Surah Luqman is the 31st chapter of the Qur’an. It is classified as a Meccan surah and it’s a short surah with 34 ayats or verses.
This Surah teaches Muslims Tawhid and helps people understand meaninglessness of Shirk. It invites people in and gives them the chance to understand the truth and reasonableness of monotheism.
It teaches that those who are following Shirk are only blindly following their forefathers. The true wisdom is to believe in Allah.
“And do not turn your cheek [in contempt] toward people and do not walk through the earth exultantly. Indeed, Allah does not like everyone self-deluded and boastful. And be moderate in your pace and lower your voice; indeed, the most disagreeable of sounds is the voice of donkeys.”
Surah Luqman Ayat 18-19
Sahih International English Translation, Transliteration and Arabic Text
Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Raheem
In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful
1. Alif, Lam, Meem.
تِلْكَ ءَايَـٰتُ ٱلْكِتَـٰبِ ٱلْحَكِيمِ
Tilka Aayaatul Kitaabil Hakeem
2. These are verses of the wise Book,
هُدًۭى وَرَحْمَةًۭ لِّلْمُحْسِنِينَ
Hudanw wa rahmatal lilmuhsineen
3. As guidance and mercy for the doers of good
ٱلَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ وَهُم بِٱلْءَاخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ
Allazeena yuqeemoonas Salaata wa yu’toonaz Zakaata wa hum bil Aakhirati hum yooqinoon
4. Who establish prayer and give zakah, and they, of the Hereafter, are certain [in faith].
أُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ عَلَىٰ هُدًۭى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ ۖ وَأُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلْمُفْلِحُونَ
Ulaaa’ika ‘alaa hudam mir Rabbihim wa ulaaa’ika humul muflihoon
5. Those are on [right] guidance from their Lord, and it is those who are the successful.
وَمِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ مَن يَشْتَرِى لَهْوَ ٱلْحَدِيثِ لِيُضِلَّ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍۢ وَيَتَّخِذَهَا هُزُوًا ۚ أُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌۭ مُّهِينٌۭ
Wa minan naasi mai-yashtaree lahuwal hadeesi li yudilla ‘an sabeelil laahi bighairi ‘ilminw wa yattakhizahaa huzuwaa; ulaaa’ika lahum ‘azaabum muheen
6. And of the people is he who buys the amusement of speech to mislead [others] from the way of Allah without knowledge and who takes it in ridicule. Those will have a humiliating punishment.
وَإِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِ ءَايَـٰتُنَا وَلَّىٰ مُسْتَكْبِرًۭا كَأَن لَّمْ يَسْمَعْهَا كَأَنَّ فِىٓ أُذُنَيْهِ وَقْرًۭا ۖ فَبَشِّرْهُ بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ
Wa izaa tutlaa ‘alayhi Aayaatunaa wallaa mustakbiran ka al lam yasma’haa ka anna feee uzunwihi waqran fabash shiru bi’azaabin aleem
7. And when our verses are recited to him, he turns away arrogantly as if he had not heard them, as if there was in his ears deafness. So give him tidings of a painful punishment.
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَعَمِلُوا۟ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ لَهُمْ جَنَّـٰتُ ٱلنَّعِيمِ
Innal lazeena aamanoo wa ‘amilus saalihaati lahum Janaatun Na’eem
8. Indeed, those who believe and do righteous deeds – for them are the Gardens of Pleasure.
خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيهَا ۖ وَعْدَ ٱللَّهِ حَقًّۭا ۚ وَهُوَ ٱلْعَزِيزُ ٱلْحَكِيمُ
Khaalideena feeha wa’dal laahi haqqaa; wa Huwal ‘Azeezul Hakeem
9. Wherein they abide eternally; [it is] the promise of Allah [which is] truth. And He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.
خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ بِغَيْرِ عَمَدٍۢ تَرَوْنَهَا ۖ وَأَلْقَىٰ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ رَوَٰسِىَ أَن تَمِيدَ بِكُمْ وَبَثَّ فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ دَآبَّةٍۢ ۚ وَأَنزَلْنَا مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءًۭ فَأَنۢبَتْنَا فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ زَوْجٍۢ كَرِيمٍ
Khalaqas samaawaati bi ghairi ‘amadin tarawnahaa wa alqaa fil ardi rawaasiya an tameeda bikum wa bassa feehaa min kulli daaabbah; wa anzalnaa minas samaaa’i maaa’an fa ambatnaa feeha min kulli zawjin kareem
10. He created the heavens without pillars that you see and has cast into the earth firmly set mountains, lest it should shift with you, and dispersed therein from every creature. And We sent down rain from the sky and made grow therein [plants] of every noble kind.
هَـٰذَا خَلْقُ ٱللَّهِ فَأَرُونِى مَاذَا خَلَقَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن دُونِهِۦ ۚ بَلِ ٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ فِى ضَلَـٰلٍۢ مُّبِينٍۢ
Haazaa khalqul laahi fa aroonee maazaa khalaqal lazeena min doonih; baliz zaalimoona fee dalalim Mubeen (section 1)
11. This is the creation of Allah . So show Me what those other than Him have created. Rather, the wrongdoers are in clear error.
وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَا لُقْمَـٰنَ ٱلْحِكْمَةَ أَنِ ٱشْكُرْ لِلَّهِ ۚ وَمَن يَشْكُرْ فَإِنَّمَا يَشْكُرُ لِنَفْسِهِۦ ۖ وَمَن كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَنِىٌّ حَمِيدٌۭ
Wa laqad aatainaa Luqmaanal hikmata anishkur lillaah; wa many yashkur fa innamaa yashkuru linafsihee wa man kafara fa innal laaha Ghaniyyun Hameed
12. And We had certainly given Luqman wisdom [and said], “Be grateful to Allah .” And whoever is grateful is grateful for [the benefit of] himself. And whoever denies [His favor] – then indeed, Allah is Free of need and Praiseworthy.
وَإِذْ قَالَ لُقْمَـٰنُ لِٱبْنِهِۦ وَهُوَ يَعِظُهُۥ يَـٰبُنَىَّ لَا تُشْرِكْ بِٱللَّهِ ۖ إِنَّ ٱلشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌۭ
Wa iz qaala luqmaanu libnihee wa huwa ya’izuhoo ya bunaiya laa tushrik billaah; innash shirka lazulmun ‘azeem
13. And [mention, O Muhammad], when Luqman said to his son while he was instructing him, “O my son, do not associate [anything] with Allah . Indeed, association [with him] is great injustice.”
وَوَصَّيْنَا ٱلْإِنسَـٰنَ بِوَٰلِدَيْهِ حَمَلَتْهُ أُمُّهُۥ وَهْنًا عَلَىٰ وَهْنٍۢ وَفِصَـٰلُهُۥ فِى عَامَيْنِ أَنِ ٱشْكُرْ لِى وَلِوَٰلِدَيْكَ إِلَىَّ ٱلْمَصِيرُ
Wa wassainal insaana bi waalidaihi hamalat hu ummuhoo wahnan ‘alaa wahninw wa fisaaluhoo fee ‘aamaini anishkur lee wa liwaalidaika ilaiyal maseer
14. And We have enjoined upon man [care] for his parents. His mother carried him, [increasing her] in weakness upon weakness, and his weaning is in two years. Be grateful to Me and to your parents; to Me is the [final] destination.
