Surah Fatir (“Originator”) is the 35th chapter of Qur’an with a total of 45 ayats or verses. It is classified as a Meccan surah.
In this Surah Allah warns the non-believers on their negative attitude towards Islam and Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).
The Holy Prophet has been consoled again and again, as if to say :”When you are doing full justice to the preaching of your mission, you do not incur any responsibility for those who persist in their error and do not accept and follow the right way.” Furthermore, he has also been consoled to the effect “You should neither grieve on account of those who do not want to believe, nor consume yourself with the thought of how to bring them to the rights path. Instead of this, you should pay your full attention to those who are inclined to listen to you.”
“And Allah created you from dust, then from a sperm-drop; then He made you mates. And no female conceives nor does she give birth except with His knowledge. And no aged person is granted [additional] life nor is his lifespan lessened but that it is in a register. Indeed, that for Allah is easy.”
Surah Fatir Ayat 11
Surah Fatir English Translation, Transliteration
With Arabic Text
Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Raheem
In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful
ٱلْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ فَاطِرِ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ جَاعِلِ ٱلْمَلَـٰٓئِكَةِ رُسُلًا أُو۟لِىٓ أَجْنِحَةٍۢ مَّثْنَىٰ وَثُلَـٰثَ وَرُبَـٰعَ ۚ يَزِيدُ فِى ٱلْخَلْقِ مَا يَشَآءُ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىْءٍۢ قَدِيرٌۭ
Alhamdu lillaahi faatiris samaawaati wal ardi jaa’ilil malaaa’ikati rusulan uleee ajnihatim masnaa wa sulaasa wa rubaa’; yazeedu fil khalqi maa yashaaa’; innal laaha ‘alaa kulli shai’in Qadeer
1. [All] praise is [due] to Allah, Creator of the heavens and the earth, [who] made the angels messengers having wings, two or three or four. He increases in creation what He wills. Indeed, Allah is over all things competent.
مَّا يَفْتَحِ ٱللَّهُ لِلنَّاسِ مِن رَّحْمَةٍۢ فَلَا مُمْسِكَ لَهَا ۖ وَمَا يُمْسِكْ فَلَا مُرْسِلَ لَهُۥ مِنۢ بَعْدِهِۦ ۚ وَهُوَ ٱلْعَزِيزُ ٱلْحَكِيمُ
Maa yaftahil laahu linnaaasi mir rahmatin falaa mumsika lahaa wa maa yumsik falaa mursila lahoo mimba’dihi; wa Huwal ‘Azeezul Hakeem
2. Whatever Allah grants to people of mercy – none can withhold it; and whatever He withholds – none can release it thereafter. And He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ ٱذْكُرُوا۟ نِعْمَتَ ٱللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ ۚ هَلْ مِنْ خَـٰلِقٍ غَيْرُ ٱللَّهِ يَرْزُقُكُم مِّنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ فَأَنَّىٰ تُؤْفَكُونَ
Yaaa ayyuhan naasuzkuroo ni’matal laahi ‘alaikum; hal min khaaliqin ghairul laahi yarzuqukum minas samaaa’i wal ard; laaa ilaaha illaa Huwa fa annaa tu’fakoon
3. O mankind, remember the favor of Allah upon you. Is there any creator other than Allah who provides for you from the heaven and earth? There is no deity except Him, so how are you deluded?
وَإِن يُكَذِّبُوكَ فَقَدْ كُذِّبَتْ رُسُلٌۭ مِّن قَبْلِكَ ۚ وَإِلَى ٱللَّهِ تُرْجَعُ ٱلْأُمُورُ
Wa iny yukazzibooka faqad kuzzibat Rusulum min qablik; wa ilal laahi turja’ul umoor
4. And if they deny you, [O Muhammad] – already were messengers denied before you. And to Allah are returned [all] matters.
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ إِنَّ وَعْدَ ٱللَّهِ حَقٌّۭ ۖ فَلَا تَغُرَّنَّكُمُ ٱلْحَيَوٰةُ ٱلدُّنْيَا ۖ وَلَا يَغُرَّنَّكُم بِٱللَّهِ ٱلْغَرُورُ
Yaaa ayyuhan naasu inna wa’dal laahi haqqun falaa taghurrannakumul hayaatud dunyaa; wa laa yaghurran nakum billaahil gharoor
5. O mankind, indeed the promise of Allah is truth, so let not the worldly life delude you and be not deceived about Allah by the Deceiver.
إِنَّ ٱلشَّيْطَـٰنَ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّۭ فَٱتَّخِذُوهُ عَدُوًّا ۚ إِنَّمَا يَدْعُوا۟ حِزْبَهُۥ لِيَكُونُوا۟ مِنْ أَصْحَـٰبِ ٱلسَّعِيرِ
Innash shaitaana lakum ‘aduwwun fattakhizoohu ‘aduwwaa; innamaa yad’oo hizbahoo liyakoonoo min ashaabis sa’eer
6. Indeed, Satan is an enemy to you; so take him as an enemy. He only invites his party to be among the companions of the Blaze.
ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌۭ شَدِيدٌۭ ۖ وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَعَمِلُوا۟ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةٌۭ وَأَجْرٌۭ كَبِيرٌ
Allazeena kafaroo lahum ‘azaabun shadeed; wallazeena aamanoo wa ‘amilus saalihaati lahum maghfiratunw wa ajrun kabeer (section 1)
7. Those who disbelieve will have a severe punishment, and those who believe and do righteous deeds will have forgiveness and great reward.
أَفَمَن زُيِّنَ لَهُۥ سُوٓءُ عَمَلِهِۦ فَرَءَاهُ حَسَنًۭا ۖ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُضِلُّ مَن يَشَآءُ وَيَهْدِى مَن يَشَآءُ ۖ فَلَا تَذْهَبْ نَفْسُكَ عَلَيْهِمْ حَسَرَٰتٍ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَلِيمٌۢ بِمَا يَصْنَعُونَ
Afaman zuyyina lahoo sooo’u ‘amalihee fara aahu hasanaa; fa innal laaha yudillu mai yashaaa’u wa yahdee mai yahaaa’u falaa tazhab nafsuka ‘alaihim hasaraat; innal laaha ‘aleemun bimaa yasna’oon
8. Then is one to whom the evil of his deed has been made attractive so he considers it good [like one rightly guided]? For indeed, Allah sends astray whom He wills and guides whom He wills. So do not let yourself perish over them in regret. Indeed, Allah is Knowing of what they do.
وَٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَرْسَلَ ٱلرِّيَـٰحَ فَتُثِيرُ سَحَابًۭا فَسُقْنَـٰهُ إِلَىٰ بَلَدٍۢ مَّيِّتٍۢ فَأَحْيَيْنَا بِهِ ٱلْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ ٱلنُّشُورُ
Wallaahul lazeee arsalar riyaaha fatuseeru shaaban fasuqnaahu ilaa baladim maiyitin fa ahyaynaa bihil arda ba’da mawtihaa; kazaalikan nushoor
9. And it is Allah who sends the winds, and they stir the clouds, and We drive them to a dead land and give life thereby to the earth after its lifelessness. Thus is the resurrection.
مَن كَانَ يُرِيدُ ٱلْعِزَّةَ فَلِلَّهِ ٱلْعِزَّةُ جَمِيعًا ۚ إِلَيْهِ يَصْعَدُ ٱلْكَلِمُ ٱلطَّيِّبُ وَٱلْعَمَلُ ٱلصَّـٰلِحُ يَرْفَعُهُۥ ۚ وَٱلَّذِينَ يَمْكُرُونَ ٱلسَّيِّـَٔاتِ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌۭ شَدِيدٌۭ ۖ وَمَكْرُ أُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ هُوَ يَبُورُ
Man kaana yureedul ‘izzata falillaahil ‘izzatu jamee’aa; ilaihi yas’adul kalimut taiyibu wal’amalus saalihu yarfa’uh; wallazeena yamkuroonas sayyiaati lahum ‘azaabun shadeed; wa makru ulaaa’ika huwa yaboor
10. Whoever desires honor [through power] – then to Allah belongs all honor. To Him ascends good speech, and righteous work raises it. But they who plot evil deeds will have a severe punishment, and the plotting of those – it will perish.
وَٱللَّهُ خَلَقَكُم مِّن تُرَابٍۢ ثُمَّ مِن نُّطْفَةٍۢ ثُمَّ جَعَلَكُمْ أَزْوَٰجًۭا ۚ وَمَا تَحْمِلُ مِنْ أُنثَىٰ وَلَا تَضَعُ إِلَّا بِعِلْمِهِۦ ۚ وَمَا يُعَمَّرُ مِن مُّعَمَّرٍۢ وَلَا يُنقَصُ مِنْ عُمُرِهِۦٓ إِلَّا فِى كِتَـٰبٍ ۚ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ يَسِيرٌۭ
Wallaahu khalaqakum min turaabin summa min nutfatin summa ja’alakum azwaajaa; wa maa tahmilu min unsaa wa laa tada’u illaa bi’ilmih; wa maa yu’ammaru mim mu’ammarinw wa laa yunqasu min ‘umuriheee illaa fee kitaab; inna zaalika ‘alal laahi yaseer
11. And Allah created you from dust, then from a sperm-drop; then He made you mates. And no female conceives nor does she give birth except with His knowledge. And no aged person is granted [additional] life nor is his lifespan lessened but that it is in a register. Indeed, that for Allah is easy.
وَمَا يَسْتَوِى ٱلْبَحْرَانِ هَـٰذَا عَذْبٌۭ فُرَاتٌۭ سَآئِغٌۭ شَرَابُهُۥ وَهَـٰذَا مِلْحٌ أُجَاجٌۭ ۖ وَمِن كُلٍّۢ تَأْكُلُونَ لَحْمًۭا طَرِيًّۭا وَتَسْتَخْرِجُونَ حِلْيَةًۭ تَلْبَسُونَهَا ۖ وَتَرَى ٱلْفُلْكَ فِيهِ مَوَاخِرَ لِتَبْتَغُوا۟ مِن فَضْلِهِۦ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
Wa maa yastawil bahraani haaza ‘azbun furaatun saaa’ighun sharaabuhoo wa haazaa milhun ujaaj; wa min kullin taakuloona lahman tariyyanw wa tastakhrijoona hilyatan talbasoonahaa wa taral fulka feehi mawaakhira litabtaghoo min fadlihee wa la’Allakum tashkuroon
12. And not alike are the two bodies of water. One is fresh and sweet, palatable for drinking, and one is salty and bitter. And from each you eat tender meat and extract ornaments which you wear, and you see the ships plowing through [them] that you might seek of His bounty; and perhaps you will be grateful.
