Surah Fath (in Arabic text: الفتح) is the 48th chapter of the Qur’an with 29 ayats. It is classified as a Medinan Surah and titled as “Victory, Triumph”. The Surah talks about the moral and physical victory of Islam over the forces of unbelief.
One of the goals of the My Islam site is to make it easy to read and understand the Quran. So below every Ayat in Arabic we’ve provided both transliteration to help with pronunciation and Sahih International English translation to help with understanding. At the end of the Surah we’ve provided different tafsir for those looking to benefit from reading commentary on Surah Al Fath.
“And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. He forgives whom He wills and punishes whom He wills. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful.”
Surah Al Fath Ayat 14
Read Surah Al-Fath with English Translation and Transliteration
Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Raheem
In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful
إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحًۭا مُّبِينًۭا
Innaa fatahnaa laka Fatham Mubeenaa
1. Indeed, We have given you, [O Muhammad], a clear conquest
لِّيَغْفِرَ لَكَ ٱللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِن ذَنۢبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ وَيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُۥ عَلَيْكَ وَيَهْدِيَكَ صِرَٰطًۭا مُّسْتَقِيمًۭا
Liyaghfira lakal laahu maa taqaddama min zambika wa maa ta akhkhara wa yutimma ni’matahoo ‘alaika wa yahdiyaka siraatam mustaqeema
2. That Allah may forgive for you what preceded of your sin and what will follow and complete His favor upon you and guide you to a straight path
وَيَنصُرَكَ ٱللَّهُ نَصْرًا عَزِيزًا
Wa yansurakal laahu nasran ‘azeezaa
3. And [that] Allah may aid you with a mighty victory.
هُوَ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَنزَلَ ٱلسَّكِينَةَ فِى قُلُوبِ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ لِيَزْدَادُوٓا۟ إِيمَـٰنًۭا مَّعَ إِيمَـٰنِهِمْ ۗ وَلِلَّهِ جُنُودُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًۭا
Huwal lazeee anzalas sakeenata fee quloobil mu’mineena liyazdaadooo eemaanamma’a eemaanihim; wa lillaahi junoodus samawaati wal ard; wa kaanal laahu ‘Aleeman Hakeemaa
4. It is He who sent down tranquillity into the hearts of the believers that they would increase in faith along with their [present] faith. And to Allah belong the soldiers of the heavens and the earth, and ever is Allah Knowing and Wise.
لِّيُدْخِلَ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَٱلْمُؤْمِنَـٰتِ جَنَّـٰتٍۢ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا ٱلْأَنْهَـٰرُ خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيهَا وَيُكَفِّرَ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّـَٔاتِهِمْ ۚ وَكَانَ ذَٰلِكَ عِندَ ٱللَّهِ فَوْزًا عَظِيمًۭا
Liyudkhilal mu’mineena walmu’minaati jannaatin tajree min tahtihal anhaaru khaalideena feehaa wa yukaffira ‘anhum saiyi aatihim; wa kaana zaalika ‘indal laahi fawzan ‘azeemaa
5. [And] that He may admit the believing men and the believing women to gardens beneath which rivers flow to abide therein eternally and remove from them their misdeeds – and ever is that, in the sight of Allah, a great attainment –
وَيُعَذِّبَ ٱلْمُنَـٰفِقِينَ وَٱلْمُنَـٰفِقَـٰتِ وَٱلْمُشْرِكِينَ وَٱلْمُشْرِكَـٰتِ ٱلظَّآنِّينَ بِٱللَّهِ ظَنَّ ٱلسَّوْءِ ۚ عَلَيْهِمْ دَآئِرَةُ ٱلسَّوْءِ ۖ وَغَضِبَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَنَهُمْ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَهَنَّمَ ۖ وَسَآءَتْ مَصِيرًۭا
Wa yu’azzibal munaafiqeena walmunaafiqaati wal mushrikeena walmushrikaatiz zaaanneena billaahi zannas saw’; ‘alaihim daaa’iratus saw’i wa ghadibal laahu ‘alaihim wa la’anahum wa a’adda lahum jahannama wa saaa’ at maseeraa
6. And [that] He may punish the hypocrite men and hypocrite women, and the polytheist men and polytheist women – those who assume about Allah an assumption of evil nature. Upon them is a misfortune of evil nature; and Allah has become angry with them and has cursed them and prepared for them Hell, and evil it is as a destination.
وَلِلَّهِ جُنُودُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا
Wa lillaahi junoodus samaawaati wal ard; wa kaanal laahu ‘azeezan hakeema
7. And to Allah belong the soldiers of the heavens and the earth. And ever is Allah Exalted in Might and Wise.
إِنَّآ أَرْسَلْنَـٰكَ شَـٰهِدًۭا وَمُبَشِّرًۭا وَنَذِيرًۭا
Innaaa arsalnaaka shaahi danw wa mubashshiranw wa nazeera
8. Indeed, We have sent you as a witness and a bringer of good tidings and a warner
لِّتُؤْمِنُوا۟ بِٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ وَتُعَزِّرُوهُ وَتُوَقِّرُوهُ وَتُسَبِّحُوهُ بُكْرَةًۭ وَأَصِيلًا
Litu minoo billaahi wa Rasoolihee wa tu’azziroohu watuwaqqiroohu watusabbi hoohu bukratanw wa aseelaa
9. That you [people] may believe in Allah and His Messenger and honor him and respect the Prophet and exalt Allah morning and afternoon.
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يُبَايِعُونَكَ إِنَّمَا يُبَايِعُونَ ٱللَّهَ يَدُ ٱللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ ۚ فَمَن نَّكَثَ فَإِنَّمَا يَنكُثُ عَلَىٰ نَفْسِهِۦ ۖ وَمَنْ أَوْفَىٰ بِمَا عَـٰهَدَ عَلَيْهُ ٱللَّهَ فَسَيُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًۭا
Innal lazeena yubaayi’oonaka innamaa yubaayi’oonal laaha yadul laahi fawqa aydehim; faman nakasa fainnamaa yuankusu ‘alaa nafsihee wa man awfaa bimaa ‘aahada ‘alihul laaha fasa yu’teehi ajran ‘azeemaa (section 1)
10. Indeed, those who pledge allegiance to you, [O Muhammad] – they are actually pledging allegiance to Allah . The hand of Allah is over their hands. So he who breaks his word only breaks it to the detriment of himself. And he who fulfills that which he has promised Allah – He will give him a great reward.
سَيَقُولُ لَكَ ٱلْمُخَلَّفُونَ مِنَ ٱلْأَعْرَابِ شَغَلَتْنَآ أَمْوَٰلُنَا وَأَهْلُونَا فَٱسْتَغْفِرْ لَنَا ۚ يَقُولُونَ بِأَلْسِنَتِهِم مَّا لَيْسَ فِى قُلُوبِهِمْ ۚ قُلْ فَمَن يَمْلِكُ لَكُم مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ شَيْـًٔا إِنْ أَرَادَ بِكُمْ ضَرًّا أَوْ أَرَادَ بِكُمْ نَفْعًۢا ۚ بَلْ كَانَ ٱللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًۢا
Sa yaqoolu lakal mukhal lafoona minal-A’raabi shaighalatnaaa amwaalunaa wa ahloonaa fastaghfir lanaa; yaqooloona bi alsinatihim maa laisa fee quloobihim; qul famany yamliku lakum minal laahi shai’an in araada bikum darran aw araada bikum naf’aa; bal kaanal laahu bimaa ta’maloona Khabeeraa
11. Those who remained behind of the bedouins will say to you, “Our properties and our families occupied us, so ask forgiveness for us.” They say with their tongues what is not within their hearts. Say, “Then who could prevent Allah at all if He intended for you harm or intended for you benefit? Rather, ever is Allah, with what you do, Acquainted.
بَلْ ظَنَنتُمْ أَن لَّن يَنقَلِبَ ٱلرَّسُولُ وَٱلْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِلَىٰٓ أَهْلِيهِمْ أَبَدًۭا وَزُيِّنَ ذَٰلِكَ فِى قُلُوبِكُمْ وَظَنَنتُمْ ظَنَّ ٱلسَّوْءِ وَكُنتُمْ قَوْمًۢا بُورًۭا
Bal zanantum al lany yanqalibar Rasoolu walmu’minoona ilaaa ahleehim abadanw wa zuyyina zaalika fee quloobikum wa zanantum zannnas saw’i wa kuntum qawmam booraa
12. But you thought that the Messenger and the believers would never return to their families, ever, and that was made pleasing in your hearts. And you assumed an assumption of evil and became a people ruined.”
وَمَن لَّمْ يُؤْمِنۢ بِٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ فَإِنَّآ أَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَـٰفِرِينَ سَعِيرًۭا
Wa mal lam yu’mim billaahi wa Rasoolihee fainnaaa a’tadnaa lilkaafireena sa’eeraa
13. And whoever has not believed in Allah and His Messenger – then indeed, We have prepared for the disbelievers a Blaze.
وَلِلَّهِ مُلْكُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ يَغْفِرُ لِمَن يَشَآءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَن يَشَآءُ ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ غَفُورًۭا رَّحِيمًۭا
Wa lillaahii mulkus samaawaati wal ard; yaghfiru limany yashaaa’u wa yu’azzibu many yashaaa’; wa kaanal laahu Ghafoorar Raheemaa
14. And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. He forgives whom He wills and punishes whom He wills. And ever is Allah Forgiving and Merciful.
سَيَقُولُ ٱلْمُخَلَّفُونَ إِذَا ٱنطَلَقْتُمْ إِلَىٰ مَغَانِمَ لِتَأْخُذُوهَا ذَرُونَا نَتَّبِعْكُمْ ۖ يُرِيدُونَ أَن يُبَدِّلُوا۟ كَلَـٰمَ ٱللَّهِ ۚ قُل لَّن تَتَّبِعُونَا كَذَٰلِكُمْ قَالَ ٱللَّهُ مِن قَبْلُ ۖ فَسَيَقُولُونَ بَلْ تَحْسُدُونَنَا ۚ بَلْ كَانُوا۟ لَا يَفْقَهُونَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًۭا
Sa yaqoolul mukhalla foona izan talaqtum ilaa maghaanima litaakhuzoohaa zaroonaa nattabi’kum yureedoona any yubaddiloo Kalaamallaah; qul lan tattabi’oonaa kazaalikum qaalal laahu min qablu fasa yaqooloona bal tahsudoonanna; bal kaanoo laa yafqahoona illaa qaleela
15. Those who remained behind will say when you set out toward the war booty to take it, “Let us follow you.” They wish to change the words of Allah . Say, “Never will you follow us. Thus did Allah say before.” So they will say, “Rather, you envy us.” But [in fact] they were not understanding except a little.
قُل لِّلْمُخَلَّفِينَ مِنَ ٱلْأَعْرَابِ سَتُدْعَوْنَ إِلَىٰ قَوْمٍ أُو۟لِى بَأْسٍۢ شَدِيدٍۢ تُقَـٰتِلُونَهُمْ أَوْ يُسْلِمُونَ ۖ فَإِن تُطِيعُوا۟ يُؤْتِكُمُ ٱللَّهُ أَجْرًا حَسَنًۭا ۖ وَإِن تَتَوَلَّوْا۟ كَمَا تَوَلَّيْتُم مِّن قَبْلُ يُعَذِّبْكُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًۭا
Qul lilmukhallafeena minal A’raabi satud’awna ilaa qawmin ulee baasin shadeedin tuqaati loonahum aw yuslimoona fa in tutee’oo yu’tikumul laahu ajran hasananw wa in tatawallaw kamaa tawallaitum min qablu yu’azzibkum ‘azaaban aleemaa
16. Say to those who remained behind of the bedouins, “You will be called to [face] a people of great military might; you may fight them, or they will submit. So if you obey, Allah will give you a good reward; but if you turn away as you turned away before, He will punish you with a painful punishment.”
لَّيْسَ عَلَى ٱلْأَعْمَىٰ حَرَجٌۭ وَلَا عَلَى ٱلْأَعْرَجِ حَرَجٌۭ وَلَا عَلَى ٱلْمَرِيضِ حَرَجٌۭ ۗ وَمَن يُطِعِ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُۥ يُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّـٰتٍۢ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا ٱلْأَنْهَـٰرُ ۖ وَمَن يَتَوَلَّ يُعَذِّبْهُ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًۭا
Laisa ‘alal a’maa harajunw wa laa ‘alal a’raji harajunw wa laa ‘alal mareedi haraj’ wa many yutil’il laaha wa Rasoolahoo yudkhilhu jannaatin tajree min tahtihal anhaaru wa many yatawalla yu’azzibhu ‘azaaban aleemaa (section 2)
17. There is not upon the blind any guilt or upon the lame any guilt or upon the ill any guilt [for remaining behind]. And whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger – He will admit him to gardens beneath which rivers flow; but whoever turns away – He will punish him with a painful punishment.
۞ لَّقَدْ رَضِىَ ٱللَّهُ عَنِ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذْ يُبَايِعُونَكَ تَحْتَ ٱلشَّجَرَةِ فَعَلِمَ مَا فِى قُلُوبِهِمْ فَأَنزَلَ ٱلسَّكِينَةَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَثَـٰبَهُمْ فَتْحًۭا قَرِيبًۭا
Laqad radiyal laahu ‘anil mu’mineena iz yubaayi ‘oonaka tahtash shajarati fa’alima maa fee quloobihim fa anzalas sakeenata ‘alaihim wa asaa bahum fat han qareebaa
18. Certainly was Allah pleased with the believers when they pledged allegiance to you, [O Muhammad], under the tree, and He knew what was in their hearts, so He sent down tranquillity upon them and rewarded them with an imminent conquest
وَمَغَانِمَ كَثِيرَةًۭ يَأْخُذُونَهَا ۗ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًۭا
Wa maghaanima kaseera tany yaakhuzoonahaa; wa kaanal laahu ‘Azeezan Hakeemaa
19. And much war booty which they will take. And ever is Allah Exalted in Might and Wise.
وَعَدَكُمُ ٱللَّهُ مَغَانِمَ كَثِيرَةًۭ تَأْخُذُونَهَا فَعَجَّلَ لَكُمْ هَـٰذِهِۦ وَكَفَّ أَيْدِىَ ٱلنَّاسِ عَنكُمْ وَلِتَكُونَ ءَايَةًۭ لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَيَهْدِيَكُمْ صِرَٰطًۭا مُّسْتَقِيمًۭا
Wa’adakumul laahu ma ghaanima kaseeratan taakhuzoo nahaa fa’ajjala lakum haazihee wa kaffa aydiyan naasi ‘ankum wa litakoona aayatal lilmu’mineena wa yahdiyakum siraatam mustaqeema
20. Allah has promised you much booty that you will take [in the future] and has hastened for you this [victory] and withheld the hands of people from you – that it may be a sign for the believers and [that] He may guide you to a straight path.
وَأُخْرَىٰ لَمْ تَقْدِرُوا۟ عَلَيْهَا قَدْ أَحَاطَ ٱللَّهُ بِهَا ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىْءٍۢ قَدِيرًۭا
Wa ukhraa lam taqdiroo ‘alaihaa qad ahaatal laahu bihaa; wa kaanal laahu ‘alaa kulli shai’in qadeera
21. And [He promises] other [victories] that you were [so far] unable to [realize] which Allah has already encompassed. And ever is Allah, over all things, competent.
وَلَوْ قَـٰتَلَكُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ لَوَلَّوُا۟ ٱلْأَدْبَـٰرَ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُونَ وَلِيًّۭا وَلَا نَصِيرًۭا
Wa law qaatalakumul lazeena kafaroo la wallawul adbaara summa laa yajidoona waliyanw-wa laa naseeraa
22. And if those [Makkans] who disbelieve had fought you, they would have turned their backs [in flight]. Then they would not find a protector or a helper.
سُنَّةَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلَّتِى قَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلُ ۖ وَلَن تَجِدَ لِسُنَّةِ ٱللَّهِ تَبْدِيلًۭا
Sunnatal laahil latee qad khalat min qablu wa lan tajida lisunnatil laahi tabdeelaa
23. [This is] the established way of Allah which has occurred before. And never will you find in the way of Allah any change.
وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى كَفَّ أَيْدِيَهُمْ عَنكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ عَنْهُم بِبَطْنِ مَكَّةَ مِنۢ بَعْدِ أَنْ أَظْفَرَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرًا
Wa Huwal lazee kaffa aydiyahum ‘ankum wa aydiyakum ‘anhum bibatni Makkata mim ba’di an azfarakum ‘alaihim; wa kaanal laahu bimaa ta’maloona Baseera
24. And it is He who withheld their hands from you and your hands from them within [the area of] Makkah after He caused you to overcome them. And ever is Allah of what you do, Seeing.
هُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ وَصَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ ٱلْمَسْجِدِ ٱلْحَرَامِ وَٱلْهَدْىَ مَعْكُوفًا أَن يَبْلُغَ مَحِلَّهُۥ ۚ وَلَوْلَا رِجَالٌۭ مُّؤْمِنُونَ وَنِسَآءٌۭ مُّؤْمِنَـٰتٌۭ لَّمْ تَعْلَمُوهُمْ أَن تَطَـُٔوهُمْ فَتُصِيبَكُم مِّنْهُم مَّعَرَّةٌۢ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍۢ ۖ لِّيُدْخِلَ ٱللَّهُ فِى رَحْمَتِهِۦ مَن يَشَآءُ ۚ لَوْ تَزَيَّلُوا۟ لَعَذَّبْنَا ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ مِنْهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا
Humul lazeena kafaroo wa saddookum ‘anil-Masjidil-Haraami walhadya ma’koofan any yablugha mahillah; wa law laa rijaalum mu’minoona wa nisaaa’um mu’minaatul lam ta’lamoohum an tata’oohum fatuseebakum minhum ma’arratum bighairi ‘ilmin liyud khilal laahu fee rahmatihee many yashaaa’; law tazayyaloo la’azzabnal lazeena kafaroo minhum ‘azaaban aleema
25. They are the ones who disbelieved and obstructed you from al-Masjid al-Haram while the offering was prevented from reaching its place of sacrifice. And if not for believing men and believing women whom you did not know – that you might trample them and there would befall you because of them dishonor without [your] knowledge – [you would have been permitted to enter Makkah]. [This was so] that Allah might admit to His mercy whom He willed. If they had been apart [from them], We would have punished those who disbelieved among them with painful punishment
إِذْ جَعَلَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ فِى قُلُوبِهِمُ ٱلْحَمِيَّةَ حَمِيَّةَ ٱلْجَـٰهِلِيَّةِ فَأَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ سَكِينَتَهُۥ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِۦ وَعَلَى ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَأَلْزَمَهُمْ كَلِمَةَ ٱلتَّقْوَىٰ وَكَانُوٓا۟ أَحَقَّ بِهَا وَأَهْلَهَا ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍ عَلِيمًۭا
Iz ja’alal lazeena kafaroo fee quloobihimul hamiyyata hamiyyatal jaahiliyyati fa anzalal laahu sakeenatahoo ‘alaa Rasoolihee wa ‘alal mu mineena wa alzamahum kalimatat taqwaa wa kaanooo ahaqqa bihaa wa ahlahaa; wa kaanal laahu bikulli shai’in Aleema (section 3)
26. When those who disbelieved had put into their hearts chauvinism – the chauvinism of the time of ignorance. But Allah sent down His tranquillity upon His Messenger and upon the believers and imposed upon them the word of righteousness, and they were more deserving of it and worthy of it. And ever is Allah, of all things, Knowing.
