Assalamualaikum.

Surah At Tur (in Arabic text: سورة الطور)  it is the 52nd Surah of the Qur’an with 49 ayats. It is classified as a Meccan Surah. The title in English is “The Mount”.

This Surah addresses the mission of Prophet Muhammad, may peace be upon him. His goal or objective was to help people by warning them of the consequences of their faith and deeds of injustice and indecency.

There is no compulsion in Qur’an so it asks them to produce any proofs supporting their false beliefs.

Notable Quote:

 “And be patient, [O Muhammad], for the decision of your Lord, for indeed, you are in Our eyes. And exalt [Allah] with praise of your Lord when you arise.”
Surah At-Tur Ayat 48

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Read Surah Tur With Translation and Transliteration

Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Raheem
In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful

وَٱلطُّورِ

Wat-Toor
1. By the mount

وَكِتَـٰبٍۢ مَّسْطُورٍۢ

Wa kitaabim mastoor
2. And [by] a Book inscribed

فِى رَقٍّۢ مَّنشُورٍۢ

Fee raqqim manshoor
3. In parchment spread open

وَٱلْبَيْتِ ٱلْمَعْمُورِ

Wal baitil ma’moor
4. And [by] the frequented House

وَٱلسَّقْفِ ٱلْمَرْفُوعِ

Wassaqfil marfoo’
5. And [by] the heaven raised high

وَٱلْبَحْرِ ٱلْمَسْجُورِ

Wal bahril masjoor
6. And [by] the sea filled [with fire],

إِنَّ عَذَابَ رَبِّكَ لَوَ‌ٰقِعٌۭ

Inna ‘azaaba Rabbika lawaaqi’
7. Indeed, the punishment of your Lord will occur.

مَّا لَهُۥ مِن دَافِعٍۢ

Maa lahoo min daafi’
8. Of it there is no preventer.

يَوْمَ تَمُورُ ٱلسَّمَآءُ مَوْرًۭا

Yawma tamoorus samaaa’u mawraa
9. On the Day the heaven will sway with circular motion

وَتَسِيرُ ٱلْجِبَالُ سَيْرًۭا

Wa taseerul jibaalu sairaa
10. And the mountains will pass on, departing –

فَوَيْلٌۭ يَوْمَئِذٍۢ لِّلْمُكَذِّبِينَ

Fawailuny yawma ‘izil lil mukaazzibeen
11. Then woe, that Day, to the deniers,

ٱلَّذِينَ هُمْ فِى خَوْضٍۢ يَلْعَبُونَ

Allazeena hum fee khawdiny yal’aboon
12. Who are in [empty] discourse amusing themselves.

يَوْمَ يُدَعُّونَ إِلَىٰ نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ دَعًّا

Yawma yuda’-‘oona ilaa naari jahannama da’-‘aa
13. The Day they are thrust toward the fire of Hell with a [violent] thrust, [its angels will say],

هَـٰذِهِ ٱلنَّارُ ٱلَّتِى كُنتُم بِهَا تُكَذِّبُونَ

Haazihin naarul latee kuntum bihaa tukazziboon
14. “This is the Fire which you used to deny.

أَفَسِحْرٌ هَـٰذَآ أَمْ أَنتُمْ لَا تُبْصِرُونَ

Afasihrun haazaaaa am antum laa tubsiroon
15. Then is this magic, or do you not see?

ٱصْلَوْهَا فَٱصْبِرُوٓا۟ أَوْ لَا تَصْبِرُوا۟ سَوَآءٌ عَلَيْكُمْ ۖ إِنَّمَا تُجْزَوْنَ مَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ

Islawhaa fasbirooo aw laa tasbiroo sawaaa’un ‘alaikum innamaa tujzawna maa kuntum ta’maloon
16. [Enter to] burn therein; then be patient or impatient – it is all the same for you. You are only being recompensed [for] what you used to do.”

إِنَّ ٱلْمُتَّقِينَ فِى جَنَّـٰتٍۢ وَنَعِيمٍۢ

Innal muttaqeena fee jannaatinw wa na’eem
17. Indeed, the righteous will be in gardens and pleasure,

فَـٰكِهِينَ بِمَآ ءَاتَىٰهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ وَوَقَىٰهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ عَذَابَ ٱلْجَحِيمِ

Faakiheena bimaaa aataahum rabbuhum wa waqaahum rabbuhum ‘azaabal jaheem
18. Enjoying what their Lord has given them, and their Lord protected them from the punishment of Hellfire.

كُلُوا۟ وَٱشْرَبُوا۟ هَنِيٓـًٔۢا بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ

Kuloo washraboo haneee ‘am bimaa kuntum ta’maloon
19. [They will be told], “Eat and drink in satisfaction for what you used to do.”

مُتَّكِـِٔينَ عَلَىٰ سُرُرٍۢ مَّصْفُوفَةٍۢ ۖ وَزَوَّجْنَـٰهُم بِحُورٍ عِينٍۢ

Muttaki’eena ‘alaa sururim masfoofatinw wa zawwaj naahum bihoorin ‘een
20. They will be reclining on thrones lined up, and We will marry them to fair women with large, [beautiful] eyes.

وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَٱتَّبَعَتْهُمْ ذُرِّيَّتُهُم بِإِيمَـٰنٍ أَلْحَقْنَا بِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ وَمَآ أَلَتْنَـٰهُم مِّنْ عَمَلِهِم مِّن شَىْءٍۢ ۚ كُلُّ ٱمْرِئٍۭ بِمَا كَسَبَ رَهِينٌۭ

Wallazeena aamanoo wattaba’at hum zurriyyatuhum bieemaanin alhaqnaa bihim zurriyyatahum wa maaa alatnaahum min ‘amalihim min shai’; kullum ri’im bimaa kasaba raheen
21. And those who believed and whose descendants followed them in faith – We will join with them their descendants, and We will not deprive them of anything of their deeds. Every person, for what he earned, is retained.

وَأَمْدَدْنَـٰهُم بِفَـٰكِهَةٍۢ وَلَحْمٍۢ مِّمَّا يَشْتَهُونَ

Wa amdadnaahum bifaa kihatinw wa lahmim mimmaa yashtahoon
22. And We will provide them with fruit and meat from whatever they desire.

يَتَنَـٰزَعُونَ فِيهَا كَأْسًۭا لَّا لَغْوٌۭ فِيهَا وَلَا تَأْثِيمٌۭ

Yatanaaza’oona feehaa kaasal laa laghwun feehaa wa laa taaseem
23. They will exchange with one another a cup [of wine] wherein [results] no ill speech or commission of sin.

۞ وَيَطُوفُ عَلَيْهِمْ غِلْمَانٌۭ لَّهُمْ كَأَنَّهُمْ لُؤْلُؤٌۭ مَّكْنُونٌۭ

Wa yatoofu ‘alaihim ghilmaanul lahum ka annahum lu’lu’um maknoon
24. There will circulate among them [servant] boys [especially] for them, as if they were pearls well-protected.

وَأَقْبَلَ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍۢ يَتَسَآءَلُونَ

Wa aqbala ba’duhum ‘alaa ba’diny yatasaaa’aloon
25. And they will approach one another, inquiring of each other.

قَالُوٓا۟ إِنَّا كُنَّا قَبْلُ فِىٓ أَهْلِنَا مُشْفِقِينَ

Qaalooo innaa kunnaa qablu feee ahlinaa mushfiqeen
26. They will say, “Indeed, we were previously among our people fearful [of displeasing Allah].

فَمَنَّ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيْنَا وَوَقَىٰنَا عَذَابَ ٱلسَّمُومِ

Famannnal laahu ‘alainaa wa waqaanaa ‘azaabas samoom
27. So Allah conferred favor upon us and protected us from the punishment of the Scorching Fire.

إِنَّا كُنَّا مِن قَبْلُ نَدْعُوهُ ۖ إِنَّهُۥ هُوَ ٱلْبَرُّ ٱلرَّحِيمُ

Innaa kunnaa min qablu nad’oohu innahoo huwal barrur raheem
28. Indeed, we used to supplicate Him before. Indeed, it is He who is the Beneficent, the Merciful.”

فَذَكِّرْ فَمَآ أَنتَ بِنِعْمَتِ رَبِّكَ بِكَاهِنٍۢ وَلَا مَجْنُونٍ

Fazakkir famaaa anta bini’mati rabbika bikaahininw wa laa majnoon
29. So remind [O Muhammad], for you are not, by the favor of your Lord, a soothsayer or a madman.

أَمْ يَقُولُونَ شَاعِرٌۭ نَّتَرَبَّصُ بِهِۦ رَيْبَ ٱلْمَنُونِ

Am yaqooloona shaa’irun natarabbasu bihee raibal manoon
30. Or do they say [of you], “A poet for whom we await a misfortune of time?”

قُلْ تَرَبَّصُوا۟ فَإِنِّى مَعَكُم مِّنَ ٱلْمُتَرَبِّصِينَ

Qul tarabbasoo fa innee ma’akum minal mutarabbiseen
31. Say, “Wait, for indeed I am, with you, among the waiters.”

أَمْ تَأْمُرُهُمْ أَحْلَـٰمُهُم بِهَـٰذَآ ۚ أَمْ هُمْ قَوْمٌۭ طَاغُونَ

Am taamuruhum ahlaamuhum bihaazaaa am hum qawmun taaghoon
32. Or do their minds command them to [say] this, or are they a transgressing people?

أَمْ يَقُولُونَ تَقَوَّلَهُۥ ۚ بَل لَّا يُؤْمِنُونَ

Am yaqooloona taqawwalah; bal laa yu’minoon
33. Or do they say, “He has made it up”? Rather, they do not believe.

فَلْيَأْتُوا۟ بِحَدِيثٍۢ مِّثْلِهِۦٓ إِن كَانُوا۟ صَـٰدِقِينَ

Falyaatoo bihadeesim misliheee in kaanoo saadiqeen
34. Then let them produce a statement like it, if they should be truthful.

أَمْ خُلِقُوا۟ مِنْ غَيْرِ شَىْءٍ أَمْ هُمُ ٱلْخَـٰلِقُونَ

Am khuliqoo min ghairi shai’in am humul khaaliqoon
35. Or were they created by nothing, or were they the creators [of themselves]?

أَمْ خَلَقُوا۟ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَ‌ٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضَ ۚ بَل لَّا يُوقِنُونَ

Am khalaqus samaawaati wal ard; bal laa yooqinoon
36. Or did they create the heavens and the earth? Rather, they are not certain.

أَمْ عِندَهُمْ خَزَآئِنُ رَبِّكَ أَمْ هُمُ ٱلْمُصَۣيْطِرُونَ

Am’indahum khazaaa’inu rabbika am humul musaitiroon
37. Or have they the depositories [containing the provision] of your Lord? Or are they the controllers [of them]?

أَمْ لَهُمْ سُلَّمٌۭ يَسْتَمِعُونَ فِيهِ ۖ فَلْيَأْتِ مُسْتَمِعُهُم بِسُلْطَـٰنٍۢ مُّبِينٍ

Am lahum sullamuny yastami’oona feehi falyaati mustami’uhum bisultaanim mubeen
38. Or have they a stairway [into the heaven] upon which they listen? Then let their listener produce a clear authority.

أَمْ لَهُ ٱلْبَنَـٰتُ وَلَكُمُ ٱلْبَنُونَ

Am lahul banaatu wa lakumul banoon
39. Or has He daughters while you have sons?

أَمْ تَسْـَٔلُهُمْ أَجْرًۭا فَهُم مِّن مَّغْرَمٍۢ مُّثْقَلُونَ

Am tas’aluhum ajran fahum mim maghramim musqaloon
40. Or do you, [O Muhammad], ask of them a payment, so they are by debt burdened down?

أَمْ عِندَهُمُ ٱلْغَيْبُ فَهُمْ يَكْتُبُونَ

Am ‘indahumul ghaibu fahum yaktuboon
41. Or have they [knowledge of] the unseen, so they write [it] down?

أَمْ يُرِيدُونَ كَيْدًۭا ۖ فَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ هُمُ ٱلْمَكِيدُونَ

Am yureedoona kaidan fallazeena kafaroo humul makeedoon
42. Or do they intend a plan? But those who disbelieve – they are the object of a plan.

أَمْ لَهُمْ إِلَـٰهٌ غَيْرُ ٱللَّهِ ۚ سُبْحَـٰنَ ٱللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ

Am lahum ilaahun ghairul laa; subhaanal laahi ‘ammaa yushrikoon
43. Or have they a deity other than Allah ? Exalted is Allah above whatever they associate with Him.

وَإِن يَرَوْا۟ كِسْفًۭا مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ سَاقِطًۭا يَقُولُوا۟ سَحَابٌۭ مَّرْكُومٌۭ

Wa iny yaraw kisfam minas samaaa’i saaqitany yaqooloo sahaabum markoom
44. And if they were to see a fragment from the sky falling, they would say, “[It is merely] clouds heaped up.”