يُولِجُ ٱلَّيْلَ فِى ٱلنَّهَارِ وَيُولِجُ ٱلنَّهَارَ فِى ٱلَّيْلِ وَسَخَّرَ ٱلشَّمْسَ وَٱلْقَمَرَ كُلٌّۭ يَجْرِى لِأَجَلٍۢ مُّسَمًّۭى ۚ ذَٰلِكُمُ ٱللَّهُ رَبُّكُمْ لَهُ ٱلْمُلْكُ ۚ وَٱلَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِۦ مَا يَمْلِكُونَ مِن قِطْمِيرٍ
Yoolijul laila fin nahaari wa yoolijun nahaara fil laili wa sakhkharash shamsa wal qamara kulluny yajree li ajalim musammaa; zaalikumul lahuu Rabbukum lahul mulk; wallazeena tad’oona min doonihee maa yamlikoona min qitmeer
13. He causes the night to enter the day, and He causes the day to enter the night and has subjected the sun and the moon – each running [its course] for a specified term. That is Allah, your Lord; to Him belongs sovereignty. And those whom you invoke other than Him do not possess [as much as] the membrane of a date seed.
إِن تَدْعُوهُمْ لَا يَسْمَعُوا۟ دُعَآءَكُمْ وَلَوْ سَمِعُوا۟ مَا ٱسْتَجَابُوا۟ لَكُمْ ۖ وَيَوْمَ ٱلْقِيَـٰمَةِ يَكْفُرُونَ بِشِرْكِكُمْ ۚ وَلَا يُنَبِّئُكَ مِثْلُ خَبِيرٍۢ
in tad’oohum laa yasma’oo du’aaa’akum wa law sami’oo mas tajaaboo lakum; wa Yawmal Qiyaamati Yakfuroona bishirkikum; wa laa yunabbi’uka mislu khabeer (section 2)
14. If you invoke them, they do not hear your supplication; and if they heard, they would not respond to you. And on the Day of Resurrection they will deny your association. And none can inform you like [one] Acquainted [with all matters].
۞ يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلنَّاسُ أَنتُمُ ٱلْفُقَرَآءُ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ ۖ وَٱللَّهُ هُوَ ٱلْغَنِىُّ ٱلْحَمِيدُ
Yaaa ayyunhan naasu antumul fuqaraaa’u ilallaahi wallaahu Huwal Ghaniyyul Hameed
15. O mankind, you are those in need of Allah, while Allah is the Free of need, the Praiseworthy.
إِن يَشَأْ يُذْهِبْكُمْ وَيَأْتِ بِخَلْقٍۢ جَدِيدٍۢ
Iny yashaa yuzhibkum wa yaati bikhalqin jadeed
16. If He wills, He can do away with you and bring forth a new creation.
وَمَا ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ بِعَزِيزٍۢ
Wa maa zaalika ‘alal laahi bi’azeez
17. And that is for Allah not difficult.
وَلَا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌۭ وِزْرَ أُخْرَىٰ ۚ وَإِن تَدْعُ مُثْقَلَةٌ إِلَىٰ حِمْلِهَا لَا يُحْمَلْ مِنْهُ شَىْءٌۭ وَلَوْ كَانَ ذَا قُرْبَىٰٓ ۗ إِنَّمَا تُنذِرُ ٱلَّذِينَ يَخْشَوْنَ رَبَّهُم بِٱلْغَيْبِ وَأَقَامُوا۟ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ ۚ وَمَن تَزَكَّىٰ فَإِنَّمَا يَتَزَكَّىٰ لِنَفْسِهِۦ ۚ وَإِلَى ٱللَّهِ ٱلْمَصِيرُ
Wa laa taziru waaziratun wizra ukhraa; wa in tad’u musqalatun ilaa himlihaa laa yuhmal minhu shai’unw wa law kaana zaa qurbaa; innamaa tunzirul lazeena yakhshawna Rabbahum bilghaibi wa aqaamus Sallah; wa man tazakkaa fa innamaa yatazakkaa linafsih; wa ilal laahil maseer
18. And no bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another. And if a heavily laden soul calls [another] to [carry some of] its load, nothing of it will be carried, even if he should be a close relative. You can only warn those who fear their Lord unseen and have established prayer. And whoever purifies himself only purifies himself for [the benefit of] his soul. And to Allah is the [final] destination.
وَمَا يَسْتَوِى ٱلْأَعْمَىٰ وَٱلْبَصِيرُ
Wa maa tastawil a’maa wal baseer
19. Not equal are the blind and the seeing,
وَلَا ٱلظُّلُمَـٰتُ وَلَا ٱلنُّورُ
Wa laz zulumaatu wa lannoon
20. Nor are the darknesses and the light,
وَلَا ٱلظِّلُّ وَلَا ٱلْحَرُورُ
Wa laz zillu wa lal haroor
21. Nor are the shade and the heat,
وَمَا يَسْتَوِى ٱلْأَحْيَآءُ وَلَا ٱلْأَمْوَٰتُ ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُسْمِعُ مَن يَشَآءُ ۖ وَمَآ أَنتَ بِمُسْمِعٍۢ مَّن فِى ٱلْقُبُورِ
Wa maa yastawil ahyaaa’u wa lal amwaat; innal laaha yusmi’u mai yashaaa’u wa maaa anta bimusi’im man fil quboor
22. And not equal are the living and the dead. Indeed, Allah causes to hear whom He wills, but you cannot make hear those in the graves.
إِنْ أَنتَ إِلَّا نَذِيرٌ
In anta illaa nazeer
23. You, [O Muhammad], are not but a warner.
إِنَّآ أَرْسَلْنَـٰكَ بِٱلْحَقِّ بَشِيرًۭا وَنَذِيرًۭا ۚ وَإِن مِّنْ أُمَّةٍ إِلَّا خَلَا فِيهَا نَذِيرٌۭ
Innaa arsalnaaka bil haqqi basheeranw wa nazeeraa; wa im min ummatin illaa khalaa feehaa nazeer
24. Indeed, We have sent you with the truth as a bringer of good tidings and a warner. And there was no nation but that there had passed within it a warner.
وَإِن يُكَذِّبُوكَ فَقَدْ كَذَّبَ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ جَآءَتْهُمْ رُسُلُهُم بِٱلْبَيِّنَـٰتِ وَبِٱلزُّبُرِ وَبِٱلْكِتَـٰبِ ٱلْمُنِيرِ
Wa inyukazzibooka faqad kazzabal lazeena min qablihim jaaa’at hum Rusuluhum bilbaiyinaati wa biz Zuburi wa bil Kitaabil Muneer
25. And if they deny you – then already have those before them denied. Their messengers came to them with clear proofs and written ordinances and with the enlightening Scripture.
ثُمَّ أَخَذْتُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ ۖ فَكَيْفَ كَانَ نَكِيرِ
Summa akhaztul lazeena kafaroo fakaifa kaana nakeer (section 3)
26. Then I seized the ones who disbelieved, and how [terrible] was My reproach.
أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ أَنزَلَ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءًۭ فَأَخْرَجْنَا بِهِۦ ثَمَرَٰتٍۢ مُّخْتَلِفًا أَلْوَٰنُهَا ۚ وَمِنَ ٱلْجِبَالِ جُدَدٌۢ بِيضٌۭ وَحُمْرٌۭ مُّخْتَلِفٌ أَلْوَٰنُهَا وَغَرَابِيبُ سُودٌۭ
Alam tara annal laaha anzala minas samaaa’i maaa’an fa akhrajnaa bihee samaraatim mukhtalifan alwaanuhaa; wa minal jibaali judadum beedunw wa humrum mukhtalifun alwaanuhaa wa gharaabeebu sood
27. Do you not see that Allah sends down rain from the sky, and We produce thereby fruits of varying colors? And in the mountains are tracts, white and red of varying shades and [some] extremely black.
وَمِنَ ٱلنَّاسِ وَٱلدَّوَآبِّ وَٱلْأَنْعَـٰمِ مُخْتَلِفٌ أَلْوَٰنُهُۥ كَذَٰلِكَ ۗ إِنَّمَا يَخْشَى ٱللَّهَ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ ٱلْعُلَمَـٰٓؤُا۟ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ غَفُورٌ
Wa minan naasi wadda waaabbi wal an’aami mukhtalifun alwaanuhoo kazalik; innamaa yakhshal laaha min ‘ibaadihil ‘ulamaaa’; innal laaha ‘Azeezun Ghafoor
28. And among people and moving creatures and grazing livestock are various colors similarly. Only those fear Allah, from among His servants, who have knowledge. Indeed, Allah is Exalted in Might and Forgiving.
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يَتْلُونَ كِتَـٰبَ ٱللَّهِ وَأَقَامُوا۟ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَأَنفَقُوا۟ مِمَّا رَزَقْنَـٰهُمْ سِرًّۭا وَعَلَانِيَةًۭ يَرْجُونَ تِجَـٰرَةًۭ لَّن تَبُورَ
Innal lazeena yatloona Kitabbal laahi wa aqaamus Salaata wa anfaqoo mimmaa razaqnaahum sirranw wa ‘alaa niyatany yarjoona tijaaratal lan taboor
29. Indeed, those who recite the Book of Allah and establish prayer and spend [in His cause] out of what We have provided them, secretly and publicly, [can] expect a profit that will never perish –
لِيُوَفِّيَهُمْ أُجُورَهُمْ وَيَزِيدَهُم مِّن فَضْلِهِۦٓ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ غَفُورٌۭ شَكُورٌۭ
Liyuwaffiyahum ujoorahum wa yazeedahum min fadlih; innahoo Ghafoorun Shakoor
30. That He may give them in full their rewards and increase for them of His bounty. Indeed, He is Forgiving and Appreciative.