لَّقَدْ صَدَقَ ٱللَّهُ رَسُولَهُ ٱلرُّءْيَا بِٱلْحَقِّ ۖ لَتَدْخُلُنَّ ٱلْمَسْجِدَ ٱلْحَرَامَ إِن شَآءَ ٱللَّهُ ءَامِنِينَ مُحَلِّقِينَ رُءُوسَكُمْ وَمُقَصِّرِينَ لَا تَخَافُونَ ۖ فَعَلِمَ مَا لَمْ تَعْلَمُوا۟ فَجَعَلَ مِن دُونِ ذَٰلِكَ فَتْحًۭا قَرِيبًا
Laqad sadaqal laahu Rasoolahur ru’yaa bilhaqq, latadkhulunnal Masjidal-Haraama in shaaa’al laahu aamineena muhalliqeena ru’oosakum wa muqassireena laa takhaafoona fa’alima maa lam ta’lamoo faja’ala min dooni zaalika fathan qareebaa
27. Certainly has Allah showed to His Messenger the vision in truth. You will surely enter al-Masjid al-Haram, if Allah wills, in safety, with your heads shaved and [hair] shortened, not fearing [anyone]. He knew what you did not know and has arranged before that a conquest near [at hand].
هُوَ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَرْسَلَ رَسُولَهُۥ بِٱلْهُدَىٰ وَدِينِ ٱلْحَقِّ لِيُظْهِرَهُۥ عَلَى ٱلدِّينِ كُلِّهِۦ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِٱللَّهِ شَهِيدًۭا
Huwal lazeee arsala Rasoolahoo bilhudaa wa deenil haqqi liyuzhirahoo ‘alad deeni kullih; wa kafaa billaahi Shaheeda
28. It is He who sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth to manifest it over all religion. And sufficient is Allah as Witness.
مُّحَمَّدٌۭ رَّسُولُ ٱللَّهِ ۚ وَٱلَّذِينَ مَعَهُۥٓ أَشِدَّآءُ عَلَى ٱلْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَآءُ بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ تَرَىٰهُمْ رُكَّعًۭا سُجَّدًۭا يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًۭا مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَرِضْوَٰنًۭا ۖ سِيمَاهُمْ فِى وُجُوهِهِم مِّنْ أَثَرِ ٱلسُّجُودِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِى ٱلتَّوْرَىٰةِ ۚ وَمَثَلُهُمْ فِى ٱلْإِنجِيلِ كَزَرْعٍ أَخْرَجَ شَطْـَٔهُۥ فَـَٔازَرَهُۥ فَٱسْتَغْلَظَ فَٱسْتَوَىٰ عَلَىٰ سُوقِهِۦ يُعْجِبُ ٱلزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغِيظَ بِهِمُ ٱلْكُفَّارَ ۗ وَعَدَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَعَمِلُوا۟ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ مِنْهُم مَّغْفِرَةًۭ وَأَجْرًا عَظِيمًۢا
Muhammadur Rasoolul laah; wallazeena ma’ahooo ashiddaaa’u ‘alal kuffaaari ruhamaaa’u bainahum taraahum rukka’an sujjadany yabtaghoona fadlam minal laahi wa ridwaanan seemaahum fee wujoohihim min asaris sujood; zaalika masaluhum fit tawraah; wa masaluhum fil Injeeli kazar’in akhraja shat ‘ahoo fa ‘aazarahoo fastaghlaza fastawaa ‘alaa sooqihee yu’jibuz zurraa’a liyagheeza bihimul kuffaar; wa’adal laahul lazeena aamanoo wa ‘amilus saalihaati minhum maghfiratanw wa ajran ‘azeemaa (section 4)
29. Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah ; and those with him are forceful against the disbelievers, merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and prostrating [in prayer], seeking bounty from Allah and [His] pleasure. Their mark is on their faces from the trace of prostration. That is their description in the Torah. And their description in the Gospel is as a plant which produces its offshoots and strengthens them so they grow firm and stand upon their stalks, delighting the sowers – so that Allah may enrage by them the disbelievers. Allah has promised those who believe and do righteous deeds among them forgiveness and a great reward.
Tafsir of Surah Al Fath
The Quran is a book that Islam is the one true religion and to be source for guidance. This is why it’s important we read the Quran regularly but also make it a study to learn its teaching and its message. Below you can read and benefit from commentary on Surah Fath by Ibn Kathir and from Tafheem ul Quran by A’a Maududi.
Surah Fath Tafsir by Ibn Kathir
Imam Ahmad recorded from `Abdullah bin Mughaffal, who said that Allah’s Messenger recited Surah Al-Fath on the (day) of the conquest of Makkah, riding on his she-camel. He recited it in a vibrating and pleasant tone. Mu`awiyah (a subnarrator) added: “Were I not afraid that the people would crowd around me, I would surely try to imitate and produce his recitation.” Both Al-Bukhari and Muslim recorded this Hadith through Shu`bah.
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
This honorable Surah was revealed after the Messenger of Allah returned from the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah, during the month of Dhul-Qa`dah, in the sixth year of Hijrah. This is when the idolators prevented him from reaching Al-Masjid Al-Haram to perform the `Umrah he intended. They stopped the Prophet from reaching Makkah at that time, but then were prone to peace negotiations. A peace treaty was conducted stipulating that the Messenger would return this year and then come back for `Umrah the following year. The Messenger agreed. However, some of the Companions disliked these terms, including `Umar bin Al-Khattab, as we will mention in detail, Allah willing, while explaining this Surah. After the Prophet slaughtered his sacrificial animals in the area where he was stopped and headed back to Al-Madinah, Allah the Exalted and Most Honored revealed this Surah about what occurred between him and the idolators. Allah declared the Al-Hudaybiyyah peace treaty a manifest victory, because of the benefits peace would carry and the good results that did originate from it. `Abdullah bin Mas`ud and other Companions said, “You consider the conquering of Makkah to be Al-Fath (the victory), while to us, Al-Fath is the treaty conducted at Al-Hلudaybiyyah.” Jabir (bin `Abdullah) said, “We only considered Al-Fath to be the day of Hلudaybiyyah!” Al-Bukhari recorded that Al-Bara’ (bin `Azib) said, “You consider Al-Fath to be the conquest of Makkah, which was indeed a victory. However, we consider Al-Fath to be the pledge of Ar-Ridwan on the Day of Al-Hudaybiyyah. Then, we were fourteen hundred with the Messenger of Allah . Al-Hudaybiyyah had a well, whose water we consumed, not leaving a drop of water in it. When the news of what happened reached the Messenger of Allah , he came towards us and sat on the edge of the well. Then he asked to be brought a bucket of water and used it for ablution. He next rinsed his mouth, invoked Allah and poured that water into the well. Soon after, that well provided us, as well as our animals, with sufficient water, in whatever amount of water we wished. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, “We were with the Messenger of Allah on a trip, and I asked him about a matter three times, but he did not answer me. So I said to myself, `May your mother lose you, O son of Al-Khattab! You were stubborn in repeating your question three times to the Messenger of Allah ; each time he did not respond to you.’ So I mounted my animal, my camel, and went ahead for fear that a part of the Qur’an might be revealed in my case. Suddenly, I heard a caller calling, `O `Umar!’ So, I went to the Messenger while fearing that part of the Qur’an was revealed about me. The Prophet said,
(Last night, a Surah was revealed to me that is dearer to me than this life and all that it contains: (Verily, We have given you a manifest victory. That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future.)) Al-Bukhari, At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i collected this Hadith from several chains of narration through Malik, may Allah grant him His mercy. `Ali bin Al-Madini commented, “This is a good chain of narration consisting of the scholars of Al-Madinah.” Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik said, “This Ayah was revealed to the Prophet ,
(That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future,) on his return from Al-Hudaybiyyah. The Prophet said,
(Tonight, an Ayah, that is dearer to me than all that the earth carries, was revealed to me.) The Prophet recited the Ayah to them. They said, `Congratulations, O Allah’s Messenger! Allah the Exalted and Most Honored has stated what He will do with you. So what will He do with us’ These Ayat were revealed to the Prophet ,
(That He may admit the believing men and the believing women to Gardens under which rivers flow. ..), until,
(…a supreme success.)” This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs. Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah said, “The Prophet used to pray until both his feet were swollen. He was asked, `Has not Allah forgiven you all your sins of the past and of future’ He said,
(Should I not be a thankful servant)” The two collectors of the Sahihs collected this Hadith, as well as, the rest of the Group, except Abu Dawud. Allah’s statement,
(Verily, We have given you a manifest victory.) means, clear and apparent victory. This Ayah is about the treaty at Al-Hudaybiyyah, which resulted in great goodness, including people embracing Islam in large crowds and having the chance to meet each other openly. During that time, the believers preached to the idolators and thus beneficial knowledge and faith spread all around. Allah’s statement,
(That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future, ) contains one of the special virtues of the Messenger , and no one else shares this honor with him. There is not an authentic Hadith that states that any person other than the Messenger earned forgiveness for all of his sins of the past and future on account of performing good deeds. This, indeed, is a great honor for the Messenger of Allah , who fulfilled the requirements of Allah’s obedience, righteousness and straightness at a level never surpassed by a human being in past generations, nor will it ever be surpassed in the generations to come. Muhammad is the perfect human being and the leader and chief of all mankind in this life and the Hereafter. And since he was, and will always be, the most obedient of Allah’s creation to Him and the most honoring of Allah’s commands and prohibitions, he said when his she- camel insisted on kneeling down,
(He Who stopped the elephant, has stopped her too.) The Prophet then declared,
(By the Name of Him in Whose Hand my soul is, this day, if they ask me anything which will respect the ordinances of Allah, I will grant it to them.) And when the Messenger obeyed Allah and accepted the peace offer from the Quraysh, Allah the Exalted said to him,
(Verily, We have given you a manifest victory. That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future, and complete His favor on you,) in this life and the Hereafter,
(and guide you on the straight path,) with the glorious legislation and the straight religion that He ordains on you,
(And that Allah may help you with strong help.) due to your obedience of the orders of Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored; Allah will elevate your status and give you victory above your enemies. An authentic Hadith states,
(No servant pardons but Allah grants him honor, and none humbles himself for Allah except that Allah the exalted and sublime raises him (in rank).) `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, “You will never punish someone who disobeyed Allah with you better than obeying Allah the Exalted and Most Honored with him.”
Allah the Exalted said,
(He it is Who sent down As-Sakinah), meaning, tranquility. Qatadah commented, “Grace into the hearts of the believers”, that is, the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, on the Day of Al-Hudaybiyyah. The companions were they, who accepted the call of Allah and His Messenger and obeyed the decisions of Allah and His Messenger . When their hearts felt content with acceptance and were at peace, Allah increased their faith, joining it to the faith they already had. Al-Bukhari, and other Imams, relied on this Ayah as proof that faith increases and decreases in the hearts. Allah the Exalted said next that had He willed, He would have inflicted defeat on the disbelievers, Allah says;
(And to Allah belong the armies of the heavens and the earth) and had He willed to send only one angel to them, that angel would have brought destruction to all what they had. However, Allah the Exalted willed Jihad and fighting to be established for, and by, the believers for great wisdom, clear reasons and unequivocal evidences that He had in all this. This is why Allah the Great said next,
(and Allah is Ever All-Knower, All-Wise.) Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,
(That He may admit the believing men and the believing women to Gardens under which rivers flow to abide therein forever,) We mentioned the Hadith that Anas narrated in which the Companions said, “Congratulations, O Allah’s Messenger! This good news is for you, so what good news do we have” Allah the Exalted sent down this Ayah,
(That He may admit the believing men and the believing women to Gardens under which rivers flow to abide therein forever,) meaning they will remain in Paradise forever,
(and He may expiate from them their sins;) Allah will not punish them for their errors and mistakes. Rather, He will forgive, absolve and pardon them and cover the errors, grant mercy and appreciate,
(and that is with Allah supreme success.) Allah the Exalted said in a similar Ayah,
(And whoever is removed away from the Fire and admitted to Paradise, he indeed is successful.) (3:185) Allah said,
(And that He may punish the hypocrites, men and women, and also the idolators, men and women, who think evil thoughts about Allah,) who question the wisdom in Allah’s decisions and think that the Messenger and his Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, might be killed and exterminated. This is why Allah the Exalted said,
(for them is a disgraceful torment. And the anger of Allah is upon them, and He has cursed them) He has cast them away from His mercy,
(and prepared Hell for them — and worst indeed is that destination.) Allah the Exalted and Most Honored asserted His ability to take revenge from the enemies of Islam and all disbelievers and hypocrites,
(And to Allah belong the armies of the heavens and the earth. And Allah is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise.)
Allah the Exalted says to His Prophet, Muhammad ,
(Verily, We have sent you as a witness,) of the creation,
(as a bearer of glad tidings,) to the believers,
(and as a warner.) to the disbelievers. We explained these meanings in the Tafsir of Surat Al-Ahzab. Allah said,
(In order that you may believe in Allah and His Messenger, and that you Tu`azziruh) or you honor him, according to `Abdullah bin `Abbas and several others,
(and Tuwaqqiruh), where Tawqir means, respect, honor and high regard,
(and that you Tusabbihuh), glorify Allah’s praises,
(Bukrah and Asila), the early and late part of the day.
Allah the Exalted and Most Honored honors, regards and praises His Messenger by saying,
(Verily, those who give pledge to you, they are giving pledge to Allah.) Allah the Exalted and Most High said in another Ayah,
(He who obeys the Messenger, has indeed obeyed Allah.) (4:80) Allah said, next,
(The Hand of Allah is over their hands.) meaning, He is with them, hearing their statements and witnessing their stand, having full knowledge of them inwardly and outwardly. Therefore, Allah the Exalted was indeed taking the pledge from them through His Messenger ,
(Verily, Allah has purchased of the believers their lives and their properties for which theirs shall be the Paradise. They fight in Allah’s cause, so they kill and are killed. It is a promise in truth, binding on Him in the Tawrah and the Injil and the Qur’an. And who is truer to his covenant than Allah Then rejoice in the bargain you have concluded. That is the supreme success.)(9:111) Allah said,
(…and whosoever fulfills what the covenants he makes with Allah, He will bestow on him a great reward.) a generous reward. The pledge mentioned here is the pledge of Ar-Ridwan which was pledged under a tree, a Samurah, in the area of Al-Hudaybiyyah. The number of the Companions who gave their pledge to Allah’s Messenger at that time was either 1,300, 1,400 or 1,500. However, 1,400 is the better choice.
Al-Bukhari recorded that Jabir bin `Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “We numbered one thousand and four hundred on the day of Hudaybiyyah.” Muslim also collected this Hadith. The Two Sahihs recorded that Jabir said; “We numbered one thousand and four hundred at that time. The Messenger placed his hand in the water and it started gushing forth from between his fingers until everyone had quenched their thirst.” This is a short form of the story. Another narration of it mentioned that the Companions became thirsty on the day of Al-Hudaybiyyah and the Messenger of Allah gave them an arrow from his quiver. They took the arrow, placed it in the well of Al-Hudaybiyyah and the water gushed out until they all satisfied their thirst. Jabir was asked how many of them there were on that day and he said, “We were one thousand and four hundred. And had we been a hundred thousand, that water would still have been sufficient to satisfy us all.” In another narration collected in the Two Sahihs, Jabir bin `Abdullah said that they were one thousand and five hundred at the time. Al-Bukhari recorded that Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib was asked by Qatadah, “How many were present for the pledge of Ar-Ridwan” Sa`id said, “One thousand and five hundred.” Qatadah posed, “Jabir bin `Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with them both, said that they were one thousand and four hundred.” Sa`id said, “He forgot. He told me that they were one thousand and five hundred.” However, Al-Bayhaqi commented, “This narration testifies that Jabir used to state that they were one thousand and five hundred, but later on remembered the true number and said that they were one thousand and four hundred.”