فَذَرْهُمْ حَتَّىٰ يُلَـٰقُوا۟ يَوْمَهُمُ ٱلَّذِى فِيهِ يُصْعَقُونَ

Fazarhum hatta yulaaqoo yawmahumul lazee feehi yus’aqoon
45. So leave them until they meet their Day in which they will be struck insensible –

يَوْمَ لَا يُغْنِى عَنْهُمْ كَيْدُهُمْ شَيْـًۭٔا وَلَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ

Yawma laa yughnee ‘anhum kaidumhum shai’anw wa laa hum yunsaroon
46. The Day their plan will not avail them at all, nor will they be helped.

وَإِنَّ لِلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا۟ عَذَابًۭا دُونَ ذَ‌ٰلِكَ وَلَـٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

Wa inna lillazeena zalamoo ‘azaaban doona zalika wa laakinna aksarahum laa ya’lamoon
47. And indeed, for those who have wronged is a punishment before that, but most of them do not know.

وَٱصْبِرْ لِحُكْمِ رَبِّكَ فَإِنَّكَ بِأَعْيُنِنَا ۖ وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ

Wasbir lihukmi rabbika fa innaka bi-a’yuninaa wa sabbih bihamdi rabbika heena taqoom
48. And be patient, [O Muhammad], for the decision of your Lord, for indeed, you are in Our eyes. And exalt [Allah] with praise of your Lord when you arise.

وَمِنَ ٱلَّيْلِ فَسَبِّحْهُ وَإِدْبَـٰرَ ٱلنُّجُومِ

Wa minal laili fasabbihhu wa idbaaran nujoom
49. And in a part of the night exalt Him and after [the setting of] the stars.

Tafsir of Surah At-Tur

The Qur’an was revealed as a book of proof that Islam is the one true religion and to be a book of guidance. We should read the Qur’an but also make it a study to learn it’s teaching and message. We’ve added this section for those looking to benefit from reading commentary of Surah Tur.

Surah Tur Tafsir by Ibn Kathir

Which was revealed in Makkah
The Virtues of Surat At-Tur

Malik narrated that Jubayr bin Mut`im said, “I heard the Prophet reciting Surat At-Tur while praying Maghrib. Surely, I have never heard a more beautiful voice or recitation than his recitation.” This Hadith is recorded in the Two Sahihs using a chain of narration that includes Malik. Al-Bukhari recorded that Umm Salamah said, “I complained of being ill to the Messenger of Allah , and he said,

«طُوفِي مِنْ وَرَاءِ النَّاسِ وَأَنْتِ رَاكِبَة»

 

(Perform Tawaf (of the Ka`bah) behind the crowd, while you are riding.) So, I performed Tawaf while the Messenger of Allah was praying beside the House, reciting At-Tur.”

﴿بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ﴾

 

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

Allah swears that the Coming of Torment is Near

Allah swears by His creation, a testimony to His great ability, that His torment will surely befall His enemies; they will have no way of escaping it. At-Tur is the mount that has trees, similar to the mount where Allah spoke to Musa, while Musa was on it, and the mount on which Allah started the prophethood of `Isa. A mount that does not have trees is called Jabal, not Tur. Allah said,

﴿وَكِتَـبٍ مُّسْطُورٍ ﴾

 

(And by the Book inscribed), it is said that it means Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz, (the Preserved Table). It is also said that is refers to the divinely revealed inscribed Books that people recite, and this is why Allah said,

﴿فِى رَقٍّ مَّنْشُورٍ – وَالْبَيْتِ الْمَعْمُورِ ﴾

 

(In parchment unrolled. And by Al-Bayt Al-Ma`mur.) In the Two Sahihs it is confirmed that the Messenger of Allah said in the Hadith about Al-Isra’, after ascending to the seventh heaven:

«ثُمَّ رُفِعَ بِي إِلَى الْبَيْتِ الْمَعْمُورِ، وَإِذَا هُوَ يَدْخُلُهُ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ سَبْعُونَ أَلْفًا، لَا يَعُودُونَ إِلَيْهِ آخِرَ مَا عَلَيْهِم»

 

(Then, I was taken to Al-Bayt Al-Ma`mur. It is visited every day by seventy thousand angels who will not come back to visit it again.) The angels worship Allah in Al-Bayt Al-Ma`mur and perform Tawaf around it just as the people of the earth perform Tawaf around the Ka`bah. Al-Bayt Al-Ma`mur is the Ka`bah of those who reside in the seventh heaven. During the Isra’ journey, the Prophet saw Ibrahim Al-Khalil, who was reclining with his back on Al-Bayt Al-Ma`mur. It was Ibrahim who built the Ka`bah on earth, and surely, the reward is compatible with the action. Al-Bayt Al-Ma`mur is parallel to the Ka`bah; every heaven has its own house of worship, which is also the direction of prayer for its residents. The house that is located in the lower heaven, is called Bayt Al-`Izzah. And Allah knows best. The statement of Allah the Exalted,

﴿وَالسَّقْفِ الْمَرْفُوعِ ﴾

 

(And by the roof raised high.) Sufyan Ath-Thawri, Shu`bah, and Abu Al-Ahwas, all narrated from Simak, from Khalid bin `Ar`arah, from `Ali bin Abi Talib:

﴿وَالسَّقْفِ الْمَرْفُوعِ ﴾

 

(And by the roof raised high) “Meaning the heaven.” Sufyan added, “Then `Ali recited,

﴿وَجَعَلْنَا السَّمَآءَ سَقْفاً مَّحْفُوظاً وَهُمْ عَنْ ءَايَـتِهَا مُعْرِضُونَ ﴾

 

(And We have made the heaven a roof, safe and well-guarded. Yet they turn away from its signs.)(21:32)” Similar was said by Mujahid, Qatadah, As-Suddi, Ibn Jurayj, Ibn Zayd and preferred by Ibn Jarir. The statement of Allah the Exalted,

﴿وَالْبَحْرِ الْمَسْجُورِ ﴾

 

(And by the sea that is Masjur.) The majority say it refers to the oceans of the earth. Masjur, means, the sea will be kindled with fire on the Day of Resurrection just as Allah said in another Ayah,

﴿وَإِذَا الْبِحَارُ سُجِّرَتْ ﴾

 

(And when the seas become as blazing fire.)(81:6) i.e., it will be kindled with fire and become a raging fire that surrounds the people in the gathering area, this was reported by Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib from `Ali bin Abi Talib. It was also reported from Ibn `Abbas, and it is the view of Sa`id bin Jubayr, Mujahid, `Abdullah bin `Ubayd bin `Umayr and others. Qatadah said, “Masjur is the `filled sea.”’ Ibn Jarir preferred this explanation saying, “The sea is not lit with fire now, so it is filled.” Allah’s statement;

﴿إِنَّ عَذَابَ رَبِّكَ لَوَاقِعٌ ﴾

 

(Verily, the torment of your Lord will surely come to pass.) contains the subject of the vow, indicating that His torment will surely strike the disbelievers, as Allah stated in another Ayah;

﴿مَّا لَهُ مِن دَافِعٍ ﴾

 

(There is none that can avert it.) indicating that when Allah decides to send the torment upon them, none can prevent it or stop it from striking them. Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Ad-Dunya recorded that Ja`far bin Zayd Al-`Abdi said, “One night, in Al-Madinah, `Umar went out investigating the welfare of Muslims and passed by the house of a man who was standing in voluntary prayer. `Umar stood quietly, listening to his recitation; the man was reciting,

﴿وَالطُّورِ ﴾

 

(By At-Tur), until he reached the Ayah,

﴿إِنَّ عَذَابَ رَبِّكَ لَوَاقِعٌ – مَّا لَهُ مِن دَافِعٍ ﴾

 

(Verily, the torment of your Lord will surely come to pass. There is none that can avert it.) `Umar said, `By the Lord of the Ka`bah, this is a true vow.’ `Umar dismounted his donkey and sat next to a wall for a while. He then went back to his house and fell ill for a month. During his illness, the people would visit him, not knowing what caused his illness.” May Allah be pleased with `Umar.

 

Describing the Day of Torment, the Day of Resurrection

Allah said;

﴿يَوْمَ تَمُورُ السَّمَآءُ مَوْراً ﴾

 

(On the Day when Tamur the heaven Mawr) Ibn `Abbas and Qatadah said: “Shaking violently.” Also from Ibn `Abbas, “Split.” Mujahid said: “Spin violently.” Ad-Dahhak commented on the Ayah, saying, “The earth will violently spin and move by the command of Allah, and its areas will violently move towards each other.” This was preferred by Ibn Jarir, because of the meaning of the word, Mawra, which denotes meanings of spinning and shaking. Allah said,

﴿وَتَسِيرُ الْجِبَالُ سَيْراً ﴾

 

(And Tasir the mountains will Sayr.) will fade away and become scattered particles of dust blown away by the wind,

﴿فَوَيْلٌ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِّلْمُكَذِّبِينَ ﴾

 

(Then woe that Day to those who denied), woe to them that Day as a result of Allah’s torment, punishment and affliction that He will direct at them,

﴿الَّذِينَ هُمْ فِى خَوْضٍ يَلْعَبُونَ ﴾

 

(Those who were in their falsehood, playing.) meaning, they live in this life in falsehood and make the religion the subject of their mockery and jest,

﴿يَوْمَ يُدَعُّونَ﴾

 

(The Day when they will be pushed down by force) meaning, they will be violently driven and shoved,

﴿إِلَى نَارِ جَهَنَّمَ دَعًّا﴾

 

(to the fire of Hell, with a horrible, forceful pushing.) Mujahid, Ash-Sha`bi, Muhammad bin Ka`b, Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi and Ath-Thawri said that this Ayah means, “They will be violently shoved into the Fire.” Allah said,

﴿هَـذِهِ النَّارُ الَّتِى كُنتُم بِهَا تُكَذِّبُونَ ﴾

 

(This is the Fire, which you used to deny.) meaning, the angels of punishment will say these words to them, while admonishing and chastising them,

﴿أَفَسِحْرٌ هَـذَا أَمْ أَنتُمْ لاَ تُبْصِرُونَ اصْلَوْهَا﴾

 

(Is this magic or do you not see Enter therein) meaning, enter the Fire, `which will encircle you from every direction,’

﴿فَاصْبِرُواْ أَوْ لاَ تَصْبِرُواْ سَوَآءٌ عَلَيْكُمْ﴾

 

(and whether you are patient of it or impatient of it, it is all the same.) `whether you endure its torment and afflictions or not, you will never avert it or be saved from it,’

﴿إِنَّمَا تُجْزَوْنَ مَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ﴾

 

(You are only being requited for what you used to do.) and surely, Allah is never unjust with anyone. Most certainly, Allah recompenses each according to their deeds.

﴿إِنَّ الْمُتَّقِينَ فِى جَنَّـتٍ وَنَعِيمٍ – فَـكِهِينَ بِمَآ ءَاتَـهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ وَوَقَـهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ عَذَابَ الْجَحِيمِ ﴾

Description of the Destination of the Happy

Allah the Exalted described the destination of the happy ones,

﴿إِنَّ الْمُتَّقِينَ فِى جَنَّـتٍ وَنَعِيمٍ ﴾

 

(Verily, those who have Taqwa will be in Gardens and Delight.) in contrast to the torment and punishment of the miserable;

﴿فَـكِهِينَ بِمَآ ءَاتَـهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ﴾

 

(Enjoying in that which their Lord has bestowed on them,) meaning, enjoying the various types of delight that Allah has granted them therein, such as various types of foods, drinks, clothes, dwelling places, mounts, and so forth,

﴿وَوَقَـهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ عَذَابَ الْجَحِيمِ﴾

 

(and (the fact that) their Lord saved them from the torment of the blazing Fire.) He saved them from the torment of the Fire, which is a bounty itself. Added to this blessing is the fact that they were entered into Paradise, which has delights that no eye has ever seen, no ear has ever heard, nor has a heart ever imagined. The statement of Allah the Exalted,

﴿كُلُواْ وَاشْرَبُواْ هَنِيئَاً بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ ﴾

 

(“Eat and drink with happiness because of what you used to do”) is similar to another of His statements,

﴿كُلُواْ وَاشْرَبُواْ هَنِيئَاً بِمَآ أَسْلَفْتُمْ فِى الاٌّيَّامِ الْخَالِيَةِ ﴾

 

(Eat and drink at ease for that which you have sent on before you in days past!)(69:24) meaning this is the just reward for your deeds; surely, all this is a favor from Allah and a reward from Him. Allah the Exalted said,

﴿مُتَّكِئِينَ عَلَى سُرُرٍ مَّصْفُوفَةٍ﴾

 

(They will recline (with ease) on thrones Masfufah.) Ath-Thawri reported from Husayn, from Mujahid, from Ibn `Abbas: “Thrones in howdahs.” And the meaning of, (Masfufah) is they will be facing each other,

﴿عَلَى سُرُرٍ مُّتَقَـبِلِينَ ﴾

 

(Facing one another on thrones.)(37:44) Allah said next,

﴿وَزَوَّجْنَـهُم بِحُورٍ عِينٍ﴾

 

(And We shall marry them to Hur (fair females) with wide lovely eyes.) We made for them righteous spouses, beautiful wives from Al-Hur Al-`Ayn. We mentioned the description of Al-Hur Al-`Ayn in several other places in this Tafsir, and therefore, it is not necessary to repeat their description here.