وَإِن جَـٰهَدَاكَ عَلَىٰٓ أَن تُشْرِكَ بِى مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِۦ عِلْمٌۭ فَلَا تُطِعْهُمَا ۖ وَصَاحِبْهُمَا فِى ٱلدُّنْيَا مَعْرُوفًۭا ۖ وَٱتَّبِعْ سَبِيلَ مَنْ أَنَابَ إِلَىَّ ۚ ثُمَّ إِلَىَّ مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَأُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ
Wa in jaahadaaka ‘alaaa an tushrika bee maa laisa laka bihee ‘ilmun falaa tuti’humaa wa saahib humaa fid dunyaa ma’roofanw wattabi’ sabeela man anaaba ilayy; summa ilaiya marji’ukum fa unabbi’ukum bimaa kuntum ta’maloon
15. But if they endeavor to make you associate with Me that of which you have no knowledge, do not obey them but accompany them in [this] world with appropriate kindness and follow the way of those who turn back to Me [in repentance]. Then to Me will be your return, and I will inform you about what you used to do.
يَـٰبُنَىَّ إِنَّهَآ إِن تَكُ مِثْقَالَ حَبَّةٍۢ مِّنْ خَرْدَلٍۢ فَتَكُن فِى صَخْرَةٍ أَوْ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ أَوْ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ يَأْتِ بِهَا ٱللَّهُ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَطِيفٌ خَبِيرٌۭ
Ya bunaiya innahaaa in taku misqaala habbatim min khardalin fatakun fee sakhratin aw fis samaawaati aw fil ardi yaati bihal laa; innal laaha lateefun Khabeer
16. [And Luqman said], “O my son, indeed if wrong should be the weight of a mustard seed and should be within a rock or [anywhere] in the heavens or in the earth, Allah will bring it forth. Indeed, Allah is Subtle and Acquainted.
يَـٰبُنَىَّ أَقِمِ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَأْمُرْ بِٱلْمَعْرُوفِ وَٱنْهَ عَنِ ٱلْمُنكَرِ وَٱصْبِرْ عَلَىٰ مَآ أَصَابَكَ ۖ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ مِنْ عَزْمِ ٱلْأُمُورِ
Yaa bunaiya aqimis-Salaata waamur bilma’roofi wanha ‘anil munkari wasbir ‘alaa maaa asaabaka inna zaalika min ‘azmil umoor
17. O my son, establish prayer, enjoin what is right, forbid what is wrong, and be patient over what befalls you. Indeed, [all] that is of the matters [requiring] determination.
وَلَا تُصَعِّرْ خَدَّكَ لِلنَّاسِ وَلَا تَمْشِ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ مَرَحًا ۖ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ كُلَّ مُخْتَالٍۢ فَخُورٍۢ
Wa laa tusa’-‘ir khaddaka linnaasi wa laa tamshi fil ardi maarahan innal laaha laa yuhibbu kulla mukhtaalin fakhoor
18. And do not turn your cheek [in contempt] toward people and do not walk through the earth exultantly. Indeed, Allah does not like everyone self-deluded and boastful.
وَٱقْصِدْ فِى مَشْيِكَ وَٱغْضُضْ مِن صَوْتِكَ ۚ إِنَّ أَنكَرَ ٱلْأَصْوَٰتِ لَصَوْتُ ٱلْحَمِيرِ
Waqsid fee mashyika waghdud min sawtik; inna ankaral aswaati lasawtul hameer (section 2)
19. And be moderate in your pace and lower your voice; indeed, the most disagreeable of sounds is the voice of donkeys.”
أَلَمْ تَرَوْا۟ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ سَخَّرَ لَكُم مَّا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ وَأَسْبَغَ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعَمَهُۥ ظَـٰهِرَةًۭ وَبَاطِنَةًۭ ۗ وَمِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ مَن يُجَـٰدِلُ فِى ٱللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍۢ وَلَا هُدًۭى وَلَا كِتَـٰبٍۢ مُّنِيرٍۢ
Alam taraw annal laaha sakhkhara lakum maa fis sa maawaati wa maa fil ardi wa asbaha ‘alaikum ni’amahoo zaahiratanw wa baatinah; wa minan naasi many yujaadilu fil laahi bighayri ‘ilminw wa laa hudanw wa laa Kitaabim muneer
20. Do you not see that Allah has made subject to you whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth and amply bestowed upon you His favors, [both] apparent and unapparent? But of the people is he who disputes about Allah without knowledge or guidance or an enlightening Book [from Him].
وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمُ ٱتَّبِعُوا۟ مَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ قَالُوا۟ بَلْ نَتَّبِعُ مَا وَجَدْنَا عَلَيْهِ ءَابَآءَنَآ ۚ أَوَلَوْ كَانَ ٱلشَّيْطَـٰنُ يَدْعُوهُمْ إِلَىٰ عَذَابِ ٱلسَّعِيرِ
Wa izaa qeela lahumut-tabi’oo maaa anzalal laahu qaaloo bal nattabi’u maa wajadnaa ‘alaihi aabaaa’anaa; awalaw kaanash Shaitaanu yad’oohum ilaa ‘azaabis sa’eer
21. And when it is said to them, “Follow what Allah has revealed,” they say, “Rather, we will follow that upon which we found our fathers.” Even if Satan was inviting them to the punishment of the Blaze?
۞ وَمَن يُسْلِمْ وَجْهَهُۥٓ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌۭ فَقَدِ ٱسْتَمْسَكَ بِٱلْعُرْوَةِ ٱلْوُثْقَىٰ ۗ وَإِلَى ٱللَّهِ عَـٰقِبَةُ ٱلْأُمُورِ
Wa many yuslim wajha hooo ilal laahi wa huwa muhsinun faqadistamsaka bil’ur watil wusqaa; wa ilal laahi ‘aaqibatul umoor
22. And whoever submits his face to Allah while he is a doer of good – then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold. And to Allah will be the outcome of [all] matters.
وَمَن كَفَرَ فَلَا يَحْزُنكَ كُفْرُهُۥٓ ۚ إِلَيْنَا مَرْجِعُهُمْ فَنُنَبِّئُهُم بِمَا عَمِلُوٓا۟ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلِيمٌۢ بِذَاتِ ٱلصُّدُورِ
Wa man kafara falaa yahzunka kufruh; ilainaa marji’uhum fanunabbi’uhum bimaa ‘amiloo; innal laaha ‘aleemum bizaatis sudoor
23. And whoever has disbelieved – let not his disbelief grieve you. To Us is their return, and We will inform them of what they did. Indeed, Allah is Knowing of that within the breasts.
نُمَتِّعُهُمْ قَلِيلًۭا ثُمَّ نَضْطَرُّهُمْ إِلَىٰ عَذَابٍ غَلِيظٍۢ
Numatti’uhum qaleelan summa nadtarruhum ilaa ‘azaabin ghaleez
24. We grant them enjoyment for a little; then We will force them to a massive punishment.
وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُم مَّنْ خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضَ لَيَقُولُنَّ ٱللَّهُ ۚ قُلِ ٱلْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ ۚ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ
Wa la’in sa altahum man khalaqas samaawaati wal arda la yaqoolunnal laah; qulil hamdu lillaah; bal aksaruhum laa ya’lamoon
25. And if you asked them, “Who created the heavens and earth?” they would surely say, ” Allah .” Say, “[All] praise is [due] to Allah “; but most of them do not know.
