise.
(44. And whomsoever Allah sends astray, for him there is no protector after Him. And you will see the wrongdoers, when they behold the torment, they will say: “Is there any way of return”) (45. And you will see them brought forward to it (Hell) made humble by disgrace, (and) looking with stealthy glance. And those who believe will say: “Verily, the losers are they who lose themselves and their families on the Day of Resurrection.” Verily, the wrongdoers will be in a lasting torment.) (46. And they will have no protectors to help them other than Allah. And he whom Allah sends astray, for him there is no way.)
The State of the Wrongdoers on the Day of Resurrection
Allah tells us that whatever He wills happens and whatever He does not will does not happen, and no one can make it happen. Whomever He guides, none can lead astray, and whomever He leads astray, none can guide, as He says:
(but he whom He sends astray, for him you will find no protecting to lead him.) (18:17). Then Allah tells us about the wrongdoers, i.e., the idolators who associate others in worship with Allah:
(when they behold the torment,) i.e., on the Day of Resurrection, they will wish that they could go back to this world.
(they will say: “Is there any way of return”) This is like the Ayah:
(If you could but see when they will be held over the (Hell) Fire! They will say: “Would that we were but sent back! Then we would not deny the Ayat of our Lord, and we would be of the believers!” Nay, it has become manifest to them what they had been concealing before. But if they were returned, they would certainly revert to that which they were forbidden. And indeed they are liars.) (6:27-28)
(And you will see them brought forward to it) means, to the Fire.
(made humble by disgrace,) means, in a befitting manner, because of their previous disobedience towards Allah.
((and) looking with stealthy glance.) Mujahid said, “In a humiliated manner.” That is, they will steal glances at it, because they will be afraid of it. But the thing that they are afraid of will undoubtedly happen, and worse than that — may Allah save us from that.
(And those who believe will say) means, on the Day of Resurrection they will say:
(Verily, the losers…) means, the greatest losers.
(are they who lose themselves and their families on the Day of Resurrection. ) means, they will be taken to the Fire and deprived of any pleasures in the Hereafter. They will lose themselves, and they will be separated from their loved ones, companions, families and relatives, and they will lose them.
(Verily, the wrongdoers will be in a lasting torment.) means, everlasting and eternal, with no way out and no escape.
(And they will have no protectors to help them other than Allah.) means, no one to save them from the punishment and torment which they are suffering.
(And he whom Allah sends astray, for him there is no way.) means, no salvation.
(47. Answer the Call of your Lord before there comes from Allah a Day which cannot be averted. You will have no refuge on that Day nor there will be for you any denying.) (48. But if they turn away, We have not sent you as a Hafiz over them. Your duty is to convey. And verily, when We cause man to taste of mercy from Us, he rejoices there at; but when some evil befalls them because of the deeds which their hands have sent forth, then verily, man (becomes) ingrate!)
Encouragement to obey Allah before the Day of Resurrection
When Allah tells us about the horrors and terrifying events of the Day of Resurrection, He warns us about it and commands us to prepare for it:
(Answer the Call of your Lord before there comes from Allah a Day which cannot be averted.) means, once He issues the command, it will come to pass within the blinking of an eye, and no one will be able to avert it or prevent it.
(You will have no refuge on that Day nor there will be for you any denying.) means, you will have no stronghold in which to take refuge, no place in which to hide from Allah, for He will encompass you with His knowledge and power, and you will have no refuge from Him except with Him.
(On that Day man will say: “Where (is the refuge) to flee” No! There is no refuge! Unto your Lord will be the place of rest that Day.) (75:10-12)
(But if they turn away,) refers to the idolators,
(We have not sent you as a Hafiz over them. ) means, `you have no power over them.’ And Allah says elsewhere:
(Not upon you is their guidance, but Allah guides whom He wills) (2:272).
(your duty is only to convey (the Message) and on Us is the reckoning) (13:40). And Allah says here:
(Your duty is to convey.) meaning, `all that We require you to do is to convey the Message of Allah to them.’
(And verily, when We cause man to taste of mercy from Us, he rejoices there at;) means, when a time of ease and comfort comes to him, he is happy about it.
(but when befalls them) means mankind.
(some evil) means, drought, punishment, tribulation or difficulty,
(then verily, man (becomes) ingrate!) means, he forgets the previous times of ease and blessings and acknowledges nothing but the present moment. If times of ease come to him, he becomes arrogant and transgresses, but if any difficulty befalls him, he loses hope and is filled with despair. This is like what the Messenger of Allah said to the women:
)(O women, give in charity, for I have seen that you form the majority of the people of Hell.) A woman asked, “Why is that, O Messenger of Allah” He said:
(Because you complain too much, and you are ungrateful to (your) husbands. If one of you were to be treated kindly for an entire lifetime, then that kindness was lacking for one day, she would say, `I have never seen anything good from you!’) This is the case with most women, except for those whom Allah guides and who are among the people who believe and do righteous deeds. As the Prophet said, the believer is the one who:
(… if something good happens to him, he is thankful, and that is good for him. If something bad happens to him, he bears it with patience, and that is good for him. This does not happen to anyone except the believer.)