The Offspring of Righteous Believers will be elevated to Their Grades in Paradise

In this Ayah, Allah the Exalted affirms His favor, generosity, graciousness, compassion and beneficence towards His creation. When the offspring of the righteous believers imitate their parents regarding faith, Allah will elevate the latter to the ranks of the former, even though the latter did not perform deeds as goodly as their parents. Allah will comfort the eyes of the parents by seeing their offspring elevated to their grades. Surely, Allah will gather them together in the best manner, and He will not decrease the reward or the grades of those higher in rank for joining them together, hence His statement,

﴿أَلْحَقْنَا بِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ وَمَآ أَلَتْنَـهُمْ مِّنْ عَمَلِهِم مِّن شَىْءٍ﴾

 

(to them shall We join their offspring, and We shall not decrease the reward of their deeds in anything.) Ath-Thawri reported that Ibn `Abbas said, “Verily, Allah elevates the ranks of the believers’ offspring to rank of their parents, even though the latter have not performed as well as the former, so that the eyes of the parents are comforted.” Ibn `Abbas then recited this Ayah,

﴿وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَاتَّبَعَتْهُمْ ذُرِّيَّتُهُم بِإِيمَـنٍ أَلْحَقْنَا بِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ وَمَآ أَلَتْنَـهُمْ مِّنْ عَمَلِهِم مِّن شَىْءٍ﴾

 

(And those who believe and whose offspring follow them in faith, — to them shall We join their offspring, and We shall not decrease the reward of their deeds in anything.) Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim recorded this statement from Sufyan Ath-Thawri from Ibn `Abbas. Ibn Abi Hatim also recorded that Ibn `Abbas commented on Allah’s statement,

﴿وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَاتَّبَعَتْهُمْ ذُرِّيَّتُهُم بِإِيمَـنٍ أَلْحَقْنَا بِهِمْ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمْ﴾

 

(And those who believe and whose offspring follow them in faith, — to them shall We join their offspring.) saying, “They are the offspring of the believers who died on the faith. If the ranks of their parents are higher than their ranks, they will be joined with their parents. No part of the reward their parents received for their good deeds will be reduced for them.” `Abdullah, son of Imam Ahmad, recorded that `Ali said, “Khadijah asked the Prophet about two of her children who died during the time of Jahiliyyah, and the Messenger of Allah said;

«هُمَا فِي النَّار»

 

(They are both in the Fire.) When he saw sadness on her face, he said,

«لَوْ رَأَيْتِ مَكَانَهُمَا لَأَبْغَضْتِهِمَا»

 

(If you saw their dwelling place, you would hate them.) She said, `O Allah’s Messenger! What about my children with you.’ He said,

«فِي الْجَنَّة»

 

(They are in Paradise.) The Messenger of Allah said,

«إِنَّ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَأَوْلَادَهُمْ فِي الْجَنَّةِ، وَإِنَّ الْمُشْرِكِينَ وَأَوْلَادَهُمْ فِي النَّار»

 

(Verily, the believers and their offspring will dwell in Paradise, while the idolators and their offspring will dwell in the Hellfire.) The Prophet then recited the Ayah,

﴿وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَاتَّبَعَتْهُمْ ذُرِّيَّتُهُم بِإِيمَـنٍ﴾

 

(And those who believe and whose offspring follow them in faith…)” Certainly, it is Allah’s grace and favor that He grants the children this blessing because of the good deeds of their parents. He also grants His favor to parents on account of their offspring invoking Allah for them. Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah said,

«إِنَّ اللهَ لَيَرْفَعُ الدَّرَجَةَ لِلْعَبْدِ الصَّالِحِ فِي الْجَنَّةِ فَيَقُولُ: يَا رَبِّ أَنْى لِي هذِهِ؟ فَيَقُولُ: بِاسْتِغْفَارِ وَلَدِكَ لَك»

 

(Verily, Allah shall elevate the grade of a righteous servant in Paradise, who will ask, “O Lord! How did I earn this” Allah will reply, “Through your son’s invoking Me to forgive you.”) This Hadith has an authentic chain of narration, but it was not recorded in the Sahih this way. However, there is a witnessing narration for it in Sahih Muslim, from the Hadith of Abu Hurayrah, who said that the Messenger of Allah said,

«إِذَا مَاتَ ابْنُ آدَمَ انْقَطَعَ عَمَلُهُ إِلَّا مِنْ ثَلَاثٍ: صَدَقَةٍ جَارِيَةٍ، أَوْ عِلْمٍ يُنْتَفَعُ بِهِ، أَوْ وَلَدٍ صَالِحٍ يَدْعُو لَه»

 

(When the Son of Adam dies, his record of deeds will cease except in three cases: an ongoing charity, knowledge that people are benefiting from and a righteous son who invokes Allah for him.)

 

Allah is Just with the Sinners

Allah the Exalted said,

﴿كُلُّ امْرِىءٍ بِمَا كَسَبَ رَهَينٌ﴾

 

(Every person is a pledge for that which he has earned.) After Allah mentioned His favor of elevating the offspring to the ranks of their parents, even though the deeds of the former did not qualify them, He affirmed His fairness in that, He does not punish anyone for the mistakes of others,

﴿كُلُّ امْرِىءٍ بِمَا كَسَبَ رَهَينٌ﴾

 

(Every person is a pledge for that which he has earned.) Therefore, every person will be responsible for his actions. No sin committed by others shall ever be added to one’s load, even if committed by his or her parents or offspring. Allah the Exalted said,

﴿كُلُّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ رَهِينَةٌ – إِلاَّ أَصْحَـبَ الْيَمِينِ – فِى جَنَّـتٍ يَتَسَآءَلُونَ – عَنِ الْمُجْرِمِينَ ﴾

 

(Every person is a pledge for what he has earned, except those on the Right. In Gardens, they will ask one another about the criminals.)(74:38-41)

 

Description of the Khamr of Paradise and the Delight of its Dwellers

Allah said,

﴿وَأَمْدَدْنَـهُم بِفَـكِهَةٍ وَلَحْمٍ مِّمَّا يَشْتَهُونَ ﴾

 

(And We shall provide them with fruit and meat such as they desire.) meaning, `We shall provide them with various types and kinds of fruits and meat, whatever they wish for and desire,’

﴿يَتَنَـزَعُونَ فِيهَا كَأْساً﴾

 

(There they shall pass from hand to hand a cup,) meaning, of wine, according to Ad-Dahhak,

﴿لاَّ لَغْوٌ فِيهَا وَلاَ تَأْثِيمٌ﴾

 

(free from any Laghw, and free from Ta’thim) meaning, when they drink, they do not say any idle, vain words or utter dirty, sinful speech like the drunken people in this life do. Ibn `Abbas said that Laghw means `falsehood’ while Ta’thim means `lying’. Mujahid said, “They do not curse each other nor sin.” Qatadah said, “These were the consequences of drinking in this life, and Shaytan helped in this regard. Allah purified the wine of the Hereafter from the ills and harm caused by the wine of this life.” Therefore, Allah has purified the wine of the Hereafter from causing headaches, stomachaches and intoxication like the wine of this life. Allah stated that wine of the Hereafter shall not cause those who drink it to utter false, vain words that carry no benefit, full of foolishness and evil. Allah also described the wine of the Hereafter as beautiful in appearance, tasty and fruitful,

﴿بَيْضَآءَ لَذَّةٍ لِّلشَّـرِبِينَ – لاَ فِيهَا غَوْلٌ وَلاَ هُمْ عَنْهَا يُنزَفُونَ ﴾

 

(White, delicious to the drinkers. Neither will they have Ghawl from that nor will they suffer intoxication therefrom.)(37:46-47) and,

﴿لاَّ يُصَدَّعُونَ عَنْهَا وَلاَ يُنزِفُونَ ﴾

 

(Wherefrom they will get neither nay aching of the head nor any intoxication.)(56:19) Allah the Exalted said here,

﴿يَتَنَـزَعُونَ فِيهَا كَأْساً لاَّ لَغْوٌ فِيهَا وَلاَ تَأْثِيمٌ ﴾

 

(There they shall pass from hand to hand a (wine) cup, free from any Laghw, and free from sin.) Allah said,

﴿وَيَطُوفُ عَلَيْهِمْ غِلْمَانٌ لَّهُمْ كَأَنَّهُمْ لُؤْلُؤٌ مَّكْنُونٌ ﴾

 

(And there will go round boy-servants of theirs to serve them as if they were preserved pearls.) This is a description of the servants and aids, the believers will have in Paradise. Their servants will be beautiful, graceful in appearance, clean and neat as well-preserved pearls,

﴿يَطُوفُ عَلَيْهِمْ وِلْدَنٌ مُّخَلَّدُونَ – بِأَكْوَابٍ وَأَبَارِيقَ وَكَأْسٍ مِّن مَّعِينٍ ﴾

 

(Immortal boys will go around them with cups, and jugs, and a glass of flowing wine.)(56:17-18) Allah the Exalted said,

﴿وَأَقْبَلَ بَعْضُهُمْ عَلَى بَعْضٍ يَتَسَآءَلُونَ ﴾

 

(And some of them draw near to others, questioning.) meaning, the believers will draw near to each other talking and remembering their actions and conditions in this life, just as people in this life talk while drinking, especially when they become intoxicated,

﴿قَالُواْ إِنَّا كُنَّا قَبْلُ فِى أَهْلِنَا مُشْفِقِينَ ﴾

 

(Saying: “Aforetime, we were afraid in the midst of our families.”) meaning, `in the life of world and in the midst of our families, we were afraid of our Lord and fearful of His torment and punishment,’

﴿فَمَنَّ اللَّهُ عَلَيْنَا وَوَقَـنَا عَذَابَ السَّمُومِ ﴾

 

(So Allah has been gracious to us, and has saved us from the torment of the Fire.) meaning, `He has granted us a favor and saved us from what we feared,’

﴿إِنَّا كُنَّا مِن قَبْلُ نَدْعُوهُ﴾

 

(Verily, We used to invoke Him before.) meaning, `we used to invoke Him with submission and humility, and He accepted our invocation and gave us what we wished,’

﴿إِنَّهُ هُوَ الْبَرُّ الرَّحِيمُ﴾

 

(Verily, He is the Most Subtle, the Most Merciful.)

Absolving the Prophet of the False Accusations the Idolators made against Him

Allah the Exalted commands His Messenger to convey His Message to His servants and remind them of His revelation that has been sent down to him. Next, Allah refutes the false accusations that the liars and sinners accused the Prophet of,

﴿فَذَكِّرْ فَمَآ أَنتَ بِنِعْمَةِ رَبِّكَ بِكَـهِنٍ وَلاَ مَجْنُونٍ ﴾

 

(Therefore, remind. By the grace of Allah, you are neither a Kahin nor a madman.) Allah says, `by the grace of Allah, you, O Muhammad, are not a Kahin, as the ignorant Quraysh idolators claim.’ A Kahin is the soothsayer who receives information from the Jinns that the Jinns are able to eavesdrop on news from heaven,

﴿وَلاَ مَجْنُونٍ﴾

 

(nor a madman) whom Shaytan has possessed with insanity. Allah the Exalted said, while chastising the pagans for uttering false statements about the Prophet ,

﴿أَمْ يَقُولُونَ شَاعِرٌ نَّتَرَبَّصُ بِهِ رَيْبَ الْمَنُونِ ﴾

 

(Or do they say: “A poet! We await for him some calamity by time!”) They said, `We await a disaster to strike him, for example, death. We will be patient with him until death comes to him and we, thus, get rid of his bother and from his Message.’ Allah the Exalted said,

﴿قُلْ تَرَبَّصُواْ فَإِنِّى مَعَكُمْ مِّنَ الْمُتَرَبِّصِينَ ﴾

 

(Say: “Wait! I am with you among those who wait!”) `wait and I too will wait with you, and you will come to know to whom the good end and triumph shall be granted in this life and the Hereafter.’ Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that `Abdullah bin Abi Najih said that Mujahid said that Ibn `Abbas said, “When the Quraysh gathered in the Dar An-Nadwah (their meeting place) to discuss the matter of the Prophet, one of them said, `Jail him in chains. Then we will wait and in time, a calamity will strike him; he will die just as the poets before him died, such as Zuhayr and An-Nabighah, for he is a poet just like them.’ Allah the Exalted said in response to their statement,

﴿أَمْ يَقُولُونَ شَاعِرٌ نَّتَرَبَّصُ بِهِ رَيْبَ الْمَنُونِ ﴾

 

(Or do they say: “A poet! We await for him some calamity by time!”)” Allah the Exalted said,

﴿أَمْ تَأْمُرُهُمْ أَحْلَـمُهُمْ بِهَـذَآ﴾

 

(Or do their minds command them this), `do their minds command them to tell these lies against you (O Muhammad), even though they know in their hearts that they are untrue and false,’

﴿أَمْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ طَاغُونَ﴾

 

(or are they people transgressing all bounds) `surely, they are misguided, stubborn and unjust people, and this is why they say what they say about you (O Muhammad). ‘ Allah the Exalted said,

﴿أَمْ يَقُولُونَ تَقَوَّلَهُ﴾

 

(Or do they say: “He has forged it”) They said, `he has forged this Qur’an and brought it from his own.’ Allah the Exalted responded to them,

﴿بَل لاَّ يُؤْمِنُونَ﴾

 

(Nay! They believe not!), meaning, their disbelief drives them to utter these statements,

﴿فَلْيَأْتُواْ بِحَدِيثٍ مِّثْلِهِ إِن كَانُواْ صَـدِقِينَ ﴾

 

(Let them then produce a recitation like unto it if they are truthful.) meaning, if they are truthful in their statement that Muhammad has forged this Qur’an and brought it of his own, then let them produce something similar to what he has brought forth, as in this Qur’an! And even if they combine their strength to that of the people of the earth, Jinns and mankind alike, they will never produce something like the Qur’an, or ten Surahs like it, or even one Surah!