وَٱلَّذِىٓ أَوْحَيْنَآ إِلَيْكَ مِنَ ٱلْكِتَـٰبِ هُوَ ٱلْحَقُّ مُصَدِّقًۭا لِّمَا بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ ۗ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ بِعِبَادِهِۦ لَخَبِيرٌۢ بَصِيرٌۭ
Wallazeee awhainaaa ilaika minal Kitaabi huwal haqqu musaddiqal limaa baina yadayh; innal laaha bi’ibaadihee la khabeerum Baseer
31. And that which We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], of the Book is the truth, confirming what was before it. Indeed, Allah, of His servants, is Acquainted and Seeing.
ثُمَّ أَوْرَثْنَا ٱلْكِتَـٰبَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱصْطَفَيْنَا مِنْ عِبَادِنَا ۖ فَمِنْهُمْ ظَالِمٌۭ لِّنَفْسِهِۦ وَمِنْهُم مُّقْتَصِدٌۭ وَمِنْهُمْ سَابِقٌۢ بِٱلْخَيْرَٰتِ بِإِذْنِ ٱللَّهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ ٱلْفَضْلُ ٱلْكَبِيرُ
Summa awrasnal Kitaaballazeenas tafainaa min ‘ibaadinaa faminhum zaalimul linafsihee wa minhum muqtasidu, wa minhum saabiqum bilkhairaati bi iznil laah; zaalika huwal fadlul kabeer
32. Then we caused to inherit the Book those We have chosen of Our servants; and among them is he who wrongs himself, and among them is he who is moderate, and among them is he who is foremost in good deeds by permission of Allah . That [inheritance] is what is the great bounty.
جَنَّـٰتُ عَدْنٍۢ يَدْخُلُونَهَا يُحَلَّوْنَ فِيهَا مِنْ أَسَاوِرَ مِن ذَهَبٍۢ وَلُؤْلُؤًۭا ۖ وَلِبَاسُهُمْ فِيهَا حَرِيرٌۭ
Jannaatu ‘adniny yad khuloonahaa yuhallawna feeha min asaawira min zahabinw wa lu’lu’anw wa libaa suhum feehaa hareer
33. [For them are] gardens of perpetual residence which they will enter. They will be adorned therein with bracelets of gold and pearls, and their garments therein will be silk.
وَقَالُوا۟ ٱلْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَذْهَبَ عَنَّا ٱلْحَزَنَ ۖ إِنَّ رَبَّنَا لَغَفُورٌۭ شَكُورٌ
Wa qaalul hamdu lillaahil lazeee azhaba ‘annal hazan; inna Rabbanaa la Ghafoorun Shakoor
34. And they will say, “Praise to Allah, who has removed from us [all] sorrow. Indeed, our Lord is Forgiving and Appreciative –
ٱلَّذِىٓ أَحَلَّنَا دَارَ ٱلْمُقَامَةِ مِن فَضْلِهِۦ لَا يَمَسُّنَا فِيهَا نَصَبٌۭ وَلَا يَمَسُّنَا فِيهَا لُغُوبٌۭ
Allazeee ahallanaa daaral muqaamati min fadlihee laa yamassunaa feehaa nasabunw wa laa yamassunaa feehaa lughoob
35. He who has settled us in the home of duration out of His bounty. There touches us not in it any fatigue, and there touches us not in it weariness [of mind].”
وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ لَهُمْ نَارُ جَهَنَّمَ لَا يُقْضَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ فَيَمُوتُوا۟ وَلَا يُخَفَّفُ عَنْهُم مِّنْ عَذَابِهَا ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِى كُلَّ كَفُورٍۢ
Wallazeena kafaroo lahum naaru Jahannama laa yuqdaa ‘alaihim fa yamootoo wa laa yukhaffafu ‘anhum min ‘azaabihaa; kazaalika najzee kulla kafoor
36. And for those who disbelieve will be the fire of Hell. [Death] is not decreed for them so they may die, nor will its torment be lightened for them. Thus do we recompense every ungrateful one.
وَهُمْ يَصْطَرِخُونَ فِيهَا رَبَّنَآ أَخْرِجْنَا نَعْمَلْ صَـٰلِحًا غَيْرَ ٱلَّذِى كُنَّا نَعْمَلُ ۚ أَوَلَمْ نُعَمِّرْكُم مَّا يَتَذَكَّرُ فِيهِ مَن تَذَكَّرَ وَجَآءَكُمُ ٱلنَّذِيرُ ۖ فَذُوقُوا۟ فَمَا لِلظَّـٰلِمِينَ مِن نَّصِيرٍ
Wa hum yastarikhoona feehaa Rabbanaa akhrijnaa na’mal saalihan ghairal lazee kunnaa na’mal; awa lamnu ‘ammirkum maa yatazak karu feehi man tazakkara wa jaaa’akumun nazeeru fazooqoo famaa lizzaalimeena min naseer (section 4)
37. And they will cry out therein, “Our Lord, remove us; we will do righteousness – other than what we were doing!” But did We not grant you life enough for whoever would remember therein to remember, and the warner had come to you? So taste [the punishment], for there is not for the wrongdoers any helper.
إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ عَـٰلِمُ غَيْبِ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ عَلِيمٌۢ بِذَاتِ ٱلصُّدُورِ
Innal laaha ‘aalimu ghaibis samaawaati wal ard; innahoo ‘aleemum bizaatis sudoor
38. Indeed, Allah is Knower of the unseen [aspects] of the heavens and earth. Indeed, He is Knowing of that within the breasts.
هُوَ ٱلَّذِى جَعَلَكُمْ خَلَـٰٓئِفَ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ فَمَن كَفَرَ فَعَلَيْهِ كُفْرُهُۥ ۖ وَلَا يَزِيدُ ٱلْكَـٰفِرِينَ كُفْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ إِلَّا مَقْتًۭا ۖ وَلَا يَزِيدُ ٱلْكَـٰفِرِينَ كُفْرُهُمْ إِلَّا خَسَارًۭا
Huwal lazee ja’alakum khalaaa’ifa fil ard; faman kafara fa’alaihi kufruhoo; wa laa yazeedul kaafireena kufruhum ‘inda Rabbihim illaa maqtanw wa la yazeedul kaafireena kufruhum illaa khasaaraa
39. It is He who has made you successors upon the earth. And whoever disbelieves – upon him will be [the consequence of] his disbelief. And the disbelief of the disbelievers does not increase them in the sight of their Lord except in hatred; and the disbelief of the disbelievers does not increase them except in loss.
قُلْ أَرَءَيْتُمْ شُرَكَآءَكُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ تَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ أَرُونِى مَاذَا خَلَقُوا۟ مِنَ ٱلْأَرْضِ أَمْ لَهُمْ شِرْكٌۭ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ أَمْ ءَاتَيْنَـٰهُمْ كِتَـٰبًۭا فَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَيِّنَتٍۢ مِّنْهُ ۚ بَلْ إِن يَعِدُ ٱلظَّـٰلِمُونَ بَعْضُهُم بَعْضًا إِلَّا غُرُورًا
Qul ara’aytum shurakaaa’a kumul lazeena tad’oona min doonil laah; aroonee maazaa khalaqoo minal ardi am lahum shirkun fis samaawaati am aatainaahum Kitaaban fahum ‘alaa baiyinatim minh; bal iny ya’iduz zaalimoona ba ‘duhum ba’dan illaa ghurooraa
40. Say, “Have you considered your ‘partners’ whom you invoke besides Allah ? Show me what they have created from the earth, or have they partnership [with Him] in the heavens? Or have We given them a book so they are [standing] on evidence therefrom? [No], rather, the wrongdoers do not promise each other except delusion.”
۞ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُمْسِكُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضَ أَن تَزُولَا ۚ وَلَئِن زَالَتَآ إِنْ أَمْسَكَهُمَا مِنْ أَحَدٍۢ مِّنۢ بَعْدِهِۦٓ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ كَانَ حَلِيمًا غَفُورًۭا
Innal laaha yumsikus samaawaati wal arda an tazoolaaa; wa la’in zaalataaa in amsa kahumaa min ahadim mim ba’dih; innahoo kaana Haleeman Ghafooraa
41. Indeed, Allah holds the heavens and the earth, lest they cease. And if they should cease, no one could hold them [in place] after Him. Indeed, He is Forbearing and Forgiving.
وَأَقْسَمُوا۟ بِٱللَّهِ جَهْدَ أَيْمَـٰنِهِمْ لَئِن جَآءَهُمْ نَذِيرٌۭ لَّيَكُونُنَّ أَهْدَىٰ مِنْ إِحْدَى ٱلْأُمَمِ ۖ فَلَمَّا جَآءَهُمْ نَذِيرٌۭ مَّا زَادَهُمْ إِلَّا نُفُورًا
Wa aqsamoo billaahi jahda aymaanihim la’in jaaa’ahum nazeerul layakoonunna ahdaa min ihdal umami falam maa jaaa’ahum nazeerum maa zaadahum illaa nufooraa
42. And they swore by Allah their strongest oaths that if a warner came to them, they would be more guided than [any] one of the [previous] nations. But when a warner came to them, it did not increase them except in aversion.
ٱسْتِكْبَارًۭا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ وَمَكْرَ ٱلسَّيِّئِ ۚ وَلَا يَحِيقُ ٱلْمَكْرُ ٱلسَّيِّئُ إِلَّا بِأَهْلِهِۦ ۚ فَهَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا سُنَّتَ ٱلْأَوَّلِينَ ۚ فَلَن تَجِدَ لِسُنَّتِ ٱللَّهِ تَبْدِيلًۭا ۖ وَلَن تَجِدَ لِسُنَّتِ ٱللَّهِ تَحْوِيلًا
Istikbaaran fil ardi wa makras sayyi’; wa laa yaheequl makrus sayyi’u illaa bi ahlih; fahal yanzuroona illaa sunnatal awwaleen; falan tajida lisunnatil laahi tabdeelanw wa lan tajida lisunnatil laahi tahweela
43. [Due to] arrogance in the land and plotting of evil; but the evil plot does not encompass except its own people. Then do they await except the way of the former peoples? But you will never find in the way of Allah any change, and you will never find in the way of Allah any alteration.
أَوَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا۟ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ فَيَنظُرُوا۟ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَـٰقِبَةُ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ وَكَانُوٓا۟ أَشَدَّ مِنْهُمْ قُوَّةًۭ ۚ وَمَا كَانَ ٱللَّهُ لِيُعْجِزَهُۥ مِن شَىْءٍۢ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَلَا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ كَانَ عَلِيمًۭا قَدِيرًۭا
Awalam yaseeroo fil ardi fa yanzuroo kaifa kaana ‘aaqibatul lazeena min Qablihim wa kaanoo ashadda minhum quwwah; wa maa kaanal laahu liyu’jizahoo min shai’in fis samaawaati wa laa fil ard; innahoo kaana ‘Aleeman Qadeeraa
44. Have they not traveled through the land and observed how was the end of those before them? And they were greater than them in power. But Allah is not to be caused failure by anything in the heavens or on the earth. Indeed, He is ever Knowing and Competent.
وَلَوْ يُؤَاخِذُ ٱللَّهُ ٱلنَّاسَ بِمَا كَسَبُوا۟ مَا تَرَكَ عَلَىٰ ظَهْرِهَا مِن دَآبَّةٍۢ وَلَـٰكِن يُؤَخِّرُهُمْ إِلَىٰٓ أَجَلٍۢ مُّسَمًّۭى ۖ فَإِذَا جَآءَ أَجَلُهُمْ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ كَانَ بِعِبَادِهِۦ بَصِيرًۢا
Wa law yu’aakhizul laahun naasa bima kasaboo maa taraka ‘alaa zahrihaa min daaabbatinw wa laakiny yu’akhkhiruhum ilaaa ajalim musamman fa izaa jaaa’a ajaluhum fa innal laaha kaana bi’ibaadihee Baseeraa (section 5)
45. And if Allah were to impose blame on the people for what they have earned, He would not leave upon the earth any creature. But He defers them for a specified term. And when their time comes, then indeed Allah has ever been, of His servants, Seeing.
The Tafsir of Surah Fatir by Ibn Kathir
Chapter – 35
Which was revealed in Makkah
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. All praise is due to Allah, Fatir of the heavens and the earth, Who made the angels messengers with wings, two or three or four. He increases in creation what He wills. Verily, Allah is Able to do all things.)
The Power of Allah
Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “I did not know what Fatir As-Samawati wal-Ard meant until two bedouins came to me disputing over a well. One of them said to his companion, `Ana Fatartuha,’ meaning, `I started it.”’ Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, also said,
(Fatir of the heavens and the earth,) means, “The Originator of the heavens and the earth.” Ad-Dahhak said, “Every time the phrase Fatir As-Samawati wal-Ard is used in the Qur’an, it means the Creator of the heavens and the earth.”
(Who made the angels messengers) means, between Him and His Prophets.
with wings means, with which they fly to convey quickly that which they have been commanded to convey.
two or three or four. means, among them are some who have two wings, some have three and some who have four. Some have more than that, as stated in the H?ad0th mentioning that the Messenger of Alla0h saw Jibr0l, peace be upon him, on the Night of the Isra0 with six hundred wings. Between each pair of wings was a distance like that between the east and the west. Alla0h says:
(He increases in creation what He wills. Verily, Allah is Able to do all things.) As-Suddi said, “He increases their wings and creates them as He wills.”
(2. Whatever of mercy, Allah may grant to mankind, none can withhold it; and whatever He may withhold, none can grant it thereafter. And He is the Almighty, the All-Wise.)
None can withhold the Mercy of
Allah Allah tells us that what He wills, happens, and what He does not will, does not happen. None can give what He withholds, and none can withhold what He gives. Imam Ahmad recorded that Warrad, the freed slave of Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah, said, “Mu`awiyah wrote to Al-Mughirah bin Shu`bah, saying, `Write for me what you heard from the Messenger of Allah .’ So Al-Mughirah called me and I wrote for him: `I heard the Messenger of Allah say when he finished praying,
(There is no god (worthy of worship) except Allah alone, with no partner or associate. To Him be praise and dominion, and He is able to do all things. O Allah, there is none who can withhold what You give, and none can give what You withhold, and and good fortune and richness in anything cannot benefit one against Your will.) `And I heard him forbid gossiping, asking too many questions and wasting money, burying girls alive, disobeying one’s mother, and withholding from others while asking from them.”’ This was also recorded by Al-Bukhari and Muslim, with several chain of narration. It was recorded in Sahih Muslim that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “When the Messenger of Allah raised his head from bowing, he would say:
(Allah hears those who praise Him. O Allah, our Lord, to You be praise, filling the heavens and the earth, and filling whatever You wish besides. O Allah, the One deserving praise and glory. The truest words that any servant says — and all of us are Your servants — are: O Allah, there is none who can withhold what You give, and none can give what You withhold, and no wealth or majesty can benefit anyone against Your will.)” This Ayah is like the Ayah:
(And if Allah touches you with harm, there is none who can remove it but He; and if He intends any good for you, there is none who can repel His favor) (10:107). And there are many similar Ayat.
(3. O mankind! Remember the grace of Allah upon you! Is there any creator other than Allah who provides for you from the sky (rain) and the earth La ilaha illa Huwa. How then are you turning away (from Him))
The Evidence of Tawhid
Allah shows His servants that they should worship Him Alone, for just as He is Independent in His power of creation and provision, so He should be worshipped Alone with no partners or associates such as idols and false gods. So Allah says:
(La ilaha illa Huwa. How then are you turning away (from Him)) meaning, `how can you turn away from Him after this has been made clear and this proof has been made obvious, but you still worship idols and false gods’ And Allah knows best.
(4. And if they deny you, so were Messengers denied before you. And to Allah return all matters.) (5. O mankind! Verily, the promise of Allah is true. So, let not this present life deceive you, and let not the chief deceiver deceive you about Allah.) (6. Surely, Shaytan is an enemy to you, so take (treat) him as an enemy. He only invites his followers that they may become the dwellers of the blazing Fire.)
Consolation in the fact that the previous Messengers were denied, and a reminder of the Resurrection
Allah says: `Even if these idolators who associate others with Allah disbelieve in you, O Muhammad, and go against the Message of Tawhid that you have brought, you have an example in the Messengers who came before you.’ They also brought a clear Message to their people and told them to worship Allah alone, but their people denied them and went against them.
(And to Allah return all matters (for decision).) means, `We will requite them for that in full.’ Then Allah says:
(O mankind! Verily, the promise of Allah is true.) meaning the Resurrection will undoubtedy come to pass.
(So, let not this present life deceive you,) means, `this life is as nothing in compare to the great good that Allah has promised to His close friends and the followers of His Messengers, so do not let these transient attractions distract you from that which is lasting.’
(and let not the chief deceiver deceive you about Allah.) This refers to Shaytan, as stated by Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him. Meaning, do not let the Shaytan tempt you and divert you away from following the Messengers of Allah and believing what they say, for he is the chief deceiver and arch-liar. This Ayah is like the Ayah that appears at the end of Surah Luqman:
(let not then this (worldly) present life deceive you, nor let the chief deceiver deceive you about Allah) (31:33). Then Allah tells us of the enmity of Iblis towards the sons of Adam:
(Surely, Shaytan is an enemy to you, so take (treat) him as an enemy.) meaning, `he has declared his enmity towards you, so be even more hostile towards him, oppose him and do not believe the things with which he tries to tempt you.’
(He only invites his followers that they may become the dwellers of the blazing Fire.) means, `he only wants to misguide you so that you will enter the blazing Fire with him.’ This is a manifest enemy, and we ask Allah, the All-Powerful and Almighty to make us enemies of Shaytan and to make us followers of the Book of Allah and of the way of His Messengers. For He is able to do whatever He wills and He will respond to all supplication. This is like the Ayah:
(And (remember) when We said to the angels: “Prostrate yourselves unto Adam.” So they prostrated themselves except Iblis. He was one of the Jinn; he disobeyed the command of his Lord. Will you then take him (Iblis) and his offspring as protectors and helpers rather than Me while they are enemies to you What an evil is the exchange for the wrongdoers.) (18:50)
(7. Those who disbelieve, theirs will be a severe torment; and those who believe and do righteous good deeds, theirs will be forgiveness and a great reward.) (8. Is he, then, to whom the evil of his deeds is made fairseeming, so that he considers it as good Verily, Allah sends astray whom He wills, and guides whom He wills. So destroy not yourself in sorrow for them. Truly, Allah is the All-Knower of what they do!)
The Punishment of the Disbeliever and the Reward of the Believer on the Day of Resurrection
Having stated that the ultimate destiny of the followers of Iblis will be the blazing Fire, Allah then tells us that for those who disbelieve there will be a severe punishment. This is because they obeyed the Shaytan and disobeyed Ar-Rahman. And He tells us that those who believed in Allah and His Messengers
(and do righteous good deeds, theirs will be forgiveness) meaning, from whatever sins they did,
and a great reward. for the good deeds that they did. Then Alla0h says:
(Is he, then, to whom the evil of his deeds is made fairseeming, so that he considers it as good) meaning, `such as disbelievers or immoral persons who do evil deeds and believe that they are doing something good, i.e., a person who is like that has been misguided by Allah, so what can you do for him You cannot help him at all.’
(Verily, Allah sends astray whom He wills and guides whom He wills.) means according to His decree.
(So destroy not yourself in sorrow for them. ) means, do not grieve about that, for Allah is Wise in His decree and He leaves astray whomsoever He leaves astray, and He guides whomsoever He guides, and in doing so He has perfect knowledge and wisdom. Allah says:
(Truly, Allah is the All-Knower of what they do!)
(9. And it is Allah Who sends the winds, so that they raise up the clouds, and We drive them to a dead land, and revive therewith the earth after its death. As such (will be) the Resurrection!) (10. Whosoever desires Al-`Izzah then to Allah belongs Al-`Izzah. To Him ascend the good words, and the righteous deeds exalt it, but those who plot evils, theirs will be a severe torment. And the plotting of such will perish.) (11. And Allah did create you from dust, then from Nutfah, then He made you pairs. And no female conceives or gives birth but with His knowledge. And no aged man is granted a length of life nor is a part cut off from his life, but is in a Book. Surely, that is easy for Allah.)