Muhammad bin Ishaq bin Yasar said in his book on Sirah: “The Messenger of Allah beckoned `Umar bin Al-Khattab in order to send him to Makkah, so that he could inform the chiefs of Quraysh of the Prophet’s intent (to perform `Umrah at Makkah). `Umar said, `O Allah’s Messenger! I fear the Quraysh for my being. There are no longer any chiefs from the tribe of Bani `Adi bin Ka`b remaining in Makkah who would protect me, in addition, the Quraysh know my enmity and harshness against them. However, I could tell you about a man who is mightier than I in Makkah: `Uthman bin `Affan. We should send him to Abu Sufyan and the chiefs of the Quraysh informing them that you did not come to fight them, but to visit this House and to honor its holiness.’ `Uthman left to Makkah. He met Aban bin Sa`id bin Al-`As upon entering Makkah or just before that. As a result, Aban took `Uthman with him and extended his protection to him so he could deliver the message of Allah’s Messenger . `Uthman indeed went to Abu Sufyan and the chiefs of Quraysh and imparted the Prophet’s message that he was sent with. When `Uthman finished delivering the Prophet’s message to them they said to him, `If you wish, you can perform Tawaf around the House.’ `Uthman replied, `I would not do that before the Messenger of Allah gets the chance to perform Tawaf around it.’ So the Quraysh kept `Uthman waiting in Makkah. However, the Messenger of Allah and the Muslims were told that `Uthman had been killed.” Ibn Ishaq continued, “I was told by `Abdullah bin Abu Bakr that when news of `Uthman’s death was conveyed to him, the Messenger of Allah said,
(We will not leave until we fight the people.)” Ibn Ishaq continued, “The Messenger of Allah called the Muslims to give a pledge of allegiance, resulting in the pledge of Ar-Ridwan being conducted under the tree. Later, people used to say that the Messenger of Allah took the pledge from them to die. However, Jabir bin `Abdullah said, `The Messenger of Allah did not ask us to give a pledge to die (or be victorious), but that we would not run away (from battle).’ The Muslims gave their pledge and none among them held back from giving it, except Al-Jadd bin Qays from the tribe of Bani Salamah. Jabir used to say afterwards, `By Allah, it is as if I am looking at him now next to the shoulder of his camel taking refuge behind it, so that the people did not see him.’ Soon afterwards, news came to the Messenger of Allah that the story of `Uthman’s death was not true.” Al-Bukhari recorded that Nafi` said, “People said that `Abdullah bin `Umar embraced Islam before `Umar, but this is not true. What happened is that on the Day of Hudaybiyyah, `Umar sent `Abdullah to bring his horse that he kept with a man from Al-Ansar, so he could use it to fight. The Messenger of Allah was then taking the pledge from the Muslims under the tree while `Umar was unaware. So, `Abdullah conducted his pledge and fetched the horse and brought it to `Umar, who was wearing his armor in preparation for battle. `Abdullah told `Umar that the Messenger of Allah was accepting the pledge under the tree. `Umar proceeded with `Abdullah and gave his pledge to the Messenger of Allah . This is why some people thought that `Abdullah bin `Umar embraced Islam before `Umar, may Allah be pleased with them both.” Al-Bukhari also recorded Ibn `Umar saying that, the people who were with the Messenger of Allah scattered under the shade of trees. Suddenly, the people gathered around the Prophet and `Umar said, “O `Abdullah! Investigate why the people are gathering around Allah’s Messenger.” Ibn `Umar found the people giving their pledge. He gave his pledge, then went back and told `Umar, who also went and gave his pledge. In a Hadith collected by Muslim, Jabir bin `Abdullah said, “On the day of Al-Hudaybiyyah, we were one thousand and four hundred. We gave the pledge of allegiance to the Prophet while `Umar was holding the Prophet’s hand under the tree, which was a Samurah (a kind of thorny tree). We gave the pledge to him not to run away (from battle). We did not give the pledge to die.” Muslim recorded that Ma`qil bin Yasar, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “On the day of the Tree, while the Prophet was taking the pledge from the people, I was holding a branch of that tree away from his head. We were fourteen hundred. We did not give him our pledge to die, but gave the pledge not to run from battle.” However, Al-Bukhari recorded that Salamah bin Al-Akwa`, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “I gave the pledge to the Messenger of Allah under the tree.” Yazid asked him, “O Abu Maslamah, to what did you pledge at that time” Salamah said, “To die!” Al-Bukhari also collected a Hadith from Salamah bin Al-Akwa` that he said, “I gave my pledge to the Messenger of Allah on the day of Hudaybiyyah. I stood to the side and the Messenger said,
(Why not give the pledge, O Salamah) and I said, `I did.’ He said,
(Come and give pledge). I went close to him and gave him my pledge.”’ Salamah was asked, “What was the pledge that you gave then, O Salamah” Salamah said, “To die.” Muslim collected this Hadith as well, while Al-Bukhari collected from `Abbad bin Tamim that the pledge they gave was to die. Al-Bayhaqi recorded that Salamah bin Al-Akwa`, may Allah be pleased with him said, “We went to Al-Hudaybiyyah with the Messenger of Allah , and we numbered fourteen hundred at that time. We reached the well and found around fifty sheep drinking from it, but its water was barely sufficient for them. The Messenger of Allah sat on its rim, invoked Allah and spat in the well and its water gushed out. We made our animals drink from it and also drank from it. Next, the Messenger of Allah called the people to give the pledge when he was under the tree, and I was among the first to give the pledge to him. The remaining people then started giving the pledge. When about half the people have given the pledge, the Messenger said to me,
(Give me the pledge, O Salamah!) I said, `O Allah’s Messenger! I have already pledged my pledge in the first group of people.’ He said,
(Do it again.) So I pledged my pledge again. He also saw that I was not wearing any armor and gave me some. He went on accepting the pledge from the people. When they were about to finish, he said,
(Will you not give me your pledge, O Salamah!) I said, `O Allah’s Messenger! I have given you the pledge in the beginning and the middle. ‘ He said,
(Do it again,) I gave him my pledge for a third time. The Messenger of Allah asked me,
(Where is the armor that I gave you O Salamah) I said, `O Allah’s Messenger! `Amir met me and I found that he did not have a shield, so I gave it to him.’ The Messenger of Allah laughed and said to me,
(You are just like the man of old times who said, `O Allah! Give me a dear person who is dearer to me than myself!’) Then the idolators of Makkah sent a delegation asking for a peace treaty, and we agreed to make peace. I used to work for Talhah bin `Ubaydullah, may Allah be pleased with him, by providing water for his horse. For taking care of it, Talhah gave me a portion of his food. I had left my family and wealth and migrated to Allah and His Messenger (so I was poor). After the people of Makkah and us conducted peace and were freely mingling with each other, I went by a tree, removed its thorny branches and rested under its shade. Four of the idolators of Makkah stood close to me and started mentioning the Messenger of Allah in an improper way and I hated being close to them. So, I moved under the shade of another tree. They hanged their weapons and rested under it. Meanwhile, a caller shouted these words from the bottom of the valley, `O Emigrants! Ibn Zunaym was killed,’ so I held my sword and went after the four idolators. They were asleep, so I took possession of their weapons and held them in my hand, saying, `By He Who has honored the face of Muhammad , if any one of you raises his head, I will strike that which holds his eyes!’ I brought them to the Messenger of Allah , while my uncle `Amir brought another man, an idolator, whose name was Mikraz, and I and my uncle brought the men to the Messenger of Allah . The number of captured idolators swelled to seventy. The Messenger of Allah looked at them and said,
(Let them go, for theirs will be the initiation of hostilities and its burden.) The Messenger of Allah forgave them and Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,
(And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah, after He had made you victors over them.)﴿48:24﴾” Muslim collected a narration that is the same or similar. The Two Sahihs recorded that Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib said, “My father was among those who gave the pledge to the Messenger of Allah under the tree. He said, `In the following year, we went for Hajj and we could not find the tree.’ Therefore, if you know where that tree is, then you have more knowledge!” Abu Bakr Al-Humaydi recorded that Jabir said, “When the Messenger of Allah called the people to the pledge, we found a man from our tribe whose name is Al-Jadd bin Qays, hiding under the shoulder of his camel.” Muslim collected this Hadith. Al-Humaydi also recorded that `Amr said that he heard Jabir say, “On the day of Hلudaybiyyah, we were one thousand and four hundred and the Messenger of Allah said to us,
(Today, you are the best people on the earth.)” Jabir went on saying, “If I still had my sight, I would have shown you the tree.” Sufyan commented that the Companions later on differed over the location of the tree of Al-Hudaybiyyah; the Two Sahihs collected this statement from him. Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(None among those who gave the pledge under the tree shall enter Hellfire.) `Abdullah bin Imam Ahmad recorded that Jabir said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(He who ascends Thaniyyah (i.e. a mountainous pass), the Thaniyyah of Al-Murar, will have as much of his sins relieved for him as the sins that were relieved from the Children of Israel.) The first to ascend that hill were the horsemen of (the Ansar tribe of) Banu Al-Khazraj, then the Muslims followed suit. The Prophet said,
(All of you will be forgiven, except the owner of the red camel.) We said to him, “Come, let the Messenger of Allah invoke Allah to forgive you,” but he said, “By Allah! Finding my lost camel is dearer to me than having your companion invoke Allah to forgive me. ” That man was only looking for his lost camel. Muslim collected this Hadith from Ubaydullah (from Jabir). Muslim also recorded that Abu Az-Zubayr heard Jabir say, “Umm Mubashshir told me that she heard the Messenger of Allah saying, while he was with Hafsah,
(Allah willing, none of the Companions of the tree, who gave the pledge under it, will ever enter Hellfire.) She said, `No, O Allah’s Messenger.’ The Prophet rebuked her but Hafsah said,
(There is not one of you but will pass over it (Hell))(19:71) but the Prophet responded,
(Allah the Exalted said next, (Then We shall save those who had Taqwa and We shall leave the wrongdoers therein on their knees.))(19:71)” Muslim also narrated that Jabir said, “A slave of Hatib bin Abi Balta`ah came to the Messenger complaining against Hatib and saying, `O Allah’s Messenger! Hatib shall surely enter Hell.’ The Messenger of Allah replied,
(You lie, he shall never enter the Fire; he participated in Badr and Al-Hudaybiyyah.) This is why Allah the Exalted said while praising these Companions,
Allah informs His Messenger of the excuses that the bedouins who lagged behind would offer him, those bedouins who preferred to remain in their homes and possessions and did not join the Messenger of Allah . They offered an excuse for lagging behind, as that of being busy — in their homes and with their wealth! They asked the Messenger of Allah to invoke Allah to forgive them, not because they had faith in the Prophet and his invocation, but to show off and pretend. This is why Allah the Exalted said about them,
(They say with their tongues what is not in their hearts. Say: “Who then has any power at all (to intervene) on your behalf with Allah, if He intends you hurt or intends you benefit”) Allah says, none can resist what Allah has decided in your case, all praise and honor belong to Him. Allah is the Knower of your secrets and what your hearts conceal, even if you pretend and choose to be hypocritical with us. This is why Allah the Exalted said,
(Nay, but Allah is Ever All-Aware of what you do.) then He said,
(Nay, but you thought that the Messenger and the believers would never return to their families,) `for your lagging behind was not an excusable act or just a sin. Rather, your lagging behind was because of hypocrisy and because you thought that the Muslims would be killed to the extent of extermination, their lives would be extinguished and none of them will ever come back,’
(and you did think an evil thought and you became a people Bur) going for destruction, according to `Abdullah bin `Abbas, Mujahid and several others. Qatadah explained Bur to mean, corrupt and some said that it is a word used in the Arabic dialect of the area of Oman. Allah the Exalted then said,
(And whosoever does not believe in Allah and His Messenger,) Allah states here that whoever does not purify his actions outwardly and inwardly for Allah’s sake, then Allah the Exalted will punish him in the Blazing Fire, even if he pretends to show people that he follows the faith, contradicting his true creed. Allah the Exalted then states that He is the Only Authority, King and Owner Who has full control over the residents of the heavens and earth,
(He forgives whom He wills, and punishes whom He wills. And Allah is Forgiving, Most Merciful.) with those who repent, return and submit to Him with humiliation.
(They want to change Allah’s Words), which refers to the promise that Allah gave those who were present at Al-Hudaybiyyah, according to the explanation reported from Mujahid, Qatadah, Juwaybir and which Ibn Jarir preferred. Allah said,
(Say: “You shall not follow us; thus Allah has said beforehand.”) `when He promised the participants of Al-Hudaybiyyah before you asked to join them,’
(Then they will say: “Nay, you envy us.”) `you do not want us to share the war spoils with you,’
(Nay, but they under- stand not except a little.) the truth is nothing close to what they claimed, but they understand not.
Scholars of Tafsir differ over who the people mentioned here are. They are people experienced at warfare who will be called to fight. There are many opinions, first, they are the tribe of Hawazin, as Shu`bah narrated from Abu Bishr from Sa`id bin Jubayr, or `Ikrimah, or both of them. Hushaym narrated this explanation from Abu Bishr, from both Sa`id bin Jubayr and `Ikrimah. Qatadah, as narrated from him in one version, held the same view. The second view is that these people are the tribe of Thaqif, according to Ad-Dahhak. The third view is that they are Banu Hanifah, according to Juwaybir and Az-Zuhri, as Muhammad bin Ishaq narrated from him. Similar was narrated from Sa`id bin Jubayr and `Ikrimah. The fourth opinion is that they are the Persians, according to `Ali bin Abi Talhah who reported that from `Abdullah bin `Abbas. This is also the view of `Ata’, Mujahid, and `Ikrimah. Ka`b Al-Ahbar said that they are the Romans, while Ibn Abi Layla, `Ata, Al-Hasan and Qatadah — in a different narration from him, said that they are the Persians and Romans. Mujahid also said that they are the idolators. In another narration Mujahid said, “They are men given to great warfare,” and did not specify any particular people. This last explanation is the view preferred by Ibn Jurayj and Ibn Jarir. Allah’s statement,
(Then you shall fight them, or they shall surrender.) means, `you are called to fight them in Jihad, through constant warfare, until you become victorious over them or they surrender. Or, they will embrace your religion without a fight, but with their full consent.’ Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said next,
(Then if you obey,) `if you accept the call to Jihad and prepare for it and fulfill your duty in this regard,’
(Allah will give you a fair reward; but if you turn away as you turned away before,) `on the day of Al-Hudaybiyyah, when you were called to Jihad, yet lagged behind,’
(He will punish you with a painful torment.)
Allah then mentions the legal reasons that allow one to be excused from joining the Jihad, such as blindness and being lame, and various illnesses that strike one and are remedied in few days. When one is ill, he is allowed to remain behind and will have a valid excuse to do so, until his illness ends. Allah the Exalted and Most honored then said, while ordaining joining the Jihad and obeying Allah and His Messenger ,
(And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, He will admit him to Gardens beneath which rivers flow; and whosoever turns back,) from joining the Jihad and busies himself in his livelihood,
(He will punish him with a painful torment.) in this life with humiliation and in the Hereafter with the Fire. Allah the Exalted has the best knowledge.
Allah declares that He is pleased with the believers who gave the pledge to the Messenger of Allah under the tree. We mentioned the number of these believers as being one thousand and four hundred and that the tree was a Samurah tree, located in the area of Hudaybiyyah. Al-Bukhari narrated from Tariq that `Abdur-Rahman said, “I went on Hajj and passed by people praying and asked, `What is this Masjid’ They said, `This is the tree where the Messenger of Allah took the pledge of Ar-Ridwan.’ So, I went to Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib and told him. Sa`id said, `My father told me that he was among those who gave their pledge to the Messenger of Allah under the tree. My father said: The following year, when we went out, we forgot its place and could not agree which tree it was.’ Sa`id said, `The Companions of Muhammad forgot where the tree was, but you know where it is. Therefore, you have better knowledge than them!”’ Allah said,
(He knew what was in their hearts,) meaning, of truthfulness, trustworthiness, obedience and adherence,
(and He sent down As-Sakinah), calmness and tranquillity,
(upon them, and He rewarded them with a near victory.) in reference to the goodness that Allah the Exalted and Most Honored caused to happened to the Companions on account of the peace treaty between them and their disbelieving enemies. Ever after that, the Companions gained abundant, general and continuous benefits and accomplishments, leading to the conquest of Khaybar and Makkah and then the various surrounding provinces and areas. They earned tremendous glory, triumphs and an elevated and honorable status in this life and in the Hereafter, just as Allah the Exalted said,
(And abundant spoils that they will capture. And Allah is Ever All-Mighty, All-Wise.)
Mujahid said that Allah’s statement,
(Allah has promised you abundant spoils that you will capture,) refers to the spoils that Muslims earned up until this time, while,
(and He has hastened for you this,) means, the conquest of Khaybar. Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said,
(and He has hastened for you this,) means, “The peace treaty of Al-Hudaybiyyah.” Allah said,
(and He has restrained the hands of men from you,) meaning, `no harm that your enemies had planned against you, both fighting and warfare, touched you. Allah also restrained the hands of men, whom you left behind close to your families and children, from harming them,’
(that it may be a sign for the believers,) with which they take heed and understand. Verily, Allah the Exalted and Most Honored shall help and protect the believers against all enemies, even though the believers are few in number. By doing so, the believers will come to know that Allah is truly the Knower of the consequences of all matters and that the best decisions are those which He prefers for His believing servants, even though these decisions might look unfavorable outwardly,
(It may be that you dislike a thing that is good for you) (2:216). Allah said,
(and that He may guide you to the straight path) on account of your obeying His commands and adhering by His orders by following the path of His Messenger ,
The statement of Allah the Exalted and Most Honored,
(And other (victories) which are not yet within your power; indeed Allah encompasses them. And Allah is Ever Able to do all things.) Meaning, there are other war spoils and victories to come which are not within your grasp now. However, Allah will make them within your reach and indeed He compasses all these victories for your benefit. Surely, Allah the Exalted provides provisions and sustenance for His servants who have Taqwa, from resources they could never imagine. Scholars of Tafsir differ over the reference to other war spoils mentioned here. Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said that it refers to the conquest of Khaybar. This meaning is sound according to the Ayah,
(and He has hastened for you this.) which refers to the treaty of Al-Hudaybiyyah. This is view of Ad-Dahhak, Muhammad bin Ishaq and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam. Qatadah said that this part of the Ayah refers to the conquest of Makkah, and this opinion was preferred by Ibn Jarir. Ibn Abi Layla and Al-Hasan Al-Basri said that it refers to victories over the Persians and the Romans, while Mujahid said that it refers to every victory and all spoils of war, until the Day of Resurrection. Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah,
(And other (victories) which are not yet within your power; indeed Allah compasses them.), “They are the victories that are continuing until this day.”
(And if those who disbelieve fight against you, they certainly would have turned their backs; then they would have found neither a protector nor a helper.) Allah the Exalted and Most Honored delivers the glad tidings to His believing servants that had the idolators fought them, Allah would have given victory to His Messenger and His faithful servants. Then, the army of the disbelievers would have been defeated and would have deserted the battlefield and fled. They would not have found any helper or supporter, because they were fighting Allah, His Messenger and His Faithful Party. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,
(That has been the way of Allah already with those who passed away before. And you will not find any change in the way of Allah.) means this is the way Allah deals with His creation. Whenever faith and disbelief meet at any distinguishing juncture, Allah gives victory to faith over disbelief, raises high truth and destroys falsehood. For instance, Allah the Exalted helped His loyal faithful supporters during the battle of Badr and they defeated His idolator enemies, even though the Muslims were few in num- ber and lightly armed, while the idolators were large in number and heavily armed. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,
(And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah, after He had made you victors over them. And Allah is Ever the All-Seer of what you do.) Allah the Exalted reminds His faithful servants of His favor when He restrained the hands of the idolators, and thereby, no harm touched the Muslims from the idolators. Allah restrained the hands of the believers and they did not fight the idolaters near Al-Masjid Al-Haram. Rather, Allah saved both parties from battle and brought forth a peace treaty that produced good results for the believers, in addition to, earning them the good end in this life and the Hereafter. We stated a Hadith from Salamah bin Al-Akwa` in which he narrated that when the Muslims brought forth those seventy idolator prisoners, they tied and paraded them before the Messenger of Allah , who looked at them and said,
(Release them, so that they earn the burden of starting hostilities and its infamy.) Thereafter, Allah the Exalted and Most Honored sent down this Ayah about that incident,
(And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them…) Imam Ahmad recor- ded that Anas bin Malik said, “On the day of Hudaybiyyah, eighty armed men from Makkah went down the valley coming from Mount At-Tan`im to ambush the Messen- ger of Allah . The Messenger invoked Allah against them, and they were taken prisoners.” `Affan added, “The Messenger pardoned them, and this Ayah was later on revealed,
(And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah, after He had made you victors over them.)” Muslim, Abu Dawud in his Sunan and At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i, in the Tafsir section of their Sunan, collected this Hadith.