Affirming Tawhid and annulling the Plots of the Idolators. This is the position where Tawhid of Allah’s Lordship and Divinity are affirmed

Allah the Exalted said,

﴿أَمْ خُلِقُواْ مِنْ غَيْرِ شَىْءٍ أَمْ هُمُ الْخَـلِقُونَ ﴾

 

(Or were they created by nothing Or were they themselves the creators) Allah asks them, were they created without a maker or did they create themselves Neither is true. Allah is the One Who created them and brought them into existence after they were nothing. Al-Bukhari recorded that Jubayr bin Mut`im said, “I heard the Prophet recite Surat At-Tur in Al-Maghrib prayer and when he reached this Ayah,

﴿أَمْ خُلِقُواْ مِنْ غَيْرِ شَىْءٍ أَمْ هُمُ الْخَـلِقُونَ – أَمْ خَلَقُواْ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ بَل لاَّ يُوقِنُونَ – أَمْ عِندَهُمْ خَزَآئِنُ رَبِّكَ أَمْ هُمُ الْمُسَيْطِرُونَ ﴾

 

(Or were they created by nothing Or were they themselves the creators Or did they create the heavens and the earth Nay, but they have no firm belief. Or are with them the treasures of your Lord Or are they the tyrants with the authority to do as they like), I felt my heart would fly away.” This Hadith is collected in the Two Sahihs using various chains of narration. Jubayr bin Mut`im went to the Messenger of Allah after the battle of Badr to ransom the captured idolators. At that time, he was still an idolator. Hearing the Prophet recite this Ayah was one of the reasons that he later embraced Islam. Allah the Exalted said, o

﴿أَمْ خَلَقُواْ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ بَل لاَّ يُوقِنُونَ ﴾

 

(Or did they create the heavens and the earth Nay, but they have no firm belief.) meaning, Allah is censuring the idolators for their idolatry, while asking them if they created the heavens and earth. They knew that Allah Alone is the Creator without partners with Him. However, they fell into idolatry because they had no firm belief,

﴿أَمْ عِندَهُمْ خَزَآئِنُ رَبِّكَ أَمْ هُمُ الْمُسَيْطِرُونَ ﴾

 

(Or are with them the treasures of your Lord Or are they the tyrants with the authority to do as they like) meanings, do they have the authority to do whatever they will in His kingdom Do they hold the keys to His treasures in their hands

﴿أَمْ هُمُ الْمُسَيْطِرُونَ﴾

 

(or are they the tyrants with the authority to do as they like) meanings, are they the tyrants who would hold the creation to account Never, Allah the Exalted and Most Honored is the Only King and Owner of the existence and He does what He wills. Allah the Exalted said,

﴿أَمْ لَهُمْ سُلَّمٌ يَسْتَمِعُونَ فِيهِ﴾

 

(Or have they a stairway, by means of which they listen.) meaning, do they have a stairway to heaven (to the place where the angels are),

﴿فَلْيَأْتِ مُسْتَمِعُهُم بِسُلْطَـنٍ مُّبِينٍ﴾

 

(Then let their listener produce some manifest proof.) meaning, let their listener produce evidence to the truth of their actions and statements. They will never be able to do so and therefore, they have nothing and have no evidence for their stance. Allah admonishes them regarding their claim that He has daughters and that the angels are females! The pagans chose for themselves male offspring and preferred them instead of females, and when one of them would be brought the good news of a daughter being born, his face would turn dark on account of his suppressed anger! Yet, they made the angels Allah’s daughters and worshipped them besides Allah,

﴿أَمْ لَهُ الْبَنَـتُ وَلَكُمُ الْبَنُونَ ﴾

 

(Or has He only daughters and you have sons) Allah sends a strong warning and stern admonition to them in this Ayah and a sure promise. Allah said,

﴿أَمْ تَسْـَلُهُمْ أَجْراً﴾

 

(Or is it that you ask a wage from them) meaning, `as a remuneration for your preaching Allah’s Message to them Nay, you, do not ask them for a wage,’

﴿فَهُم مِّن مَّغْرَمٍ مُّثْقَلُونَ﴾

 

(so that they are burdened with a load of debt), meaning, for in this situation, one will complain of the least bothersome thing and feel it difficult and burdensome for him,

﴿أَمْ عِندَهُمُ الْغَيْبُ فَهُمْ يَكْتُبُونَ ﴾

 

(Or that the Unseen is with them, and they write it down) means, they do not have knowledge of the Unseen, for none in the heavens or earth knows the Unseen except Allah,

﴿أَمْ يُرِيدُونَ كَيْداً فَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ هُمُ الْمَكِيدُونَ ﴾

 

(Or do they intend a plot But those who disbelieve are themselves plotted against!) Allah the Exalted is asking, `Do these people who utter such statements about the Messenger and his religion seek to deceive the people and plot against the Messenger and his Companions If they do, then let them know that their plots will only harm them. Therefore, they are being plotted against rather than being the plotters!’

﴿أَمْ لَهُمْ إِلَـهٌ غَيْرُ اللَّهِ سُبْحَـنَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ ﴾

 

(Or have they a god other than Allah Glorified be Allah from all that they ascribe as partners (to Him).) This Ayah contains harsh refutation directed at the idolators for worshipping the idols and calling upon rivals along with Allah. Allah next glorifies His Most Honorable Self from what they ascribe to Him, their lies and idolatry,

﴿سُبْحَـنَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ﴾

 

(Glorified be Allah from all that they ascribe as partners (to Him).)

The Stubbornness of the Idolators; Their Punishment

Allah the Exalted reaffirms the stubbornness of the idolators and their ignorance of what goes around them,

﴿وَإِن يَرَوْاْ كِسْفاً مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ سَـقِطاً﴾

 

(And if they were to see a piece of the heaven falling down,) meaning, on them as punishment, they would not believe it is coming their way, saying that, these are layers of clouds on top of each other. Allah the Exalted said in other Ayat,

﴿وَلَوْ فَتَحْنَا عَلَيْهِم بَاباً مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ فَظَلُّواْ فِيهِ يَعْرُجُونَ – لَقَالُواْ إِنَّمَا سُكِّرَتْ أَبْصَـرُنَا بَلْ نَحْنُ قَوْمٌ مَّسْحُورُونَ ﴾

 

(And even if We opened to them a gate from the heaven and they were to keep on ascending thereto (all day long), they would surely say (in the evening): “Our eyes have been dazzled. Nay, we are a people bewitched.”)(15:14-15) Allah the Exalted said,

﴿فَذَرْهُمْ﴾

 

(So leave them alone), `O Muhammad,’

﴿حَتَّى يُلَـقُواْ يَوْمَهُمُ الَّذِى فِيهِ يُصْعَقُونَ﴾

 

(till they meet their Day, in which they will sink into a fainting.) on the Day of Resurrection,

﴿يَوْمَ لاَ يُغْنِى عَنْهُمْ كَيْدُهُمْ شَيْئاً﴾

 

(The Day when their plotting shall not avail them at all, ) meaning, on the Day of Resurrection, their deceit and plots they planned in this life shall not help them in the least,

﴿وَلاَ هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ﴾

 

(nor will they be helped.) Allah the Exalted said,

﴿وَإِنَّ لِلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ عَذَاباً دُونَ ذَلِكَ﴾

 

(And verily, for those who do wrong, there is another punishment before this;) meaning, that of being the torment in this world. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah,

﴿وَلَنُذِيقَنَّهُمْ مِّنَ الْعَذَابِ الاٌّدْنَى دُونَ الْعَذَابِ الاٌّكْبَرِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ ﴾

 

(And verily, We will make them taste of the near torment prior to the supreme torment (in the Hereafter), in order that they may return.)(32:21) Allah said;

﴿وَلَـكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ﴾

 

(but most of them know not.) meaning, `We will torment them in the life of the world and test them with various hardships, so that they might go back and repent. However, they do not understand what is happening to them or why, because when the torment is removed, they revert to committing the worst of what they used to do before.’ A Hadith states that,

Ordering the Prophet to have Patience and to glorify Allah

Allah the Exalted said,

﴿وَاصْبِرْ لِحُكْمِ رَبِّكَ فَإِنَّكَ بِأَعْيُنِنَا﴾

 

(So wait patiently for the decision of your Lord, for verily, you are under Our Eyes;) meaning, `be patient in the face of their annoyance and do not be concerned about it, for you are under Our Eyes and Protection, and We will surely protect you from the people,’

﴿وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ﴾

 

(and glorify the praises of your Lord when you get up.) Ad-Dahhak said, “Meaning to stand for the Salah (and say): “Glorious are You and with Your praise, Hallowed be Your Name, Exalted be Your majesty, and there is no God (worthy of worship) except You.” In his Sahih, Muslim recorded that `Umar used to recite this supplication when he began Salah. Ahmad and the Sunan compilers recorded this Hadith from Abu Sa`id and other Companions, who stated that the Prophet used to say that. Abu Al-Jawza’ commented on the Ayah;

﴿وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ﴾

 

(and glorify the praises of your Lord when you get up.) “From your sleep, from your bed.” And this is the view chosen by Ibn Jarir. Suporting this view is the Hadith that Imam Ahmad recorded that `Ubadah bin As-Samit said that the Messenger of Allah said,

«مَنْ تَعَارَّ مِنَ اللَّيْلِ فَقَالَ: لَا إِلهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَحْدَهُ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ، لَهُ الْمُلْكُ وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ، وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ، سُبْحَانَ اللهِ وَالْحَمْدُ للهِ وَلَا إِلهَ إِلَّا اللهُ وَاللهُ أَكْبَرُ، وَلَا حَوْلَ وَلَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللهِ. ثُمَّ قَالَ: رَبِّ اغْفِرْ لِي أو قال: ثُمَّ دَعَا اسْتُجِيبَ لَهُ، فَإِنْ عَزَمَ فَتَوَضَّأَ ثُمَّ صَلَّى، قُبِلَتْ صَلَاتُه»

 

(Whoever gets up at night and says: `La ilaha illallah, He is One without partners. For Him is the kingdom and all praise is due to Him. He has power over all things. Glory be to Allah, and all praise is due to Allah, and La illaha illallah and Allah is Greater. There is neither might nor power except Allah.’ And then says, `O Lord! Forgive me.’ Or invokes (Allah), he will be responded to it, and if he intends and performs ablution and prays, his prayer will be accepted.) Al-Bukhari and the Sunan compilers also recorded this Hadith. Ibn Abi Najih reported that Mujahid commented on the Ayah,

﴿وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ﴾

 

(and glorify the praises of your Lord when you get up.) saying, “From every gathering you sit in.” Ath-Thawri said that Abu Ishaq narrated that Abu Al-Ahwas said that,

﴿وَسَبِّحْ بِحَمْدِ رَبِّكَ حِينَ تَقُومُ﴾

 

(and glorify the praises of your Lord when you get up.) “When a person wants to stand from a gathering, he says: `Glory be to You, O Allah, and with Your praise.”’ Abu Hurayrah narrated that the Prophet said,

«مَنْ جَلَسَ فِي مَجْلِسٍ فَكَثُرَ فِيهِ لَغَطُهُ، فَقَالَ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَقُومَ مِنْ مَجْلِسِهِ: سُبْحَانَكَ اللْهُمَّ وَبِحَمْدِكَ، أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لَا إِلهَ إِلَّا أَنْتَ، أَسْتَغْفِرُكَ وَأَتُوبُ إِلَيْكَ، إِلَّا غَفَرَ اللهُ لَهُ مَا كَانَ فِي مَجْلِسِهِ ذلِك»

 

(Whoever sits in a gathering in which he speaks idle excessively, but says before he stands up to depart that gathering, `Glory be to You O Allah , and with Your praise, I testify that there is no God (worthy of worship) except You, I seek Your forgiveness, and I repent to You.’ Then, Allah will forgive him what he has said in that gathering.) This was recorded by At-Tirmidhi, and this is his wording, and it was also recorded by An-Nasa’i in ﴿`Amal﴾ Al-Yawm wal-Laylah. At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih.” It was also recorded by Al-Hakim in his Mustadrak, and he said, “Its chain meets the criteria of Muslim.” Allah the Exalted said;

﴿وَمِنَ الَّيْلِ فَسَبِّحْهُ﴾

 

(And in the nighttime also glorify His praises), meaning remember and worship Allah by reciting the Qur’an and praying at night. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah,

﴿وَمِنَ الَّيْلِ فَتَهَجَّدْ بِهِ نَافِلَةً لَّكَ عَسَى أَن يَبْعَثَكَ رَبُّكَ مَقَاماً مَّحْمُودًا ﴾

 

(And in some of the night, offer Tahajjud in it as an additional (prayer) for you. It may be that your Lord will raise you to Maqam Mahmud.)(17:79) Allah said;

﴿وَإِدْبَـرَ النُّجُومِ﴾

 

(and at the setting of the stars.) is in reference to the two voluntary Rak`ahs before the Dawn prayer, according to a Hadith from Ibn `Abbas. These two Rak`ahs are an established Sunnah performed before the stars are about to set. It is confimred in the Two Sahihs from `A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, who said, “The Prophet was never more regular and particular in offering any voluntary prayer than the two (Sunnah) Rak`ahs of the Fajr prayer.” In another narration collected by Muslim, ﴿the Prophet said,﴾

«رَكْعَتَا الْفَجْرِ خَيْرٌ مِنَ الدُّنْيَا وَمَا فِيهَا»

 

(Two (Sunnah) Rak`ahs before Fajr are better than this life and all that in it.)

