Surah Insan (“Human”, “Man”) is the 76th chapter of the Qur’an. It consists a total of 31 ayats and is classified as a Medinan surah.
This surah is about how people can attain spiritual growth. It outlines the benefits and rewards that you may receive in Akhirah.
“Indeed, We guided him to the way, be he grateful or be he ungrateful.”
Surah Al-Insan Ayat 3
Read Surah Insan with English Translation and Transliteration
Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Raheem
In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful
هَلْ أَتَىٰ عَلَى الْإِنسَانِ حِينٌ مِّنَ الدَّهْرِ لَمْ يَكُن شَيْئًا مَّذْكُورًا
Hal ataa ‘alal insaani heenum minad dahri lam yakun shai’am mazkooraa
1. Has there [not] come upon man a period of time when he was not a thing [even] mentioned?
إِنَّا خَلَقْنَا الْإِنسَانَ مِن نُّطْفَةٍ أَمْشَاجٍ نَّبْتَلِيهِ فَجَعَلْنَاهُ سَمِيعًا بَصِيرًا
Innaa khalaqnal insaana min nutfatin amshaajin nabta leehi faja’alnaahu samee’am baseeraa
2. Indeed, We created man from a sperm-drop mixture that We may try him; and We made him hearing and seeing.
إِنَّا هَدَيْنَاهُ السَّبِيلَ إِمَّا شَاكِرًا وَإِمَّا كَفُورًا
Innaa hadainaahus sabeela immaa shaakiranw wa immaa kafoora
3. Indeed, We guided him to the way, be he grateful or be he ungrateful.
إِنَّا أَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ سَلَاسِلَ وَأَغْلَالًا وَسَعِيرًا
Innaaa a’tadnaa lilkaa fireena salaasila wa aghlaalanw wa sa’eeraa
4. Indeed, We have prepared for the disbelievers chains and shackles and a blaze.
إِنَّ الْأَبْرَارَ يَشْرَبُونَ مِن كَأْسٍ كَانَ مِزَاجُهَا كَافُورًا
innal abraara yashra boona min kaasin kaana mizaa juhaa kaafooraa
5. Indeed, the righteous will drink from a cup [of wine] whose mixture is of Kafur,
عَيْنًا يَشْرَبُ بِهَا عِبَادُ اللَّهِ يُفَجِّرُونَهَا تَفْجِيرًا
‘Aynany yashrabu bihaa ‘ibaadul laahi yafajjiroonahaa tafjeeraa
6. A spring of which the [righteous] servants of Allah will drink; they will make it gush forth in force [and abundance].
يُوفُونَ بِالنَّذْرِ وَيَخَافُونَ يَوْمًا كَانَ شَرُّهُ مُسْتَطِيرًا
Yoofoona binnazri wa yakhaafoona yawman kaana sharruhoo mustateeraa
7. They [are those who] fulfill [their] vows and fear a Day whose evil will be widespread.
وَيُطْعِمُونَ الطَّعَامَ عَلَىٰ حُبِّهِ مِسْكِينًا وَيَتِيمًا وَأَسِيرًا
Wa yut”imoonat ta’aama ‘alaa hubbihee miskeenanw wa yateemanw wa aseeraa
8. And they give food in spite of love for it to the needy, the orphan, and the captive,
إِنَّمَا نُطْعِمُكُمْ لِوَجْهِ اللَّهِ لَا نُرِيدُ مِنكُمْ جَزَاءً وَلَا شُكُورًا
Innaamaa nut’imukum li wajhil laahi laa nureedu minkum jazaaa’anw wa laa shukooraa
9. [Saying], “We feed you only for the countenance of Allah . We wish not from you reward or gratitude.