Allah the Exalted states that the Arab idolators from Quraysh and their allies who extended help to them against His Messenger ,
(They are those who disbelieved), they are indeed the disbelievers,
(and hindered you from Al-Masjid Al-Haram) `even though you are its people and more worthy of being responsible for it,’
(and detained the sacrificial animals, from reaching their place of sacrifice.) they prevented, because of transgression and stubbornness, the sacrificial animals from being reached to the place where they would be slaughtered. There were seventy sacrificial camels designated for sacrifice, as we will mention, Allah willing. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,
(Had there not been believing men and believing women) `living among the Makkans hiding their faith for fearing for their safety from the pagans. Otherwise, We would have given you authority over the Makkans and you would have killed them to the brink of extermination. However, there were some faithful believers, men and women, living among them, about whom you had no knowledge of being believers and you might try to kill them.’ Allah’s statement,
(whom you did not know, that you may kill them and on whose account a sin would have been committed by you) an evil and erroneous act,
(without (your) knowledge, that Allah might bring into His mercy whom He wills) that Allah might delay the punishment of the pagans of Makkah to save the believers who lived among them, and so that many of the idolators might embrace Islam. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,
(if they had been apart), if the disbelievers and the believers who were living among them had been apart,
(We verily, would have punished with painful torment those of them who disbelieved) `We would have given you dominance over the disbelievers and you would have inflicted tremendous slaughter on them.’ Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,
(When those who disbelieve had put in their hearts pride and haughtiness — the pride and haughtiness of the time of ignorance, ) when they refused to write (in the treaty document), `In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful,’ and, `These are the terms agreed on by Muhammad, Allah’s Messenger,’
(then Allah sent down His calmness and tranquillity upon His Messenger and upon the believers and made them stick to the word of Taqwa;) the word of Taqwa refers to sincerity, according to Mujahid. `Ata’ bin Abi Rabah commented, “None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, alone without partners. All the dominion belongs to Him and all praise is due to Him. He is Ever Able to do everything.” Yunus bin Bukayr said that Ibn Ishaq narrated from Az-Zuhri, from `Urwah, from Al-Miswar, commenting on,
(and made them stick to the word of Taqwa;) “`La ilaha illallah, alone without partners.”
Al-Bukhari, may Allah have mercy with him, recorded in his Sahih in `Book of Conditions’ that Al-Miswar bin Makhramah and Marwan bin Al-Hakam, both narrated attesting to the truthfulness of the other, “Allah’s Messenger set out at the time of Al-Hudaybiyyah with several hundred of his Companions. When he reached Dhul-Hulayfah, he had the sacrificial animals garlanded and marked and resumed the state of Ihram for `Umrah. He then sent several men from the tribe of Khuza`ah to gather news for him and then he proceeded. When he arrived at a village called Al-Ashtat, his advance regiment came back and said, `The Quraysh have gathered their forces against you, including Al-Ahabish tribes. They are intent on fighting you, stopping you, and preventing you.’ The Messenger said,
(Give me your opinion, O people! Do you think we should attack the families and offspring of those who seek to prevent us from reaching the House)” in another narration, the Prophet said,
(Do you think we should attack the families of those who helped the Quraysh If they come to defend against us, then Allah would have diminished the idolator forces. Or we leave them to grieve!)” In another narration, the Prophet said,
(If they remain where they have gathered, they do so in grief, fatigued and depressed. If they save their families, it would be a neck that Allah the Exalted and Most Honored has cut off. Or, should we head towards the House and if anyone prevents us from reaching it we would fight them) “Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “O, Allah’s Messenger! You only intended to visit the House, not to kill anyone or start a war. Therefore, head towards the House and whoever stands in our way, then we will fight him.” In another narration, Abu Bakr said, “Allah and His Messenger know that we only came to perform `Umrah not to fight anyone. However, anyone who tries to prevent us from reaching the House, we will fight him.” The Prophet said,
(Go forth then.) In another narration, the Prophet said,
(Go forth, in the Name of Allah, the Exalted.) “When they proceeded for a distance, the Prophet said,
(Khalid bin Al-Walid is leading the cavalry of Quraysh forming the front of the army, so take the path on the right.) By Allah, Khalid did not perceive the arrival of the Muslims until the dust arising from the march of the Muslim army reached him, then he turned back hurriedly to inform the Quraysh. The Prophet went on advancing until he reached the Thaniyyah (i. e., a mountainous way) through which he could reach them. The she-camel of the Prophet sat down. The people tried their best to cause her to rise, but it was in vain. So, they said, `Al-Qaswa’ has become stubborn! Al-Qaswa’ has become stubborn!’ The Prophet said,
(Al-Qaswa’ has not become stubborn, for stubbornness is not her habit, but she was stopped by Him Who stopped the elephant.) Then he said,
(By the Name of Him in Whose Hands is my soul, if they ask me anything which will respect the ordinances of Allah, the Exalted, I will grant it to them.) The Prophet then rebuked the she-camel and she got up. The Prophet changed his direction, until he dismounted at the farthest end of Al-Hudaybiyyah. There was a pit containing a little water which the people used in small amounts, and after a short time the people exhausted all its water and complained of thirst to Allah’s Messenger . The Prophet took an arrow out of his quiver and ordered them to put the arrow in the pit. By Allah, the water started flowing and continued sprouting until all the people quenched their thirst and returned satisfied. While they were still in that state, Budayl bin Warqa’ Al-Khuza`i came with some people from his tribe, Khuza`ah. They were the advisers of Allah’s Messenger who would keep no secret from him and were from the people of Tihamah. Budayl said, `I left (the tribes of) Ka`b bin Lu’ay and `Amir bin Lu’ay residing at the abundant water of Al-Hudaybiyyah. They had milk camels with them, intending to wage war against you and prevent you from visiting the Ka`bah.’ Allah’s Messenger said,
(We have not come to fight anyone, but to perform `Umrah. No doubt, war has weakened Quraysh and they have suffered great losses. So if they wish, I will conclude a truce with them, during which they should refrain from interfering between me and others. If I have victory over those infidels, Quraysh will have the option to embrace Islam as the other people do, if they wish. They will at least get strong enough to fight. But if they do not accept the truce, by Allah in Whose Hands my life is, I will fight with them defending my cause until I get killed, but (I am sure) Allah will definitely make His cause victorious.) Budayl said, `I will inform them of what you have said.’ So, he set off until he reached Quraysh and said, `We have come from that man whom we heard saying something which we will disclose to you, if you should like.’ Some of the fools among the Quraysh shouted that they were not in need of this information, but the wiser among them said, `Relate what you heard him saying.’ Budayl said, `I heard him saying such and such,’ relating what the Prophet had told him. `Urwah bin Mas`ud stood up and said, `O people! Aren’t you the sons’ They said, `Yes.’ He added, `Am I not the father’ They said, `Yes.’ He said, `Do you mistrust me’ They said, `No.’ He said, `Don’t you know that I invited the people of `Ukaz for your help, and when they refused I brought my relatives and children and those who obeyed me’ They said, `Yes.’ He said, `Well, this man has offered you a reasonable proposal, it is better for you to accept it and allow me to meet him.’ They said, `You may meet him.’ So, he went to the Prophet and started talking to him. The Prophet said the same to him as he had to Budayl bin Warqa. Then `Urwah said, `O Muhammad! Won’t you feel any qualms by exterminating your relations Have you ever heard of anyone among the Arabs annihilating his relatives before you On the other hand, if the reverse should happen, by Allah, I do not see dignified people here, but people from various tribes who would run away leaving you alone.’ Hearing that, Abu Bakr verbally abused him and said, `Go suck Al-Lat’s womb! Are you saying we would run and leave the Prophet alone’ `Urwah said, `Who is that man’ They said, `He is Abu Bakr.’ `Urwah said to Abu Bakr, `By Him in Whose Hands my life is, were it not for the favor which you did to me and which I did not compensate, I would rebuke you.’ `Urwah kept on talking to the Prophet and seizing the Prophet’s beard as he was talking, while Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah was standing near the head of the Prophet , holding a sword and wearing a helmet. Whenever `Urwah stretched his hand towards the beard of the Prophet , Al-Mughirah would hit his hand with the handle of the sword and say, `Remove your hand from the beard of Allah’s Messenger.’ `Urwah raised his head and asked, `Who is that’ The people said, `He is Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah.’ `Urwah said, `O treacherous (one)! Am I not doing my best to prevent evil consequences of your treachery’ Before embracing Islam, Al-Mughirah was in the company of some people. He killed them, took their property and came (to Al-Madinah) to embrace Islam. The Prophet said to him,
(As regards to your Islam, I accept it, but as for the property I do not take anything of it.) `Urwah then started looking at the Companions of the Prophet . By Allah, whenever Allah’s Messenger spat, the spittle would fall in the hand of one of them, who would rub it on his face and skin. If he ordered them, they would carry his orders immediately, if he performed ablution, they would struggle to take the remaining water, and when they spoke to him, they would lower their voices and would not look at his face constantly out of respect. `Urwah returned to his people and said, `O people! By Allah, I have been to the kings and to Caesar, Khosrau and An-Najashi. Yet, by Allah! I have never seen any of them respected by his courtiers, as much as, Muhammad is respected by his companions. By Allah, if he spat, the spittle would fall into the hand of one of them and he would rub it on his face and skin. If he ordered them, they would carry out his order immediately, if he performed ablution, they would struggle to take the remaining water, and when they spoke, they would lower their voices and would not look at his face constantly out of respect. No doubt, he has presented to you a good reasonable offer, so please accept it.’ A man from the tribe of Bani Kinanah said, `Allow me to go to him,’ and they allowed him. When he approached the Prophet and his Companions, Allah’s Messenger said,
(He is so-and-so who belongs to the tribe that respects the sacrificial camels. So, bring the sacrificial camels before him.) So, the sacrificial camels were brought before him and the people received him while they were reciting Talbiyah. When he saw that scene, he said, `Glorified is Allah! It is not fair to prevent these people from visiting the Ka`bah.’ When he returned to his people, he said, `I saw the sacrificial camels garlanded and marked. I do not think it is advisable to prevent them from visiting the Ka`bah.’ Another person called Mikraz bin Hafs stood up and sought their permission to go to Muhammad , and they allowed him, too. When he approached the Muslims, the Prophet said,
(Here is Mikraz and he is a vicious man.) Mikraz started talking to the Prophet and as he was talking, Suhayl bin `Amr came.” Ma`mar said that Ayyub said to him that `Ikrimah said, “When Suhayl bin `Amr came, the Prophet said,
(Now the matter has become easy for you.)” Ma`mar said that Az-Zuhri narrated, “When Suhayl bin `Amr came, he said to the Prophet , `Please conclude a peace treaty with us.’ So, the Prophet called `Ali bin Abi Talib and said to him,
(Write: In the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman, Ar-Rahim.) Suhayl bin `Amr said, `As for Ar-Rahman, by Allah, I do not know what it means. So write: By Your Name, O Allah, as you used to write previously.’ The Muslims said, `By Allah, we will not write except: By the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman, Ar-Rahim.’ The Prophet said,
(Write: “In Your Name O Allah.”) Then he dictated,
(This is a peace treaty, which Muhammad, Allah’s Messenger has concluded.) Suhayl said, `By Allah, if we knew that you are Allah’s Messenger, we would not prevent you from visiting the Ka`bah, and would not fight with you. So, write: Muhammad bin `Abdullah.’ The Prophet said to him,
(By Allah! I am the Messenger of Allah even if your people do not believe me. Write: “Muhammad bin `Abdullah.”)” Az-Zuhri continued, “The Prophet accepted all those things, since he had already said that he would accept everything they would demand if it respects the ordinance of Allah, the Exalted.” The Hadith continues, “The Prophet said to Suhayl,
(On the condition that you allow us to visit the House so that we may perform Tawaf around it.) Suhayl said, `By Allah, we will not, so as not to give the Arabs a chance to say that we have yielded to your pressure, but we will allow you next year.’ So, the Prophet had that written. Then Suhayl said, `We also stipulate that you should return to us whoever comes to you from us, even if he embraced your religion.’ The Muslims protested, `Glorified be Allah! How can a person be returned to the idolators after he has become a Muslim’ While they were in this state Abu Jandal bin Suhayl bin `Amr came from the valley of Makkah staggering with his chains and fell down among the Muslims. Suhayl said, `O Muhammad! This is the very first term with which we make peace with you, that is, you shall return Abu Jandal to me.’ The Prophet said,
(The peace treaty has not been written yet.) Suhayl said, `Then by Allah, I will never conduct peace with you.’ The Prophet said,
(Release him to me,) and Suhayl responded, `I will never allow you to keep him.’ The Prophet said,
(Yes, do.) He said, `I will not.’ Mikraz said, `We allow you (to keep him).’ Abu Jandal said, `O, Muslims! Will I be returned to the idolators although I have come as a Muslim Don’t you see how much I have suffered’ Abu Jandal had been tortured severely for the cause of Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored. `Umar bin Al-Khattab said, `I went to the Prophet and said: Aren’t you truly the Messenger of Allah’ The Prophet said,
(Yes, indeed.) I said, `Isn’t our cause just and the cause of the enemy unjust’ He said,
(Yes.) I said, `Then why should we be humble in our religion’ He said,
(I am Allah’s Messenger and I do not disobey Him, and He will make me victorious.) I said, `Didn’t you tell us that we would go to the Ka`bah and perform Tawaf around it’ He said,
(Yes, but did I tell you that we would visit the Ka`bah this year) I said, `No.’ He said,
(So you will visit it and perform Tawaf around it.) `Umar further said, `I went to Abu Bakr and said: O Abu Bakr! Isn’t he truly Allah’s Prophet’ He replied, `Yes.’ I said, `Is not our cause just and the cause of our enemy unjust’ He said, `Yes.’ I said, `Then why should we be humble in our religion’ He said, `O you man! Indeed, he is Allah’s Messenger and he does not disobey his Lord, and He will make him victorious. Adhere to him for, by Allah, he is on the right path.’ I said, `Was he not telling us that we would go to the Ka`bah and perform Tawaf around it’ He said, `Yes, but did he tell you that you would go to the Ka`bah this year’ I said, `No.’ He said, `You will go to the Ka`bah and perform Tawaf around it.’ Az-Zuhri said, “`Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, said, `I performed many good deeds as expiation for the improper questions I asked them.’ ” “When the writing of the peace treaty was concluded, Allah’s Messenger said to his Companions,
(Get up and slaughter your sacrifices and have your heads shaved.) By Allah none of them got up, and the Prophet repeated his order thrice. When none of them got up, he left them and went to Umm Salamah and told her of the people’s attitudes towards him. Umm Salamah said, `O Prophet of Allah! Do you want your order to be carried out Go out and don’t say a word to anybody until you have slaughtered your sacrifice and call your barber to shave your head.’ The Messenger of Allah went out and did not talk to anyone until he did what she suggested, slaughtered the sacrifice and shaved his head. Seeing that, the Companions got up, slaughtered their sacrifices, and started shaving the heads of one another. There was so much of a rush — and sadness — that there was a danger of killing each other. Then some believing women came and Allah the Exalted and most Honored revealed the following Ayat,
(O you who believe! When believing women come to you) (60:10), until,
(Likewise hold not the disbelieving women as wives.) `Umar then divorced two of his wives, who were disbelievers. Later on Mu`awiyah bin Abu Sufyan married one of them, and Safwan bin Umayyah married the other. When the Prophet returned to Al-Madinah, Abu Basir, a new Muslim convert from the Quraysh, came to him. The disbelievers sent two men in pursuit who said to the Prophet , `Abide by the promise you gave us.’ So, the Prophet handed him over to them. They took him out (of Al-Madinah) until they reached Dhul-Hulayfah where they dismounted to eat some dates they had with them. Abu Basir said to one of them, `By Allah, O, so-and-so, I see you have a fine sword.’ The other drew it out (of its sheath) and said, `Yes, by Allah, it is very fine and I have tried it many times.’ Abu Basir said, `Let me have a look at it.’ When the other gave the sword to Abu Basir, he struck him with it until he died. His companion ran away until he reached Al-Madinah, entering the Masjid running. When Allah’s Messenger saw him he said,
(This man appears to have been frightened.) When he reached the Prophet he said, `My companion has been murdered, by Allah, and I would have been murdered too. ‘ Abu Basir came and said, `O Allah’s Messenger, by Allah! Allah has made you fulfill your obligations by returning me to them, but Allah the Exalted has saved me from them.’ The Prophet said,
(Woe to his mother! What an excellent war kindler he would be, if he only have supporters.) When Abu Basir heard this from the Prophet , he understood that he would return him to the idolators again, so he set off until he reached the seashore. Abu Jandal bin Suhayl also got himself released from the disbelievers and joined Abu Basir. Thereafter, whenever a man from Quraysh embraced Islam he would follow Abu Basir until they formed a strong group. By Allah, whenever they heard about a caravan of the Quraysh heading towards Ash-Sham (Greater Syria), they stopped it, attacked and killed the disbelievers and took their properties. The people of Quraysh sent a message to the Prophet requesting him for the sake of Allah and kith and kin to send for (Abu Basir and his companions) promising that whoever among them came to the Prophet , would be secure. So, the Prophet sent for them and Allah the Exalted and Most Honored revealed the following Ayat,
(And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah), until,
(the pride and haughtiness of the time of ignorance, ) Their pride and haughtiness was that they did not confess that Muhammad was the Prophet of Allah, refused to write, `In the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman, Ar-Rahim,’ and prevented Muslims from visiting the Ka`bah.” This is the narration Al-Bukhari collected in the Book of Tafsir, `Umrat Al-Hudaybiyyah, Hajj, and so forth. Allah is the Only One sought for help, all reliance is on Him alone and there is no might or strength except from Allah, the Almighty, the All-Wise. Al-Bukhari narrated in the Book of Tafsir that Habib bin Abi Thabit said that he went to Abu Wa’il asking him about something and he said, “We were at Siffin, when a man said, `Do you not see those who call to Allah’s Book’ `Ali bin Abi Talib said, `Yes.’ Sahl bin Hunayf said, `Do not feel certain in the reliability of your own opinions! On the day of Hudaybiyyah, the day the treaty of peace was signed between the Prophet and idolators, had we found a chance to fight, we would have done so.’ `Umar came (to the Prophet ) and said, `Are we not on the true cause and theirs is the false cause Are not our killed in Paradise and theirs in the Fire’ He said, `Yes.’ `Umar said, `Why then should we be humble with regards to the cause of our religion Why should we go back before Allah decides in the matter between us (between Muslims and the idolators.)’ The Prophet said,
(O son of Al-Khattab! I am Allah’s Messenger and He will never abandon me. ) `Umar left while feeling angry and soon went to Abu Bakr and said, `O Abu Bakr! Are we not on the true cause and they are on falsehood’ Abu Bakr said, `O son of Al-Khattab! He is Allah’s Messenger and Allah will never abandon him.’ Surat Al-Fath was later revealed.”’ Al-Bukhari collected this Hadith in several other parts of his Sahih, and so did Muslim and An-Nasa’i using various chains of narration from Abu Wa’il, Sufyan bin Salamah, from Sahl bin Hunayf. Some of these narrations read, “O people! Accuse sheer opinion (of being imperfect)! On the day Abu Jandal came, I saw myself willing to reject the command of Allah’s Messenger , had I had the chance.” In yet another narration, “Surat Al-Fath was revealed and the Messenger of Allah called `Umar bin Al-Khattab and recited it to him.” Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas said, “Quraysh resorted to peace with the Prophet . Suhayl bin `Amr was among the idolators then. The Prophet said to `Ali,
(Write: “In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.”) Suhayl said, `We do not know the meaning of: In the Name of Allah, Ar-Rahman Ar-Rahim. However, write what we do know: In Your Name, O Allah!’ The Messenger said,
(Write: “From Muhammad, Allah’s Messenger,”) and Suhayl said, `If we knew that you are Allah’s Messenger, we would have followed you. However, write your name and the name of your father.’ The Prophet said,
(Write: “From Muhammad son of `Abdullah.”) They set the terms with the Prophet that, `If anyone comes from your side to us, we will not send him back to you. If anyone from among us came to you, you send him back to us.’ `Ali said, `O Allah’s Messenger! Should I write this,’ and the Prophet said,
(Yes. Surely, those who revert from our side and go to them, then may Allah cast them away.) Muslim also collected this Hadith.” Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Abbas said, “When Al-Haruriyyah rebelled, they set a separate camp for their group. I said to them, `On the day of Al-Hudaybiyyah, the Messenger of Allah agreed to conduct peace with the idolators. He said to `Ali,
(Write, O `Ali: “These are the terms agreed to by Muhammad, Allah’s Messenger.”)’ The idolators said, `If we knew that you are Allah’s Messenger, we would not have fought you.’ Allah’s Messenger said,
(O `Ali! Erase it. O Allah! You know that I am Your Messenger. O `Ali! Erase it and write instead: “These are the peace terms agreed to by Muhammad bin `Abdullah.”) By Allah, Allah’s Messenger is better than `Ali, and the Messenger erased his title. However, erasing his title did not mean that he was erased from being a Prophet. Have I given you sufficient proof in this.’ They said, `Yes.”’ Abu Dawud also collected a similar narration. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Abbas said, “On the day of Hudaybiyyah, the Messenger of Allah slaughtered seventy sacrificial camels, including a camel that belonged to Abu Jahl. When the camel was prevented from coming to the House, she cried just as she would cry when seeing her offspring.”