***

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat At-Tur, all praise and gratitude is due to Allah.

Tafseer by Abul A’la Maududi

52. Surah At Tur (The Mount)

Name
It is derived from the very first cord “Wat Tur-i.”

Period of Revelation
From the internal evidence of the subject matter it appears that this Surah too was revealed in the same stage of the Holy Prophet’s life at Makkah in which the Surah Adh-Dhariyat was revealed. While going through it one can clearly feel that during the period of its revelation the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was being showered with objections and accusations but there is no evidence yet to show that severe persecution of the Muslims had started.

Subject Matter and Topics
The subject matter of its first section (vv. 1-28) is the Hereafter. As arguments for its possibility, necessity and occurrence had already been given in Surah Adh-Dhariyat, these have not been repeated here. However, swearing an oath by some realities and signs which testify to the Hereafter, it has been stated most emphatically that it will surely come to pass, and none has the power to prevent its occurrence. Then, it has been stated as to what will be the fate of those who deny it when it actually occurs, and how will those who believe in it and adopt the way of piety and righteousness accordingly, be blessed by Allah.

Then, in the second section (vv. 29-49) the Quraish chiefs’ attitude towards the message of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah he upon him) has been criticized. They called him a sorcerer, a madman, or a poet, and would thus mislead the common people against him so that they should not pay any serious attention to the message he preached. They looked upon him as a calamity that had suddenly descended on them and would openly wish that he met with a disaster so that they were rid of him. They accused him of fabricating the Qur’an by himself and of presenting it in the name of Allah, and this was, God forbid, a fraud that he was practicing. They would often taunt him, saying that God could not have appointed an ordinary man like him to the office of Prophethood. They expressed great disgust at his invitation and message and would avoid him as if he was asking them for a reward for it. They would sit and take counsels together to devise schemes in order to put an end to his mission. And while they did all this they never realized what creeds of ignorance they were involved in and how selflessly and sincerely was Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) exerting himself to deliver them from their error. While criticizing them for this attitude and conduct, Allah has put them certain questions, one after the other, each of which is either an answer to some objection of theirs, or a criticism of some error. Then, it has been said that it would absolutely be of no avail to show them a miracle in order to convince them of his Prophethood, for they were such stubborn people as would misinterpret anything they were shown only to avoid affirming the faith.

In the beginning of this section as well as in its end, the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) has been given the instruction that he should persistently continue giving his invitation and preaching his message in spite of the accusations and objections of his opponents and enemies, and should endure their resistance patiently till Allah’s judgment comes to pass. Besides, he has been consoled, as if to say “Your Lord has not left you alone to face your enemies, after raising you as a Prophet, but He is constantly watching over you. Therefore, endure every hardship patiently till the Hour of His judgment comes, and seek through praising and glorifying your Lord the power that is required for exerting in the cause of Allah under such conditions.

In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.


1-28 Deniers of truth will be put in the fire of hell and Reward for the righteous will be paradise in which they will show gratitude for Allah’s graciousness


(52:1) By the Mount,1 (52:2) and the Book inscribed (52:3) on fine parchment;2 (52:4) by the much-frequented House,3 (52:5) by the elevated canopy;4 (52:6) and by the swelling sea:5 (52:7) verily your Lord’s chastisement shall come to pass, (52:8) none can avert that.6 (52:9) (It shall come to pass) on the Day when the heaven will convulse in a great convulsion,7 (52:10) and the mountains shall violently fly about.8 (52:11) Woe, then, on that Day to those who give the lie (to this Message) (52:12) and amuse themselves with vain argumentation.9 (52:13) On the Day when they shall be thrust into Hell with a violent thrust (and shall be told): (52:14) “This is the Hell which you used to give the lie to.” (52:15) Is this, then, any feat of magic or are you unable to see?10 (52:16) Go now and burn in it. It is all the same whether you bear it patiently or do not bear it with patience. You are only being recompensed for your deeds.” (52:17) Surely the God-fearing11 shall be in Gardens and bliss, (52:18) enjoying what Allah will have endowed them with; and their Lord will have saved them from the torment of the Blazing Fire.12 (52:19) (They will be told): “Eat and drink to your hearts’13 content as a reward for your deeds.” (52:20) The God-fearing shall be reclining on couches facing each other, and We shall wed them to maidens with large, beautiful eyes.14 (52:21) We shall unite the believers with those descendants of theirs who followed them in their faith, and shall not deny them any part of the reward for their good deeds.15 Every person is pledged to what he did.16 (52:22) We shall provide them in abundance with all kinds of fruit and meat, 17 whatever they may desire. (52:23) They shall pass on to one another a cup that will incite neither levity nor sin.18 (52:24) Youths as fair as hidden pearls will be set apart to wait upon them; they will be running to and fro to serve them.19 (52:25) They will turn to one another and ask (regarding the past events). (52:26) They will say: “When we were living before among our kinsfolk we lived in constant fear (of Allah’s displeasure).20 (52:27) Then Allah graced us with His favour and saved us from the chastisement of the scorching wind.21 (52:28) Formerly we had always prayed to Him. Surely He is Most Benign, Most Compassionate.”


1. Toor means a mountain, and at-Toor the particular mountain on which Allah had blessed the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) with the Prophethood.

2. In ancient times the books and writings which were meant to be preserved for long were written on the skin of deer instead of the paper. This skin was especially prepared for writing as a thin and fine parchment and was called raqq terminologically. The Jews and Christians in general wrote the Torah, Psalms, the Gospels and the Prophets’ Books on this same raqq so that they would endure. Here, by Scripture inscribed is implied the same collection of the holy scriptures which the followers of the Book possessed. It has been described as unrolled because it was not extinct; it was read and one could easily find out what was written in it.

3. According to Hasan Basri, the inhabited House implies the House of Allah, the Kabah, which is never without its visitors and pilgrims at any time of the day and night. However, Ali, Ibn Abbas, Ikrimah, Mujahid, Qatadah, Dahhak, Ibn Zaid and other commentators have stated that it implies the Bait-al-mamur (the inhabited House) which the Prophet (peace be upon him) referred to in connection with his Miraj (Ascension), against the wall of which he had seen the Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) reclining. Mujahid, Qatadah and Ibn Zaid say that just as the Kabah is the center and place of refuge for all God-worshipers, so is there in every heaven a similar Kabah for its dwellers which occupies a similar central position for the worshipers of Allah there. One of these Kabahs was the one against the wall of which the Prophet (peace be upon him) had seen the Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) reclining on the occasion of the Miraj; and with it the Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) had a natural affinity, for he himself was the founder of the Kabah of the earth. In view of this explanation, this second commentary does not go against the commentary given by Hasan Basri, but if both are read together, we can understand that here the oath has not been sworn only by the Kabah of the earth, but it also includes an oath by all the Kabahs that are there in the entire universe.

4. The roof exalted: the sky which seems to be spread over the earth like a vault; here this word has been used for the entire universe. (For explanation, see( E.N. 7 of Surah Qaf).

5. Several meanings have ban given of the word al-bahrilmasjur as used in the original. Some commentators have taken it in the meaning of full of fire; some take it in the sense of empty and unoccupied, the water of which might have sunk into the earth; some take it in the meaning of restricted and confined by which they imply that the ocean has been restrained so that its water neither sinks into the earth nor spreads over the land to drown all its dwellers. Some have taken it in the meaning of mixed and blended because in it sweet and saline, warm and cold, water is mixed together; and some take it in the meaning of brimful and surging. The first two of these meanings bear no relevance to the context. These two states of the oceansplitting of the bottom of the ocean and sinking of its water into the earth and then its being filled with fire will appear on the Day of Resurrection, as mentioned in (Surah At- Takweer, Ayat 6) and (Surah Al-Infitar, Ayat 3). These states of the future do not exist at present and therefore cannot be sworn by to convince the people of today of the occurrence of the Hereafter. Therefore, here al-bahril-masjur can be taken only in the meaning of confined, mixed, brimful and surging.

6. This is that truth for which an oath has been sworn by the five things. “The punishment of your Lord” implies the Hereafter, for it will be a torment for those who deny that it will come. That is why it has been called “the punishment of your Lord” instead of the Resurrection, or the Hereafter, or the Day of Retribution. Now let us consider how the five things by which an oath has been sworn point to its occurrence.

Mount Toor is the place where a decision was taken to exalt an oppressed nation and to abase an oppressive nation, and this decision was taken not on the basis of a physical law but on the basis of a moral law and the law of retribution. Therefore, Mount Toor has been presented as a symbol for the Hereafter. It implies that the decision of exalting a helpless nation like the children of Israel and the drowning of a powerful and mighty ruler like the Pharaoh along with his hosts, which was taken in a quiet and lifeless night on the Mount Toor, is proof of the fact how the nature of the kingdom of the universe demands that man who has been endowed with powers and authority, should be subjected to moral accountability and rewarded and punished accordingly, and for meeting this demand adequately a Day of Reckoning is necessary when the entire mankind should be gathered together and called to account for its deeds. (For further explanation, see (E.N. 21 of Surah Adh- Dhariyat).

The holy scriptures have been sworn by because all the Prophets who came to the world from the Lord of the universe and the Books they brought gave the same one news in every age which the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) is giving, i.e. that all humans of the former and latter generations will one day be resurrected and presented before their God and rewarded and punished according to their deeds. Every heavenly Book proclaimed that this life is not the only life. And that, after death, man will not end up in the dust forever, and that there will be both accountability and reckoning.

“The inhabited House” has been sworn by for the reason that in those days the building of the Kabah was a great sign, particularly for the Arabs, which pointed to the truthfulness of Allah’s Prophets and to the fact that they were supported by Allah Almighty’s far-reaching wisdom and great power. 2,500 years before the revelation of these verses a person happens to visit these barren and uninhabited mountains, without any army or worldly provision, leaving behind a wife and a suckling child devoid of material support. Then, some time later the same man returns and builds at this desolate place a house for the worship of Allah and gives a call to the people to come and visit that house as pilgrims. This same structure and the call are so fervently received that the House becomes the center of the entire population of Arabia. People respond to the call enthusiastically and are drawn from every corner of the country to the House in a spirit of devotion and dedication. For 2,500 years this House continues to remain such a sanctuary of peace that while blood is shed in the country around it, none can dare raise his hand against another as soon as people enter its sacred boundaries; and then because of this very House, Arabia is blessed with four months of such total peace every year when caravans travel in full safety, trade flourishes and markets are held. Then the House inspired such awe that during this whole period no tyrant could ever look towards it with an evil intention, and whoever dared do so was so seized by Allah’s wrath that he became an object of warning for others. Such a miracle had been witnessed by the people themselves only 45 years before the revelation of these verses, and many of those who had witnessed it were still present and living in the city at the time when these verses were being recited to the people of Makkah. What greater proof could be there of the fact that the Prophets of God never uttered empty words? They see with their eyes that which others do not see; they talk freely of such realities as cannot be comprehended by others by intellect; they engage at times in works which might be viewed as madness by the contemporary world but which might strike with amazement the people coming centuries afterwards. When men of such caliber have unanimously been giving in every age the news that Resurrection shall occur and accountability shall take place, it would be sheer madness to dub it as the bragging of the insane.