Evidence of Life after Death
Often Allah refers to the Resurrection by using the analogy of the earth coming back to life after it has died, as in the beginning of Surat Al-Hajj, where He urges His servants to draw the lesson of the former from the latter. For the earth is dead and lifeless, with nothing growing in it, then He sends to it clouds which bring water, which He sends down upon it,
(it is stirred (to life), and it swells and puts forth every lovely kind (of growth)) (22:5). So too, when Allah wishes to resurrect the bodies, He will send rain from beneath the Throne which will cover the whole earth, and the bodies will grow in their graves like seeds grow in the earth. It says in the Sahih:
(Every part of the son of Adam will disintegrate apart from the coccyx, from which he was created and from him he will be made anew.) Allah says:
As such (will be) the Resurrection! According to the H?ad0th of Abu Raz0n: I said, O Messenger of Alla0h, how will Alla0h bring the dead back to life? What is the sign of that in His creation? He said:
(O Abu Razin, do you not pass through the valley of your people (and see it) arid and barren, then you pass through it (and see it) stirred (to life) and green) I said, `Yes.’ He said:
(Thus will Allah bring the dead back to life.)”
Honor, Power and Glory in this World and in the Hereafter come only by obeying Allah
(Whosoever desires Al-`Izzah then to Allah belongs all Al-`Izzah.) means, whoever desires honor, power and glory in this world and the next, let him be obedient towards Allah, may He be exalted. This will help him reach his goal, for Allah is the Sovereign of this world and the Hereafter, and to Him belong all honor, power and glory. This is like the Ayat:
(Those who take disbelievers for protectors instead of believers, do they seek Al-`Izzah with them Verily, then to Allah belongs all honor, power and glory.) (4:139)
(And let not their speech grieve you, for all Al-`Izzah belongs to Allah) (10:65).
(But Al-`Izzah belongs to Allah, and to His Messenger, and to the believers, but the hypocrites know not) (63:8). Mujahid said:
(Whosoever desires Al-`Izzah) means, by worshipping idols,
(then to Allah belongs Al-`Izzah).
(Whosoever desires Al-`Izzah then to Allah belongs Al-`Izzah.) means, let him seek honor, power and glory through obeying Allah, may He be glorified.
Righteous Deeds ascend to Allah
(To Him ascend the good words,) means, words of remembrance, recitation of Qur’an, and supplications. This was the view of more than one of the Salaf. Ibn Jarir recorded that Al-Mukhariq bin Sulaym said that “`Abdullah bin Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him, said to them, “If we tell you a Hadith, we will bring you proof of it from the Book of Allah. When the Muslim servants says, `Glory and praise be to Allah, there is no god worthy of worship except Allah, Allah is Most Great and blessed be Allah,’ an angel takes these words and puts them under his wing, then he ascends with them to the heaven. He does not take them past any group of angels but they seek forgiveness for the one who said them, until he brings them before Allah, may He be glorified.” Then `Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, recited:
(To Him ascend the good words, and the righteous deeds exalt it).” Imam Ahmad recorded that An-Nu`man bin Bashir, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah said:
(Those who remember Allah and glory Allah by saying, `Glory be to Allah, Allah is most Great, all praise is due to Allah and La ilaha illallah, these words go around the Throne buzzing like bees, mentioning those who said them. Would one of you not like to have something with Allah mentioning him)” This was also recorded by Ibn Majah.
and the righteous deeds exalt it. Ali bin Abi T?alh?ah reported that Ibn Abba0s, may Alla0h be pleased with him, said, The good word is the remembrance of Alla0h, may He be exalted, which is taken up to Alla0h, and the righteous deed is the performance of obligatory duties. Whoever remembers Alla0h when doing an obligatory duty, his deed carries his remembrance of Alla0h and takes it up to Alla0h, may He be exalted. Whoever remembers Alla0h and does not perform the obligatory duties, his words will be rejected, as will his deed.
but those who plot evils, Muja0hid, Sa 0d bin Jubayr and Shahr bin H?awshab said, This refers to those who show off by their actions, i.e., they deceive the people by giving the impression that they are obeying Alla0h, when in fact they are hated by Alla0h for showing off. Alla0h says:
(theirs will be severe torment. And the plotting of such will perish.) meaning, it will fail and vanish, for their reality is apparent from up close to those who have insight and wisdom. No one conceals a secret but Allah will cause it to become known, on his face or by a slip of the tongue, or He will cause the person to wear it like a cloak (so that everyone will see it). If it is good, then the consequences will be good, and if it is bad, then the consequences will be bad. The person who shows off cannot continue to deceive anyone but the fool, but the believers who have insight are not deceived by that; from up close, they soon discover it. And nothing at all can be hidden from the Knower of the Unseen (Allah).
Allah is the Creator and Knower of the Unseen
(And Allah did create you from dust, then from Nutfah,) means, He initiated the creation of your father Adam from dust, then He created his offspring from semen of worthless water.
then He made you pairs. means, male and female, as a kindness and a mercy from Him, He gave you partners from your own kind, that you may find repose in them.
(And no female conceives or gives birth but with His knowledge.) means, He knows about that and nothing is hidden from Him at all, but,
(not a leaf falls, but He knows it. There is not a grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry, but is written in a Clear Record.) (6:59) We have already discussed in this respect in the Ayah:
(Allah knows what every female bears, and by how much the wombs fall short or exceed. Everything with Him is in (due) proportion. All-Knower of the unseen and the seen, the Most Great, the Most High.) (13:8-9).
(And no aged man is granted a length of life nor is a part cut off from his life, but is in a Book.) means, some of those sperm are granted a long life, which He knows and it is recorded with Him in the First Book.
nor is a part cut off from his life, Here the pronoun (his) refers to mankind in general, not to a specific person, because the long life which is recorded in the Book and is known by Alla0h will not be cut off. It was reported via Al- Awfi that Ibn Abba0s said concerning the A0yah,
(And no aged man is granted a length of life nor is a part cut off from his life, but is in a Book. Surely, that is easy for Allah.) There is no one for whom Allah has decreed a long life but he will reach the age that has been decreed for him. When he reaches the time that has been decreed for him, he will not surpass it. And there is no one for whom Allah has decreed a short life but it will end when he reaches the age that has been decreed for him. Allah says:
(nor is a part cut off from his life, but is in a Book. Surely, that is easy for Allah.) He said, “That is recorded in a Book with Him.” This was also the view of Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim. On the other hand, some of them said, “The phrase
(And no aged man is granted a length of life) means, what He decrees for him of life, and
nor is a part cut off from his life means, his time is constantly decreasing. All of this is known to Alla0h year after year, month after month, week after week, day after day, hour after hour. Everything is written with Alla0h in His Book. This was reported by Ibn Jar0r from Abu Ma0lik, and was also the view of As-Suddi and At?a0 Al-Khura0sa0ni. In the Tafsir of this Ayah, An-Nasa’i recorded that Anas bin Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “I heard the Messenger of Allah say:
(Whoever would like to have ample provision and a long life, let him uphold the ties of kinship.)” It was also recorded by Al-Bukhari, Muslim and Abu Dawud.
Surely, that is easy for Alla0h. means, that is very easy for Him, and He has detailed knowledge of all His creation, for His knowledge encompasses all things, and nothing at all is hidden from Him.
(12. And the two seas (kinds of water) are not alike: this is palatable, sweet and pleasant to drink, and that is salty and bitter. And from them both you eat fresh tender meat (fish), and derive the ornaments that you wear. And you see the ships cleaving, that you may seek of His bounty, and that you may give thanks.)
The Blessings and Signs of Allah
Allah says, pointing out His mighty power in creating different things, how He has created the two seas (kinds of water). The fresh, palatable sea (kind of water) refers to the rivers which flow among people, rivers great and small according to people’s needs in all regions and areas and lands. This water is sweet and palatable for whoever wants to drink it.
and that is salty and bitter. means, unpalatable. This is the ocean in which the big ships sail, and is salty and undrinkable. Alla0h says:
(and that is salty and bittery.) Then Allah says:
(And from them both you eat fresh tender meat,) meaning, fish.
(and derive the ornaments that you wear.) This is like the Ayah:
(Out of them both come out pearl and coral. Then which of the blessings of your Lord will you both (Jinn and men) deny) (55:22-23).
And you see the ships cleaving, means, they travel through it, plowing through the water with their beak-shaped bows. Muja0hid said, The wind drives the ships, and the wind cannot drive any ships except the big ones.
that you may seek of His bounty, means, through your journeys to engage in trade from one land to another.
and that you may give thanks. means, that you may give thanks to your Lord for subjugating this mighty creation — the sea — to you, so that you can travel through it as you wish and go wherever you want, and nothing stops you? His power has subjugated for you whatever is in the heavens and on earth, and all of this is by His grace and mercy.
(13. He merges the night into the day, and He merges the day into the night. And He has subjected the sun and the moon, each runs its course for a term appointed. Such is Allah, your Lord; His is the kingdom. And those, whom you invoke or call upon instead of Him, own not even a Qitmir.) (14. If you invoke them, they hear your call; and if (in case) they were to hear, they could not grant it to you. And on the Day of Resurrection, they will disown your worshipping them. And none can inform you like Him Who is the All-Knower.)
The gods of the Idolators do not even own a Qitmir
Another aspect of His perfect power and might is that He has subjugated the night with its darkness and the day with its light. He takes from the length of the one and adds it to the shortness of the other, until they become equal. Then He takes from the latter and adds to the former, so one becomes long and the other becomes short, so they take from one another in summer and in winter.
(And He has subjected the sun and the moon,) and the stars and planets, with their light. All of them run in their appointed courses and in the manner prescribed for them, as decreed by the Almighty, All-Knowing.
each runs its course for a term appointed. means, until the Day of Resurrection.
Such is Alla0h, your Lord? means, the One Who has done all this is the Almighty Lord besides Whom there is no other true God.