لِلَّهِ مَا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ هُوَ ٱلْغَنِىُّ ٱلْحَمِيدُ
Lilaahi ma fis samaa waati wal ard; innal laaha Huwal Ghaniyyul Hameed
26. To Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and earth. Indeed, Allah is the Free of need, the Praiseworthy.
وَلَوْ أَنَّمَا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ مِن شَجَرَةٍ أَقْلَـٰمٌۭ وَٱلْبَحْرُ يَمُدُّهُۥ مِنۢ بَعْدِهِۦ سَبْعَةُ أَبْحُرٍۢ مَّا نَفِدَتْ كَلِمَـٰتُ ٱللَّهِ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌۭ
Wa law annamaa fil ardi min shajaratin aqlaamunw wal bahru yamudduhoo mim ba’dihee sab’atu abhurim maa nafidat Kalimaatul laah; innal laaha ‘azeezun Hakeem
27. And if whatever trees upon the earth were pens and the sea [was ink], replenished thereafter by seven [more] seas, the words of Allah would not be exhausted. Indeed, Allah is Exalted in Might and Wise.
مَّا خَلْقُكُمْ وَلَا بَعْثُكُمْ إِلَّا كَنَفْسٍۢ وَٰحِدَةٍ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ سَمِيعٌۢ بَصِيرٌ
Maa khalqukum wa laa ba’sukum illaa kanafsinw-waa hidah; innal laaha Samee’um Baseer
28. Your creation and your resurrection will not be but as that of a single soul. Indeed, Allah is Hearing and Seeing.
أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُولِجُ ٱلَّيْلَ فِى ٱلنَّهَارِ وَيُولِجُ ٱلنَّهَارَ فِى ٱلَّيْلِ وَسَخَّرَ ٱلشَّمْسَ وَٱلْقَمَرَ كُلٌّۭ يَجْرِىٓ إِلَىٰٓ أَجَلٍۢ مُّسَمًّۭى وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌۭ
Alam tara annal laaha yoolijul laila fin nahaari wa yoolijun nahaara fil laili wa sakhkharash shamsa wal qamara kulluny yajreee ilaaa ajalim musammanw wa annal laaha bimaa ta’malona Khabeer
29. Do you not see that Allah causes the night to enter the day and causes the day to enter the night and has subjected the sun and the moon, each running [its course] for a specified term, and that Allah, with whatever you do, is Acquainted?
ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ هُوَ ٱلْحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ ٱلْبَـٰطِلُ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ هُوَ ٱلْعَلِىُّ ٱلْكَبِيرُ
Zaalika bi annal laaha Huwal Haqqu wa anna maa yad’oona min doonihil baatilu wa annal laaha Huwal ‘Aliyyul Kabeer (section 3)
30. That is because Allah is the Truth, and that what they call upon other than Him is falsehood, and because Allah is the Most High, the Grand.
أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ ٱلْفُلْكَ تَجْرِى فِى ٱلْبَحْرِ بِنِعْمَتِ ٱللَّهِ لِيُرِيَكُم مِّنْ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦٓ ۚ إِنَّ فِى ذَٰلِكَ لَءَايَـٰتٍۢ لِّكُلِّ صَبَّارٍۢ شَكُورٍۢ
Alam tara annal fulka tajree fil bahri bini’matil laahi li yuriyakum min Aayaatih; inna fee zaalika la Aayaatil likulli sabbaarin shakoor
31. Do you not see that ships sail through the sea by the favor of Allah that He may show you of His signs? Indeed in that are signs for everyone patient and grateful.
وَإِذَا غَشِيَهُم مَّوْجٌۭ كَٱلظُّلَلِ دَعَوُا۟ ٱللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ ٱلدِّينَ فَلَمَّا نَجَّىٰهُمْ إِلَى ٱلْبَرِّ فَمِنْهُم مُّقْتَصِدٌۭ ۚ وَمَا يَجْحَدُ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَآ إِلَّا كُلُّ خَتَّارٍۢ كَفُورٍۢ
Wa izaa ghashiyahum mawjun kazzulali da’a-wul laaha mukhliseena lahud deena fa lammaa najjaahum ilal barri faminhum muqtasid; wa maa yajhadu bi Aayaatinaa illaa kullu khattaarin kafoor
32. And when waves come over them like canopies, they supplicate Allah, sincere to Him in religion. But when He delivers them to the land, there are [some] of them who are moderate [in faith]. And none rejects Our signs except everyone treacherous and ungrateful.
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ ٱتَّقُوا۟ رَبَّكُمْ وَٱخْشَوْا۟ يَوْمًۭا لَّا يَجْزِى وَالِدٌ عَن وَلَدِهِۦ وَلَا مَوْلُودٌ هُوَ جَازٍ عَن وَالِدِهِۦ شَيْـًٔا ۚ إِنَّ وَعْدَ ٱللَّهِ حَقٌّۭ ۖ فَلَا تَغُرَّنَّكُمُ ٱلْحَيَوٰةُ ٱلدُّنْيَا وَلَا يَغُرَّنَّكُم بِٱللَّهِ ٱلْغَرُورُ
Yaaa ayyuhan naasuttaqoo Rabbakum wakhshaw Yawmal laa yajzee waalidun ‘anw waladihee wa laa mawloodun huwa jaazin ‘anw waalidihee shai’aa; innaa wa’dal laahi haqqun falaa taghurran nakumul hayaatud dunyaa wa laa yaghur rannakum billaahil gharoon
33. O mankind, fear your Lord and fear a Day when no father will avail his son, nor will a son avail his father at all. Indeed, the promise of Allah is truth, so let not the worldly life delude you and be not deceived about Allah by the Deceiver.
إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عِندَهُۥ عِلْمُ ٱلسَّاعَةِ وَيُنَزِّلُ ٱلْغَيْثَ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِى ٱلْأَرْحَامِ ۖ وَمَا تَدْرِى نَفْسٌۭ مَّاذَا تَكْسِبُ غَدًۭا ۖ وَمَا تَدْرِى نَفْسٌۢ بِأَىِّ أَرْضٍۢ تَمُوتُ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌۢ
Innal laaha ‘indahoo ‘ilmus saa’ati wa yunazzilul ghaisa wa ya’lamu maa fil arhaami wa maa tadree nafsum maazaa takisbu ghadaa; wa maa tadree nafsum bi ayyi ardin tamoot; innal laaha ‘Aleemun Khabeer (section 4)
34. Indeed, Allah [alone] has knowledge of the Hour and sends down the rain and knows what is in the wombs. And no soul perceives what it will earn tomorrow, and no soul perceives in what land it will die. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Acquainted.