إِنَّا نَخَافُ مِن رَّبِّنَا يَوْمًا عَبُوسًا قَمْطَرِيرًا
Innaa nakhaafu mir Rabbinna Yawman ‘aboosan qamtareeraa
10. Indeed, We fear from our Lord a Day austere and distressful.”
فَوَقَاهُمُ اللَّهُ شَرَّ ذَٰلِكَ الْيَوْمِ وَلَقَّاهُمْ نَضْرَةً وَسُرُورًا
Fa waqaahumul laahu sharra zaalikal yawmi wa laqqaahum nadratanw wa surooraa
11. So Allah will protect them from the evil of that Day and give them radiance and happiness
وَجَزَاهُم بِمَا صَبَرُوا جَنَّةً وَحَرِيرًا
Wa jazaahum bimaa sabaroo janatanw wa hareeraa
12. And will reward them for what they patiently endured [with] a garden [in Paradise] and silk [garments].
مُّتَّكِئِينَ فِيهَا عَلَى الْأَرَائِكِ ۖ لَا يَرَوْنَ فِيهَا شَمْسًا وَلَا زَمْهَرِيرًا
muttaki’eena feeha ‘alal araaa ‘iki laa yarawna feehaa shamsanw wa laa zamhareeraa
13. [They will be] reclining therein on adorned couches. They will not see therein any [burning] sun or [freezing] cold.
وَدَانِيَةً عَلَيْهِمْ ظِلَالُهَا وَذُلِّلَتْ قُطُوفُهَا تَذْلِيلًا
Wa daaniyatan ‘alaihim zilaaluhaa wa zullilat qutoofu haa tazleela
14. And near above them are its shades, and its [fruit] to be picked will be lowered in compliance.
وَيُطَافُ عَلَيْهِم بِآنِيَةٍ مِّن فِضَّةٍ وَأَكْوَابٍ كَانَتْ قَوَارِيرَا
Wa yutaafu ‘alaihim bi aaniyatim min fiddatinw wa akwaabin kaanat qawaareeraa
15. And there will be circulated among them vessels of silver and cups having been [created] clear [as glass],
قَوَارِيرَاْ مِن فِضَّةٍ قَدَّرُوهَا تَقْدِيرًا
Qawaareera min fiddatin qaddaroohaa taqdeeraa
16. Clear glasses [made] from silver of which they have determined the measure.
وَيُسْقَوْنَ فِيهَا كَأْسًا كَانَ مِزَاجُهَا زَنجَبِيلًا
Wa yuskawna feehaa kaasan kaana mizaajuhaa zanjabeelaa
17. And they will be given to drink a cup [of wine] whose mixture is of ginger
عَيْنًا فِيهَا تُسَمَّىٰ سَلْسَبِيلًا
‘Aynan feeha tusammaa salsabeelaa
18. [From] a fountain within Paradise named Salsabeel.
۞ وَيَطُوفُ عَلَيْهِمْ وِلْدَانٌ مُّخَلَّدُونَ إِذَا رَأَيْتَهُمْ حَسِبْتَهُمْ لُؤْلُؤًا مَّنثُورًا
Wa yatoofu ‘alaihim wildaanum mukhalladoona izaa ra aytahum hasibtahum lu’lu ‘am mansoora
19. There will circulate among them young boys made eternal. When you see them, you would think them [as beautiful as] scattered pearls.
وَإِذَا رَأَيْتَ ثَمَّ رَأَيْتَ نَعِيمًا وَمُلْكًا كَبِيرًا
Wa izaa ra ayta summa ra ayta na’eemanw wa mulkan kabeera
20. And when you look there [in Paradise], you will see pleasure and great dominion.
عَالِيَهُمْ ثِيَابُ سُندُسٍ خُضْرٌ وَإِسْتَبْرَقٌ ۖ وَحُلُّوا أَسَاوِرَ مِن فِضَّةٍ وَسَقَاهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ شَرَابًا طَهُورًا
‘Aaliyahum siyaabu sundusin khudrunw wa istabraq, wa hullooo asaawira min fiddatinw wa saqaahum Rabbuhum sharaaban tahooraa
21. Upon the inhabitants will be green garments of fine silk and brocade. And they will be adorned with bracelets of silver, and their Lord will give them a purifying drink.
إِنَّ هَـٰذَا كَانَ لَكُمْ جَزَاءً وَكَانَ سَعْيُكُم مَّشْكُورًا
Innaa haazaa kaana lakum jazz ‘anw wa kaana sa’yukum mashkooraa
22. [And it will be said], “Indeed, this is for you a reward, and your effort has been appreciated.”
إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا عَلَيْكَ الْقُرْآنَ تَنزِيلًا
Innaa nahnu nazzalnaa ‘alaikal quraana tanzeelaa
23. Indeed, it is We who have sent down to you, [O Muhammad], the Qur’an progressively.
فَاصْبِرْ لِحُكْمِ رَبِّكَ وَلَا تُطِعْ مِنْهُمْ آثِمًا أَوْ كَفُورًا
Fasbir lihukmi Rabbika wa laa tuti’ minhum aasiman aw kafooraa
24. So be patient for the decision of your Lord and do not obey from among them a sinner or ungrateful [disbeliever].
وَاذْكُرِ اسْمَ رَبِّكَ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلًا
Wazkuris ma Rabbika bukratanw wa aseelaa
25. And mention the name of your Lord [in prayer] morning and evening
وَمِنَ اللَّيْلِ فَاسْجُدْ لَهُ وَسَبِّحْهُ لَيْلًا طَوِيلًا
Wa minal laili fasjud lahoo wa sabbihhu lailan taweelaa
26. And during the night prostrate to Him and exalt Him a long [part of the] night.
إِنَّ هَـٰؤُلَاءِ يُحِبُّونَ الْعَاجِلَةَ وَيَذَرُونَ وَرَاءَهُمْ يَوْمًا ثَقِيلًا
Inna haaa’ulaa’i yuhibboona ‘aajilata wa yazaroona waraaa’ahum yawman saqeelaa
27. Indeed, these [disbelievers] love the immediate and leave behind them a grave Day.
نَّحْنُ خَلَقْنَاهُمْ وَشَدَدْنَا أَسْرَهُمْ ۖ وَإِذَا شِئْنَا بَدَّلْنَا أَمْثَالَهُمْ تَبْدِيلًا
Nahnu khalaqnaahum wa shadadnaaa asrahum wa izaa shi’naa baddalnaaa amsaala hum tabdeelaa
28. We have created them and strengthened their forms, and when We will, We can change their likenesses with [complete] alteration.
إِنَّ هَـٰذِهِ تَذْكِرَةٌ ۖ فَمَن شَاءَ اتَّخَذَ إِلَىٰ رَبِّهِ سَبِيلًا
Inna haazihee tazkiratun fa man shaaa’at takhaza ilaa rabbihee sabeela
29. Indeed, this is a reminder, so he who wills may take to his Lord a way.
وَمَا تَشَاءُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَشَاءَ اللَّهُ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا
Wa maa tashaaa’oona illaa anyyashaaa’al laah; innal laahaa kaana’Aleeman Hakeema
30. And you do not will except that Allah wills. Indeed, Allah is ever Knowing and Wise.
يُدْخِلُ مَن يَشَاءُ فِي رَحْمَتِهِ ۚ وَالظَّالِمِينَ أَعَدَّ لَهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا
Yudkhilu mai yashaaa’u fee rahmatih; wazzaalimeena a’adda lahum ‘azaaban aleemaa
31. He admits whom He wills into His mercy; but the wrongdoers – He has prepared for them a painful punishment.
The Tafsir of Surat Al-Insan
Chapter – 76
Which was revealed in Makkah
The Recitation of Surat As-Sajdah and Al-Insan in the Morning Prayer on Friday
It has been mentioned previously that it is recorded in Sahih Muslim from Ibn `Abbas that the Messenger of Allah used to recite in the Morning prayer on Friday:
(Alif Lam Mim. The revelation…)(32) and;
(Has there not been over man…) (76)
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. Has there not been over man a period of time, when he was not a thing worth mentioning) (2. Verily, We have created man from Nutfah Amshaj, in order to try him, so, We made him hearer and seer.) (3. Verily, We guided him to the way, whether he be grateful or ungrateful.)
Allah created Man after He did not exist
Allah informs that He brought man into existence after he was not even a thing worth mentioning, due to his lowliness and weakness. Allah says,
(Has there not been over man a period of time, when he was not a thing worth mentioning) Then Allah explains this by saying,
(Verily, We have created man from Nutfah Amshaj,) meaning, mixed. The words Mashaj and Mashij mean something that is mixed together. Ibn `Abbas said concerning Allah’s statement,
(from Nutfah Amshaj,) “This means the fluid of the man and the fluid of the woman when they meet and mix.” Then man changes after this from stage to stage, condition to condition and color to color. `Ikrimah, Mujahid, Al-Hasan and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas all made statements similar to this. They said, “Amshaj is the mixing of the man’s fluid with the woman’s fluid.” Concerning Allah’s statement,
(in order to try him,) means, `We test him.’ It is similar to Allah’s statement,
(That He may test you which of you is best in deed.) (67:2) Then Allah says,
(so, We made him hearer and seer.) meaning, `We gave him the faculties of hearing and sight so that he would be able to use them for obedience and disobedience.’