(And those, whom you invoke or call upon instead of Him,) means, `the idols and false gods whom you claim to be in the form of angels who are close to Allah,’
own not even a Qit?m0r. Ibn Abba0s, may Alla0h be pleased with him, Muja0hid, Ikrimah, Ata0 , At?iyah Al- Awfi, Al-H?asan, Qata0dah and others said, This is the thread that is attached to the pit of a date. In other words, they do not possess anything in the heavens or on earth, not even anything equivalent to this Qit?m0r. Then Alla0h says:
(If you invoke them, they hear not your call;) means, `the gods upon whom you call instead of Allah, do not hear your supplication, because they are inanimate and have no soul in them.’
(and if (in case) they were to hear, they could not grant it to you.) means, `they are not able to do any of the things that you ask them for.’
And on the Day of Resurrection, they will disown your worshipping them means, `they will disown you.’ This is like the Ayat:
(And who is more astray than one who calls on besides Allah, such as will not answer him till the Day of Resurrection, and who are (even) unaware of their calls to them And when mankind are gathered, they (false deities) will become their enemies and will deny their worshipping.) (46:5-6), and
(And they have taken gods besides Allah, that they might give them honor, power and glory. Nay, but they will deny their worship of them, and become opponents to them.) (19:81-82)
(And none can inform you like Him Who is the All-Knower.) means, no one can tell you about the consequences of things and how they will end like the One Who is the All-Knower of them. Qatadah said, “He is referring to Himself, may He be blessed and exalted, for He undoubtedly tells the truth.”
(15. O mankind! it is you who stand in need of Allah. But Allah is the Rich, Worthy of all praise.) (16. If He willed, He could destroy you and bring about a new creation.) (17. And that is not hard for Allah.) (18. And no bearer of burdens shall bear another’s burden; and if one heavily laden calls another to (bear) his load, nothing of it will be lifted even though he be near of kin. You can warn only those who fear their Lord unseen and perform the Salah. And he who purifies himself (from all kinds of sins), then he purifies only for the benefit of himself. And to Allah is the Return (of all).)
Mankind is in need of Allah, and each Person will carry His own Burdens on the Day of Resurrection
Allah tells us that He has no need of anyone or anything else, but all of creation is in need of Him and is in a position of humility before Him. He says:
(O mankind! it is you who stand in need of Allah.) meaning, they need Him in all that they do, but He has no need of them at all. Allah says:
But Alla0h is the Rich, Worthy of all praise. meaning, He is unique in His being Free of all needs, and has no partner or associate, and He is Worthy of all praise in all that He does, says, decrees and legislates.
(If He willed, He could destroy you and bring about a new creation.) means, if He wanted to, He could destroy you and bring forth another people, and this is not difficult or impossible for Him. He says:
(And that is not hard for Allah.) Allah’s saying:
(And no bearer of burdens shall bear another’s burden;) means, on the Day of Resurrection.
(and if one heavily laden calls another to (bear) his load, ) means, if the person who is carrying a heavy burden calls someone else to help him carry his load, all or part of it,
(nothing of it will be lifted even though he be near of kin.) means, even if he is closely-related to him, even if he is his father or son, for each person will be preoccupied with his own self and his own situation. Then Allah says:
(You can warn only those who fear their Lord unseen and perform the Salah.) means, `the only ones who will draw a lesson from what you have brought are those who are possessed of insight and wisdom, who fear their Lord and who do as He commands.’
(And he who purifies himself, then he purifies only for the benefit of himself.) means, who does righteous deeds, the benefit of that will come back to him,
And to Alla0h is the Return. means, to Him everything will ultimately return, and He is swift in bringing to account. He will reward or punish everyone according to his deeds: if they are good, then the end will be good, and if they are bad, then the end will be bad.
(19. Not alike are the blind and the seeing.) (20. Nor are (depths of) darkness and light.) (21. Nor are the shade and the sun’s heat.) (22. Nor are the living and the dead. Verily, Allah makes whom He wills to hear, but you cannot make hear those who are in graves.) (23. You are only a warner.) (24. Verily, We have sent you with the truth, a bearer of glad tidings and a warner. And there never was a nation but a warner had passed among them.) (25. And if they deny you, those before them also denied. Their Messengers came to them with clear signs, and with the Scriptures, and with the Book giving light.) (26. Then I took hold of those who disbelieved, and how terrible was My denial!)
The Believer and the Disbeliever are not equal
Allah says that these antonyms are clearly not equal, the blind and the seeing are not equal, there is a difference and a huge gap between them. Darkness and light are not equal, neither are shade and the sun’s heat. By the same token, the living and the dead are not equal. This is the parable Allah makes of the believers who are the living, and the disbelievers who are the dead. This is like the Ayat:
(Is he who was dead and We gave him life and set for him a light (of belief) whereby he can walk amongst men — like him who is in the (depths of) darkness from which he can never come out) (6:122),
(The parable of the two parties is as that of the blind and the deaf and the seer and the hearer. Are they equal when compared) (11:24) The believer sees and hears, and walks in the light upon a straight path in this world and the Hereafter, until he comes to settle in Gardens (Paradise) wherein is shade and springs. The disbeliever is blind and deaf, walking in darkness from which he cannot escape, he is lost in his misguidance in this world and the Hereafter, until he ends up in fierce hot wind and boiling water, and shadow of black smoke, neither cool nor good.
(Verily, Allah makes whom He wills to hear,) means. He guides them to listen to the proof and accept it and adhere it.
(but you cannot make hear those who are in graves.) means, `just as the dead cannot benefit from guidance and the call to truth after they have died as disbelievers and ended up in the graves, so too you cannot help these idolators who are decreed to be doomed, and you cannot guide them.’
You are only a warner means, all you have to do is to convey the Message and warn them, and Alla0h leaves astray whomsoever He wills and guides whomsoever He wills.
(Verily, We have sent you with the truth, a bearer of glad tidings and a warner.) means, a bearer of glad tidings to the believers and a warner to the disbelievers.
(And there never was a nation but a warner had passed among them.) means, there was never any nation among the sons of Adam but Allah sent warners to them, and left them with no excuse. This is like the Ayat:
(You are only a warner, and to every people there is a guide) (13:7).
(And verily, We have sent among every Ummah a Messenger (proclaiming): “Worship Allah, and avoid all false deities.” Then of them were some whom Allah guided and of them were some upon whom the straying was justified) (16:36). And there are many similar Ayat.
(And if they deny you, those before them also denied. Their Messengers came to them with clear signs,) means, clear miracles and definitive proofs.
(and with the Scriptures,) means, the Books.
(and with the Book giving light.) means, clear and obvious.
(Then I took hold of those who disbelieved,) means, `despite all of this, they denied the Messengers and the Message they brought, so I seized them, i.e., with My punishment.’
and how terrible was My denial! means, how great and intense and terrible do you think My punishment was? And Alla0h knows best.
(27. See you not that Allah sends down water from the sky, and We produce therewith fruits of various colors, and among the mountains are Judad, white and red, of varying colors and (others) Gharabib black.) (28. And likewise, men and moving creature and cattle are of various colors. It is only those among His servants who have knowledge that fear Allah. Verily, Allah is Almighty, Oft-Forgiving.)
The Perfect Power of Allah
Allah tells us of His complete and perfect power of creation. He tells us how He makes different kinds of things from one thing, which is the water that He sends down from the heaven. From water He brings forth fruits of various colors, yellow, red, green, white and other colors, as we can see in the immense variety of their colors, tastes and scents. This is like another Ayah where Allah says:
(And in the earth are neighbouring tracts, and gardens of vines, and green crops, and date palms, growing into two or three from a single stem root, or otherwise, watered with the same water; yet some of them We make more excellent than others to eat. Verily, in these things there are Ayat for the people who understand.) (13:4)
(and among the mountains are Judad, white and red, of varying colors) means, He created the mountains like this, with different colors, as we also see that there are indeed white and red mountains, and in some of them there are streaks which are also of varying colors. Ibn `Abbas said Al-Judad means pathways. This was also the view of Abu Malik, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and As-Suddi. And there are some mountains which are very black. `Ikrimah said, “Al-Gharabib means mountains which are high and black. This was also the view of Abu Malik, `Ata’ Al-Khurasani and Qatadah. Ibn Jarir said, “When the Arabs describe something as being very black, they say Ghirbib.
(And likewise, men and moving creatures and cattle are of various colors.) means, the same is true of living creatures too, humans and animals, all creatures which walk on their feet, and cattle. Here something general is followed by something specific. These are all different too, for among mankind there are Berbers, Ethiopians and some non-Arabs who are very black, and Slavs and Romans who are very white, and the Arabs who are in between, and the Indians. Allah says in another Ayah:
(and the difference of your languages and colors. Verily, in that are indeed signs for men of sound knowledge) (30:22). Similarly, animals and cattle vary in their colors, even within one species, and a single animal may have patches of different colors. Blessed be Allah, the Best of creators. Allah then says:
(It is only those who have knowledge among His servants that fear Allah.) meaning, only those who have knowledge truly fear Him as He should be feared, because the more they know about the Almighty, All-Powerful, All-Knowing Who has the most perfect attributes and is described with the most beautiful Names, the more they will fear Him. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah:
(It is only those who have knowledge among His servants that fear Allah.) those who know that Allah is able to do all things. Ibn `Abbas said, “The one among His servants who knows about Ar-Rahman, is the one who does not associate anything in worship with Him; the one who accepts as lawful that which He has permitted and accepts as unlawful that which He has prohibited. He obeys His commands and is certain that he will meet Him and be brought to account for his deeds. Sa`id bin Jubayr said, “Fear is what stands between you and disobeying Allah, may He be glorified.” Al-Hasan Al-Basri said, “The knowledgeable person is the one who fears Ar-Rahman with regard to the Unseen, who likes that which Allah wants him to like, and who shuns that which angers Allah.” Then Al-Hasan recited:
(It is only those among His servants who have knowledge that fear Allah. Verily, Allah is Almighty, Oft-Forgiving.) Sufyan Ath-Thawri narrated from Abu Hayyan At-Taymi from a man who said, “It used to be said that the knowledgeable are of three types: (first) one who knows Allah and the command of Allah, (second) one who knows Allah but does not know the command of Allah, and (third) one who knows the command of Allah but does not know Allah. The one who knows Allah and the command of Allah is the one who fears Allah and knows the limits (Hudud) and the obligatory duties (Fara’id). The one who knows Allah but does not know the command of Allah is the one who fears Allah but does not know the limits (Hudud) and the obligatory duties (Fara’id). The one who knows the command of Allah but does not know Allah is the one who knows the limits (Hudud) and the obligatory duties (Fara’id) but does not fear Allah.”