The Tafsir of Surah Luqman by Ibn Kathir
Chapter – 31
Which was revealed in Makkah
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. Alif Lam Mim.) (2. These are Ayat of the Wise Book.) (3. A guide and a mercy for the Muhsinin.) (4. Those who perform the Salah and give Zakah and they have faith in the Hereafter with certainty.) (5. Such are on guidance from their Lord, and such are the successful.) At the beginning of Surat Al-Baqarah we discussed the letters such as those that appear at the beginning of this Surah. Allah has made the Qur’an a guidance and healing and a mercy for the Muhsinin, who are those who do good deeds in accordance with the Shari`ah. They establish the obligatory prayers in the proper manner and at the correct times, and follow that with regular, optional and supererogatory prayers; they pay the Zakah to those who deserve it; they uphold the ties of kinship with their relatives; they have certain faith that there will be rewards and punishments in the Hereafter, and they seek the reward with Allah; they do not show off or seek a reward or thanks from other people. Whoever does this is one of those of whom Allah says:
(Such are on guidance from their Lord,) meaning, they follow His guidance with clear understanding.
(and such are the successful.) in this world and in the Hereafter.
(6. And of mankind is he who purchases idle talk (Lahw Al-Hadith) to mislead from the path of Allah without knowledge, and takes it by way of mockery. For such there will be a humiliating torment.) (7. And when Our Ayat are recited to such a one, he turns away in pride, as if he heard them not — as if there were deafness in his ear. So announce to him a painful torment.)
The Doomed are preoccupied with Idle Talk and They turn away from the Ayat of Allah
When Allah mentions the blessed — who are those who are guided by the Book of Allah and benefit from hearing it, as He says:
(Allah has sent down the Best Statement, a Book, its parts resembling each other (and) oft-repeated. The skins of those who fear their Lord shiver from it. Then their skin and their heart soften to the remembrance of Allah) (39:23). He connect that with mention of the doomed, those who turn away from the Qur’an and do not benefit from hearing the Words of Allah. Instead, they turn to listening to flutes and singing accompanied by musical instruments. As Ibn Mas`ud commented about the Ayah:
(And of mankind is he who purchases Lahu Al-Hadith to mislead (men) from the path of Allah), he said, “This — by Allah — refers to singing.”
(And of mankind is he who purchases Lahw Al-Hadith to mislead (men) from the path of Allah without knowledge, ) Qatadah said: “By Allah, he may not spend money on it, but his purchasing it means he likes it, and the more misguided he is, the more he likes it and the more he prefers falsehood to the truth and harmful things over beneficial things.” It was said that what is meant by the words
(purchases idle talks) is buying singing servant girls. Ibn Jarir said that it means all speech that hinders people from seeing the signs of Allah and following His path. His saying:
(to mislead (men) from the path of Allah) means, he does this to oppose Islam and its followers.
(and takes it by way of mockery.) Mujahid said, “This means mocking the path of Allah and making fun of it.”
(For such there will be a humiliating torment.) Just as they showed no respect to the signs and path of Allah, so they will be shown no respect on the Day of Resurrection, and they will be subjected to a painful, ongoing torment. Then Allah says:
(And when Our Ayat are recited to such a one, he turns away in pride, as if he heard them not — as if there were deafness in his ear.) means, when these Qur’anic verses are recited to one who is fond of idleness and play, he turns away from them and does not want to hear them. He turns a deaf ear to them as if he can hear nothing, because it annoys him to hear them since he gains no benefit from them and has no interest in them.
(So announce to him a painful torment.) i.e., on the Day of Resurrection, which will hurt him just as much as listening to the Book of Allah and its verses hurt him.
(8. Verily, those who believe and do righteous good deeds, for them are Gardens of Delight.) (9. To abide therein. It is a promise of Allah in truth. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.)
The Good Destiny of the Believers
Here Allah mentions the destiny of the righteous in the Hereafter, those who believe in Allah and His Messenger and do righteous deeds in accordance with the Laws of Allah.
(for them are Gardens of Delight.) means, there they will enjoy all kinds of delights and pleasures, food, drink, clothing, dwelling-places, means of transportation, women, a light of beauty and delightful sounds, which have never crossed the mind of any human being. They will stay there forever, never leaving and never desiring change.
(It is a promise of Allah in truth.) meaning, this will undoubtedly come to pass, for it is a promise from Allah, and Allah never breaks His promise, because He is the Most Generous Bestower Who does what He wills and is able to do all things.
(And He is the All-Mighty,) Who has subjugated all things and to Whom all things submit,
(the All-Wise.) in what He says and what He does, Who has made this Qur’an a guidance to the believers.
(Say: “It is for those who believe, a guide and a healing. And as for those who disbelieve, there is heaviness (deafness) in their ears, and it is blindness for them) (41:44).
(And We send down of the Qur’an that which is a healing and a mercy to those who believe, and it increases the wrongdoers nothing but loss.) (17:82)
(10. He has created the heavens without any pillars that you see, and has set on the earth firm mountains lest it should shake with you. And He has scattered therein moving creatures of all kinds. And We send down water from the sky, and We cause (plants) of every goodly kind to grow therein in pairs,) (11. This is the creation of Allah. So, show Me that which those besides Him have created. Nay, the wrongdoers are in plain error.)
Proofs of Tawhid
Thus Allah explains His mighty power in creating the heavens and the earth, and everything that is within them and between them. He says:
(He has created the heavens without any pillars) Al-Hasan and Qatadah said, “It does not have any pillars, visible or invisible.”
(and has set on the earth firm mountains) means, the mountains which stabilize and lend weight to the earth, lest it should shake with its water. Allah says:
(lest it should shake with you.)
(And He has scattered therein moving creatures of all kinds) means, He has placed throughout it all kinds of animals, the total number of whose kinds and colors is known to no one except the One Who created them. When Allah tells us that He is the Creator, He also reminds us that He is the Provider, as He says:
(And We send down water from the sky, and We cause (plants) of every goodly kind to grow therein in pairs,) meaning, every kind of good produce in pairs, i.e., they are beautiful to look at. Ash-Sha`bi said: “People are also produce of the earth, so whoever enters Paradise is goodly and whoever enters Hell is vile.”
(This is the creation of Allah.) means, all that Allah has mentioned here of the creation of the heavens and earth and everything in between stems from His power of creation and control alone, and He has no partner or associate in that, Allah says:
(So, show Me that which those besides Him have created.) those idols and rivals whom you worship and call upon.
(Nay, the wrongdoers) means the idolators who associate others in worship with Allah
(in error) means, they are ignorant and blind.
(plain) means, it is clear and obvious, and not at all hidden.
(12. And indeed We bestowed upon Luqman Al-Hikmah saying: “Give thanks to Allah.” And whoever gives thanks, he gives thanks for (the good of) himself. And whoever is unthankful, then verily, Allah is All-Rich, Worthy of all praise.)