Allah guided Him to the Path, so Man is either Grateful or Ungrateful
(Verily, We guided to him the way,) meaning, `We explained it to him, made it clear to him and showed it to him.’ This is as Allah says,
(And as for Thamud, We guided them but they preferred blindness to guidance.) (41:17) Allah also said,
(And We guided him to the two ways.) (90:10) meaning, `We explained to him the path of good and the path of evil.’ This is the statement of `Ikrimah, `Atiyah, Ibn Zayd and Mujahid from what is well-known from him and the majority. Allah then says,
(Whether he be grateful or ungrateful.) This is his decree. Thus, with this he is either wretched or happy. This is like what has been recorded by Muslim in a Hadith from Abu Malik Al-Ash`ari. He said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(All of mankind wakes up in the morning the merchant of his own soul. So he either imprisons it or sets it free. )
(4. Verily, We have prepared for the disbelievers iron chains, iron collars, and Sa`ir.) (5. Verily, the Abrar (righteous believers) shall drink of a cup mixed with Kafur.) (6. A spring wherefrom the servants of Allah will drink, causing it to gush forth abundantly.) (7. They fulfill (their) vows, and they fear a Day whose evil will be wide-spreading.) (8. And they give food, inspite of their love for it, to the poor, the orphan and the captive,) (9. (Saying): “We feed you seeking Allah’s Face only. We wish for no reward, nor thanks from you.”) (10. “Verily, We fear from our Lord a Day that is `Abus and Qamtarir.”) (11. So, Allah saved them from the evil of that Day, and gave them Nadrah (a light of beauty) and joy.) (12. And their recompense shall be Paradise, and silken garments, because they were patient.)
The Recompense of the Disbelievers and the Righteous
Allah informs of what he has waiting for those who disbelieve in Him from His creatures of chains, iron collars and Sa`ir. Sa`ir is the flame and fire of the Hell. This is as Allah says,
(When iron collars will be rounded over their necks, and the chains, they shall be dragged along, in the boiling water, then they will be burned in the Fire.) (40:71,72) After mentioning the blazing Fire He has prepared for these wretched people, Allah goes on to say,
(Verily, the Abrar (righteous believers) shall drink of a cup mixed with Kafur.) The properties of the Kafur (camphor) are well known; cooling, having a nice fragrance and in addition to this its taste will be delicious in Paradise. Al-Hasan said, “The coolness of the camphor will be in the pleasantness of ginger.” Thus Allah said,
(A spring wherefrom the servants of Allah will drink, causing it to gush forth abundantly.) meaning, this (drink) that will be mixed for these righteous people will be taken from Kafur, which is a spring that Allah’s close servants will drink directly from, without it being mixed with anything, and they will drink to their fill from it. The word Yashrabu (to drink) includes the meaning of Yarwa (to quench one’s thirst). Allah then says,
(causing it to gush forth abundantly (Tafjir).) meaning, they will have control of it however and wherever they wish. They will have access to it from their castles, their homes, their sitting rooms and their residences. At-Tafjir means to cause to gush forth or flow out. This is as Allah says,
(And they say: “We shall not believe in you until you cause a spring to gush forth from the earth for us.) (17:90) And Allah says,
(We caused a river to gush forth in the midst of them.) (18:33) Mujahid said,
(causing it to gush forth abundantly.) “This means that they will divert it to wherever they wish.” `Ikrimah and Qatadah both made similar statements. Ath-Thawri said, “They will cause it to flow wherever they wish.”