(29. Verily, those who recite the Book of Allah, and perform the Salah, and spend out of what We have provided for them, secretly and openly, they hope for a (sure) trade-gain that will never perish.) (30. That He may pay them their wages in full, and give them (even) more, out of His grace. Verily, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Ready to appreciate.)
The Muslims will be the Ones Who gain in the Hereafter
Here Allah tells us that His believing servants, who recite and believe in His Book, and do the deeds prescribed in it such as establishing regular prayer at the prescribed times, night and day, spending (in charity) out of that which Allah has provided for them secretly and openly,
(they hope for a (sure) trade-gain that will never perish.) means, they hope for a reward from Allah which will inevitably be theirs. Allah says:
(That He may pay them their wages in full, and give them (even) more, out of His grace.) meaning, that He may give them a reward for what they have done, and multiply it by adding more, such as has never occurred to them.
(Verily, He is Oft-Forgiving,) means, He forgives their sins,
(Most Ready to appreciate.) means, He appreciates even a little of their good deeds.
(31. And what We have revealed to you of the Book, it is the (very) truth confirming that which was (revealed) before it. Verily, Allah is indeed All-Aware and All-Seer of His servants.)
The Qur’an is The true Book of Allah
And what We have revealed to you — O Muh?ammad, of the Book, i.e., the Qur a0n,
(it is the (very) truth confirming that which was (revealed) before it.) means, of the previous books. It confirms them just as they bore witness to the coming of the Qur’an and that it would be sent down from the Lord of the worlds.
(Verily, Allah is indeed All-Aware and All-Seer of His servants.) means, He is All-Aware of them and knows who deserves to receive the blessing which He may give to him and not to others. the Prophets and the Messengers are favored above the rest of mankind, and some of the Prophets were given more than others and given higher status than others. The position given to Muhammad is higher than that of all the others, may the blessings and peace of Allah be upon them all.
(32. Then We gave the Book as inheritance to such of Our servants whom We chose. Then of them are some who wrong themselves, and of them are some who follow a middle course, and of them are some who are, by Allah’s leave, foremost in good deeds. That — that is indeed a great grace.)
The Inheritance of the Qur’an is of three kinds
Allah says: `Then We made those who uphold the Book confirming what came before, the one whom We have chosen from among Our servants. They are this Ummah, who are divided into three types.’ Allah says:
(Then of them are some who wrong themselves,) these are the ones who are careless about doing some obligatory actions, and who commit some forbidden actions.
(and of them are some who follow a middle course,) these are the ones who fulfill their obligations and avoid things that are forbidden, but they may neglect some good deeds and do some things which are disliked.
(and of them are some who are, by Allah’s leave, foremost in good deeds.) these are the ones who do obligatory actions and things which are encouraged, and who avoid doing unlawful and disliked actions, and avoid some actions which are permissible. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas commented on the Ayah:
(Then We gave the Book as inheritance to such of Our servants whom We chose. ) “This refers to the Ummah of Muhammad . Allah caused it to inherit every Book that He had revealed; those who wrong themselves will be forgiven, those who follow a middle course will have an easy accounting, and those who are foremost in good deeds will enter Paradise without being brought to account.” Abu Al-Qasim At-Tabarani reported from Ibn `Abbas that the Messenger of Allah said one day:
(My intercession will be for those among my Ummah who commit major sins.)” Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “Those who are foremost in good deeds will enter Paradise without being brought to account; those who follow a middle course will enter Paradise by the mercy of Allah; and those who wrong themselves and Ashab Al-A`raf will enter Paradise by the intercession of Muhammad .” It was also reported from a number of the Salaf that those among this Ummah who wrong themselves are still among those whom Allah has chosen, even though they are imperfect and fell short ﴿by not adhering to the straight path﴾. Others said that those who wrong themselves are not part of this Ummah and are not among those whom Allah has chosen and who inherited the Book. The correct view is that they are also part of this Ummah.
The Virtues of the Scholars
The scholars are the most fortunate of people with regard to this blessing, and the most entitled to this mercy. Imam Ahmad, may Allah have mercy on him, recorded that Qays bin Kathir said, “One of the people of Al-Madinah came to Abu Ad-Darda’, may Allah be pleased with him, when he was in Damascus. ﴿Abu Ad-Darda’﴾ said, `What brought you here, my brother’ He said, `A Hadith which I heard that you narrate from the Messenger of Allah .’ He said, `Have you come for trade’ He said, `No.’ He said, `Have you come for any other reason’ He said, `No.’ He said, `Have you come only to seek this Hadith’ He said, `Yes.’ He, may Allah be pleased with him said, `I heard the Messenger of Allah say:
(Whoever follows a path to seek knowledge, Allah will show him the way to Paradise. The angels lower their wings being pleased with the one who seeks knowledge. Whoever is in the heavens and on earth, even the fish in the sea, ask for forgiveness for the scholar. The superiority of the scholar over the worshipper is like that of the moon over all other heavenly bodies. The scholars are the heirs of the Prophets, for the Prophets did not leave behind Dinars and Dirhams, but they left behind knowledge; and whoever receives it, receives an abundance of good fortune.)”’ It was also reported by Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah.
(33. `Adn (Gardens) will they enter, therein will they be adorned with bracelets of gold and pearls, and their garments therein will be of silk.) (34. And they will say: “All praise and thanks be to Allah, Who has removed from us (all) grief. Verily, our Lord is indeed Oft-Forgiving, Most Ready to appreciate.”) (35. “Who, out of His grace, has lodged us in a home that will last forever, where toil will touch us not nor weariness will touch us.”) Allah tells us that those whom He chose among His servants, those who inherited the Book which was revealed from the Lord of the worlds, will, on the Day of Resurrection, have an abode in Everlasting Gardens which they will enter on the Day when they are raised anew and meet Allah.
(therein will they be adorned with bracelets of gold and pearls,) It was recorded in the Sahih from Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, that the Messenger of Allah said:
(The ornaments of the believer will reach as far as his Wudu’.)
(and their garments therein will be of silk.) For this reason it is forbidden for them (the males) in this world, but Allah will permit it for them in the Hereafter. It was recorded in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah said:
(Whoever wears silk in this world, will not wear it in the Hereafter.) And he said:
(It is for them in this world, and for you in the Hereafter.)
(And they will say: “All the praises and thanks be to Allah, Who has removed from us (all) grief…”) which means fear of everything that is feared; it has been lifted from us and we have been relieved of all that we used to fear of the anxieties of the world and the Hereafter. Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, and others said, “He forgives them for their major sins, and appreciates even the smallest of their good deeds.”
(Who, out of His grace, has lodged us in a home that will last forever,) means, `Who has given us this position and status out of His grace and blessing and mercy, for our good deeds are not equivalent to this.’ It was reported in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah said: –
(None of you will enter Paradise by virtue of his good deeds.) They said, “Not even you, O Messenger of Allah” He said,
(Not even me, unless Allah encompasses me with His mercy and grace.)
(where toil will touch us not nor weariness will touch us.) means, neither hardship nor exhaustion will touch us. The words translated here as “toil” and “weariness” both mean exhaustion, as if what is meant by the negation of both is that neither their bodies nor their souls will become exhausted; and Allah knows best. They used to exhaust themselves in worshipping this world, but their obligations will come to an end when they enter Paradise, where they will enjoy eternal rest and repose. Allah says:
(Eat and drink at ease for that which you have sent on before you in days past!) (69:24)
(36. But those who disbelieve, for them will be the fire of Hell. Neither will it have a complete killing effect on them so that they die nor shall its torment be lightened for them. Thus do We requite every disbeliever !) (37. Therein they will cry: “Our Lord! Bring us out, we shall do righteous good deeds, not that we used to do.” (Allah will reply:) “Did We not give you lives long enough, so that whosoever would receive admonition could receive it And the warner came to you. So taste you. For the wrongdoers there is no helper.”)
The Punishment of the Disbeliever and what Their State will be in Hell
Having told us how the blessed will be (in Paradise), Allah now starts to tell us what the state of doomed will be. He says:
(But those who disbelieve, for them will be the fire of Hell. Neither will it have a complete killing effect on them so that they die) This is like the Ayah:
(Wherein he will neither die nor live) (20:74). It was reported in Sahih Muslim that the Messenger of Allah said:
(As for the people of Hell who will dwell therein, they will neither live nor die there. ) And Allah says:
(And they will cry (to the keeper of Hell): “O Malik! Let your Lord make an end of us.” He will say: “Verily, you shall abide forever.”) (43:77). When they are in this state, they will think that if only they could die, it would be a time of rest for them, but that can never happen to them. Allah says:
(Neither will it have a complete killing effect on them so that they die nor shall its torment be lightened for them. ) This is like the Ayat:
(Verily, the criminals will be in the torment of Hell to abide therein forever. (That) will not be lightened for them, and they will be plunged into destruction with deep regrets, sorrows and in despair therein.) (43:74-75).
(whenever it abates, We shall increase for them the fierceness of the Fire) (17:97), and
(So taste you. No increase shall We give you, except in torment.) (78:30). Then Allah says:
(Thus do We requite every disbeliever!) meaning, this is the recompense of everyone who disbelieved in his Lord and denied the truth.