In a dream, the Messenger of Allah saw himself entering Makkah and performing Tawaf around the House. He told his Companions about this dream when he was still in Al-Madinah. When they went to Makkah in the year of Al-Hudaybiyyah, none of them doubted that the Prophet’s vision would come true that year. When the treaty of peace was conducted and they had to return to Al-Madinah that year, being allowed to return to Makkah the next year, some of the Companions disliked what happened. `Umar bin Al-Khattab asked about this, saying, “Haven’t you told us that we will go to the House and perform Tawaf around it” The Prophet said,
(Yes. Have I told you that you will go to it this year) `Umar said, “No.” The Prophet said,
(Then you will go to it and perform Tawaf around it.) `Umar received the same answer from Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, letter for letter. This is why Allah the Exalted and Most honored said,
(Indeed Allah shall fulfill the true vision which He showed to His Messenger in very truth. Certainly, you shall enter Al-Masjid Al-Haram, if Allah wills,) and He willed that this matter shall certainly occur,
(secure,) means, `upon your entering,’
((some) having your heads shaved, and (some) having your hair cut short,) and some of them indeed had their head hair shaved, while some of them had their head hair shortened. The Two Sahihs recorded that the Messenger of Allah said,
(O Allah! Be merciful to those who have their head shaved.) The people said, “O Allah’s Messenger! And (invoke Allah for) those who get their hair cut short.” He said,
(O Allah! Be merciful to those who have their head shaved.) The people said, “O Allah’s Messenger! And those who get their hair cut short.” The Prophet said,
(O Allah! Be merciful to those who have their head shaved.) The people said, “O Allah’s Messenger! And those who get their hair cut short.” The Prophet said (the third or the fourth time),
(And to those who get their hair cut short.) Allah said,
(having no fear), indicating that they will be safe and will have no fear when they enter Makkah. This occurred in the `Umrah performed the following year, on the seventh year of Hijrah during the month of Dhul-Qa`dah. When the Messenger left from Al-Hudaybiyyah, during the month of Dhul-Qa`dah (the sixth year of Hijrah), he went back to Al-Madinah. He remained in Al-Madinah during the months of Dhul-Hijjah and Al-Muharram. In Safar, he marched forth to Khaybar, and Allah opened that city for him, partly by force and partly by its people surrendering to him. Khaybar was a wealthy province that had abundant date trees and vegetation. The Prophet hired the (defeated) Jews of Khaybar to attend to a part of its green fields and divided the province among those who attended Al-Hudaybiyyah with him. No one else except those Companions took part in attacking Khaybar, except Ja`far bin Abi Talib, who came back with his companions from Ethiopia. Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari and his people also attended that battle. None of them were absent except Abu Dujanah Simak bin Kharashah, according to Ibn Zayd. This fact is well recorded in (the Books of) history. The Prophet then returned to Al-Madinah. When the month of Dhul-Qa`dah came, the seventh year of Hijrah, the Prophet went to Makkah for `Umrah accompanied by those who were with him at Al-Hudaybiyyah. He resumed Ihram from Dhul-Hulayfah and took the sacrificial animals with him. It was said that the sacrificial animals were sixty. The Prophet and his Companions started reciting the Talbiyah aloud. When they came close to Marr Az-Zahran, he sent Muhammad bin Maslamah before him with the horses and weapons. When the idolators saw this advance regiment, they were overwhelmed with fear. They thought that the Messenger of Allah would attack them and that he had betrayed the treaty that he conducted with them, which stipulated cessation of hostilities for ten years. The idolators went quickly to Makkah to inform its people. When the Prophet made camp in the area of Marr Az-Zahran, where he was close enough to see the idols that were erected all around the Haram, he sent the weaponry, arrows, arrow cases and spears, to the valley of Ya`jaj. He next went on his way towards Makkah with the swords resting in their sheaths, just as he agreed to in the peace treaty. While the Prophet was still on the way to Makkah, the Quraysh sent Mikraz bin Hafs who said, “O Muhammad! We never knew you to be one who betrays his promises.” The Prophet said,
(Why do you say that) Mikraz said, “You are headed towards us with the weaponry, the arrows and the spears.” The Prophet said,
(I did not do that, I sent all that to the valley of Ya`jaj.) Mikraz said, “This is the way we knew you to be, trustworthy and keeping to your promises.” The leaders of the disbelievers left Makkah so that they would not have to look at the Messenger of Allah and his Companions, out of rage and anger. As for the rest of the people of Makkah, men, women and children, they sat on the pathways and house roofs watching the Messenger of Allah and his Companions. The Messenger entered Makkah with his Companions while reciting the Talbiyah. The Prophet sent the sacrificial animals to Dhu Tuwa while riding his camel, Al-Qaswa’, the same camel he was riding on the day of Hudaybiyyah. `Abdullah bin Rawahah, from Al-Ansar, was holding the bridle of the Prophet’s camel and repeating this poem, “In the Name of He, other than Whose religion there is no true religion, In the Name of He, Whom Muhammad is His Messenger, O children of the disbelievers, stay out of his way, For today, we shall impose on you the fulfillment of its interpretation, Just as we fought with you to accept its revelation, Severe fighting that removes the heads from where they rest, And overwhelms the companion from attending to his companion, Ar-Rahman has sent down in His revelation, In pages that are being recited before His Messenger, That the best death is that which occurs in His cause, So, O Lord, I believe in its statements.” This story is collected from various narrations. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Abbas said, “When Allah’s Messenger and his Companions came to Makkah, the fever of Yathrib (Al-Madinah) had weakened and bothered them. The idolators circulated the news that a group of people were coming to them and that they had been weakened and bothered by the fever of Yathrib (Al-Madinah). The idolators sat in the area close to Al-Hijr. Allah conveyed to His Prophet what the idolators said, so he ordered his Companions to do Ramal in the first three rounds, so that the idolaters witness their strength. The Companions did Ramal the first three rounds. He also ordered them to walk normally between the two corners, for from there the idolators would not be able to see them. The Prophet did not order them to do Ramal in all the rounds of Tawaf out of pity for them. The idolators commented, `Are these the people whom you claimed were weakened by the fever. They are stronger than so-and-so!”’ The Two Sahihs also recorded this Hadith. In another narration, “Allah’s Messenger and his Companions came (to Makkah) on the morning of the fourth day of Dhul-Qa`dah. The idolators circulated the news that a group of people was coming to them, who had been weakened by the fever of Yathrib (Al-Madinah). So, the Prophet ordered his Companions to do Ramal in the first three rounds of Tawaf. The Prophet did not order them to do Ramal in all the rounds of Tawaf out of pity for them.” Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn `Abbas said, “In the year when the Prophet came as stipulated by the peace treaty, he said, `Perform Ramal.’ So that the idolators may witness their strength. At that time, the idolators were watching from the area of Qu`ayqi`an.” Ibn `Abbas said, “Allah’s Messenger performed Tawaf of the Ka`bah and the Sa`y at As-Safa and Al-Marwah to show his strength to the idolators.” Al-Bukhari recorded that `Abdullah bin `Umar said, “Allah’s Messenger set out for `Umrah, but the Quraysh idolators prevented him from reaching the Ka`bah. So, he slaughtered his sacrifice, got his head shaved at Al-Hudaybiyyah, agreed to a formal pact with them that he would perform `Umrah the following year, would not carry weapons against them, except swords and would not stay in Makkah, except for the period they allowed. The Prophet performed the `Umrah in the following year and entered Makkah according to the treaty. And when he stayed for three days, the idolators ordered him to depart, and he departed.” Allah’s statement,
(He knew what you knew not, and He granted besides that a near victory.) means, Allah the Exalted and Most Honored knew the benefit and goodness of turning you away from Makkah and preventing you from entering it in the year of Al-Hudaybiyyah, He knew that which you had no knowledge of,
(and He granted besides that) `before entering Makkah as you were promised in the vision that the Prophet saw, He granted a close victory, i.e. the treaty of peace that you conducted between you and your idolator enemies.
Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said, while delivering the glad tidings to the believers that the Messenger will triumph over his enemies and the rest of the people of the earth,
(He it is Who has sent His Messenger with guidance and the religion of truth,) with beneficial knowledge and righteous good deeds. Indeed, the Islamic Shari`ah has two factors, knowledge and deeds. The true religious knowledge is by definition true, and the accepted Islamic acts are by definition accepted. Therefore, the news and creed that this religion conveys are true and its commandments are just,
(that He may make it superior to all religi- ons.) all the religions of the people of the earth, Arabs and non-Arabs alike, whether having certain ideologies or being atheists or idolators.
(And All-Sufficient is Allah as a Witness.) that Muhammad is His Messenger and that He will grant him victory. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored has the best knowledge.
Allah declares that without doubt, Muhammad is truly His Messenger,
(Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.) and this quality includes every beautiful description. Allah praises the Companions of the Messenger , may Allah be pleased with them all,
(And those who are with him are severe against disbelievers, merciful among themselves.) just as He, the Exalted and Most Honored, said in another Ayah,
(Allah will bring a people whom He will love and they will love Him; humble towards the believers, stern towards the disbelievers.)(5:54) This is the description of the believers; harsh with the disbelievers, merciful and kind to the believers, angry without smiling before the disbelievers, smiling and beaming with pleasure before his believing brother. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah,
(O you who believe! Fight those of the disbelievers who are close to you, and let them find harshness in you.) (9:123) The Prophet said,
(The parable of the believers in their kindness and mercy for each other, is that of the body: when one of its organs falls ill, the rest of the body responds with fever and sleeplessness.) The Prophet also said,
(A believer to another believer is like a building whose different parts enforce each other.) Then he clasped his hands with his fingers interlaced. Both of these Hadiths were collected in the Sahih. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,
(You see them bowing and falling down prostrate, seeking reward from Allah and acceptance.) Allah describes the believers as active in performing righteous deeds and in praying, which is the best action there is, all the while being sincere to Allah the Exalted and Most Honored in the prayer, awaiting His generous reward alone. Allah’s best reward is Paradise that contains His bounties and favors, abundant provisions, as well as, earning His good pleasure that is greater than the former reward. Allah said,
(But the greatest bliss is the acceptance by Allah) (9: 72) The statement of Allah the Exalted next,
(The mark of them is on their faces from the traces of prostration.) refers to graceful appearance, according to Ibn `Abbas as reported from him by `Ali bin Abi Talhah. Mujahid and several others explained: “It means, humbleness and reverence.” Some said, “The righteous good deed brings light to the heart, brightness to the face, ampleness in provisions, and love in people’s hearts.” The Leader of the faithful, `Uthman bin `Affan said, “Everyone who hides a secret, then Allah the Exalted will either show on his face what he’s done or by the words that accidentally slip from his mouth.” Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah bin `Abbas said that the Prophet said,
(Verily, good conduct, graceful appearance and moderation are one part out of twenty-five parts of prophethood.) Abu Dawud also collected this Hadith. Therefore, since the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all, had sincere intentions and righteous good deeds, all those who looked at them liked their appearance and conduct. Imam Malik said, “I was told that when the Christians saw the Companions, who conquered Ash-Sham, they commented, `These people are, by Allah, better than the Disciples (of `Isa) according to what has been conveyed to us.”’ They indeed said the truth, for this Ummah was mentioned in an honorable way in previously revealed Scriptures. The best and most honored members of this Ummah are the Companions of the Messenger of Allah . Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, praised them in previous Books and Revelations, and this is why He said here,
(This is their description in the Tawrah), then said,
(But their description in the Injil is like a seed which sends forth its shoot (Shat`ah,)) its shoot or branch,
(then makes it strong,) able to stand on its own,
(and becomes thick), youthful and long,
(and it stands straight on its stem, delighting the sowers,) Such is the parable that describes the Companions of Allah’s Messenger . They gave the Messenger aid, support and victory, just as the shoot hardens the plant,
(that He may enrage the disbelievers with them. ) Relying on this Ayah, Imam Malik stated that the Rawafid are disbelievers because they hate the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all. Malik said, “The Companions enrage them, and according to this Ayah, he who is enraged by the Companions is a disbeliever.” Several scholars agreed with Malik’s opinion, may Allah be pleased with them. There are numerous Hadiths mentioning the virtues of the Companions and prohibiting the criticism on their mistakes. It is sufficient that Allah the Exalted has praised them and declared that He is pleased with them. Allah the Exalted and Most Honored said,
(Allah has promised those among them who believe and do righteous deeds, forgiveness) for their sins,
(and a mighty reward.) a generous reward and honorable provisions. Certainly, Allah’s promise is true and shall come to pass and will never be broken or changed. Surely, all those who follow the guidance of the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all, will be similar to them. However, the Companions have the better virtue, the obvious lead and the perfection in character, on account of which none among this Ummah will be able to attain their level. May Allah be pleased with them and make them pleased. May He place them in the gardens of Al-Firdaws, and make it their abode, and He indeed has done all of that. In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Do not abuse my Companions, for by the One in Whose Hand is my soul! If one of you spends the amount of Uhud in gold, that amount will never reach the level of one of them spending a Mudd half of it.)
This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Fath; all praise and thanks is due to Allah.
Tafseer by Abul A’la Maududi
48. Surah Al Fath (The Victory)
It is derived from the words Inna fatah-na laka fat-han mubina of the very first verse. This is not only a name of the Surah but also its title in view of the subject matter, for it deals with the great victory that Allah granted to the Holy Prophet and the Muslims in the form of the Truce of Hudaibiyah.
Period of Revelation
Traditions concur that it was sent down in Dhil-Qadah, A. H. 6, at a time when the Holy Prophet was on his return journey to Madinah after concluding the Truce of Hudaibiyah with the disbelievers of Makkah.
The events in connection with which this Surah was sent down began like this: One day the Holy Prophet saw in a dream that he had gone to Makkah with his Companions and had performed the umrah there. Obviously, the Prophet’s dream could not be a mere dream and fiction for it is a kind of Divine inspiration as Allah Himself has confirmed in verse 27 below and said that He Himself had shown that dream to His Messenger. Therefore, it was not merely a dream but a Divine inspiration which the Holy Prophet had to obey and follow.
Apparently, there was no possible way of acting on this inspiration. The disbelieving Quraish had debarred the Muslims from proceeding to the Ka’bah for the past six years and no Muslim had been allowed during that period to approach the Kabah for the purpose of performing hajj and umrah. Therefore, it could not be expected that they would allow the Holy Prophet to enter Makkah along with a party of his Companions. If they had proceeded to Makkah in the pilgrim garments with the intention of performing umrah, along with their arms, this would have provoked the enemy to war, and if they had proceeded unarmed, this would have meant endangering his own as well as his Companions’ lives. Under conditions such as these nobody could see and suggest how the Divine inspiration could be acted upon.
But the Prophet’s position was different. It demanded that he should carry out whatever Command his Lord gave fearlessly and without any apprehension and doubt. Therefore, the Holy Prophet informed his Companions of his dream and began to make preparations for the journey. Among the tribes living in the suburbs also he had the public announcement made that he was proceeding for umrah and the people could join him. Those who could only see the apparent conditions thought that he and his Companions were going into the very jaws of death none of them therefore was inclined to accompany him in the expedition. But those who had true faith in Allah and His Messenger were least bothered about the consequences. For them this information was enough that it was a Divine inspiration and Allah’s Prophet had made up his mind to carry it into effect. After this nothing could hinder them from accompanying the Messenger of Allah. Thus, 1,400 of the Companions became ready to follow him on this highly dangerous journey.
This blessed caravan set off from Madinah in the beginning of Dhil Qa’dah, A. H. 6. At Dhul Hulaifah they entered the pilgrims robe with the intention of umrah, took 70 camels with collars round their necks indicating that they were sacrificial animals; kept only a sword each in sheaths, which the pilgrims to the Kabah were allowed to carry according to the recognized custom of Arabia, but no other weapon. Thus, the caravan set out for the Ka’bah, the House of Allah, at Makkah, chanting the prescribed slogan of Labbaik, Allahuma Labbaik.
The nature of the relations between Makkah and Madinah in those days was known too well to every Arab. Just the previous year, in Shawwal A. H. 5, the Quraish mustering the united strength of the Arab tribes had invaded Madinah and the well known Battle of the Trench had taken place. Therefore, when the Holy Prophet along with such a large caravan set off for the home of his blood-thirsty enemy, the whole of Arabia looked up with amazement, and the people also noticed that the caravan was not going with the intention to fight but was proceeding to the House of Allah in a forbidden month in the pilgrims garb carrying sacrificial animals and was absolutely unarmed.