(49. To Allah belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth. He creates what He wills. He bestows female upon whom He wills, and bestows male upon whom He wills.) (50. Or He bestows both males and females, and He renders barren whom He wills. Verily, He is the All-Knower and is Able (to do all things).)
Allah tells us that He is the Creator, Sovereign and Controller of the heavens and the earth.
Whatever he wills happens, and whatever He does not will does not happen. He gives to whomsoever He wills and withholds from whomsoever he wills; none can withhold what He gives, and none can give what He withholds, and He creates whatever He wills.
(He bestows female upon whom He wills.) means, He gives them daughters only. Al-Baghawi said, “And among them (those who were given daughters only) was Lut, peace be upon him.”
(and bestows male upon whom He wills.) means, He gives them sons only. Al-Baghawi said, “Like Ibrahim Al-Khalil, peace be upon him, who did not have any daughters.”
(Or He bestows both males and females,) means, He gives to whomsoever He wills both males and females, sons and daughters. Al-Baghawi said, “Like Muhammad .”
(and He renders barren whom He wills. ) means, so that he has no children at all. Al-Baghawi said, “Like Yahya and `Isa, peace be upon them.” So people are divided into four categories: some are given daughters, some are given sons, some are given both sons and daughters, and some are not given either sons or daughters, but they are rendered barren, with no offspring.
(Verily, He is the All-Knower) means, He knows who deserves to be in which of these categories.
(and is Able (to do all things).) means, to do whatever He wills and to differentiate between people in this manner. This issue is similar to that referred to in the Ayah where Allah says of `Isa, peace be upon him:
(And (We wish) to appoint him as a sign to mankind) (19:21): i.e., proof for them of His power, for He created people in four different ways. Adam, peace be upon him, was created from clay, from neither a male nor a female. Hawwa’, peace be upon her, was created from a male without a female. All other people, besides `Isa, peace be upon him, were created from male and female, and this sign of Allah was completed with the creation of `Isa bin Maryam, may peace be upon them both, who was created from a female without a male. Allah says:
(And (We wish) to appoint him as a sign to mankind) (19: 21). This issue has to do with parents, whilst the previous issue has to do with children, and in each case there are four categories. Glory be to the All-Knower Who is Able to do all things.
(51. It is not given to any human being that Allah should speak to him unless (it be) by revelation, or from behind a veil, or (that) He sends a Messenger to reveal what He wills by His leave. Verily, He is Most High, Most Wise.) (52. And thus We have sent to you Ruh of Our command. You knew not what is the Book, nor what is Faith. But We have made it a light wherewith We guide whosoever of Our servants We will. And verily, you are indeed guiding to a straight path.) (53. The path of Allah to Whom belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth. Verily, all matters at the end go to Allah.)
How the Revelation comes down
This refers to how Allah sends revelation. Sometimes He casts something into the heart of the Prophet , and he has no doubt that it is from Allah, as it was reported in Sahih Ibn Hibban that the Messenger of Allah said:
(Ar-Ruh Al-Qudus ﴿i.e., Jibril﴾ breathed into my heart that no soul will die until its allotted provision and time have expired, so have Taqwa of Allah and keep seeking in a good (and lawful) way.)
(or from behind a veil) — as He spoke to Musa, peace be upon him. He asked to see Him after He had spoken to him, but this was not granted to him. In the Sahih, it recorded that the Messenger of Allah said to Jabir bin `Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him:
(Allah never speaks to anyone except from behind a veil, but He spoke to your father directly.) This is how it was stated in the Hadith. He ﴿Jabir’s father﴾ was killed on the day of Uhud, but this refers to the realm of Al-Barzakh, whereas the Ayah speaks of this earthly realm.
(or (that) He sends a Messenger to reveal what He wills by His leave.) as Jibril, peace be upon him, and other angels came down to the Prophets, peace be upon them.
(Verily, He is Most High, Most Wise.) He is Most High, All-Knowing, Most Wise.
(And thus We have sent to you Ruh of Our command.) means, the Qur’an.
(You knew not what is the Book, nor what is Faith.) means, `in the details which were given to you in the Qur’an.’
(But We have made it) means, the Qur’an,
(a light wherewith We guide whosoever of Our servants We will. ) This is like the Ayah:
(Say: “It is for those who believe, a guide and a healing. And as for those who disbelieve, there is heaviness (deafness) in their ears, and it (the Qur’an) is blindness for them.”) (41:44).
(And verily, you) means, `O Muhammad,’
(are indeed guiding to a straight path.) means, the correct behavior. Then Allah explains this further by saying:
(The path of Allah) meaning, His Laws which He enjoins.
(to Whom belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth.) means, their Lord and Sovereign, the One Who is controlling and ruling them, Whose decree cannot be overturned.
(Verily, all matters at the end go to Allah.) means, all matters come back to Him and He issues judgement concerning them. Glorified and exalted be He far above all that the evildoers and deniers say.
This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Ash-Shura