The exalted roof (the sky) and the surging ocean have been sworn by, for both of these are a pointer to Allah’s wisdom and His power, and the same wisdom and power prove both the possibility of the Hereafter and its occurrence and necessity. As for the sky’s being a pointer we have already explained it in (E. N. 7 of Surah Qaf). As for the ocean, anyone who considers it deeply with an unbiased mind will testify that the provision of water in such abundance on the earth is by itself such an amazing work which cannot be the result of an accident or chance. This also proves that it is not possible that such a perfect system could come into being by chance and the bodies of each species could be made precisely according to the depth in which it has to live. Its water has been made saline so that the bodies of the millions of the animals which die in it daily do not rot. Its water has been restrained at a particular level in such a way that it neither sinks into the earth’s belly passing through its cracks and holes, nor it spreads over the land to submerge it, but has been checked at the same level for millions of years. Because of the existence of this great store of water the rainfall is arranged on the dry parts of the earth, in which the heat of the sun and the circulation of the winds cooperate with full regularity. Then the ocean’s being inhabited with life and the creation in it of the various kinds of creatures has given man the advantage that he obtains from it his food and other necessities in large quantities. Then its being checked and restrained to a limit has given birth to the continents and islands which are the home of man, and became of its adhering to and following some fixed laws has it become possible that man may navigate his ships in it. Such an arrangement could not have possibly existed without the wisdom of an All-Wise Being and the power of an Absolute Ruler, nor could this deep relationship that binds the interests of man and other creatures of the earth to the arrangement of the ocean be established at random. Now, if this is undeniable evidence that an All-Wise and All-Powerful God has also created a vast and surging, brackish ocean besides making countless other arrangements for the purpose of settling man on the earth, then that person would be foolhardy, who expects that the All-Wise God would make arrangements for man that he should water his crops from the ocean and provide him sustenance thereby but would never question him as to how he returned thanks after eating His provisions. And that He would grant man the power that he should run his ships on the surface of the ocean but would never question him as to whether he had run the ships for the sake of the truth, righteousness and justice, or had committed robberies. Likewise, it would also be sheer folly to imagine that the Absolute Sovereign, Who has checked and restrained this vast store of water on this suspended globe which is moving in space, Who has dissolved a huge quantity of salt in it, Who has created countless varieties of creatures in it, and has arranged their sustenance therein, Who carries billions of tons of water from it every year by means of the wind and causes it to fall regularly as rain on millions of square miles of dry land, becomes so helpless and powerless after creating man that He could not resurrect him again.

7. The word maur in the original is used for turning round, boiling, fluttering, rotating, swinging and moving forward and backward. The object of depicting the condition of the heavens on the Day of Resurrection in these words is to give the idea that the system of the heavens on that Day will be wholly upset, and when an observer will look up to the sky, he will feel that the constant pattern and order that it always used to present, has been broken and there is disorder, confusion and chaos on every side.

8. In other words, the pull of the earth which is keeping the mountains in place, will become loose, they will be uprooted and start floating about in space like clouds.

9. It means that they are mocking and ridiculing the news of Resurrection, Hereafter, Heaven and Hell when they hear it from the Prophet (peace be upon him), and instead of considering it seriously they are disputing it only for fun and amusement. Their discussions of the Hereafter are not meant to understand the reality, but only to amuse themselves, and they do not at all realize the fate for which they arc destined.

10. That is, when the Messengers in the world warned you of this Hell. you said that it was only by magic that they were fooling you. Now say: Is this Hell which you are facing mere magic, or you still do not see that you have actually met with the same Hell which was being foretold to you?

11. “The righteous”: the people who believed in the news given by the Prophets and who safeguarded themselves in the world itself and refrained from thoughts and deeds that doom man to Hell.

12. There seems to be no need to mention a person’s being saved from Hell after it has been said that he will be admitted to Heaven, but at several places in the Quran these two things have been mentioned separately because a person’s being saved from Hell is by itself a great blessing. And the words, “and their Lord saved them from the punishment of Hell”, is an allusion to the truth that man’s being saved from Hell is possible only through Allah’s grace and bounty; otherwise human weaknesses cause such flaws to occur in everyone’s work that if Allah does not overlook them by His grace and instead decides to subject him to accountability, none can save himself from His punishment. That is why although entry into Paradise is a great bounty from Allah, his being saved from Hell is no less a mercy.

13. Here, the word “with relish” contains vast meaning in itself. In Paradise whatever a man receives, he will have it without any labor and toil. There will be no question of its sustenance in short supply. Man will not have to spend anything for it. It will be precisely according to his desire and choice and taste. In whatever quantity and whenever he will desire it, it will be made available. He will not be staying there as a guest that he may feel shy of asking for something, but everything will be the reward of his lifelong deeds and the fruit of his own labors. His eating and drinking anything will not cause any illness nor will he eat for satisfying hunger or for survival but only for the sake of enjoyment. Man will be able to obtain as much pleasure from it as he pleases without the fear of indigestion, and the food eaten will not produce any filth. Therefore, the meaning of eating and drinking with relish in Paradise is much more vast and sublime than what is understood by it in the world.

14 For explanation, see (E. Ns. 20, 29 of Surah As-Saaffat), and (E. N. 42 of Surah Ad-Dukhan).

15. This theme has already been mentioned in (Surah Ar- Raad, Ayat 23) and (Surah Al-Momin, Ayat 8), but here a greater good news has been given. In the verse of Surah Ar- Raad only this much was said: They will enter into them (Gardens) along with the righteous from among their forefathers, wives and descendants, and in Surah Al-Mmin: The angels ask forgiveness for the believers; they say Our Lord… (admit therein also) of their parents and wives and children who are righteous. Here, what has been said in addition is: If the children had been following in the footsteps of their forefathers in faith, they will be joined with them in Paradise even though they might not deserve, on the basis of their deeds, the same high rank which the elders would attain on the basis of their superior faith and deeds, and this joining will not be of the nature of occasional visits and meetings but they will be lodged permanently with them in Paradise as is borne out by the words: alhaqna bi-him. For the sake of further satisfaction it has been stated: In order to be joined with their offspring the parents will not be lowered and reduced in rank, but in order to be joined with their elders the rank of the children will be enhanced and exalted.

Here, it should be borne in mind that this news has been given in respect of the children who on reaching maturity voluntarily decided to affirm faith and of their own free will followed in the footsteps of their righteous forefathers. As for those of the children of a believer, who might have died even before reaching maturity, there cannot be any question of belief or disbelief, obedience or disobedience, for they will be admitted to Paradise automatically and will be lodged along with their parents to be a comfort of the eyes for them.

16. Here, the metaphor of rahn (pledge) is very meaningful. If a person takes a loan from somebody, and the creditor keeps some article belonging to the debtor as a pledge with himself as a guarantee for the payment of his right, the debtor cannot redeem his pledge unless he pays off the debts; and if he does not redeem his pledge within the fixed time limit, the pledged article stands forfeited. The nature of the affair between man and God has been compared here to this very situation. The provisions, powers, capabilities and authority that God has granted man in the world are a debt that the Master has given to His servant, and as a guarantee for this debt the self of man is a pledge with Allah. If man by employing the provisions and the powers and authority in the right way earns the good by which the debt can be paid off, he will redeem the pledged thing, i.e. his own self, otherwise it will be forfeited. This thing has been said immediately after the preceding verse because even though the righteous believers may themselves be the people of a very high rank, their children cannot redeem their pledge unless they redeem their self by their own labor and effort. The earning of the forefathers cannot redeem the children. However, if the children are able to redeem themselves by virtue of their faith in some degree by following their righteous forefathers in their footsteps, it would then be Allah’s grace and bounty that in Paradise He may exalt them from lower ranks to be joined with their parents in the higher ranks. The good done by the forefathers can benefit the children only so far, but if by their own deeds they deserve Hell, it is not possible that they may be admitted to Paradise for the sake of the forefathers. Another thing that can be deduced from this verse is that the less righteous children’s being joined with their more righteous forefathers is not in reality the result of the lifework of the children but of their forefathers’. They by virtue of their deeds will deserve the grace that their children be joined with them in order to be a comfort of the eyes for them. That is why Allah will not lower their ranks to join them with their children but will exalt the children’s ranks to be joined with them, so that the perfection of Allah’s blessings on them is not marred by the distress that they may suffer on account of the remoteness of their children far away.

17. In this verse, there is the mention of providing the dwellers of Paradise with every kind of meat generally, and in Surah Al-Waqiah it has been said: They will be served with the flesh of fowls. We do not know what exactly will be the nature of this flesh. But just as in some expressions of the Quran and in some Ahadith it has been said about the milk of Paradise that it will not have been drawn from the udders of animals, and about the honey of Paradise it has been said that it will not have been produced by the bees, and about the wine of Paradise it has been said that it will not have been distilled froth rotten fruit, but these things will flow out of the springs into the canals by the power of Allah, so it can be argued by analogy that this flesh too will not be obtained from slaughtered animals but this too will be a natural product. The God Who can produce milk and honey and wine directly from earthly substances can also produce tasty flesh of every kind from the same substances, which should even surpass the flesh of animals in taste and delight. (For further explanation, see( E.N. 25 of Surah As- Saaffat), (E.Ns 21 to 23 of Surah Muhammad).

18. That is, the wine of Paradise will not intoxicate that they should get drunk and talk nonsense, or use abusive language, or conduct and behave indecently as drunkards. (For further explanation, see( E.N. 27 of Surah As-Saaffat).

19. Here, the word used is ghilman-ul lahum and not ghilman-u-hum. If ghilman-u-hum had been used, it would have meant that their servants in the world would be made their servants in Paradise too; whereas whoever from the world goes to Paradise, will go there on the basis of his own work and entitlement, and there is no reason that after his entry in Paradise he may be made a servant of the same master whom he had been serving in the world. But it can also be that a servant on account of his deeds may attain a higher rank than his master in Paradise. Therefore, by using ghilman-ul-lahum no room has been left for this suspicion. This word provides the explanation that these will be the boys who will be exclusively appointed for their service in Paradise. (For further explanation, see( E.N. 26 of Surah As-Saffat).

20. That is, we were not heedless and living a care-free life of ease and comfort, but we were always on our guard lest we should commit an evil for which we may be held accountable before God. Here, the mention of “we were among our people, in fear and dread,” in particular, has been made for the reason that man commits evil mostly when he is deeply engrossed in arranging ease and comfort for his children and trying to make their future secure and happy. For the same purpose, he earns forbidden things by forbidden means, usurps the rights of others and makes evil plans. That is why the dwellers of Paradise will say to one another: That which particularly saved us from the evil of the Hereafter was that while living among our families we did not think so much of arranging the pleasures of life and a splendid future for them as for avoiding for their sake those methods and means that might ruin our life in the Hereafter and that we should not lead our children also on to the way that might make them worthy of the torment of Allah.

21. The word samum in the original means hot, scorching wind; here it implies the waves of hot wind that will be arising from Hell.


29-49 Mission of the Prophet and the response to the disbelievers’ arguments


(52:29) So exhort (them, O Prophet), for by your Lord’s Grace, you are neither a soothsayer nor a madman.22 (52:30) Or do they say: “He is a poet for whom we await an adverse turn of fortune.”23 (52:31) Tell them: “Wait; I too am waiting with you.”24 (52:32) Do their minds prompt them to say such things, or are they a people immersed in transgression?”25 (52:33) Do they say: “He has himself fabricated the Qur’an?” No; the truth is that they are altogether averse to believing.26 (52:34) (If they are truthful in this), then let them produce a discourse of similar splendour.27 (52:35) Did they come into being without any creator? Or were they their own creators? (52:36) Or is it they who created the heavens and the earth? No; the truth is that they lack sure faith.28 (52:37) Or do they have your Lord’s treasures in their keeping? Or have absolute authority over them?29 (52:38) Or do they have a ladder whereon they can climb and attempt to listen (to what is transpiring in the Higher Realm)? Then, let any of them who has listened to it produce a clear proof of it. (52:39) Or does Allah have daughters whereas you have sons?30 (52:40) Or is it that you ask of them any recompense so that they should fear to be weighed down under the burden of debt?31 (52:41) Or is it that they have access to (the Truths in) the realm beyond sense-perception which they are writing down?32 (52:42) Or are they contriving a stratagem against you?33 If so, that stratagem will rebound against the unbelievers.34 (52:43) Do they have any god other than Allah? Exalted be Allah above whatever they associate (with Him in His Divinity).35 (52:44) (So obstinate are they that) even if they were to see some fragments of the sky falling down they would still say: “It is only a mass of cloud.”36 (52:45) So leave them alone until they encounter that Day of theirs when they shall be struck down, (52:46) when their stratagem shall be of no avail to them, nor shall they be succoured. (52:47) Surely a chastisement awaits the wrong-doers even before the coming of that Day; but most of them do not know.37 (52:48) Be patient, then, (O Prophet), until the judgement of your Lord comes.38 For surely you are before Our eyes.39 And celebrate the praise of your Lord when you rise,40 (52:49) and also celebrate His praise at night,41 and at the retreat of the stars.42


22. After depicting a scene of the Hereafter the address now turns to the obduracy of the disbelieves of Makkah with which they were resisting the message of the Prophet (peace be upon him). This verse though apparently addressed to the Prophet (peace be upon him) is actually meant for the disbelievers through him. Whenever he spoke of Resurrection and the gathering together of mankind, and accountability, and meting out of rewards and punishments, and Heaven and Hell and recited the verses of the Quran in support thereof, with the claim that he received that information from Allah and that it was Allah’s Word that had been revealed to him, their leaders and religious guides and depraved people neither listened to him seriously themselves nor wanted that the other people should pay any attention to him. Therefore, they would sometimes taunt him saying that he was a sorcerer, or that he was a poet, or that he was a madman, or that he fabricated those strange things himself and presented them as Revelations from Allah only in order to impress the people. They thought that by passing such remarks against him, they would be able to create suspicions among the people about him and would thus render his preaching ineffective and vain. About this it is being said: O Prophet (peace be upon him), the truth in fact is the same that has been presented from the beginning of the Surah to this point. If these people call you a sorcerer and a madman on account of these things, you should not take it to heart but should go on arousing the people from their heedlessness and warning them of the reality, for by the grace of God you are neither.