The Salaf differed over the identity of Luqman; there are two opinions: was he a Prophet or just a righteous servant of Allah without the prophethood The majority favored the latter view, that he was a righteous servant of Allah without being a Prophet. Sufyan Ath-Thawri said, narrating from Al-Ash`ath, from `Ikrimah, from Ibn `Abbas, “Luqman was an Ethiopian slave who was a carpenter. `Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr said, “I said to Jabir bin `Abdullah: `What did you hear about Luqman’ He said: `He was short with a flat nose, and came from Nubia.”’ Yahya bin Sa`id Al-Ansari narrated from Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib that “Luqman was from the black peoples of (southern) Egypt, and had thick lips. Allah gave him wisdom but withheld prophethood from him.” Al-`Awza`i said, “`Abdur-Rahman bin Harmalah told me; `A black man came to Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib to ask him a question, and Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib said to him: “Do not be upset because you are black, for among the best of people were three who were black: Bilal, Mahja` the freed slave of `Umar bin Al-Khattab, and Luqman the Wise, who was a black Nubian with thick lips.” Ibn Jarir recorded that Khalid Ar-Raba`i said: “Luqman was an Ethiopian slave who was a carpenter. His master said to him, `Slaughter this sheep for us,’ so he slaughtered it. ﴿His master﴾ said: `Bring the best two pieces from it,’ so he brought out the tongue and the heart. Then time passed, as much as Allah willed, and ﴿his master﴾ said: `Slaughter this sheep for us,’ so he slaughtered it. ﴿His master﴾ said, `Bring the worst two morsels from it,’ so he brought out the tongue and the heart. His master said to him, `I told you to bring out the best two pieces, and you brought these, then I told you to bring out the worst two pieces, and you brought these!’ Luqman said, `There is nothing better than these if they are good, and there is nothing worse than these if they are bad.”’ Shu`bah narrated from Al-Hakam, from Mujahid, “Luqman was a righteous servant, but he was not a Prophet.” Allah’s saying:
(And indeed We bestowed upon Luqman Al-Hikmah) means, understanding, knowledge and eloquence.
(saying: “Give thanks to Allah.”) means, `We commanded him to give thanks to Allah for the blessings and favors that Allah had given to him alone among his people and contemporaries.’ Then Allah says:
(And whoever gives thanks, he gives thanks for (the good of) himself.) meaning, the benefit of that will come back to him, and Allah’s reward is for those who give thanks, as He says:
(and whosoever does righteous good deeds, then such will prepare a good place for themselves. ) (30:44)
(And whoever is unthankful, then verily, Allah is Rich, Worthy of all praise.) He has no need of His servants and He will not be harmed by that, even if all the people of the earth were to disbelieve, for He has no need of anything or anyone besides Himself. There is no God but He, and we worship none but Him.
(13. And when Luqman said to his son when he was advising him: “O my son! Join not in worship others with Allah. Verily, joining others in worship with Allah is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed.”) (14. And We have enjoined on man (to be dutiful and good) to his parents. His mother bore him in weakness and hardship upon weakness and hardship, and his weaning is in two years — give thanks to Me and to your parents. Unto Me is the final destination.) (15. But if they strive with you to make you join in worship with Me others that of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not; but behave with them in the world kindly, and follow the path of him who turns to Me in repentance and in obedience. Then to Me will be your return, and I shall tell you what you used to do.)
Luqman’s Advice to His Son
Allah tells us how Luqman advised his son. His full name was Luqman bin `Anqa’ bin Sadun, and his son’s name was Tharan, according to a saying quoted by As-Suhayli. Allah describes him in the best terms, and states that he granted him wisdom. Luqman advised his son, the closest and most beloved of all people to him, who deserved to be given the best of his knowledge. So, Luqman started by advising him to worship Allah Alone, and not to associate anything with Him. Then he warned him:
(Verily, joining others in worship with Allah is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed.) meaning, it is the greatest wrong. Al-Bukhari recorded that `Abdullah said: “When the Ayah
(It is those who believe and confuse not their belief with Zulm)(6:82) was revealed, the Companions of the Messenger of Allah were distressed by this, and said, `Who among us does not confuse his belief with Zulm’ The Messenger of Allah said:
(That is not what it means. Have you not heard what Luqman said: (O my son! Join not in worship others with Allah. Verily, joining others in worship with Allah is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed))” It was recorded by Muslim. When Luqman advised his son to worship Allah Alone, he also told him to honor his parents. This is like the Ayah,
(And your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him. And that you be dutiful to your parents) (17:23). These two things are often mentioned together in the Qur’an. Allah says here:
(And We have enjoined on man (to be dutiful and good) to his parents. His mother bore him in weakness and hardship upon weakness and hardship,) Mujahid said: “The hardship of bearing the child.” Qatadah said: “Exhaustion upon exhaustion.” `Ata’ Al-Khurasani said: “Weakness upon weakness.”
(and his weaning is in two years) means, after he is born, he is breastfed and weaned within two years. This is like the Ayah,
(The mothers shall give suck to their children for two whole years, for those who desire to complete the term of suckling)(2:233). On this basis, Ibn `Abbas and other Imams understood that the shortest possible period of pregnancy was six months, because Allah says elsewhere:
(and the bearing of him, and the weaning of him is thirty months) (46:15). Allah mentions how the mother brings the child up, and how she gets tired and suffers stress from staying up with the child night and day, to remind the son of her previous kind treatment of him. This is like the Ayah,
(and say: “My Lord! Bestow on them Your mercy as they did bring me up when I was young.”) (17:24). Allah says here:
(give thanks to Me and to your parents. Unto Me is the final destination.) means, `I will reward you most generously for that.’
(But if they strive with you to make you join in worship with Me others that of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not;) means, if they try hard to make you follow them in their religion, then do not accept that from them, but do not let that stop you from behaving with them in the world kindly, i.e. treating them with respect.
(and follow the path of him who turns to Me in repentance and in obedience.) means, the believers.
(Then to Me will be your return, and I shall tell you what you used to do.) At-Tabarani recorded in Al-`Ishrah that Sa`d bin Malik said, “This Ayah,
(But if they strive with you to make you join in worship with Me others that of which you have no knowledge, then obey them not;) was revealed concerning me. I was a man who honored his mother, but when I became Muslim, she said: `O Sa`d! What is this new thing I see you doing Leave this religion of yours, or I will not eat or drink until I die, and people will say: Shame on you, for what you have done to me, and they will say that you have killed your mother.’ I said, `Do not do that, O mother, for I will not give up this religion of mine for anything.’ She stayed without eating for one day and one night, and she became exhausted; then she stayed for another day and night without eating, and she became utterly exhausted. When I saw that, I said: `O my mother, by Allah, even if you had one hundred souls and they were to depart one by one, I would not give up this religion of mine for anything, so if you want to, eat, and if you want to, do not eat.’ So she ate.”
(16. “O my son! If it be (anything) equal to the weight of a grain of mustard seed, and though it be in a rock, or in the heavens or on the earth, Allah will bring it forth. Verily, Allah is Subtle, Well-Aware.”) (17. “O my son! Perform the Salah, enjoin the good, and forbid the evil, and bear with patience whatever befalls you. Verily, these are some of the important commandments.”) (18. “And turn not your face away from men with pride, nor walk in insolence through the earth. Verily, Allah likes not any arrogant boaster.”) (19. “And be moderate in your walking, and lower your voice. Verily, the harshest of all voices is the braying of the asses.”)
This is useful advice which Allah tells us Luqman gave, so that people may follow it and take it as a good example.
(O my son! If it be (anything) equal to the weight of a grain of mustard seed, ) means, if a wrong action or a sin be equal to the size of a grain of mustard seed.
(Allah will bring it forth.) means, He will bring it forth on the Day of Resurrection, when it is placed in the Scales of justice and everyone is rewarded or punished for his actions — if they are good, he will be rewarded and if they are bad he will be punished. This is like the Ayat:
(And We shall set up Balances of justice on the Day of Resurrection, then none will be dealt with unjustly in anything) (21:47).