The Deeds of these Righteous People
(They fulfill vows, and they fear a Day whose evil will be wide-spreading.) meaning, they devote to worship Allah using that which He made obligatory upon them from actions of obligatory obedience that is based on Islamic legislation. They also worship Him by fulfilling their vows. Imam Malik reported from Talhah bin `Abdul-Malik Al-Ayli, who reported from Al-Qasim bin Malik, from `A’ishah that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Whoever makes a vow to obey Allah, then he should obey Him. And whoever makes a vow to disobey Allah, then he should not disobey Him.) Al-Bukhari also recorded this Hadith from Malik. These people also abandon those forbidden things which He (Allah) has prohibited for them, due to their fear of having an evil reckoning on the Day of Return. This is the Day when the evil will spread out among all people except for those upon whom Allah has had mercy. Ibn `Abbas said, “Spreading.” Qatadah said, “By Allah! The evil of that Day will spread until it fills the heavens and the earth.” Concerning Allah’s statement,
(And they give food, inspite of their love for it,) It has been said that this means the love of Allah, the Most High. In their view the pronoun refers to Allah. However, the most apparent meaning is that the pronoun refers to the food. This would mean, they give food while they themselves love it and desire it. This was stated by Mujahid and Muqatil, and it was the preferred opinion of Ibn Jarir. This is similar to Allah’s statement,
(And gives his wealth, in spite of love for it.) (2:177) Allah also says,
(By no means shall you attain Al-Birr unless you spend of that which you love.) (3:92) In the Sahih, there is a Hadith which states,
(The best charity is that which you give while you are healthy, covetous, hoping for wealth and fearing poverty.) This means in the condition of your love for wealth, your eagerness for it and your need for it. Thus, Allah says,
(And they give food, inspite of their love for it, to the poor, the orphan and the captive,) Concerning the poor person and the orphan, an explanation of them and their characteristics has already preceded. In reference to the captive, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Al-Hasan and Ad-Dahhak all said, “He is the captive among the people of the Qiblah (i.e., the Muslims).” Ibn `Abbas said, “At that time (when this Ayah was revealed) their (the Muslims’) captives were idolators.” Proof for this is that on the day of Badr the Messenger of Allah commanded his Companions to treat the captives respectfully. They (the Companions) would give them preference over themselves when eating their meals. `Ikrimah said, “They (captives) are the slaves.” Ibn Jarir preferred this opinion since the Ayah generally refers to both the Muslim and the idolators. Sa`id bin Jubayr, `Ata’, Al-Hasan and Qatadah all made similar statements. The Messenger of Allah advised treating servants well in more than one Hadith. This held such importance with him that the last statement of advice that he gave (before dying) was his saying,
(The prayer (As-Salah) and what your right hand possesses (slaves).) Mujahid said, “He (the captive) is the prisoner.” This means that these (righteous) people give food to others even though they themselves desire it and love it, saying at the same time,
(We feed you seeking Allah’s Face only.) meaning, hoping for the reward of Allah and His pleasure.
(We wish for no reward, nor thanks from you.) meaning, `we do not seek any reward from you in return for it. We also are not seeking for you to thank us in front of the people.’ Mujahid and Sa`id bin Jubayr both said, “By Allah! They do not say this with their tongues, but rather, Allah knows it in their hearts and He commends them for it. Every seeker should seek after this.”
(Verily, We fear from our Lord a Day that is `Abus and Qamtarir.) meaning, `we only do this so that perhaps Allah may have mercy on us and treat us with gentleness on the Day that is `Abus and Qamtarir.’ `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas, “`Abus means difficult and Qamtarir means long.” `Ikrimah and others said from Ibn Abbas,
(a Day that is `Abus and Qamtarir (hard and distressful, that will make the faces look horrible from extreme dislike to it.)) “The disbeliever will frown on that day until sweat will flow between his eyes like tar.” Mujahid said, “Abus `Abis means (frowning with) the two lips and Qamtarir means drawing up the face in a scowl.” Sa`id bin Jubayr and Qatadah said, “Faces will be made to frown due to dismay. Qamtarir is the contraction of the forehead and what is between the two eyes due to dismay.” Ibn Zayd said, ” `Abus is the evil and Qamtarir is the severity.”
Some Details concerning the Reward of the Righteous in Paradise and what it contains of Delights
(So, Allah saved them from the evil of that Day, and gave them Nadrah (a light of beauty) and joy.) This is used as a way of eloquence in stating similarity (i.e., two similar things).
(So, Allah saved them from the evil of that Day,) meaning, He protects them from that which they fear of it.
(and gave them Nadrah (a light of beauty)) meaning, in their faces.