(Therein they will cry) means, they will call out in the Fire, beseeching Allah with their voices:
(“Our Lord! Bring us out, we shall do righteous good deeds, not that we used to do.”) which means, they will ask to go back to the worldly life so that they can do something different to the first deeds they did. But Allah, may He be glorified, knows that if He sent them back to this world, they would go back to what they had been forbidden to do, and He knows that they are lying, so He will not respond to their plea. This is like the Ayah where Allah tells us that they will say:
(Then is there any way to get out (of the Fire). (It will be said): “This is because, when Allah Alone was invoked you disbelieved (denied), but when partners were joined to Him, you believed!) (40:11,12) i.e., `there will be no response for you because you were like that; if you were to return to this world, you would just go back to that which you had been forbidden to do.’ Allah says here:
(Did We not give you lives long enough, so that whosoever would receive admonition could receive it And the warner came to you.) meaning, `did you not live for long enough in the world that if you were to be among those who would benefit from the truth, you would have benefited from it during your lifetimes’ Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Prophet said:
(Allah has left no excuse for the person who lives to be sixty or seventy years old; Allah has left no excuse for him; Allah has left no excuse for him.) Imam Al-Bukhari also recorded, in the Book of Riqaq in his Sahih, that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah said:
(Allah has left no excuse for a man who reaches the age of sixty.)” Ibn Jarir recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah said:
(Whoever is granted a long life until the age of sixty, Allah has left no excuse for him.)” This was also recorded by Imam Ahmad and An-Nasa’i in Ar-Riqaq. Because this is the age at which Allah removes any excuse from His servants, this is the usual age of people in this Ummah, as was reported in the Hadith of Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, who said, “The Messenger of Allah said:
(The usual life span in my Ummah is between sixty and seventy years, and only a few pass this age.)” This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah in the Book of Zuhd ﴿of his Sunan﴾.
(And the warner came to you. ) It was reported that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, `Ikrimah, Abu Ja`far Al-Baqir, may Allah be pleased with him, Qatadah and Sufyan bin `Uyaynah said, “This means grey hair.” As-Suddi and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said, “This means the Messenger of Allah ” and Ibn Zayd recited,
(This is a warner of the (series of) warners of old.) (53:56). This is the correct view according to Shayban who narrated that Qatadah said, “Proof will be established against them by the fact that they lived long enough and that Messengers came to them.” This is also the view favored by Ibn Jarir, and it is the apparent meaning of the Ayah:
(And they will cry (to the keeper of Hell): “O Malik! Let your Lord make an end of us.” He will say: “Verily, you shall abide forever.” Indeed We have brought the truth to you, but most of you have a hatred for the truth.)(43:77-78) meaning: `We showed you the truth clearly through the Messengers, but you rejected it and opposed it.’ And Allah says:
(And We never punish until We have sent a Messenger) (17:15).
(Every time a group is cast therein, its keepers will ask: “Did no warner come to you” They will say: “Yes, indeed a warner did come to us, but we denied him and said: `Allah never sent down anything; you are only in great error’.”) (67:8-9).
(So taste you. For the wrongdoers there is no helper.) means, `taste the punishment of the Fire, as a recompense for your going against the Prophets in all your deeds, for today you will have no helper to save you from your fate of punishment and chains.’
(38. Verily, Allah is the All-Knower of the Unseen of the heavens and the earth. Verily, He is the All-Knower of that is in the breasts.) (39. He it is Who has made you successors generations after generations in the earth, so whosoever disbelieves, on him will be his disbelief. And the disbelief of the disbelievers adds nothing but hatred of their Lord. And the disbelief of the disbelievers adds nothing but loss.) Here Allah tells us that He knows the unseen in the heavens and earth, and that He knows all that is hidden and the secrets of the hearts. And He tells us that He will reward or punish everyone according to his deeds. Then Allah says:
(He it is Who has made you successors generations after generations in the earth,) meaning, all people succeed one another, generation after generation. This is like the Ayah:
(and makes you inheritors of the earth, generations after generations) (27:62).
(so whosoever disbelieves, on him will be his disbelief.) means, he and no one else will have to bear the consequences of that.
(And the disbelief of the disbelievers adds nothing but hatred of their Lord.) means, the longer they persist in their disbelief, the more Allah hates them, and the longer they persist in it, the more they and their families will lose on the Day of Resurrection. This is in contrast to the believers, for the longer they live and do good deeds, the higher their status in Paradise will be, the greater their reward, and the more beloved they will be to their Creator.
(40. Say: “Have you considered your partners whom you call upon besides Allah Show Me, what they have created of the earth. Or have they any share in the heavens Or have We given them a Book, so that they act on clear proof therefrom Nay, the wrongdoers promise one another nothing but delusions.”) (41. Verily, Allah grasps the heavens and the earth lest they should move away from their places, and if they were to move away from their places, there is not one that could grasp them after Him. Truly, He is Ever Most Forbearing, Oft-Forgiving.)
The Helplessness of the false gods and the Power of Allah
Allah tells His Messenger to say to the idolators:
(Have you considered your partners whom you call upon besides Allah) the idols and rivals.
(Show Me what they have created of the earth. Or have they any share in the heavens) meaning, they have nothing at all of that, they do not possess even the membrane covering the stone of a date.
(Or have We given them a Book, so that they act on clear proof therefrom) meaning, `have We revealed to them a Book on which they base their Shirk and disbelief’ This is not the case at all.
(Nay, the wrongdoers promise one another nothing but delusions.) means, they are merely following their own whims, opinions and wishes which are their personal desires, and they are no more than misguidance and falsehood. Then Allah tells us of His mighty power, by which the heavens and the earth stand by His command, and the forces that He has placed between them to hold them. He says:
(Verily, Allah grasps the heavens and the earth lest they should move away from their places,) means, lest they should shift from where they are. This is like the Ayat:
(He withholds the heaven from falling on the earth except by His leave) (22:65), and
(And among His signs is that the heaven and the earth stand by His command) (30:25).
(and if they were to move away from their places, there is not one that could grasp them after Him.) means, no one can make them stay and preserve them except Him. He is Ever Most Forbearing and Oft-Forgiving because He sees His servants disbelieving in Him and disobeying Him, yet He is patient and gives them time, He waits and does not hasten the punishment, and He conceals the faults of others and forgives them. He says:
(Truly, He is Ever Most Forbearing, Oft-Forgiving.)
(42. And they swore by Allah their most binding oath that if a warner came to them, they would be more guided than any of the nations; yet when a warner came to them, it increased in them nothing but flight (from the truth).) (43. (They took to flight because of their) arrogance in the land and their plotting of evil. But the evil plot encompasses only him who makes it. Then, can they expect anything (else) but the Sunnah (way of dealing) of the peoples of old So, no change will you find in Allah’s Sunnah, and no turning off will you find in Allah’s Sunnah.)
They longed for a Warner to come, but when He came, They disbelieved in Him
Allah tells us how Quraysh and the Arabs swore by Allah their most binding oath before the Messenger came to them,
(that if a warner came to them, they would be more guided than any of the nations;) i.e., than any of the nations to whom Messengers had been sent. This was the view of Ad-Dahhak and others. This is like the Ayat:
(Lest you (pagan Arabs) should say: “The Book was sent down only to two sects before us, and for our part, we were in fact unaware of what they studied.” Or lest you should say: “If only the Book had been sent down to us, we would surely have been better guided than they.” So, now has come unto you a clear proof from your Lord, and a guidance and a mercy. Who then does more wrong than one who rejects the Ayat of Allah and turns away therefrom) (6:156-157)
(And indeed they (Arab pagans) used to say: “If we had a reminder as had the men of old, We would have indeed been the chosen servants of Allah!” But they disbelieve therein, so they will come to know!) (37:167-170) Allah says:
(yet when a warner came to them,) — meaning, Muhammad with the Book revealed to him, i.e., the Clear Qur’an,
(it increased in them nothing but flight (from the truth).) means, they only increased in their disbelief. Then Allah explains this further:
((They took to flight because of their) arrogance in the land) means, they were too arrogant to follow the signs of Allah.
(and their plotting of evil.) means, they plotted to prevent people from following the path of Allah.
(But the evil plot encompasses only him who makes it.) means, the evil consequences of that will come back upon them and not on others.
(Then, can they expect anything (else) but the Sunnah (way of dealing) of the peoples of old) meaning, the punishment of Allah for disbelieving in His Messengers and going against His command.
(and no turning off will you find in Allah’s Sunnah.) means, it does not change or alter, and this is what happens to every disbeliever.
(and no turning off will you find in Allah’s Sunnah.) means,
(But when Allah wills a people’s punishment, there can be no turning back of it) (13:11). This means, no one can remove that from them or ward it off from them. And Allah knows best.
(44. Have they not traveled in the land, and seen what was the end of those before them — though they were superior to them in power Allah is not such that anything in the heavens or in the earth escapes Him. Verily, He is All-Knowing, All-Able.) (45. And if Allah were to punish men for that which they earned, He would not leave a moving creature on the surface of the earth; but He gives them respite to an appointed term, and when their term comes, then verily, Allah is Ever All-Seer of His servants.)
Remember the Bad Consequences of disbelieving in the Prophets
Allah says: `say, O Muhammad, to these people who disbelieve the Message you have brought: travel in the land and see what was the punishment of those who disbelieved the Messengers, how Allah destroyed them completely, and a similar (end awaits) the disbelievers. See how their homes were emptied of them and how they lost everything after living in luxury and being so numerous and so well equipped, and having so much wealth and so many children. All of that was of no avail to them and could not protect them in the slightest from the punishment of Allah when the command of the Lord came. Nothing is impossible for Him when He wants it to happen in the heavens or on earth.’
(Verily, He is All-Knowing, All-Able.) means, He knows all that exists and is able to do all things.
The Wisdom behind delaying the Punishment Then Allah says:
(And if Allah were to punish men for that which they earned, He would not leave a moving creature on the surface of the earth;) meaning, if He were to punish them for all of their sins, He would destroy all the people of the earth and all that they own of livestock and crops. Sa`id bin Jubayr and As-Suddi commented on the Ayah:
(He would not leave a moving creature on the surface of the earth;) “This means, He would have stopped sending rain to them, and all the animals would have died as a result.”
(but He gives them respite to an appointed term,) means, but He is delaying until the Day of Resurrection, when He will bring them to account and will reward or punish each one according to his deeds: He will reward those who obeyed Him and will punish those who disobeyed Him. He says:
(and when their term comes, then verily, Allah is Ever All-Seer of His servants.)
This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Fatir. All praise and gratitude is due to Allah.