The Quraish were confounded at this bold step taken by the Holy Prophet. Dhil-Qa’dah was one of those forbidden months which had been held as sacred for pilgrimage in Arabia for centuries. Nobody had a right to interfere with a caravan which might be coming for hajj or umrah in the pilgrims garb in this month; so much so that even an enemy tribe could not hinder it from passing through its territory according to the recognized law of the land. The Quraish therefore were caught in a dilemma, for if they attacked this caravan from Madinah and stopped it from entering Makkah, this would arouse a clamor of protest in the whole country, and all the Arab tribes would have the misgiving that the Quraish had monopolized the Ka’bah as exclusively their own, and every tribe would be involved in the mistrust that now it depended on the will of the Quraish to allow or not to allow anyone to perform hajj or umrah in the future and that they would stop any tribe with which they were angry from visiting the Ka’bah just as they had stopped the Madinese pilgrims. This they thought would be a grave mistake, which would cause the entire Arabia to revolt against them. But, on the other hand, if they allowed Muhammad (upon whom be Allah’s peace and blessings) and his large caravan to enter their city safely, they would lose their image of power in Arabia and the people would say that they were afraid of Muhammad. At last, after a great deal of confusion, perplexity and hesitation they were overcome by their false sense of honor and for the sake of their prestige they took the decision that they would at no cost allow the caravan to enter the city of Makkah.
The Holy Prophet had dispatched a man of the Bani Ka’b as a secret agent so that he may keep him fully informed of the intentions and movements of the Quraish. When the Holy Prophet reached Usfan, he brought the news that the Quraish had reached Dhi Tuwa with full preparations and they had sent Khalid bin Walid with two hundred cavalry men in advance towards Kura’al-Ghamim to intercept him. The Quraish wanted somehow to provoke the Holy Prophet’s Companions into fighting so that they may tell the Arabs that those people had actually come to fight and had put on the pilgrims garments for umrah only to deceive others.
Immediately on receipt of this information the Holy Prophet changed his route and following a very rugged, rocky track reached Hudaibiyah, which was situated right on the boundary of the sacred Makkan territory. Here, he was visited by Budail bin Warqa the chief of the Bani Khuza’ah, along with some men of his tribe. They asked what he had come for. The Holy Prophet replied that he and his Companions had come only for pilgrimage to the House of Allah and for going round it in worship and not for war. The men of Khuza’ah went and told this to the Quraish chiefs and counseled them not to interfere with the pilgrims. But the Quraish were obstinate. They sent Hulays bin Alqamah, the chief of the Ahabish, to the Holy Prophet to persuade him to go back. Their object was that when Muhammad (upon whom be Allah’s peace) would not listen to Hulays, he would come back disappointed and then the entire power of the Ahabish would be on their side. But when Hulays went and saw that the whole caravan had put on the pilgrims garments, had brought sacrificial camels with festive collars round their necks, and had come for doing reverence to the House of Allah and not to fight, he returned to Makkah without having any dialogue with the Holy Prophet and told the Quraish chiefs plainly that those people had no other object but to pay a visit to the Ka’bah; if they debarred them from it, the Ahabish would not join them in that, because they had not become their allies to support them if they violated the sacred customs and traditions.
Then the Quraish sent `Urwah bin Mas’ud Thaqafi; he had lengthy negotiations with the Holy Prophet in an effort to persuade him to give up his intention to enter Makkah. But the Holy Prophet gave him also the same reply that he had given to the chief of the Khuza’ah, that they had not come to fight but to do honor to the House of Allah and carry out a religious duty. Urwah went back and said to the Quraish: “I have been to the courts of the Caesar and Khosroes, and the Negus also, but by God, never have I seen any people so devoted to a king as are the Companions of Muhammad (upon whom be Allah’s peace and blessings) to him. If Muhammad makes his ablutions they would not let the water thereof fall on the ground but would rub it on their bodies and clothes. Now you may decide as to what you should do.”
In the meantime when the messages were coming and the negotiations were going on, the Quraish tried again and again to quietly launch sudden attacks on the Muslim camp in order to provoke the Companions and somehow incite them to war, but every time they did so the Companions’ forbearance and patience and the Holy Prophet’s wisdom and sagacity frustrated their designs. On one occasion forty or fifty of their men came at night and attacked the Muslim camp with stones and arrows. The Companions arrested all of them and took them before the Holy Prophet, but he let them go. On another occasion 80 men came from the direction of Tan’im right at the time of the Fajr Prayer and made a sudden attack. They were also caught, but the Holy Prophet forgave them, too. Thus, the Quraish went on meeting failure after failure in every one of their designs.
At last, the Holy Prophet sent Hadrat Uthman (may Allah be pleased with him) as his own messenger to Makkah with the message that they had not come to fight but only for pilgrimage and had brought their sacrificial camels along, and they would go back after performing the rite of pilgrimage and offering the sacrifice. But the Quraish did not agree and withheld Hadrat Uthman in the city. In the meantime a rumor spread that Hadrat Uthman had been killed; and when he did not return in time the Muslims took the rumor to be true. Now they could show no more forbearance. Entry into Makkah was different for there was no intention to use force. But when the ambassador was put to death, the Muslims had no alternative but to prepare for war. Therefore, the Holy Prophet summoned all his Companions together and took a solemn pledge from them that they would fight to death. In view of the critical occasion it was not an ordinary undertaking. The Muslims numbered only 1400 and had come without any weapons, were encamping at the boundary of Makkah, 250 miles away from their own city, and the enemy could attack them in full strength, and could surround them with its allies from the adjoining tribes as well. In spite of this, none from the caravan except one man failed to give his pledge to fight to death, and there could be no greater proof of their dedication and sincerity than that in the cause of Allah. This pledge is well known in the history of Islam as the pledge of Ridwan.
Later it was known that the news about Hadrat Uthman was false. Not only did he return but under Suhail bin ‘Amr from the Quraish also arrived a deputation to negotiate peace with the Holy Prophet. Now, the Quraish no more insisted that they would disallow the Holy Prophet and his Companions to enter Makkah. However, in order to save their face they only insisted that he went back that year but could come the following year to perform the umrah. After lengthy negotiations peace was concluded on the following terms:
War would remain suspended for ten years, and no party would indulge in any hostility, open or secret, against the other.
If any one during that period from among the Quraish went over to Muhammad, without his guardian’s permission, he would return him to them, but if a Companion of Muhammad came over to the Quraish, they would not return him to him.
Every Arab tribe would have the option to join either side as its ally and enter the treaty.
Muhammad and his men would go back that year and could come the following year for umrah and stay in Makkah for three days, provided that they brought only one sheathed sword each, and no other weapon of war. In those three days the Makkans would vacate the city for them (so that there was no chance of a clash), but they would not be allowed to take along any Makkan on return.
When the conditions of the treaty were being settled, the whole of the Muslim army was feeling greatly upset. No one understood the expedience because of which the Holy Prophet was accepting the conditions. No one was far sighted enough to foresee the great benefit that was to result from this treaty. The disbelieving Quraish looked at it as their victory, and the Muslims were upset as to why they should be humiliated to accepting those mean conditions. Even a statesman of th caliber of Hadrat Umar says that he had never given way to doubt since the time he had embraced Islam but on this occasion he also could not avoid it. Impatient he went to Hadrat Abu Bakr and said “Is he (the Holy Prophet) not Allah’s Messenger, and are we not Muslims, and are they not polytheists? Then, why should we agree to what is humiliating to our Faith?” He replied “O Umar, he is surely Allah’s Messenger, and Allah will never make him the loser.” Unsatisfied he went to the Holy Prophet himself and put the same questions to him, and he also gave him the same replies as Hadrat Abu Bakr had given. Afterwards Hadrat Umar continued to offer voluntary prayers and give aims so that Allah may pardon his insolence that he had shown towards the Holy Prophet on that occasion.
Two things in the treaty were highly disturbing for the Muslims first, the second condition, about which they said that it was an expressly unfair condition, for if they had to return a fugitive from Makkah, why should not the Quraish return a fugitive from Madinah? To this the Holy Prophet replied: “What use would be he to us, who fled from us to them? May Allah keep him away from us!And if we return the one who flees to us from them, Allah will create some other way out for him.” The other thing that was rankling in their minds was the fourth condition. The Muslims thought that agreeing to it meant that they were going back unsuccessful and this was humiliating. Furthermore, the question that was causing them feel upset was that they had accepted the condition of going back without performing the pilgrimage to the Ka’bah, whereas the Holy Prophet had seen in the vision that they were performing tawaf at Makkah. To this the Holy Prophet replied that in his vision the year had not been specified. According to the treaty conditions, therefore, they would perform the tawaf the following year if it pleased Allah.
Right at the time when the document was being written, Suhail bin ‘Amr’s own son, Abu Jandal, who had become a Muslim and been imprisoned by the pagans of Makkah somehow escaped to the Holy Prophet’s camp. He had fetters on his feet and signs of violence on his body. He implored the Holy Prophet that he help secure his release from imprisonment. The scene only increased the Companions’ dejection, and they were moved beyond control. But Suhail bin ‘Amr said the conditions of the agreement had been concluded between them although the writing was not yet complete; therefore, the boy should be returned to them. The Holy Prophet admitted his argument and Abu Jandal was returned to his oppressors.
When the document was finished, the Holy Prophet spoke to the Companions and told them to slaughter their sacrificial animals at that very place, shave their heads and put off the pilgrim garments, but no one moved from his place. The Holy Prophet repeated the order thrice but the Companions were so overcome by depression and dejection that they did not comply. During his entire period of apostleship on no occasion had it ever happened that he should command his Companions to do a thing and they should not hasten to comply with it. This caused him a great shock, and he repaired to his tent and expressed his grief before his wife, Hadrat Umm Salamah. She said, “You may quietly go and slaughter your own camel and call the barber and have your head shaved. After that the people would automatically do what you did and would understand that whatever decision had been taken would not be changed.” Precisely the same thing happened. The people slaughtered their animals, shaved their heads or cut their hair short and put off the pilgrim garb, but their hearts were still afflicted with grief.
Later, when this caravan was returning to Madinah, feeling depressed and dejected at the truce of Hudaibiyah, this Surah came down at Dajnan (or according to some others, at Kura’ al-Ghamim), which told the Muslims that the treaty that they were regarding an their defeat, was indeed a great victory. After it had come down, the Holy Prophet summoned the Muslims together and said: “Today such a thing has been sent down to me, which is more valuable to me than the world and what it contains.” Then he recited this Surah, especially to Hadrat Umar, for he was the one who was feeling most dejected.
Although the believers were satisfied when they heard this Divine Revelation, not much longer afterwards the advantages of this treaty began to appear one after the other until every one became fully convinced that this peace treaty indeed was a great victory:
In it for the first time the existence of the Islamic State in Arabia was duly recognized. Before this in the eyes of the Arabs the position of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be Allah’s peace) and his Companions was no more than of mere rebels against the Quraish and other Arab tribes, and they regarded them as the outlaws. Now the Quraish themselves by concluding this agreement with the Holy Prophet recognized his sovereignty over the territories of the Islamic State and opened the way for the Arab tribes to enter treaties of alliance with either of the political powers they liked.
By admitting the right of pilgrimage to the House of Allah for the Muslims, the Quraish also admitted that Islam was not an anti-religious creed, as they had so far been thinking, but it was one of the admitted religions of Arabia, and like the other Arabs, its followers also had the right to perform the rites of hajj and umrah. This diminished the hatred in the Arabs hearts that had been caused by the propaganda made by the Quraish against Islam.
The signing of a no-war pact for ten years provided full peace to the Muslims, and spreading to every nook and corner of Arabia they preached Islam with such spirit and speed that within two years after Hudaibiyah the number of the people who embraced Islam far exceeded those who bad embraced it during the past 19 year or so. It was all due to this treaty that two years later when in consequence of the Quraish’s violating the treaty the Holy Prophet invaded Makkah, he was accompanied by an army 10,000 strong, whereas on the occasion of Hudaibiyah only 1,400 men had joined him in the march.
After the suspension of hostilities by the Quraish the Holy Prophet had the opportunity to establish and strengthen Islamic rule in the territories under him and to turn the Islamic society into a full fledged civilization and way of life by the enforcement of Islamic law. This is that great blessing about which Allah says in verse 3 of Surah Al-Ma’idah:”Today I have perfected your Religion for you and completed My blessing on you and approved Islam as the Way of Life for you.” (for explanation, see Introduction to Surah Al-Ma’idah and its E. N. 15).
Another gain that accrued from the truce with the Quraish was that being assured of peace from the south the Muslims overpowered all the opponent forces in the north and central Arabia easily. Just three months after Hudaibiyah, Khaiber, the major stronghold of the Jews, was conquered and after it the Jewish settlements of Fadak, Wad-il Qura, Taima and Tabuk also fell to Islam one after the other. Then all other tribes of central Arabia, which were bound in alliance with the Jews and Quraish, came under the sway of Islam. Thus, within two years after Hudaibiyah the balance of power in Arabia was so changed that the strength of the Quraish and pagan gave way and the domination of Islam became certain.
These were the blessings that the Muslims gained from the peace treaty which they were looking upon as their defeat and the Quraish as their victory. However, what had troubled the Muslims most in this treaty, was the condition about the fugitives from Makkah and Madinah, that the former would be returned and the latter would not be returned. But not much long afterwards this condition also proved to be disadvantageous for the Quraish, and experience revealed what far reaching consequences of it had the Holy Prophet fore seen and then accepted it. A few days after the treaty a Muslim of Makkah, Abu Basir, escaped from the Quraish and reached Madinah. The Quraish demanded him back and the Holy Prophet returned him to their men who had been sent from Makkah to arrest him. But while on the way to Makkah he again fled and went and sat on the road by the Red Sea shore, which the trade caravans of the Quraish took to Syria. After that every Muslim who succeeded in escaping from the Quraish would go and join Abu Basir instead of going to Madinah, until 70 men gathered there. They would attack any Quraish caravan that passed the way and cut it into pieces at last, the Quraish themselves begged the Holy Prophet to call those men to Madinah, and the condition relating to the return of the fugitives of itself became null and void.
The Surah should be read with this historical background in view in order to fully understand it.
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
1-10 Allah granted the Muslims a manifest victory through the treaty of Hudeybiyah and Swearing allegiance to the Prophet is considered swearing allegiance to Allah
(48:1) (O Prophet), surely We have granted you a clear victory1 (48:2) so that Allah may forgive you your shortcomings, whether earlier or later,2 and may complete His favours upon you3 and guide you to the Straight Way,4 (48:3) and that Allah may bestow upon you a mighty help.5 (48:4) He it is Who bestowed inner peace on the hearts of the believers6 so that they may grow yet more firm in their faith.7 To Allah belong the legions of the heavens and the earth; Allah is All-Knowing, Most Wise.8 (48:5) (He did this) to admit the believers, both men and women,9 to Gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they shall abide, and to efface their evil deeds from them.10 That, in Allah’s sight, is the supreme triumph. (48:6) (He also did this) to chastise the hypocrites, both men and women, and those who associate others in His Divinity, both men and women, and who harbour evil thoughts about Allah.11 They shall be afflicted with misfortune,12 Allah is wroth with them. He has laid His curse upon them and has prepared for them Hell. What an evil end! (48:7) To Allah belong the legions of the heavens and the earth. Allah is Most Mighty, Most Wise.13 (48:8) (O Prophet), We have sent you forth as a witness,14 as a bearer of good news, and as a warner15 (48:9) so that (all of) you may all believe in Allah and His Messenger, and support him, and revere him, and celebrate Allah’s glory, morning and evening.16 (48:10) Those who swore fealty to you, (O Prophet),17 in fact swore fealty to Allah. The Hand of Allah is above their hands.18 So whoever breaks his covenant breaks it to his own hurt; and whoever fulfils the covenant that he made with Allah,19 He will bestow on him a great reward.
1. When after the treaty of Hudaibiyah, this good news of the victory was announced, the people wondered as to how the treaty could be called a victory. The Muslims did believe in this divine revelation as true on the basis of their faith, but no one could understand what aspect of the victory it had. On hearing this verse, Umar asked: Is it a victory, O Messenger of Allah? The Prophet (peace be upon him) replied: Yes. (lbn Jarir) Another companion came before the Prophet (peace be upon him) and he also put the same question; whereupon the Prophet (peace be upon him) replied: By Him in Whose hand is the life of Muhammad, this indeed is a victory. (Musnad Ahmad, Abu Daud). On arriving at Al-Madinah still another person said to his companions: What sort of a victory is it? We were debarred from the House of Allah; our sacrificial camels also could not go to their right places; the Messenger of Allah had to halt at Hudaibiyah, and in consequence of this truce two of our oppressed brothers (Abu Jandal and Abu Basir) were handed over to their oppressors. When this thing reached the Prophet, he said: A very wrong thing has been uttered, it indeed is a great victory. You reached the very home of the polytheists, and they had to persuade you to go back by soliciting you to perform Umrah the following year. They themselves expressed the desire to suspend hostilities and have peace with you, whereas their malice and enmity against you is too well known. Allah has granted you the upper hand over them. Have you forgotten the day when you were fleeing from Uhud and I was calling you back from behind? Have you forgotten the day when the enemy had descended on us from every side in the battle of the Trench and the hearts were coming up to the throats? (Baihaqi on the authority of Urwah bin Zubair). But not long after this, the truce’s being a victory began to become manifest, and everyone realized that the triumph of Islam had begun with the treaty of Hudaibiyah. Almost one and the same thing has been related from Abdullah bin Masud, Jabir bin Abdullah and Bara bin Azib. They are reported to have said: The people look upon the conquest of Makkah as the victory, but we regard the truce of Hudaibiyah as the real victory. (Bukhari, Muslim, Musnad Ahmad, Ibn Jarir).
2. If the context in which this sentence occurs is kept in view, one will certainly feel that the faults referred to here imply those shortcomings and weaknesses that had remained in the struggle that the Muslims had been making for the success and victory of Islam, under the leadership of the Prophet (peace be upon him), for the past nineteen years or so. These shortcomings are not known to any one because the intellect is absolutely helpless to find out any weakness in that struggle. But according to the highest standards of perfection in the sight of Allah there had remained some such weakness in it because of which the Muslims could not attain a decisive victory so soon over the pagans of Arabia. What Allah means to say is this: If you had carried on your struggle along with those weaknesses, it would have taken you much longer to subdue Arabia, but We have overlooked all those weaknesses and shortcomings and compensated for them only through Our grace, and opened for you at Hudaibiyah the door to victory and conquest which you could not have achieved only by your ordinary endeavors.
Here, this thing also should be understood well that for the weaknesses that might occur and remain in the struggle and endeavor that a group might be making for an object, the leader and guide of the group only is addressed. This does not mean that the weaknesses are the leader’s personal weaknesses. Those are, in fact, the weaknesses of the struggle that the group is making as a whole; but the address is made to the leader to tell him that his work suffers from such and such a weakness.
However, as the address is directed to the Prophet (peace be upon him) and declared that Allah has forgiven him all his former and latter faults, the general words also give this meaning that Allah pardoned all the shortcomings (which were the shortcomings in view of his high position) of His Messenger (peace be upon him). That is why when the companions saw that he took extraordinary pains over his worship, they would say: Why do you subject yourself to such hardships when all your former and latter errors and shortcomings have been pardoned? the Prophet (peace be upon him) would reply: Should I not behave as a grateful servant? (Ahmad, Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Daud).