(And joy) in their hearts. Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Qatadah, Abu `Aliyah and Ar-Rabi` bin Anas all stated this. This is similar to Allah’s statement,
(Some faces that Day will be bright, laughing, rejoicing at good news.) This is because if the heart is happy, then the face will be enlightened. As Ka`b bin Malik said in his lengthy Hadith about Allah’s Messenger , whenever he was happy, then his face will be radiant until it will be as if it is a piece of the moon. `A’ishah said, “The Messenger of Allah entered into my home happy and his facial expression was glowing.” And the Hadith continues. dAllah then says,
(And their recompense because they were patient) meaning, due to their patience He will give them, bestow upon them and accommodate them with Paradise and silken garments. This means a home that is spacious, a delightful life and fine clothing. Al-Hafiz Ibn `Asakir said in his biography of Hisham bin Sulayman Ad-Darani, “Surat Al-Insan was recited to Abu Sulayman Ad-Darani, and when the reciter reached the Ayah where Allah says,
(And their recompense shall be Paradise, and silken garments, because they were patient.) he (Abu Sulayman) said, `Because they were patient in leaving off their desires in the world.”’
(13. Reclining therein on raised couches, they will see there neither the excessive heat, nor the excessive cold.) (14. And the shade thereof is close upon them, and the bunches of fruit thereof will hang low within their reach.) (15. And among them will be passed round vessels of silver and cups of crystal –) (16. (Qawarir) Crystal-clear, made of silver. They will determine the measure thereof.) (17. And they will be given to drink there of a cup (of wine) mixed with Zanjabil (ginger),) (18. A spring there, called Salsabil.) (19. And round about them will (serve) boys of everlasting youth. If you see them, you would think them scattered pearls.) (20. And when you look there (in Paradise), you will see a delight (that cannot be imagined), and a great dominion.) (21. Their garments will be of fine green silk, and Istabraq. They will be adorned with bracelets of silver, and their Lord will give them a purifying drink.) (22. (And it will be said to them): “Verily, this is a reward for you, and your endeavor has been accepted.”)
The raised Couches and the lack of Heat and Cold
Allah tells us about the people of Paradise and the eternal delights they will experience, as well as the comprehensive favors that they will be given. Allah says,
(Reclining therein on raised couches.) This has already been discussed in Surat As-Saffat and the difference of opinion about the meaning of reclining. Is it lying down, reclining on the elbows, sitting down cross-legged, or being firmly seated We have also mentioned that the Al-Ara’ik are couches beneath curtained canopies. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(they will see there neither the excessive heat, nor the excessive bitter cold.) meaning, there will be no disturbing heat with them, nor any painful cold, rather there will only be one climate that will be always and eternal and they will not want it to be changed.
The Shade and Fruit Clusters will be near
(And the shade thereof is close upon them.) meaning, the branches will be close to them.
(And the bunches of fruit thereof will hang low within their reach.) meaning, whenever he attempts to get any fruit, it will come nearer to him and come down from its highest branch as if it hears and obeys. This is as Allah says in another Ayah,
(And fruits of the two gardens will be near at hand.) (55:54) Allah also says,
(The fruits in bunches whereof will be low and near at hand.) (69:23) Mujahid said,
(And the bunches of fruit thereof will hang low within their reach.) “If he stands it will rise with him an equal amount, if he sits it will lower itself for him so that he can reach it and if he lies down it will lower itself for him more so that he can reach it. So this is Allah’s statement,
(will hang low within their reach). ” Qatadah said, “No thorn or distance will repel their hands away from it (the fruit).”
Vessels of Silver and Drinking Cups
(And among them will be passed round vessels of silver and cups of crystal) meaning, servants will go around them with containers of food made of silver and cups of drink. These are drinking vessels that do not have handles or spouts. Then Allah says,
((Qawarir) Crystal-clear, made of silver.) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Al-Hasan Al-Basri and others have all said, “It (Qawarir) is the whiteness of silver in the transparency of glass.” Qawarir is only made of glass. So these cups are made of silver, but due to their fine thinness, what is inside of them will be visible from outside of them (as if they are glass). This is among the things of which there is nothing like in this world. Allah said,
(They will determine the measure thereof.) meaning, according to the amount that will quench their thirst. It will not be more than that nor less than it, rather it will be prepared in an amount that is suitable for quenching the thirst of their drinkers. This is the meaning of the statement of Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Abu Salih, Qatadah, Ibn Abza, `Abdullah bin `Ubayd bin `Umayr, Ash-Sha`bi and Ibn Zayd. This was stated by Ibn Jarir and others. This is the most excellent provision, distinction and honor.
The Ginger Drink and the Drink of Salsabil
(And they will be given to drink there of a cup mixed with Zanjabil (ginger),) meaning, they — the righteous — will also be given a drink from these cups.
(a cup) meaning, a drink of wine.