The word kahin (sorcerer) in Arabic is used for an astrologer, fortune teller and a wise man. In the pre-Islamic days of ignorance it was a full-fledged profession. The sorcerers claimed, and the credulous people thought and believed, that they knew the destinies of the people, or they had a special link with the spirits, devils and jinn through whom they come to know of the unseen realities. If a thing was lost, they could tell where it lay; if a theft occurred somewhere, they could tell who the thief was; and they could foretell destinies. People came to there, and they would tell them unseen things in exchange for gifts and offerings. They would sometimes visit the towns and villages and would cry about their profession so that the people might approach them. They had a way and manner and appearance of their own by which they became easily recognizable. The language they used also differed from the common speech of the people. They would utter rhymed and rhythmical sentences with a peculiar accent and modulation and generally used vague and ambiguous sentences from which every person could draw his own meaning. The Quraish chiefs in order to deceive the common people accused the Prophet (peace be upon him) of sorcery only for the reason that he was giving the news of the realities that are hidden and his claim was that an angel from God came to reveal that news to him, and the Word of God that he was presenting was also rhymed. But no one in Arabia could be deceived by this accusation because no one was unaware of the sorcerers’ profession and their general way and appearance and their language and business. Everyone knew what they did, why the people visited them, what they told them, what sort of modulated sentences they uttered and what subject-matter they contained. Then, above all, it could not be that a sorcerer would rise with a creed that went against the prevalent beliefs of the nation and would exert himself preaching it continuously at his own risk. Therefore, this accusation of sorcery did not apply to the Prophet (peace be upon him) at all and no one in Arabia who had any common sense could be deceived by it.

Likewise, the disbelievers of Makkah also accused him of madness only for their own satisfaction, just as some shameless Western scholars of the present day in order to satisfy their malice and enmity against Islam, claim that, God forbid, the Prophet (peace be upon him) had epileptic fits and whatever he uttered during those fits was taken as divine revelation by the people. No sensible person in those days regarded such absurd accusations as worthy of any attention, nor can anyone today, who reads the Quran and studies the wonderful facts of the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) leadership and guidance, believe that these were the product of epileptic fits.

23. That is, we are waiting for him to be afflicted with calamity so that we get rid of him. Probably they thought that since Muhammad (peace be upon him) was opposing their deities and denying their supernatural powers, he would fall under the curse of some deity, or some bold devotee of a god would put an end to him.

24. This can have two meanings: (1) I would also see whether this desire of yours is fulfilled or not. (2) I am also waiting to see who goes to his doom, you or me.

25. In these two sentences, the opponents’ entire propaganda has been nailed, and they have been completely exposed. The reasoning briefly is this: These Qaraish chiefs and elders pose as very wise people, but does their intellect tell them that they should call a person a poet when he is not a poet, and call him a madman when he is well-known for his wisdom among the people, and dub him a sorcerer when he does not have the remotest association with sorcery? Then, if you are passing these judgments only on the basis of intellect and reason, you should have passed one judgment, and not so many contradictory judgments simultaneously. After all, how can one and the same man be a poet and a madman and a sorcerer at one and the same time? If he is mad, he can then neither be a sorcerer nor a poet. If he is a sorcerer, he cannot be a poet, and if he is a poet, he cannot be a sorcerer, for the language and diction and themes of poetry are quite different from the language and themes of sorcery. The one who knows the distinctions between poetry and sorcery cannot possibly call and regard the same discourse both as poetry and as sorcery at one and the same time. Therefore, it is evident that these contradictory things are being said against the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) not on the basis of intellect and reason but only due to obduracy and stubbornness, and the big chiefs of the nation blinded by their prejudice and enmity are leveling absurd charges which no serious person can regard as worthy of any attention. (For further explanation, see (E.N. 104 of Surah Al-Aaraf); (E.N. 3 of Surah Younus); (E.Ns 53, 54, of Surah Bani-Israil); (E.Ns 130, 131, 140, 142-144 of Surah Ash- Shuara).

26. In other words, it means this: The Quraish who think that Muhammad (peace be upon him) himself is the author of the Quran know deep down in their hearts that it cannot be his word, and those others also whose mother tongue is Arabic not only clearly feel that it is far more sublime and superior to human speech but any one of them who knows Muhammad (peace be upon him) personally cannot ever suspect that this is actually his own word and speech. Therefore, the thing plainly is that those who ascribe the authorship of the Quran to the Prophet (peace be upon him) do not, in fact, wish to affirm faith. That is why they are inventing false excuses one of which is this excuse. (For further explanation, see (E.N. 21 of Surah Younus); (E N. 12 of Surah Al-Furqan); (E N. 64 of Surah Al-Qasas); (E.Ns 88, 89 of Surah Al-Ankabut); (E.Ns 1 to 4 of Surah As-Sajdah); (E.N. 54 of Surah HaMim As-Sajdah); (E.Ns 8 to 10 of Surah Al-Ahqaf).

27. That is, not only is the Quran not the word of Muhammad (peace be upon him) but the truth is that it is not human at all; it is beyond the power of man to compose and produce it. If you think it is human, you are challenged to produce the like of it, which should also be human. This challenge had been given not only to the Quraish but to all the disbelievers of the world first of all in this verse. Then it was repeated thrice in Makkah and then finally in Madinah. (Please see (Surah Younus, Ayat 38); (Surah Houd, Ayat 13); (Surah Bani-Israil, Ayat 88); (Surah Al-Baqarah, Ayat 23). But no one could dare meet this challenge of the Quran at that time, nor has anyone else had so far the ability to compose and produce a man-made work like the Quran.

Some people, because of lack of understanding the real nature of this challenge, say that not to speak of the Quran, no one has the power to write prose or compose poetry in the style of another person. Homer, Rumi, Shakespeare, Goethe, Ghalib, Tagore, Iqbal, all are unique in their styles. It lies in no one’s power to produce poetry like theirs by imitation. Those who give this answer to the challenge of the Quran are, in fact, involved in the misunderstanding that the meaning of “let them produce a statement like it”, is a challenge to man to compose and write a book like the Quran, in the style of the Quran; whereas it does not imply any resemblance in literary style but it implies this: Bring a book of the same sublimity and quality and rank, not only in Arabic but in any language of the world, that may be regarded as a match for the Quran in respect of the characteristics for which the Quran is a miracle. The following are in brief some of the main characteristics because of which the Quran has been a miracle before as it is a miracle today:

(1) The Quran is the highest and most perfect model of the literature of the language in which it was revealed. No word and no sentence in the entire Book is sub-standard. Whatever theme has been presented in it, has been presented in the most appropriate words and in the most suitable style. One and the same theme has been presented over and over again but every time in a new style avoiding the defect of repetition everywhere. The entire Book, from the beginning to the end, is set in the choicest words, like chiseled and polished gems, that cannot be replaced. The discourses are so impressive that no one who knows the language, even if he is a disbeliever, can help being moved to ecstasies on hearing them. Even after 1,400 years this Book is still the model of Arabic literature and no other Arabic book can approach it in literary excellence not to speak of equaling it. Not only this, this Book has so controlled the Arabic language that even after the passage of 14 centuries the standard of this language’s beauty and eloquence is the same that had been set by it; whereas in such long periods languages change out of recognition. No other language of the world has remained in the same state in so far as its spelling and diction, idiom, rules of language and usages are concerned. But it is only the power of the Quran that has held the Arabic language in place each idiom of it is still in use in Arabic literature; its literature is still the standard literature of Arabic; and in writing and speech still the same language is regarded as good Arabic that had been used in the Quran 1,400 years ago. Is there any man-made book in any language of the world that bears the same characteristics?

(2) This is the one single Book in the world, which has so extensively and so universally influenced mankind’s thoughts, morals, civilization and way of life as has no precedent in history. In the first instance, its impact changed one nation; then that nation rose and changed a major part of the world. No other Book has proved to be so revolutionary. This Book has not remained confined to writing on paper but in the practical world its each word has formed and molded ideas and thoughts and built up a lasting civilization. Its influence has continued being operative for 1,400 years and its circle of influence and impact is still expanding every day.

(3) The theme that this Book discusses is the most extensive theme which comprehends the whole universe, from eternity to eternity. It deals with the reality of the universe, its beginning and end, its system and law. It tells as to who is the Creator and Controller and Disposer of this universe, what are His attributes, what are His powers, and what is that essence and basis on which He has established this entire system of the world. It specifies man’s position and his place which he cannot change. It tells what is the right and correct way of thought and action for man in view of this place and position, which corresponds to the reality, and what are the wrong ways which clash with the reality. Then to prove why the right way is right and the wrong way is wrong, it presents countless arguments from various phenomena of the earth and heavens, from different aspects of the system of the universe, from man’s own self and existence and from man’s own history. Besides, it also tells how and for what reasons man adopts the wrong ways, by what means he can find out the right way, which has always been one and shall remain one, and how he has been guided to it in every age. It does not merely point to the right way but presents a plan of the complete system of life for following that way, which contains a detailed and systematic code concerning beliefs, morals, purification of self, worship, social life, civilization, economy, politics, justice, law and every other aspect of human life. Furthermore, it also tells in full detail what are the results of following this right way and of adopting the wrong ways in this world and what consequences of this will appear in the next world after the present system of the world has come to an end. It depicts fully the coming to an end of the present world and of the establishment of the new world; it gives every detail of the process of change; it portrays the next world and describes fully how man will find a totally new life there, how his deeds from worldly life will be subjected to accountability, what things he will be questioned about, how his complete record, which lie will not be able to deny or dispute, will be placed before him, what strong evidence will be produced in proof thereof, why the culprits will be punished and the righteous rewarded, what rewards will be bestowed on the righteous and in what forms will the culprits suffer the evil consequences of their misdeeds. The way this vast theme has been dealt with in this Book is not of the nature of some conclusions that its author might have reached from some syllogistic premises but its nature is that its author has the direct knowledge of the reality.

He sees everything happening from eternity to eternity. All the realities are manifest for Him and the entire universe is like an open book before Him. He sees the entire life of mankind, from its origin to its end, even beyond the present life into the second life simultaneously, and He is guiding man not on the basis of conjecture and speculation but on the basis of knowledge. Not a single truth that He presents as knowledge has been proved to be wrong so far. The concept of the universe and man that He presents fully explains all the phenomena and events and can become the basis of research in every branch of knowledge. His Word contains the answers to all the ultimate problems of philosophy and natural and social sciences, and they are so coherent and consistent logically that a perfect, consistent and comprehensive system of thought can be built on their basis. Then from the practical aspect the guidance that He has given to man about various spheres of life is not only highly rational and pure but countless men have been living according to it in a real fact in different parts of the earth for 1,400 years and have found it by experience to be the only valid way. Is there any man made book of this unique quality present in the world, or has ever been, which may be produced to match this Book?

(4) This Book was not composed and written all at once and presented before the world, but a reformatory movement was started with some basic and initial instructions and then for 23 years as the movement passed through different stages of its development its parts were presented by the tongue of the leader, sometimes as lengthy discourses and sometimes as brief sentences, as the conditions and requirements of the occasion demanded. Then, when the mission was brought to completion, these parts that had been issued at different times were compiled in the form of a complete Book which has been known by the name of the Quran. The leader of the movement states that these discourses and sentences are not his original work but were sent down to him by the Lord of all Creation. If a person asserts that they are the original work of the leader himself, he should produce a precedent from history to prove his contention. He should show whether it is possible that the speeches made and the instructions given by a man at different times while leading a powerful collective movement for years continuously by himself in different capacities, sometimes as a preacher and teacher of morals, sometimes as a leader of an oppressed class, sometimes as the ruler of a state, sometimes as the commander of a fighting army, sometimes as a victor, sometime as a lawgiver and legislator, could form a complete and consistent and comprehensive system of thought and action, which should be free from every contradiction and inconsistency, which should appear to be dominated by the same central idea and pattern of thought, which should show that the leader has been building up a universal system of belief and action on the basis of the same foundation of his message with which he had started his work, and which should be a system each clement and part of which is in perfect harmony and consistency with the other parts, Then the one who reads this collection of the discourses with a discerning eye cannot help realizing that the founder of the movement at the outset had a full plan of the movement in view till the last stage, and it never happened that a new idea might have struck him at some later stage, which was unknown to him before, or which he had to change later. If ever there has been a man of this caliber, his name should be made known to the world.