(So, whosoever does good equal to the weight of a speck of dust shall see it. And whosoever does evil equal to the weight of a speck of dust shall see it.) (99:7-8) Even if this tiny thing were to be hidden inside a solid rock or anywhere in the heavens and the earth, Allah will bring it forth, because nothing is hidden from Him, not even the weight of a speck of dust in the heavens or on the earth. Allah says:
(Verily, Allah is Subtle, Well-Aware.) meaning, His knowledge is subtle, for nothing is hidden from Him, no matter how small, subtle and minute.
(Well-Aware.) even of the footsteps of an ant in the darkest night. Then he (Luqman) said:
(O my son! Perform the Salah,) meaning, offer the prayer properly at the appointed times.
(enjoin the good, and forbid the evil,) meaning, to the best of your ability and strength.
(and bear with patience whatever befalls you.) Luqman knew that whoever enjoins what is good and forbids what is evil, will inevitably encounter harm and annoyance from people, so he told him to be patient.
(Verily, these are some of the important commandments.) means, being patient when people cause harm or annoyance is one of the most important commandments.
(And turn not your face away from men with pride) means, `do not turn your face away from people when you speak to them or they speak to you, looking down on them in an arrogant fashion. Rather be gentle towards them and greet them with a cheerful face,’ as it says in the Hadith:
(… even if it is only by greeting your brother with a cheerful countenance. And beware of letting your lower garment trail below your ankles, for this is a kind of boasting, and Allah does not like boasting.)
(nor walk in insolence through the earth.) means, `do not be boastful, arrogant, proud and stubborn. Do not do that, for Allah will hate you.’ So he said:
(Verily, Allah likes not any arrogant boaster.) meaning, one who shows off and admires himself, feeling that he is better than others. And Allah says:
(And walk not on the earth with conceit and arrogance. Verily, you can neither rend nor penetrate the earth nor can you attain a stature like the mountains in height.) (17:37). We have already discussed this is detail in the appropriate place.
The Command to be Moderate in Walking
(And be moderate in your walking,) means, walk in a moderate manner, neither slow and lazy nor excessively fast, but be moderate, somewhere in between these two extremes.
(and lower your voice.) means, do not exaggerate in your speaking and do not raise your voice unnecessarily. Allah says:
(Verily, the harshest of all voices is the braying of the asses.) Mujahid and others said, “The most ugly of voices is the voice of the donkey, i.e., when a person raises his voice, the resulting noise is like the voice of a donkey in its loudness. Moreover this is hateful to Allah. Likening a loud voice to that of a donkey implies that it is forbidden and extremely blameworthy, because the Messenger of Allah said:
(It is not befitting us to be an evil parable. The person who takes back his gift, he is like a dog that vomits and then goes back to his vomit.)
The Advice of Luqman
This is very useful advice, which the Qur’an tells us about Luqman. Many other proverbs and words of advice were also narrated from him, some examples of which we will quote below, as basic principles: Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Umar said, “The Messenger of Allah said:
(Luqman the Wise used to say: when something is entrusted to the care of Allah, He protects it.) It was narrated that As-Sari bin Yahya said: “Luqman said to his son: `Wisdom puts the poor in the company of kings.”’ It was also narrated that `Awn bin `Abdullah said: “Luqman said to his son: `O my son! When you come to a gathering of people, greet them with Salam, then sit at the edge of the group, and do not speak until you see that they have finished speaking. Then if they remember Allah, join them, but if they speak of anything else, then leave them and go to another group’.”
(20. See you not that Allah has subjected for you whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is on the earth, and has completed and perfected His graces upon you, apparent and hidden Yet of mankind is he who disputes about Allah without knowledge or guidance or a Book giving light!) (21. And when it is said to them: “Follow that which Allah has sent down,” they say: “Nay, we shall follow that which we found our fathers (following).” Even if Shaytan invites them to the torment of the Fire)
Reminder of Blessings Here
Allah reminds His creation of the blessings He bestows upon them in this world and the Hereafter. In the heavens He has subjugated for them the stars which give them light during the night and during the day, and He has created clouds, rain, snow and hail, and made the heavens a canopy which covers and protects them. On earth He has created for them stability and rivers, trees, crops and fruits; He has completed and perfected His graces upon them, apparent and hidden, by sending Messengers, revealing Books and removing doubts and excuses. Yet despite all this, not all the people believe, and indeed there are those who dispute concerning Allah, that is, His Tawhid, and His sending the Messengers. Their dispute is without knowledge and they have no sound evidence or valid inherited Book. Allah says:
(And among men is he who disputes about Allah, without knowledge or guidance, or a Book giving light (from Allah).) (22:8) meaning clear and unambiguous.
(And when it is said to them) means, to these people who dispute about the Oneness of Allah.
(“Follow that which Allah has sent down,”) means, the pure Divine Laws that He has sent down to His Messengers,
(they say: “Nay, we shall follow that which we found our fathers (following).”) means, they have no other proof except the fact that they are following their forefathers. Allah says:
(Even though their fathers did not understand anything nor were they guided) (2:170) meaning, `what do you think, you who take the forefathers’ deeds as proof, that they were misguided and you are following in their footsteps’ Allah says:
(Even if Shaytan invites them to the torment of the Fire)
(22. And whosoever submits his face (himself) to Allah, while he is a Muhsin, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold. And to Allah return all matters for decision.) (23. And whoever disbelieves, let not his disbelief grieve you. To Us is their return, and We shall inform them what they have done. Verily, Allah is the All-Knower of what is in the breasts.) (24. We let them enjoy for a little while, then in the end We shall oblige them to (enter) a great torment.) Allah tells us that whoever submits his face to Allah, i.e., does deeds sincerely for His sake, submits to His commandments and follows His Laws,
(while he is a Muhsin) i.e., doing what his Lord has commanded and abstaining from what He has forbidden,
(then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold.) means, he has received a firm promise from Allah that He will not punish him.
(And to Allah return all matters for decision. And whoever disbelieves, let not his disbelief grieve you.) means, `do not grieve over them, O Muhammad, because they disbelieve in Allah and in the Message you have brought, for their return will be to Allah and He will tell them what they used to do,’ i.e., He will punish them for it.
(Verily, Allah is the All-Knower of what is in the breasts.) and nothing whatsoever is hidden from Him. Then Allah says:
(We let them enjoy for a little while,) means, in this world,
(then in the end We shall oblige them) means, `We shall cause them,’
(to (enter) a great torment.) means, a torment that is terrifying and difficult to bear. This is like the Ayah,
(“Verily, those who invent a lie against Allah, will never be successful.” Enjoyment in this world! and then unto Us will be their return, then We shall make them taste the severest torment because they used to disbelieve.) (10:69-70)
(25. And if you ask them: “Who has created the heavens and the earth,” they will certainly say: “Allah.” Say: “All the praises and thanks be to Allah!” But most of them know not.) (26. To Allah belongs whatsoever is in the heavens and the earth. Verily, Allah, He is Al-Ghani, Worthy of all praise.)