(mixed with Zanjabil (ginger),) So on one occasion they will be given a drink that is mixed with camphor, and it is cool. Then on another occasion they will be given a drink mixed with ginger, and it is hot. This is so that their affair will be balanced. However, those who are nearest to Allah, they will drink from all of it however they wish, as Qatadah and others have said. The statement of Allah has already preceded which says,
(A spring wherefrom the servants of Allah will drink.) (76:6) And here Allah says,
(A spring there, called Salsabil.) `Ikrimah said, “It (Salsabil) is the name of a spring in Paradise.” Mujahid said, “It is called this due to its continuous flowing and the severity of its current.”
The Boys and Servants
(And round about them will (serve) boys of everlasting youth. If you see them, you would think them scattered pearls.) meaning, young boys from the boys of Paradise will go around serving the people of Paradise.
(everlasting youth.) meaning, in one state forever which they will be never changing from, they will not increase in age. Those who have described them as wearing earings in their ears have only interpreted the meaning in such a way because a child is befitting of this description and not an adult man. Concerning Allah’s statement,
(If you see them, you would think them scattered pearls.) meaning, when you see them dispersing to fulfill the needs of their masters, their great number, their beautiful faces, handsome colors, fine clothing and ornaments, you would think that they were scattered pearls. There is no better quality than this, nor is there anything nicer to look at than scattered pearls in a beautiful place. Allah says,
(And when you look) meaning, `when you see it, O Muhammad.’
(there) meaning, there. This refers to Paradise and its beauty, its vastness, its loftiness and the joy and happiness it contains.
(You will see a delight, and a great dominion.) meaning, there will be a great kingdom that belongs to Allah and a dazzling, splendid dominion. It has been confirmed in the Sahih that Allah will say to the last of the people of the Fire to be taken out of it, and the last of the people to enter into Paradise,
(verily, you will have similar to the world and ten worlds like it (in addition to it).”) If this is what He will give to the least of those who will be in Paradise, then what do you think about the one who will have a higher status and will be favored even more by Allah , nor any painful cold, rather there will only be one climate that will be always and eternal and they will not want it to be changed. This refers to Paradise and its beauty, its vastness, its loftiness and the joy and happiness it contains.
(You will see a delight, and a great dominion.) meaning, there will be a great kingdom that belongs to Allah and a dazzling, splendid dominion. It has been confirmed in the Sahih that Allah will say to the last of the people of the Fire to be taken out of it, and the last of the people to enter into Paradise,
(verily, you will have similar to the world and ten worlds like it (in addition to it).”) If this is what He will give to the least of those who will be in Paradise, then what do you think about the one who will have a higher status and will be favored even more by Allah
The Garments and Ornaments
(Their garments will be of fine green silk, and Istabraq.) meaning, among the garments of the people of Paradise is silk and Sundus, which is a high quality silk. These garments will be shirts and similar clothing from the undergarments. Concerning Istabraq (velvet), from it there is that which has a glitter and shimmer to it, and it is that which is worn as outer clothes, just as is well-known in clothing.
(They will be adorned with bracelets of silver,) This is a description of the righteous. In reference to those who will be near to Allah, then their description is as Allah says,
(Wherein they will be adorned with bracelets of gold and pearls and their garments therein will be of silk.) (22:23) After Allah mentions the outward beautification with silk and ornaments, He then says,
(and their Lord will give them a purifying drink.) meaning, it will purify their insides of envy, despise, hatred, harm and the other reprehensible character traits. This is just as we have recorded from the Commander of the believers, `Ali bin Abi Talib, that he said, “When the people of Paradise come to the Gate of Paradise, they will find two springs there. Then it will be as if they were inspired with what to do, so they will drink from one of them and Allah will remove whatever harmfulness there may be within them. Then they will bathe in the other spring and a glow of delight will run all over them. Thus, Allah informs of their outward condition and their inner beauty.” Allah then says,
(Verily, this is a reward for you, and your endeavor has been accepted.) meaning, this will be said to them in honor of them and as a goodness towards them. This is as Allah says,
(Eat and drink at ease for that which you have sent forth before you in days past!) (69:24) Allah also says,
(And it will be cried out to them: “This is the Paradise which you have inherited for what you used to do.”) (7:43) Then Allah says,
(and your endeavor has been accepted) mean- ing, `Allah the Exalted will reward you for a small amount (of deeds) with a large amount (of reward).’