3. “Perfection His favor” implies that the Muslims should become free to live their lives in accordance with Islamic civilization, Islamic law and commandments, secure from every fear, every resistance and every external interference, and they should also be blessed with the power that they may uphold Allah’s Word throughout the world. Dominance of disbelief and wickedness which may be a hindrance in the way of Allah’s worship and an obstacle in the struggle in propagating Allah’s Word, is the greatest calamity for the believers. The Quran calls it fitnah (mischief). Delivered and freed from this calamity when they arc able to achieve an abode of Islam (darul-Islam) in which the divine religion is enforced in its entirety, and along with that they are also provided with the means and resources by which they may establish faith and righteousness on Allah’s earth in place of disbelief and wickedness, this would be the perfection of Allah’s blessing on them. As this blessing was achieved by the Muslims only through the Prophet (peace be upon him), Allah addressed only him and said: We willed to complete Our blessing on you; therefore we have granted this victory to you.
4. “The straight path”, the way to conquest and success. In other words, it implies that by causing the treaty to be concluded at Hudaibiyah, Allah paved the way for and inspired the Prophet (peace be upon him) with the plan by which he could subdue all the forces that were resisting Islam.
5. Another translation can be: “Bestow on you an unprecedented victory,” for the word aziz in the original may mean mighty as well as unprecedented and unparalleled. According to the first meaning, the sentence means: By means of this treaty Allah has helped you in a way as to make your enemies helpless; and according to the second, it means: Seldom has this novel method ever been adopted to help somebody, that a thing which apparently is a mere peace treaty, and that too a treaty concluded from a weak position, would turn into a decisive victory.
6. Sakinat in Arabic is calmness and tranquility and peace of mind. Here Allah calls its being sent into the hearts of the believers an important factor in the victory that Islam and the Muslims achieved at Hudaibiyah. From a study of the conditions of the time, one comes to know what kind of a Sakinat it was that was sent down into the hearts of the Muslims during that period and how it became a source of victory. If at the time when the Prophet (peace be upon him) expressed his intention to go for Umrah to Makkah, the Muslims had become terror-stricken and started behaving like the hypocrites as if they were going into the very jaws of death, or if at the time when they heard the news on the way that the disbelieving Quraish were coming out in great strength to fight them, they had been alarmed as to how they would face the enemy un-armed, and thus become panic-stricken, obviously no benefits would have resulted from Hudaibiyah at all. Then, if at the time when at Hudaibiyah the disbelievers had stopped the Muslims from going any further, and when they had tried to provoke them by launching against them repeated sudden attacks, and when the rumor of Uthman’s martyrdom had spread, and when Abu Jandal had appeared on the scene as the very image of oppression and persecution, the Muslims had actually become provoked and broken the discipline that the Prophet (peace be upon him) had instilled in them, the result would have been disastrous. Above all, if at the time when the Prophet (peace be upon him) was going to conclude the treaty on the conditions which were unacceptable to the entire party of the Muslims, the Muslims had happened to disobey him, the great victory of Hudaibiyah would have turned into a humiliating defeat. Thus, it was all because of Allah’s bounty that on all these critical moments the Muslims were blessed with full peace of mind with regard to the leadership and guidance of the Prophet (peace be upon him), the truth of Islam and the truthfulness of their mission. This is why they decided with a cool mind that they would face and accept whatever hardships they would encounter in the way of Allah. That is why they remained safe from fear, confusion, provocation and despair; that is why perfect discipline continues to prevail in the camp; and that is why, in spite of being deeply grieved at the conditions of peace, they submitted to the decision taken by the Prophet (peace be upon him). This was the sakinat that Allah had sent down into the hearts of the Muslims, and it was all because of this that the dangerous step of undertaking a journey for performing Umrah became the prelude to a unique victory.
7. That is, one faith they already had before they set out on this expedition; they attained the additional faith when they remained steadfast on the way of sincerity, piety and obedience in every trial that they faced in connection with the expedition. This verse is one of those verses which show that faith is not a static state which is incapable of growth, but it develops as well as decays and deteriorates. After embracing Islam till death the believer at every step in his life continues to be confronted with such tests and trials in which he has to take a decision whether in following the divine religion he is prepared to sacrifice his life, his wealth, his sentiments, desires, time, comforts and interests or not. If at the time of every such trial, he adopts the way of sacrifice, his faith progresses and develops, and if he turns away, his faith decays and deteriorates till a time may also come when the initial state of the faith with which he had entered Islam is even endangered to be lost and destroyed. (For further explanation. see( E.N.2 of Surah Al- Anfal )and (E.N. 38 of Surah Al-Ahzab).
8. It means this: Allah has such hosts by which He can destroy and exterminate the disbelievers completely whenever He wills, but He has deliberately and by wisdom only placed this responsibility on the believers that they should enter a conflict with the disbelievers and struggle to make the religion of Allah prevail and prosper in the world. In this way alone does a door to the enhancement of their ranks and successes in the Hereafter open as is being indicated in the following verse.
9. In the Quran generally mention of the rewards for the believers is made collectively and separate mention is not made of the rewards for the men and the women. But here, since the general mention of giving the rewards could cause the doubt that this reward may perhaps be only meant for the men. Allah has made a separate mention of the believing women, saying that they too would be equal partners in this reward with the believing men. The reason is obvious. Those God-fearing women who encouraged their husbands, sons, brothers and fathers to proceed on the dangerous journey instead of stopping them from it and discouraging them by crying and wailing, who looked after their houses, their properties, their honor and children in their absence faithfully, who did not even feel the alarm lest at the sudden departure of 1,400 of the companions the disbelievers and hypocrites of the surrounding areas would attack the city, should certainly have become equal partners with their men in the reward of jihad although they stayed behind in their homes.
10. That is, that He may pardon whatever errors they might have committed because of human weaknesses, remove every trace and mark of the errors from them before admitting them into Paradise so that they may enter Paradise absolutely free from every evil that may cause them embarrassment.
11. The hypocrites living in the suburbs of Al-Madinah were thinking, as has been stated in (verse 12) below, that the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his companions would not return alive from that journey. As for the polytheists of Makkah and their pagan companions, they were thinking that they had successfully put to rout the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his companions by preventing them from performing Umrah. In fact, whatever these two groups had thought, they had this misunderstanding about Allah that He would not help His Messenger (peace be upon him). And in the conflict between the truth and falsehood, He would allow falsehood to defeat and frustrate the truth.
12. That is, they were encompassed by the same evil fate which they wanted to avoid and against which they had devised all those plans, and their same plans caused the evil fate to be hastened.
13. Here the theme of( verse 4 )has been reiterated for another object. There, the object was to state that Allah, instead of employing His supernatural hosts to fight the disbelievers, had employed the believers for it only because He willed to favor them. Here, the theme has been repeated to say that in order to punish the one whom Allah wills to punish He can employ whichever of His countless hosts He likes for the purpose; no one has the power to avert His punishment by his own plans.
14. Shah Waliyullah has translated shahid as a bearer of witness to the truth, and other translators translate it as a bearer of the witness. The word shahadat comprehends both these meanings. For explanation, sec (E.N. 82 of Surah Al-Ahzab).
15. For explanation, see( E.N. 33 of Surah Al-Ahzab).
16. According to some commentators the verse means: “And help the Messenger, and honor him, and glorify Allah morning and evening”, and according to others: “And help Allah, and honor Him and glorify Him morning and evening.”
Glorifying Allah morning and evening does not mean glorifying Him only in the morning and the evening but at all times. It is just like saying about something that it is well-known in the east and the west when one actually means to say that it is well-known everywhere in the world.
17. The reference is to the pledge that the Prophet (peace be upon him) took from his companions at Hudaibiyah at the rumor that Uthman had been killed at Makkah. According to some traditions it was a pledge unto death, and according to others it was an undertaking that they would not turn away from the battlefield. The first thing has been reported from Salamah bin Akwa and the second from Ibn Umar, Jabir bin Abdullah and Maqil bin Yasar. The purport of both is the same. The companions had pledged allegiance on the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) hand with the express object that if the news of Uthman’s martyrdom proved to be true, they would settle the matter with the Quraish there and then even if they were cut to pieces in the clash. As on this occasion it was not yet certain whether Uthman actually had been killed or was still living, the Prophet (peace be upon him) placed one of his own hands on the other and pledged allegiance on his behalf, and thus bestowed a unique honor on Uthman in that he made Uthman a partner in the pledge by making his own sacred hand represent the hand of Uthman. The Prophet’s (peace be upon him) taking the pledge of allegiance on his behalf necessarily meant that he had full confidence that if Uthman had been present he would certainly have pledged the allegiance.
18. That is, the hand on which the Muslims were swearing allegiance was not the hand of the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) person but of Allah’s representative, and this allegiance was in fact being sworn to Allah through His Messenger.
19. Here, instead of alaih-illah the words used in the original are alaih-ullah, which is a departure from the general rule of Arabic. Allama Alusi has given two reasons for the unusual use of the vowel points here. First, the object on this special occasion is to express the great glory, eminence and majesty of the Being to Whom the pledge was being sworn for which alaih-u is more appropriate than alaih-i; second, the ha in alaih-i actually represents vowel, therefore, adhering here to the vowel points of the original goes well with the theme of the allegiance.
11-17 Beduin Arabs who did not go with the Prophet for war between Islam and Kufr are condemned for lagging behind and Only blind, lame and sick are exempt from war
(48:11) (O Prophet), the bedouins who were left behind say to you:20 “We were occupied with our goods and families. So ask forgiveness for us.” They say with their tongues what is not in their hearts.21 Say to them: “Who can be of any avail to you against Allah if He should intend to cause you any harm or confer upon you any benefit?” Allah is well aware of all that you do.22 (48:12) (But the truth is not what you say.) You had imagined that the Messenger and the believers would never return to their families, and this notion was embellished in your hearts.23 You harboured an evil thought, and you are an immensely evil people.”24 (48:13) As for those who do not believe in Allah and His Messenger, for such unbelievers We have prepared a Blazing Fire.25 (48:14) To Allah belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth. He forgives whom He pleases and chastises whom He pleases. He is Most Forgiving, Most Compassionate.26 (48:15) When you press forth for the spoils, those who were left behind will say: “Let us accompany you.”27 They want to change the command of Allah.28 Say to them (in clear words): “You shall not accompany us. Thus has Allah already said.”29 Then they will say: “Nay; but you are jealous of us.” The truth is that they understand little. (48:16) Say to the bedouins who were left behind: “You will be called against those who possess great might and be asked to fight against them unless they surrender.30 If you obey (the command to fight), Allah will bestow upon you a goodly reward. But if you turn away, as you turned away before, He shall inflict upon you a grievous chastisement.” (48:17) There is no blame on the blind, nor on the lame, nor on the sick (if they do not go forth to fight).31 Allah will admit those who obey Allah and His Messenger to the Gardens beneath which rivers flow and will inflict a grievous chastisement on those who turn away.
20. This refers to the people living in the suburbs of Al- Madinah whom the Prophet (peace be upon him) had invited to accompany him in his march out for Umrah, but they had not left their homes in spite of their claim to faith just because they were afraid of death. Traditions show that these were the people of the tribes of Aslam, Muzainah, Juhainah, Ghifar, Ashja, Dil and others.
21. This has two meanings:
(1) That after your returning to Madinah the excuse that these people will present for not going out with you, would only be a lame excuse, because they know in their hearts why they had stayed behind.
(2) That their imploring the Messenger (peace be upon him) of Allah for a prayer of forgiveness would only be an empty word of mouth, for in fact, they are neither feeling remorse for their failure to accompany you, nor have they any feeling that they committed a sin by not going out with the Messenger (peace be upon him), nor are they seeking forgiveness sincerely.
As for themselves they think that they did a wise thing by not going on the dangerous journey; had they any desire for Allah and His forgiveness, they would not have stayed behind at home.
22. That is, Allah’s decision will be on the basis of the knowledge that He has about the reality of your actions. If your actions deserve the punishment and I pray for your forgiveness, my prayer will not save you from Allah’s punishment. And if your actions do not deserve the punishment, and I do not pray for your forgiveness, my failure to pray will not do any harm to you. Everything is in Allah’s control, not mine, and no one’s empty words can deceive Him. Therefore, even if I accept as true what you say and then also pray for your forgiveness on its basis, it will be vain and without result.
23. That is, you were delighted to think that you had saved yourselves from the danger into which the Messenger (peace be upon him) and his believing supporters were going. You thought you had done so by dint of your great wisdom; and you also did not feel any compunction in rejoicing at the thought that the Messenger (peace be upon him) and the believers would not return alive from their expedition. You did not feel uneasy in spite of your claim to the faith but were pleased to think that you did not put yourselves in the danger by accompanying the Messenger (peace be upon him).
24. The word ba-ir (pl. bur in the original) has two meanings:
(1) A sinful, perverted and evil-minded person who is incapable of doing anything good.
(2) One who is doomed to an evil end and is following the path of destruction.
25. Here, Allah in clear words is declaring all such people disbelievers and devoid of the faith, who are not sincere with regard to Allah and His religion, who shirk endangering their interests, their lives and wealth for the sake of Allah’s religion when the time comes of their trial and test. But one should remember that this is not the sort of disbelief on the basis of which somebody in the world may be regarded as excommunicated from Islam, but this is the disbelief because of which he will be declared a disbeliever in the Hereafter. The reason is that the Prophet (peace be upon him) even after the revelation of this verse did not regard as outside Islam those people in respect of whom it was sent down, nor treated them like the disbelievers.
26. The mention of Allah’s being All-Forgiving and All- Merciful, after the foregoing warning, contains in it a subtle aspect of admonition. It means this: Even now if you give up your insincere attitude and way of life and adopt sincerity, you will find Allah All-Forgiving and All- Merciful. He will forgive you your previous shortcomings and will treat you according to the quality of your sincerity in the future.
27. That is, the time is approaching when these very people who were shirking accompanying you on the dangerous journey, would see you going on an expedition in which there would be the possibility of attaining easy victory and much booty. Then they would come running and request you to take them also along. Such a time came just three months after the truce of Hudaibiyah, when the Prophet (peace be upon him) marched to Khaiber and took it easily. At that time everyone could see that after the truce with the Quraish not only Khaiber but the Jewish settlements of Taima, Fadak, Wadi-al-Qura and also others from northern Arabia would not be able to withstand the might of the Muslims and would easily fall to the Islamic State. Therefore, Allah in these verses forewarned the Prophet (peace be upon him) that the opportunists of the suburbs of Al-Madinah would come up to take part in and receive their share when they would see easy victories being attained, and that he should tell them plainly: You will never be allowed to take part in these, because only those who had gone forth to offer their lives in the conflict at Hudaibiyah regardless of every danger would be entitled o them.
28. Allah’s Word implies the decree that only those people would be allowed to accompany the Prophet (peace be upon him) in the expedition to Khaiber, who had taken part in the expedition to Hudaibiyah and sworn the pledge there, for Allah has reserved the spoils of Khaiber exclusively for them, as has been stated clearly in verse 18 below.
29. The words “Thus did Allah say before” caused the people the misunderstanding that this refers to some other command bearing upon the same subject that might have been sent down before this verse, and since no such command is found in this Surah before this verse, they started looking for it at other places in the Quran till they found (verse 84 of Surah At-Taubah), in which this very subject has been dealt with for another occasion. But that verse, in fact, does not apply to this, for it was sent down in connection with the Battle of Tabuk, and its period of revelation is three years after the period of revelation of Surah Al-Fatah. The fact of the matter is that this verse refers to( verses 18-19) of this Surah itself, and Allah’s already having said this does not mean its having been said before this verse but its having been said to the laggards before this conversation. This conversation with the laggards about which advance instructions are being given to the Prophet (peace be upon him) was to take place at the time of the expedition to Khaiber, and this whole Surah, including (verses 18-19), had been sent down three months earlier on return from Hudaibiyah on the way. A careful study of the context shows that Allah here is giving this instruction to His Messenger: When after your return at Al-Madinah the laggards come to you with their excuses, you should give them this reply, and when they express their desire to accompany you in the expedition to Khaiber, you should tell them this.
30. The words au-yuslimuna in the original can have two meanings and both are implied: (1) That they should accept Islam. (2) That they should submit to the Islamic rule.
31. That is, the one who has a genuine excuse for not joining jihad is not accountable, but if the able-bodied, strong people make excuses for not joining it, they cannot be regarded as sincere with regard to Allah and His religion, and they cannot be given the opportunity to take advantage of the gains as members of the Muslim community, but when time comes for making sacrifices for Islam, they should lag behind and seek the safety of their lives and properties.
Here, one should know that two kinds of the people have been exempted from jihad duty by the Shariah:
(1) Those who are not physically fit for jihad, e.g. young boys, women, the insane, the blind and such patients as cannot perform military duties, and such disabled people as cannot take part in war.
(2) Those for whom it may be difficult to join jihad for other sound reasons, e.g. the slaves, or those persons who may be ready for jihad but may not afford weapons of war and other necessary equipment, or such debtors who may have to pay their debts at the earliest opportunity and the creditors may not be willing to allow them more time, or such people whose parents (or a parent) might be alive, who stand in need of the children’s help.
In this regard, it should also be known that the children should not join jihad without the permission of their parents if they are Muslims, but if they (the parents) are non-Muslims, it is not permissible for a person to stay away from jihad in case they refuse permission.
18-26 Allah was well pleased with those swore allegiance to the Prophet before the treaty of Hudeybiyah and Had there not been believers in Makkah, Allah would have allowed the Muslims to fight against Qureysh
(48:18) Allah was much pleased with the believers when they swore fealty to you under the tree.32 He knew what was in their hearts. So He bestowed inner peace upon them33 and rewarded them with a victory near at hand (48:19) and with abundant spoils which they shall acquire.34 Allah is Most Mighty, Most Wise. (48:20) Allah has promised you abundant spoils which you shall acquire.35 He has instantly granted you this (victory)36 and has restrained the hands of people from you37 that it may be a Sign for the believers38 and He may guide you to a Straight Way.39 (48:21) He also promises you other spoils which you have not yet taken, but Allah has encompassed them.40 Allah has power over everything. (48:22) Had the unbelievers fought against you at that time, they would have turned their backs (in flight), and would have found none to protect or help them.41 (48:23) Such is Allah’s Way that has come down from the past.42 Never shall you find any change in the Way of Allah. (48:24) He it is Who restrained their hands from you, and your hands from them in the valley of Makkah, even though He had made you victorious against them. Allah was watching all that you did. (48:25) They are the ones who disbelieved and barred you from the Inviolable Mosque and prevented the animals you had designated for sacrifice from reaching the place of their offering.43 If it had not been for the believing men and believing women (who lived in Makkah and) whom you did not know, and had there not been the fear that you might trample on them and unwittingly incur blame on their account, (then fighting would not have been put to a stop. It was stopped so that) Allah may admit to His Mercy whomsoever He pleases. Had those believers been separated from the rest, We would certainly have inflicted a grievous chastise-ment on those of them [i.e. the Makkans) who disbelieved.44 (48:26) (This is why) when the unbelievers set in their hearts a fierce bigotry � the bigotry of ignorance45 � Allah bestowed inner peace upon His Messenger and upon the believers46 and made the word of piety binding on them. They were more deserving and worthier thereof. Allah has knowledge of everything.