The Idolators admitted that Allah is the Creator
Allah tells us that these idolators who associated others with Him admitted that Allah Alone, with no partner or associate, is the Creator of heaven and earth yet they still worshipped others besides Him who they recognized were created by Him and subjugated to Him. Allah says:
(And if you ask them: “Who has created the heavens and the earth,” they will certainly say: “Allah.” Say: “All the praises and thanks be to Allah!”) By their admitting that, proof is established against them,
(But most of them know not.) Then Allah says:
(To Allah belongs whatsoever is in the heavens and the earth.) meaning, He created it and has dominion over it.
(Verily, Allah, He is Al-Ghani, Worthy of all praise.) means, He has no need of anyone or anything besides Himself, and everything else is in need of Him. He is Worthy of praise for all that He has created, so praise be to Him in the heavens and on earth for all that He has created and decreed, and He is worthy of praise in all affairs.
(27. And if all the trees on the earth were pens and the sea, with seven seas behind it to add to it, yet the Words of Allah would not be exhausted. Verily, Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.) (28. The creation of you all and the resurrection of you all are only as a single person. Verily, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Seer.)
The Words of Allah cannot be counted or exhausted
Allah tells us of His might, pride, majesty, beautiful Names and sublime attributes, and His perfect Words which no one can encompass. No human being knows their essence or nature, or how many they are. As the Leader of Mankind and Seal of the Messengers said:
(I cannot praise You enough; You are as You have praised yourself.) Allah says:
(And if all the trees on the earth were pens and the sea, with seven seas behind it to add to its, yet the Words of Allah would not be exhausted.) meaning, even if all the trees on earth were made into pens and the sea was made into ink, and topped up with seven more like it, and they were used to write the Words of Allah showing His might, attributes and majesty, the pens would break and the ink would run dry, even if more were brought. The number seven is used to indicate a large amount, it is not to be taken literally or to be understood as referring to the seven oceans of the world, as was suggested by those who took this idea from Israelite stories, which we neither believe nor reject. As Allah says elsewhere:
(Say: “If the sea were ink for the Words of my Lord, surely, the sea would be exhausted before the Words of my Lord would be finished, even if We brought like it for its aid.”) (18:109). The words
(like it) do not mean merely another one, but another like it and another and another and another, etc., because there is no limit to the signs and Words of Allah.
(Verily, Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.) means, He is All-Mighty and has subjugated all things to His will, so nothing can prevent what He wills, and none can oppose or put back His decision. He is All-Wise in His creation, commands, Words, actions, Laws and all His affairs.
(The creation of you all and the resurrection of you all are only as a single person.) means, His creation and resurrection of all of mankind on the Day of Resurrection is, in relation to His power, like the creation and resurrection of a single soul; all of this is easy for Him.
(Verily, His command, when He intends a thing, is only that He says to it, “Be!” — and it is!) (36:82)
(And Our commandment is but one as the twinkling of an eye. ) (54:50). This means He only has to command a thing once, and it will happen. There is no need for Him to repeat it or confirm it.
(But it will be only a single Zajrah. When behold, they find themselves on the surface of the earth alive after their death.)(79:13)
(Verily, Allah is All-Hearer, All-Seer.) means, just as He hears all that they say, so He also sees all that they do, as if He is hearing and seeing a single soul. His power over all of them is like His power over a single soul, Allah says:
(The creation of you all and the resurrection of you all are only as a single person.)
(29. See you not that Allah merges the night into the day, and merges the day into the night, and has subjected the sun and the moon, each running its course for a term appointed; and that Allah is All-Aware of what you do. ) (30. That is because Allah, He is the Truth, and that which they invoke besides Him is falsehood; and that Allah, He is the Most High, the Most Great.)
The Might and Power of Allah Allah tells us that He
(merges the night into the day,) meaning, He takes from the night and adds to the day, so that the day becomes longer and the night shorter, which is what happens in summer when the days are longest; then the day starts to become shorter and the night longer, which is what happens in winter.
(and has subjected the sun and the moon, each running its course for a term appointed;) It was said that this means, each runs within its set limits, or it means until the Day of Resurrection; both meanings are correct. The first view is supported by the Hadith of Abu Dharr, may Allah be pleased with him, in the Two Sahihs, according to which the Messenger of Allah said:
(O Abu Dharr! Do you know where this sun goes) I (Abu Dharr) said: “Allah and His Messenger know best.” He said:
(It goes and prostrates beneath the Throne, then it seeks permission from its Lord, and soon it will be said: “Go back from whence you came.”) Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “The sun is like flowing water, running in its course in the sky during the day. When it sets, it travels in its course beneath the earth until it rises in the east.” He said, “The same is true in the case of the moon.” Its chain of narration is Sahih.
(and that Allah is All-Aware of what you do.) This is like the Ayah,
(Know you not that Allah knows all that is in the heaven and the earth) (22:70). The meaning is that Allah is the Creator Who knows all things, as He says:
(It is Allah Who has created seven heavens and of the earth the like thereof) (65:12).
(That is because Allah, He is the Truth, and that which they invoke besides Him is falsehood;) means, He shows you His Signs so that you may know from them that He is the Truth, i.e., He truly exists and is truly divine, and that all else besides Him is falsehood. He has no need of anything else, but everything else is dependent on Him, because everything in heaven and on earth is created by Him and is enslaved by Him; none of them could move even an atom’s weight except with His permission. If all the people of heaven and earth were to come together to create a fly, they would not be able to do so. Allah says:
(That is because Allah, He is the Truth, and that which they invoke besides Him is falsehood; and that Allah, He is the Most High, the Most Great.) meaning, He is the Most High and there is none higher than Him, and He is the Most Great Who is greater than everything. Everything is subjugated and insignificant in comparison to Him.
(31. See you not that the ships sail through the sea by Allah’s grace that He may show you of His signs Verily, in this are signs for every patient, grateful (person).) (32. And when waves cover them like shades, they invoke Allah, making their invocations for Him only. But when He brings them safe to land, there are among them those that stop in between. And Our Ayat are not denied except by every Khattar Kafur.)
Allah tells us that He is the One Who has subjugated the sea so that ships may sail on it by His command, i.e., by His grace and power.
For if He did not give the water the strength to carry the ships, they would not sail. So he says:
(that He may show you of His signs) meaning, by His power.
(Verily, in this are signs for every patient, grateful.) means, every person who bears difficulty with patience and who gives thanks at times of ease. Then Allah says:
(And when waves cover them like shades,) meaning, like mountains or clouds,
(they invoke Allah, making their invocations for Him only.) This is like the Ayah,
(And when harm touches you upon the sea, those that you call upon vanish from you except Him) (17:67).
(And when they embark on a ship…) (29:65) Then Allah says:
(But when He brings them safe to land, there are among them those that stop in between.) Mujahid said, “This refers to the disbelievers — as if he interpreted the word Muqtasid to mean denier as in the Ayah,
(but when He brings them safely to land, behold, they give a share of their worship to others) (29:65).
(And Our Ayat are not denied except by every Khattar Kafur.) Khattar means one who betrays or stabs in the back. This was the view of Mujahid, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and Malik, narrating from Zayd bin Aslam. This word describes a person who, whenever he makes a promise, breaks his promise, and it refers to the worst form of treachery.
(Kafur) means, one who denies blessings and does not give thanks for them, rather he forgets them and does not remember them.