(23. Verily, it is We Who have sent down the Qur’an to you by stages.) (24. Therefore be patient with constancy to the command of your Lord, and obey neither a sinner nor a disbeliever among them.) (25. And remember the Name of your Lord every morning and afternoon.) (26. And during the night, prostrate yourself to Him, and glorify Him a long night through.) (27. Verily, these love the present life of this world, and put behind them a heavy Day.) (28. It is We Who created them, and We have made them of strong build. And when We will, We can replace them with others like them with a complete replacement.) (29. Verily, this is an admonition, so whosoever wills, let him take a path to his Lord.) (30. But you cannot will, unless Allah wills. Verily, Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.) (31. He will admit to His mercy whom He wills and as for the wrongdoers — He has prepared a painful torment.)
Mention of the Qur’an’s Revelation and the Command to be Patient and remember Allah
Allah reminds His Messenger of how He blessed him by revealing the Magnificent Qur’an to him.
(Therefore be patient with constancy to the command of your Lord.,) meaning, `just as you have been honored by what has been revealed to you, then be patient with His decree and decision and know that He will handle your affairs in a good manner.’
(And obey neither a sinner (Athim) nor a disbeliever (Kafur) among them.) meaning, `do not obey the disbelievers and the hypocrites if they wish to deter you from what has been revealed to you. Rather convey that which has been revealed to you from your Lord and put your trust in Allah, for verily, Allah will protect you from the people.’ The Athim is the sinner in his deeds and the Kafur is the disbeliever in his heart.
(And remember the Name of your Lord every morning and afternoon.) meaning, at the beginning of the day and at its end.
(And during the night, prostrate yourself to Him, and glorify Him a long night through.) This is similar to Allah’s statement,
(And in some parts of the night offer the Salah with it (the Qur’an), as an additional prayer (Tajhajjud) for you. It may be that you Lord will raise you to Maqam Mahmud.) (17:79) Similarly, Allah also says,
(O you wrapped! Stand all night, except a little. Half of it or a little less than that, or a little more. And recite the Qur’an Tartil.) (73:1-4)
The Censure of Love for the World and informing about the Day of the Final Return
Allah reprimands the disbelievers and those similar to them who love the world and are devoted and dedicated to it, who put the abode of the Hereafter behind them in disregard. He says;
(Verily, these love the present life of this world, and put behind them a heavy Day.) meaning, the Day of Judgement. Then Allah says,
(It is We Who created them, and We have made them of strong build.) Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and others have said, “This means their creation.”
(And when We will, We can replace them with others like them with a complete replacement.) meaning, `when We wish, We will resurrect them on the Day of Judgement and change them, repeating their creation in a new form.’ Here the beginning of their creation is a proof for the repetition of their creation. Ibn Zayd and Ibn Jarir both said,
(And when We will, We can replace them with others like them with a complete replacement.) “This means, if We wish We can bring another group of people besides them (in their place).” This is like Allah’s statement,
(If He wills, He can take you away, O people, and bring others. And Allah is capable over that.) (4:133) This is also like His statement,
(If He wills, He can remove you and bring a new creation! And for Allah that is not hard or difficult.) (14:19-20)
The Qur’an is a Reminder, and Guidance comes from the Help of Allah
Allah then says,
(Verily, this is an admonition,) meaning, this Surah is a reminder.
(so whosoever wills, let him take a path to his Lord.) meaning, a path and a way. This means, whoever wishes to be guided by the Qur’an. This is similar to Allah’s statement,
(And what loss have they if they had believed in Allah and in the Last Day.) (4:39) Then Allah says,
(But you cannot will, unless Allah wills.) meaning, no one is able to guide himself, enter into faith or bring about any benefit for himself,
(Unless Allah wills. Verily, Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.) meaning, He is Most Knowledgeable of who deserves to be guided. So, He makes guidance easy for him and He predestines for him that which will be a cause for it. However, whoever deserves misguidance, He averts guidance from him. Unto Him belongs the most excellent wisdom and the most irrefutable argument. Thus, He says,
(Verily, Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.) Then He says,
(He will admit to His mercy whom He wills and as for the wrongdoers — He has prepared a painful torment.) meaning, He guides whomever He wishes and He leads astray whomever He wishes. Whoever He guides, there is no one who can lead him astray; and whoever He leads astray, there is no one who can guide him. This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Insan. And all praise and thanks are due to Allah.