32. Here again the pledge taken from the companions at Hudaibiyah has been mentioned. This is called Baiat Ridwan. For, Allah in this verse has given the good news that he became well pleased with those who on this dangerous occasion did not show the least hesitation in offering their lives for the cause of Islam and gave an express proof of their being true in their faith by taking the pledge on the hand of the Prophet (peace be upon him). The Muslims at this time were equipped only with a sword each, numbered only 1,400, were unprepared for warfare, but were donning the pilgrim garments, were away from their military headquarters (Al-Madinah), while the enemy’s stronghold (Makkah) where from it could get any kind of help was just 13 miles off. Had these people been lacking in their sincerity of Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him) and His religion in any degree, they would have abandoned the Messenger (peace be upon him) on this extremely dangerous occasion, and Islam would have been vanquished forever. Apart from their own sincerity there was no external pressure under which they might have been compelled to take the pledge. Their becoming ready at that time to fight in the cause of Allah’s religion regardless of the dangers, is a clear proof that they were true and sincere in their faith and loyal to the cause of Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him) in the highest degree. That is why Allah honored them with this certificate of His good pleasure. Now if someone becomes angry with them after they have been honored with this certificate of Allah’s good pleasure, or slanders and vilifies them, his enmity is with Allah, not with them. Those who say that at that time when Allah honored them with this certificate of His good pleasure, they were sincere, but afterwards they became disloyal to Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him), perhaps harbor a mistrust about Allah that while sending down this verse He was unaware of their future; therefore, He awarded them this warrant only in view of their state at that time, and probably due to the same unawareness inscribed this verse in His Holy Book as well so that afterwards also, when those people have turned disloyal, the world should continue reading this verse about them and praising the knowledge of the unseen of that Allah Who, God forbid, had granted these faithless and disloyal people the warrant of His good pleasure.
About the tree under which this pledge was taken, a tradition by Ibn Umar’s slave Nafi has generally been related, saying that the people had started visiting it and offering prayers by it, so that when Umar came to know of it, he rebuked and warned the people and ordered it to be cut down. (Tabaqat Ibn Saad, vol. II, p. l00). But there are several other traditions which contradict it. A tradition from Nafi himself has been reported in Tabaqat of Ibn Saad to the effect that many years after the Baiat Ridwan the companions looked for the tree but they could not recognize it and differed as to which tree it was. (p. 106). The second tradition has been reported in Bukhari, Muslim, and Tabaqat on the authority of Saeed bin alMusayyab. He says that his father was one of those who had participated in the Baiat Ridwan. He told him that when they had gone for Umrah al-Qada the following year, they had forgotten the tree, and they could not locate it even after looking for it. The third tradition is from lbn Jarir. He says that when Umar, during his caliphate, passed by Hudaibiyah, he inquired about the tree under which the pledge had been sworn. Someone pointed to one tree and another one to another tree. At this Umar told the people to forget it as there was no real need to bother about it.
33. Here, sakinat means that state of the heart on whose strength a man throws himself into dangers with complete calm and peace of mind for the sake of a great objective and resolves without fear and consternation to undertake it regardless of the consequences.
34. The reference is to the conquest of Khaiber and its rich spoils and this verse expressly points out that Allah had reserved this reward only for those people who had taken part in the Baiat Ridwan; apart from them no one else was entitled to take part in the victory and have a share in the spoils. That is why when the Prophet (peace be upon him) marched out to attack Khaiber in Safar, A.H. 7, he took only those people with him. No doubt afterwards, he gave some of the spoils of Khaiber to those emigrants also who returned from Habash and to some companions from the Dus and Ashar tribes as well, but this was given either from Khums (one fifth of the spoils of war given into the public treasury), or with the approval of the companions who had taken the pledge of Ridwan; no one else was given any share of it.
35. This refers to the other victories that the Muslim achieved successively after Khaiber.
36. This implies the treaty of Hudaibiyah which has been described as a manifest victory in the beginning of the Surah.
37. That is, He restrained the disbelieving Quraish from attacking you at Hudaibiyah although from all appearances they were in a much better position and yours was a much weaker side militarily. Furthermore, it also implies that no enemy power could muster courage to attack Al-Madinah in those days, whereas after the departure of 1,400 soldiers the Al-Madinah front had become very weak, and the Jews, the polytheists and hypocrites could take advantage of the situation.
38. Sign of this as to how Allah helps the one who remains steadfast on obedience to Allah and His Messenger and comes out to support and defend the truth and righteousness with his trust and faith in Allah.
39. To a straight path: To the path of greater insight and faith so that you may remain steadfast on obedience to Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him) in the future and may go on marching on the way of truth with trust in Allah, and may learn this lesson from these experiences that the believer should take practical steps to do whatever is demanded by Allah’s religion with his trust in Him, and should not overestimate either his own strength or the strength of the unbelievers.
40. Most probably this is a reference to the conquest of Makkah. The same is the opinion of Qatadah and Ibn Jarir. It seems to mean this: Though Makkah has not yet fallen to you, Allah has encircled it, and as a result of this victory at Hudaibiyah, it will also fall to you.
41. That is, Allah did not prevent fighting at Hudaibiyah because there was a possibility of your being defeated there, but there were other reasons for it, which are being stated in the following verses. Had that factor not been there and Allah had allowed the war to take place, the disbelievers would surely have been routed and Makkah would have fallen to you at that very time.
42. Here, “the way of Allah” means: Allah disgraces the disbelievers who fight His Messenger (peace be upon him) and helps him.
43. That is, Allah was seeing the sincerity and the selfless devotion with which you had become ready to lay down your lives in the cause of the true faith and were obeying the Prophet (peace be upon him) without asking any question. Allah was also seeing that the disbelievers were being unfair. The demand of this situation was that they should have been punished there and then through you, but in spite of that, Allah restrained your hands from them and their hands from you.
44. This was the reason why Allah did not allow fighting to take place at Hudaibiyah. This has two aspects:
That at that time there were quite a number of the Muslim men and women living in Makkah, who were either hiding their faith, or were being persecuted because of their faith as they had no means to emigrate. Had there been fighting and the Muslims had pushed back the disbelievers and entered Makkah, these Muslims would also have been killed in ignorance along with the disbelievers. This would not only have grieved the Muslims but the Arab polytheists also would have gotten an opportunity to say that the Muslims did not even spare their own brethren in faith during wartime. Therefore, Allah took pity on the helpless Muslims and averted the war in order to save the companions from grief and infamy. The other aspect of the expedience was that Allah did not will that Makkah should fall to the Muslims as a result of the defeat of the Quraish after a bloody clash but He willed that they should be encircled from all sides so that within two years or so they should become absolutely helpless and subdued without offering any resistance, and then the whole tribe should accept Islam and enter Allah’s mercy as it actually happened on the conquest of Makkah.
Here the juristic dispute has arisen that if during a war between the Muslims and the disbelievers, the disbelievers should bring out some Muslim men and women, children and old men, in their possession and put them in the forefront as a shield for themselves, or if there is some Muslim population also in the non-Muslim city under attack by the Muslim forces, or if on a warship of the disbelievers, which is within gunfire, the disbelievers have also taken some Muslims on board, can the Muslim army open fire on it? In answer to it the rulings given by different jurists are as follows:
Imam Malik says that in such a case fire should not be opened, and for this he cites this very verse as an argument. He contends that Allah prevented the war at Hudaibiyah only in order to save the Muslims. (Ibn al-Arabi, Ahkam al Quran). But this in fact is a weak argument. There is no word in the verse which may support the view that launching an attack on the enemy in this case is unlawful and forbidden. At the most what one can say on the basis of this verse is that the launching of an attack in such a case should be avoided in order to save the Muslims, provided that it does not put the disbelievers in an advantageous position against the Muslims militarily, or does not diminish the Muslims’ chances of gaining an upper hand in the conflict.
Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Abu Yusuf, Imam Zufar and Imam Muhammad say that it is lawful to open fire in such a case; so much so that even if the disbelievers use the children of the Muslims as a shield by putting them in the forefront, there is no harm in shooting at them, and it is not obligatory for the Muslims to expiate and pay any bloodmoney for the Muslims thus killed, (Al-Jassas, Ahkam al- Quran; Imam Muhammad, Kitab as-Siyar).
Imam Sufyan Thauri also in this case regards opening of the fire as lawful, but he says that although the Muslims will not pay the blood-money of the Muslims thus killed, it is obligatory for them to expiate the sin. (Al-Jassas, Ahkam al-Quran).
Imam Auzai and Laith bin Saad say that if the disbelievers use the Muslims as a shield, fire should not be opened on them. Likewise, if it is known that in their warship our own prisoners also are on board, it should not be sunk. But if we attack a city of theirs and we know that there are also Muslims in the city, it is lawful to open fire on the city, for it is not certain that our shells will only hit the Muslims, and if a Muslim becomes a victim of this shelling, it will not be willful murder of a Muslim but an inadvertent accident. (Al-Jassas, Ahkam alQur an).
Imam Shafei holds the view that in such a case if it is not inevitable to open fire. It is better to try to save the Muslims from destruction; although it is not unlawful to open fire in this case, it is undesirable. But if it is really necessary and it is feared that in case fire is not opened it will put the disbelievers in a better position militarily against the Muslims, it is lawful to resort to shelling, but even then every effort should be made to save the Muslims as far as possible. Furthermore, Imam Shafei also says that if during a conflict the disbelievers put a Muslim in front as a shield and a Muslim kills him, there can be two possible alternatives: either the killer knew that the murdered person was a Muslim, or he did not know that he was a Muslim. In the first case, he will be under obligation to pay compensation for manslaughter as well as do expiation; in the second case he will only do expiation. (Mughni alMuhtaj).
45. The words hamiyyat al-jahiliyyah mean that a man should willfully do something unworthy and improper only for the sake of his honor and prestige. The disbelievers of Makkah themselves acknowledged and admitted that everybody had a right to visit the Kabah for performing Hajj and Umrah, and that they had no right to stop anyone from this duty. This was an ancient admitted law of Arabia. But in spite of knowing that they were absolutely in the wrong and the Muslims in the right. They prevented the Muslims from performing Umrah only for the sake of their prestige. The righteous, even among the polytheists, were also saying that preventing the people, who had come in the pilgrim garbs along with sacrificial camels, from performing pilgrimage was an improper act. Yet the Quraish leaders persisted in their resistance only with the idea that if Muhammad (peace be upon him) entered Makkah along with a large number of his followers, it would mean loss of prestige for them among the Arabs. This was their arrogance.
46. Here, sakinat means the patience and dignity with which the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the Muslims resisted the disbelievers rancor and spirit of paganism. They did not get provoked at their stubborn and insolent behavior and did not do anything which might have violated the spirit of truth and righteousness, or which might have further complicated the situation instead of settling it amicably.
27-29 Vision to conquer Makkah is shown to the Holy Prophet and Characteristics of Muhammad (pbuh) and his followers
(48:27) Allah indeed showed His Messenger the true vision,47 one fully in accord with reality. If Allah so wills48 you shall certainly enter the Inviolable Mosque, in full security,49 you will shave your heads and cut your hair short,50 and do so without any fear. He knew what you did not know, and He granted you a victory near at hand even before (the fulfilment of the vision). (48:28) He it is Who sent His Messenger with the True Guidance and the Religion of Truth that He may make it prevail over every religion. Sufficient is Allah as a witness (to this).51 (48:29) Muhammad is Allah’s Messenger, and those who are with him are firm with the unbelievers52 but compassionate with one another.53 You see them occupied in bowing and prostrating and in seeking Allah’s bounty and good pleasure. They are distinguished54 from others by the marks of prostration on their faces. Thus are they described in the Torah.55 And their parable in the Gospel is that of56 a tilth that puts forth its shoot, then strengthens it so that it becomes stout and stands firmly on its stem. This is a sight pleasing to the sowers and one by which the unbelievers will be enraged. As for those who believe and do righteous deeds, Allah has promised them forgiveness and a great reward.57
47. This is the answer to the question that was constantly agitating the minds of the Muslim. They said: The Prophet (peace be upon him) had seen in his vision that he had entered the Masjid al-Haram and went around the Kabah in worship. Then how is it that they were returning without performing Umrah? In answer to this, although the Prophet (peace be upon him) had told them that in his vision he had not seen that they would perform the Umrah that very year, still there remained some suspicion in the hearts. Therefore, Allah Himself explained that it was He Who had shown the vision and it was a true vision and it would certainly be fulfilled.
48. Here, about the words Insha-Allah (if Allah so wills), which Allah Himself has used with His promise, one can raise the objection that when Allah Himself is making this promise, what is the meaning of making it conditional upon His own willing it? The answer is: Here the words Insha- Allah have not been used in the sense that if Allah does not will, He will not fulfill His promise, but in fact these relate to the background in which this promise was made. The presumption on the basis of which the disbelievers of Makkah had played the drama of preventing the Muslims from umrah was that only he whom they would allow would perform umrah, and would perform it only when they would allow it. At this Allah has said: This depends on Our, not on their, will. The reason why umrah has not been performed this year is not because the disbelievers of Makkah did not allow it to be performed, but because We did not will it to be performed. In the future umrah will be performed if We will, no matter whether the disbelievers allow it or disallow it. Besides, these words also contain the meaning that the Muslims too, will perform umrah not by their own power but because We would will that they should perform it. Otherwise, if We do not will, they do not possess any power to perform it by themselves.
49. This promise was fulfilled in the following year in Dhil- Qadah A.H.7. This Umrah is well known in history as Umrah al-Qada.
50. The words clearly point out that it is not obligatory to get the head shaved in umrah and Hajj, but it is also right to get the hair cut short. However, it is better to have the head shaved, for Allah has mentioned it first and then mentioned having the hair cut short.
51. The reason why this thing has been mentioned here is that when at Hudaibiyah the peace treaty was going to be written down, the disbelievers had objected to the use of the words Rasul-Allah (Messenger of Allah) with the name of the Prophet (peace be upon him), and on their insistence the Prophet (peace be upon him) himself had removed these words from the document. At this Allah says: Our Messenger’s being a Messenger is a reality which remains unaffected whether someone believes in it or not. If some people do not believe in it, they may not, for Allah is enough for a witness over it. Their denial will not change the reality, but the guidance and the true faith which this Messenger (peace be upon him) has brought from Us, shall prevail over all religion, no matter how hard the deniers try to obstruct its progress.
“All religions” implies all those ways of life which include the nature of deen (religion). We have explained it in details in (E.N. 3 of Surah Az-Zumar) and( E.N. 20 of Surah Ash-Shura). Here what Allah has stated in clear words is: The purpose of the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) appointment as a Prophet was not merely to preach this religion but to make it prevail over all others. In other words, he did not bring this religion so that it might survive in a limited compartment of life, while the rest of the spheres of life, by and large, should remain under the relentless control of some false religion (way of life). But he had brought it so that it should be the dominant way of life and any other religion should survive, if at all it survives, only within the limits in which it allows it to survive. For further explanation, sec (E.N. 48 of Surah Az-Zumar).
52. The companions (of the Prophet) are hard against the disbelievers: They are not such that the disbelievers may mold them as they like. They can neither be cowed nor purchased by any inducement. The disbelievers have no power to turn them away from the great objective for the sake of which they have joined and followed the Prophet (peace be upon him) even at the cost of their lives.
53. That is, whatever their hardness and severity, it is only for the disbelievers, not for the believers. As regards the believers they are soft, merciful, affectionate, sympathetic and compassionate. Their unity of aim and object has produced in them love and harmony and complete accord among themselves.
54. This does not imply the mark that appears on the forehead of some people on account of prostrations, but it implies the marks and traces of the fear of God, munificence, nobility and goodness of manner that naturally appears on the face of a person on account of bowing down before God. Man’s face is an open book on the pages of which different states of a man’s self can be seen easily. A vain and arrogant person’s face is different from the face of a humble, modest and unassuming person; an immoral person’s face is clearly distinguished from the face of a righteous and well mannered person; and there is a marked difference between the facial appearance of a wicked man and of a noble and virtuous man. What Allah means to say is: The companions of Muhammad (peace be upon him) are such that one can recognize them on first sight to be the best of mankind, because their faces shine forth with the light of God worship and God consciousness. This is the same thing about which Imam Malik has said that when the armies of the companions entered Syria, the Syrian Christians remarked: These people possess the very same qualities and characteristics of the disciples of the Prophet Jesus Christ (peace be upon him).
55. The allusion probably is to Deuteronomy, 33: 2-3, in which the Holy Prophet’s (peace be upon him) advent has been foretold and the word saints has been used for his companions. Apart from this, if some other quality of the companions has been mentioned in the Torah, it is not found in the existing, corrupted Torah.
56. This parable is found in a sermon of the Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) that has been reported in the New Testament, thus:
And he said, So is the kingdom of God, as if a man should cast seed into the ground: And should sleep, and rise night and day, and the seed should spring and grow up, he knoweth not how. For the earth bringeth forth fruit of herself; first the blade, then the ear, after that the full corn in the ear. But when the fruit is brought forth, immediately he putteth in the sickle, because the harvest is come. And he said, Where unto shall we liken the kingdom of God? Or with what comparison shall we compare it? It is like a grain of mustard seed, which, when it is sewn in the earth, is less than all the seeds that be in the earth. But when it is sown, it groweth up, and becometh greater than all herbs, and shouted out great branches; so that the fowls of the air may lodge under the shadow of it.
The last portion of this sermon is also found in Matthew, 13: 31-32.
57. A section of the Muslims translates this verse, thus: Allah has promised forgiveness and a great reward to those from among these people who have believed and done good works. Thus, they invent a way to vilify and slander the companions, and claim that according to this verse many people among the companions were not believers and righteous. But this commentary goes against verses (4, 5, 18 and 26 )of this very Sarah, and does not even accord with the initial sentences of this verse itself. In( verses 4-5), Allah has made mention of sending down sakinat (tranquility) and of effecting increase in the faith of all those companions who were present with the Prophet (peace be upon him) at Hudaibiyah, and given them without any exception the good news of admission into Paradise. In (verse 18), Allah has expressed His good pleasure for all those who took the pledge to the Prophet (peace be upon him), and in this also there is no exception. In (verse 26), Allah has also used the word muminin (believers) for all the companions, has mentioned of sending down His sakinat to them, and obliged them to be righteous and pious, for they were most worthy and deserving of all mankind. Here also, it was not said that the news was being given only abut those who were believers among them. Then also in the initial sentences of this verse itself the characteristics mentioned are of all those people who were with the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). The words are to the effect that all the people who are with him have this quality and characteristic. After this, suddenly in the last sentence there could be no excuse to say that some of them were the believers and others were not.