(33. O mankind! Have Taqwa of your Lord, and fear a Day when no father can avail aught for his son, nor a son avail aught for his father. Verily, the promise of Allah is true, let not then this present life deceive you, nor let the chief deceiver deceive you about Allah.)
The Command to fear Allah and remember the Day of Resurrection
Here Allah warns people about the Day of Resurrection, and commands them to fear Him and remember the Day of Resurrection when
(no father can avail aught for his son,) which means, even if he wanted to offer himself as a sacrifice for his son, it would not be accepted from him. The same will apply in the case of a son who wants to sacrifice himself for his father — it will not be accepted from him. Then Allah reminds them once again with the words:
(let not then this present life deceive you,) meaning, do not let your feelings of contentment with this life make you forget about the Hereafter.
(nor let the chief deceiver deceive you about Allah.) refers to the Shaytan. This was the view of Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak and Qatadah. The Shaytan makes promises to them and arouses in them false desires, but there is no substance to them, as Allah says:
(He makes promises to them, and arouses in them false desires; and Shaytan’s promises are nothing but deceptions.) (4:120). Wahb bin Munabbih said: `Uzayr, peace be upon him, said: “When I saw the misfortune of my people, I felt very sad and distressed, and I could not sleep, so I prayed to my Lord and fasted, and I called upon Him weeping. There came to me an angel and I said to him: `Tell me, will the souls of the righteous intercede for the wrongdoers, or the fathers for their sons’ He said: `On the Day of Resurrection all matters will be settled, and Allah’s dominion will be made manifest and no exceptions will be made. No one will speak on that Day except with the permission of the Most Merciful. No father will answer for his son, or any son for his father, or any man for his brother, or any servant for his master. No one will care about anybody except himself, or feel grief or compassion for anyone except himself. Everyone will be worried only about himself. No one will be asked about anybody else. Each person will be concerned only about himself, weeping for himself and carrying his own burden. No one will carry the burden of another.”’ This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim.
(34. Verily, Allah, with Him is the knowledge of the Hour, He sends down the rain, and knows that which is in the wombs. No person knows what he will earn tomorrow, and no person knows in what land he will die. Verily, Allah is All-Knower, All-Aware.) The Knower of the Unseen is Allah These are the keys of the Unseen, whose knowledge Allah alone has kept for Himself, and no one else knows them unless Allah tells him about them. The knowledge of `when the Hour will occur’ is not known to any Prophet who was sent or any angel who is close to Allah.
(None can reveal its time but He) (7:187). Similarly, no one but Allah knows when rain will fall, but when He issues the commands, the angels who are entrusted with the task of bringing rain know about it, as do those among His creation whom He wills should know. No one but He knows what is in the wombs of what He wants to create, but when He decrees whether it is to be male or female, and whether it is to be blessed or doomed, the angels who are entrusted with that know about it, as do those among His creation whom He wills should know. No one knows what he will earn tomorrow with regard to this world or the Hereafter.
(and no person knows in what land he will die.) in his own land or elsewhere, in some other land. No one knows this. This Ayah is like the Ayah,
(And with Him are the keys of the Unseen, none knows them but He.) (6:59) It was reported in the Sunnah that the above five things are called the Keys of the Unseen. Imam Ahmad recorded that Buraydah said that he heard the Messenger of Allah say:
(There are five things which no one knows except Allah: (Verily, Allah, with Him is the knowledge of the Hour, He sends down the rain, and knows that which is in the wombs. No person knows what he will earn tomorrow, and no person knows in what land he will die. Verily, Allah is All-Knower, All-Aware.)) The chain of narrators for this Hadith is Sahih, although they did not recorded it.
The Hadith of Ibn `Umar
Imam Ahmad recorded that Ibn `Umar said, “The Messenger of Allah said:
(The Keys of the Unseen are five, which no one knows except Allah: (Verily, Allah, with Him is the knowledge of the Hour, He sends down the rain, and knows that which is in the wombs. No person knows what he will earn tomorrow, and no person knows in what land he will die. Verily, Allah is All-Knower, All-Aware.)) This was recorded only by Al-Bukhari, which he narrated in the Book of the Rain Prayer in his Sahih. He also recorded it in his Tafsir with a different chain of narrators, stating that `Abdullah bin `Umar said, “The Prophet said:
(The Keys of the Unseen are five.)” Then he recited:
(Verily, Allah, with Him is the knowledge of the Hour, He sends down the rain, and knows that which is in the wombs.) This too was recorded only by Al-Bukhari.
The Hadith of Abu Hurayrah
In his Tafsir of this Ayah, Al-Bukhari narrated from Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah was standing before the people one day when a man came to him and said, `O Messenger of Allah, what is Iman’ He said:
(Iman is to believe in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Messengers and in the meeting with Him, and to believe in the Resurrection in the Hereafter.) He said: `O Messenger of Allah, what is Islam’ He said:
(Islam is to worship Allah Alone and not associate anything in worship with Him, to establish regular prayer, to pay the obligatory Zakah, and to fast in Ramadan.) He said, `O Messenger of Allah, what is Ihsan’ He said:
(Ihsan is to worship Allah as if you see Him, and if you do not see Him, then He sees you.) He said, `O Messenger of Allah, when will the Hour come’ He said:
(The one who is asked about it does not know more than the one who is asking, but I will tell you of some of its signs: when the servant woman gives birth to her mistress, that is one of its signs; when the barefoot and naked become leaders of the people, that is one of its signs. The timing of the Hour is one of the five things which no one knows except Allah: (Verily, Allah, with Him is the knowledge of the Hour, He sends down the rain, and knows that which is in the wombs….)) Then the man went away, and the Prophet said,
(Bring him back to me.) They went to bring him back, but they could not find him. He said:
(That was Jibril who came to teach the people their religion.) It was also recorded by Al-Bukhari in the Book of Faith, and by Muslim with several chains of narration. We have discussed this at the beginning of our commentary on Al-Bukhari, where we mentioned at length some Hadiths narrated by the Commander of the faithful `Umar bin Al-Khattab. These were recorded only by Muslim.
(and no person knows in what land he will die.) Qatadah said, “There are some things which Allah has kept to Himself, and they are not known to any angel who is close to Him or any Prophet who was sent by Him.
(Verily, Allah, with Him is the knowledge of the Hour, ) no one among mankind knows when the Hour will come, in which year or month, or whether it will come at night or during the day.
(He sends down the rain,) and no one knows when rain will come, night or day.
(and knows that which is in the wombs.) No one knows what is in the wombs, male or female, red or black, or what it is.
(No person knows what he will earn tomorrow,) whether it will be good or bad. You do not know, O son of Adam, when you will die. You might die tomorrow, you might be stricken by calamity tomorrow.
(and no person knows in what land he will die.) means, no person knows where his resting place will be, on the land or in the sea, on a plain or in the mountains. It says in the Hadith:
(If Allah wants to take a person’s soul in a particular land, He will give him a reason to go there.) In Al-Mu`jam Al-Kabir, Al-Hafiz Abu Al-Qasim At-Tabarani recorded that Usamah bin Zayd said, “The Messenger of Allah said:
(Allah does not will that a person should die in a certain land but He gives him a reason to go there.)”
This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Luqman. Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. Sufficient for us is Allah and He is the Best Disposer of affairs.