(5) The leader who had been made to give these discourses and speak these sentences did not suddenly emerge from a hidden place to present these before the people nor would disappear after he had done so. He had lived his life in full view of society before he started his movement as well as continued to live in the same society after that till his last breath. The people were well aware of the language and style of his conversation and speech. Hadith still presents a major part of it and by going through it the people who know Arabic can easily find out even today what was the leader’s own style of speech and conversation. His contemporaries who spoke his language felt then and those who know Arabic feel today that the language and the style of this Book is very different from the language and style of that leader. So much so that whenever in the midst of a sermon delivered by the leader there occurs a sentence or two of this Book, the distinction between the two becomes all too obvious. The question is: Has a man in the world ever had the power, or can he have the capability, that he should go on conversing in two absolutely different styles consistently for years at a stretch and it should never become known that the two separate styles are, in fact, of one and the same person? It is possible that one may succeed in such affectation temporarily but it is not at all possible that for twenty-three years continuously a person should have a different diction and style when he recites the revelations from Allah and a wholly different diction and style when he speaks in his personal capacity.

(6) The leader while leading and guiding the movement met with different sorts of conditions. Sometimes he became the target of ridicule, humiliation and severe persecution of his fellow-countrymen and the people of his own tribe and clan; sometimes his companions were so harshly treated that they were compelled to emigrate from the country; sometimes the enemies plotted against his life; sometimes he himself had to leave his home and city; sometimes he had to pass through extreme poverty and starvation; sometimes he had to fight wars successively in which he suffered defeats as well as won victories; sometimes he overcame the enemies and the same enemies who had persecuted him, came before him humbled; sometimes he achieved such power which few people in the world have been able to achieve. Under all such conditions a person’s feelings obviously cannot remain the same. When on these different occasions the leader spoke in his personal capacity, his words, and speeches carried the clear impression of his personal feelings. which naturally arise in the heart of a man on such occasions. But the discourses that were heard from him as Allah’s revelations in these different conditions, are wholly devoid of human feelings. At no place can even an acute observer and critic point out the play of human feelings in them. The vast and comprehensive knowledge that is contained in this Book, is not possessed even by any of the distinguished learned people of this 20th century, not to speak of the people of Arabia and Rome and Greece and Iran of those days. The condition today is that after a man has spent his whole lifetime studying a branch of philosophy or a natural or social science, he comes to know what ultimate problems of his field of study are, but when he studies the Quran seriously he comes to know that this Book contains a clear answer to those problems. This thing is not confined to any one branch of knowledge but holds good in respect of all those sciences which have anything to do with the universe and man. How can one believe that 1,400. years ago an unlettered man in the Arabian desert possessed such deep insight into every branch of knowledge, and he had thought over every basic problem and thought out an absolute and final answer to it?

Although there are several other aspects also of the Quran’s being a miracle, if a man ponders over these few aspects only, he will realize that the Quran’s being a miracle is far more evident today than it was at the time when it was revealed and, if Allah so wills, it will go on becoming more and more evident and manifest as time passes till the Day of Resurrection.

28. The questions asked before this were meant to make the disbelievers of Makkah realize that whatever they were saying to belie the Prophet Muhammad’s (peace be upon him) claim to prophethood was highly irrational. Now in this verse the question put before them is: What is that in the message of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) which you find so embarrassing for yourselves? He just says that Allah is your Creator and you should only serve Him. Why are you annoyed at it? Are you your own creators? Or, has this vast universe been created by you? If neither of these is true, and you admit that your Creator as well as the Creator of the universe is Allah alone, why do you then feel angry with the person who tells you that Allah alone is worthy of your service and worship? What you should actually feel angry about is that you worship him who is not your Creator instead of Him Who is your real Creator. You admit with the tongue that Allah alone is your Creator as well as of the whole universe, but if you really had faith in this, you would not have so maligned the person who was calling you to Allah’s service.

This was such a pungent and stinging question that it shook the polytheistic faith to the root. Bukhari and Muslim have related that after the Battle of Badr, Jubair bin Mutim came to Al-Madinah to negotiate release of the Quraish prisoners of war on behalf of the people of Makkah. The Prophet (peace be upon him) at that time was leading the Maghrib Prayer, and he recited this Surah at-Toour in it. Mutim himself has stated that when the Prophet (peace be upon him) reached this place, his heart seemed to be leaving his breast. One main reason of his embracing Islam afterwards was that Islam had taken root in his heart on hearing these very verses on that day.

29. This is an answer to the objection of the disbelievers of Makkah who said: Why had Muhammad (peace be upon him), son of Abdullah, only been appointed a Messenger? The answer implies this: Somebody in any case had to be appointed a Messenger in order to deliver the people from their error of serving others than Allah. Now the question is: Who should decide whom Allah should appoint His Messenger and whom He should not? If these people refuse to accept the Messenger appointed by Allah, it means that either they regard themselves as the masters of the world or they presume that the world may belong to Allah, but it should be ruled by them.

30. A detailed reasoning has been compressed into these brief sentences. It means to say: If you deny what the Prophet (peace be upon him) says, then what other means do you have to know the reality? Has any of you had access to the heavens where he found out directly from Allah or His angels that the beliefs on which you have based your religion are absolutely in accord with the reality? If someone makes this claim, he should come forward and tell as to when and how he had access to the heavens and what knowledge he has brought from there. If you do not make any such claim, then consider how ridiculous is your creed that you assign children to Allah, Lord of the worlds, and that too daughters, whom you regard as disgraceful for yourselves. Without knowledge you are wandering in the darkness of such errors and turning hostile to the person who brings to you the light of knowledge from God.

31. The question is actually directed to the disbelievers. It means: If the Messenger had a selfish motive and had been exerting only for a personal gain from you, there would be a rational ground for you to avoid him. But you yourselves know that he is absolutely selfless in his invitation and is exerting himself only for your own benefit and well-being. Then, how is it that you are not even inclined to listen to him with a cool mind? There is also a subtle hint in this question. Like the self-styled guides and guardians of religious shrines of the world, the religious guides, priests and scholars of the polytheists of Arabia also were engaged in a religious business. In view of the same, this question was put before them: On the one hand, these dealers in religion are openly receiving gifts and offerings and fees for every religious service from you; on the other hand, a person who has ruined his trading business, is trying to show you the right way with highly rational arguments, absolutely selflessly. Is it not sheer senselessness that you shun him but run after them?

32. That is, what particular knowledge do you have to refute the truths that the Messenger (peace be upon him) is presenting before you, which you may present with the claim that you directly know the realities hidden behind the phenomenal world? Do you really have the knowledge that God is not One, but all those whom you have set up as deities also possess godly attributes and powers? Have you really seen the angels and found that they are girls, and, God forbid, are begotten of God? Do you really know that the revelation has neither come to Muhammad (peace be upon him), nor it can come to any man, from God? Do you really have the knowledge that no Resurrection will take place, that there is going to be no life after death, that there will be no Hereafter when man will be subjected to accountability and rewarded or punished according to his deeds? If you claim to possess any such knowledge, can you give in writing that you are belying what the Prophet (peace be upon him) says about the unseen realities on the ground that you have peeped into the hidden realities and seen that the truth is not that which the Prophet (peace be upon him) presents. Here, one may express the misgiving that if in response to this, those people had given this in writing, in their stubbornness, will not this reasoning have become meaningless? But this misgiving is misplaced because even if they had given this in writing on account of their stubbornness, the common people of society in which this challenge had been given openly were not blind: everyone of them would have understood that the writing had been given out of sheer stubbornness, and no one, in fact, was refuting what the Prophet (peace be upon him) said on the basis that he had the knowledge that it was false.

33. The allusion is to the secret plots that the disbelievers of Makkah used to devise in their meetings in order to defeat the mission of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and to kill him.

34. This is one of the clear prophecies of the Quran. In the initial stage at Makkah when the Prophet (peace be upon him) had no apparent power and support with him except a handful of the ill-equipped Muslims and the whole nation was opposing and resisting him relentlessly, the confrontation between Islam and disbelief appeared to be utterly unequal. No one at that time could imagine that after a few years the tables would be turned on disbelief. Rather, the superficial observer could safely predict that the strong opposition of the Quraish and entire Arabia would at last put an end to the message of Islam. But even under those conditions, a challenge was thrown to the disbelievers and they were told in clear terms: You may devise whatever plots you wish in order to frustrate this message, they will all recoil upon you, and you will never succeed in defeating and putting an end to it.

35. That is, the fact of the matter is that chose whom they have set up as deities, are not in fact the deities, and shirk is wholly an unreal thing. Therefore, the person who has risen with the message of Tauhid has the power of the truth with him; and those who are supporting shirk are indeed fighting for the imaginary. How will then shirk win in this conflict?

36. This is meant to expose the stubbornness of the Quraish chiefs on the one hand; and to console the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his companions, on the other. The Prophet (peace be upon him) and his companions wished that those people should be shown such a miracle by Allah as should convince them of the truth of his Prophethood. At this, it has been said: Whatever miracle they might see with their eyes, they will in any case misinterpret it and invent an excuse for persisting in disbelief, for their hearts are not at all inclined to believe. At several other places also in the Quran their this stubbornness has been mentioned, e.g. in (Surah Al-Anaam, Ayat 111), it has been said: Even if we had sent down the angels to them and made the dead speak to them and ranged all the things of the world before them (as a proof thereof), they would still have disbelieved, and in( Surah Al-Hijr, Ayat 15): Even if We had opened a gate for them in heaven, and they had begun to ascend through it during day time, they would have said: Our eyes have been dazzled; nay, we have been bewitched.

37. This is a repetition of the same theme that has already occurred in (Surah As-Sajdah, Ayat 21): Even in this world We shall make them taste (one or the other) lesser torment before that greater torment; maybe they desist (from their rebellious attitude). That is, We shall send down personal and national disasters from time to time in the world to remind that there is above them a superior power which is deciding their destinies and none has the power to change its decisions. But the people who are involved in ignorance have neither learned any lesson from these events before not will learn any lesson in the future. They do not understand the meaning of the disasters and calamities occurring in the world. Therefore, they explain them away in every such way as takes them further and further away from the reality, and their mind never turns to any explanation, which might make the error of their atheism or polytheism manifest to them. This same thing has been explained by the Prophet (peace be upon him) in a Hadith, thus: The example of a hypocrite who falls ill and then gets well, is of the camel whom the masters tied, but it did not understand why they had tied him, and when they untied him, it did not understand why they had untied him. (Abu Daud: Kitab al-Janaiz). For further explanation, see (E.N. 45 of Surah Al-Anbiya); (E.N. 66 of Surah An-Naml); (E.Ns 72. 73 of Surah Al-Ankabut).

38. Another meaning can be: Remain firm and steadfast in carrying out the command of your Lord.

39. That is, We are watching over you and have not left you alone.

40. There can be several meanings of this and possibly all may be implied:

First, whenever you rise from a meeting, you should rise glorifying and praising Allah. The Prophet (peace be upon him) himself acted upon this as well as instructed the Muslims that they should glorify and praise Allah when they rose from a meeting. Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasai and Hakim have related, on the authority of Hadrat Abu Hurairah, that the Prophet said: If a person sat in a meeting in which much controversy took place, and he pronounced the following words before rising, Allah would forgive whatever passed in the meeting: subhanaka Allahumma wa bi-hamdika, ashhadu-al la-ilaha illa Anta, astaghfiruka wa utubu ilaika: O Allah, I glorify You with Your praises: I bear witness that there is no deity but You: I seek Your forgiveness and offer repentance before You.

The second meaning is: When you get up from bed, glorify your Lord with His praise. The Prophet (peace be upon him) acted upon this himself and had also taught his companions that they should pronounce the following words when they got up after sleep: la ilaha ill-Allah wahda-hu la sharika lahu, lahul mulku wa lahul-hamdu wa haws ala kulli shai In Qadir. Subhan-Allah-i wal-hamdulillahi wa la ilaha ill-Allah, wallahu Akbar, wa la hauls wa la quwwata-illa-billah. (Musnad Ahmad, Bukhari, on the authority of Ubadah bin as-Samit).

Its third meaning is: When you stand up for the Prayer, begin it with the praise and glorification of Allah. Accordingly, the Prophet (peace be upon him) taught that the Prayer should be begun, after the first takbir, with the following words: Subhanak-Allahumma wa bi-hamdi-ka wa tabarak asmuka wa taaIa jadduka wa la ilaha ghairuka: Glory be to You, O Allah, and I praise You. Blessed is Your name, and You are exalted. There is no god other than You.

Its fourth meaning is: When you rise to invite others to Allah, begin your invitation with the praise and glorification of Allah. That also was the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) constant practice, and he always began his addresses with the praise and glorification of Allah Almighty.

Commentator Ibn Jarir has given still another meaning of it, and it is this: When you get up after the midday nap, offer the Prayer and this implies the Zuhr Prayer.

41. This implies the Maghrib, the Isha and the Tahajjud Prayers as well as the recital of the Quran and the remembrance of Allah.

42. Setting of the stars implies the early hours of the morning when the stars set and they lose their luster on the appearance of dawn. This is the time of the Fajr Prayer.