Surah Fussilat (in Arabic: فصلت) also referred to as Surah Ha-Mim is the 41st chapter of the Qur’an and is classified as a Meccan Surah. It’s composed of total of 54 ayat (verses) and the title of Surah in English is “Explained in Detail”.
The subject matter of this Surah is Da’wah (invitation). It tells us that believers receive strength from Allah’s revelation.
“But none is granted it except those who are patient”
Surah Fussilat Ayat 35
Read Surah Fussilat with English Translation and Transliteration
Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Raheem
In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful
1. Ha, Meem.
تَنزِيلٌۭ مِّنَ ٱلرَّحْمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ
2. [This is] a revelation from the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful –
كِتَـٰبٌۭ فُصِّلَتْ ءَايَـٰتُهُۥ قُرْءَانًا عَرَبِيًّۭا لِّقَوْمٍۢ يَعْلَمُونَ
Kitaabun fussilat Aayaatuhoo Qur-aanan ‘Arabiyyal liqawminy ya’lamoon
3. A Book whose verses have been detailed, an Arabic Qur’an for a people who know,
بَشِيرًۭا وَنَذِيرًۭا فَأَعْرَضَ أَكْثَرُهُمْ فَهُمْ لَا يَسْمَعُونَ
Basheeranw wa nazeeran fa-a’rada aksaruhum fahum laa yasma’oon
4. As a giver of good tidings and a warner; but most of them turn away, so they do not hear.
وَقَالُوا۟ قُلُوبُنَا فِىٓ أَكِنَّةٍۢ مِّمَّا تَدْعُونَآ إِلَيْهِ وَفِىٓ ءَاذَانِنَا وَقْرٌۭ وَمِنۢ بَيْنِنَا وَبَيْنِكَ حِجَابٌۭ فَٱعْمَلْ إِنَّنَا عَـٰمِلُونَ
Wa qaaloo quloobunaa feee akinnatim mimmaa tad’oonaaa ilaihi wa feee aazaaninaa waqrunw wa mim baininaa wa bainika bijaabun fa’mal innanaa ‘aamiloon
5. And they say, “Our hearts are within coverings from that to which you invite us, and in our ears is deafness, and between us and you is a partition, so work; indeed, we are working.”
قُلْ إِنَّمَآ أَنَا۠ بَشَرٌۭ مِّثْلُكُمْ يُوحَىٰٓ إِلَىَّ أَنَّمَآ إِلَـٰهُكُمْ إِلَـٰهٌۭ وَٰحِدٌۭ فَٱسْتَقِيمُوٓا۟ إِلَيْهِ وَٱسْتَغْفِرُوهُ ۗ وَوَيْلٌۭ لِّلْمُشْرِكِينَ
Qul innamaaa ana basharum mislukum yoohaaa ilaiya annamaaa ilaahukum Ilaahunw Waahidun fastaqeemooo ilaihi wastaghfirooh; wa wailul lil mushrikeen
6. Say, O [Muhammad], “I am only a man like you to whom it has been revealed that your god is but one God; so take a straight course to Him and seek His forgiveness.” And woe to those who associate others with Allah –
ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْتُونَ ٱلزَّكَوٰةَ وَهُم بِٱلْءَاخِرَةِ هُمْ كَـٰفِرُونَ
Allazeena laa yu’toonaz Zakaata wa hum bil-Aakhiratihum kaafiroon
7. Those who do not give zakah, and in the Hereafter they are disbelievers.
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَعَمِلُوا۟ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ لَهُمْ أَجْرٌ غَيْرُ مَمْنُونٍۢ
Innal lazeena aamanoo wa ‘amilus saalihaati lahum ajrun ghairu mamnoon (section 1)
8. Indeed, those who believe and do righteous deeds – for them is a reward uninterrupted.
۞ قُلْ أَئِنَّكُمْ لَتَكْفُرُونَ بِٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلْأَرْضَ فِى يَوْمَيْنِ وَتَجْعَلُونَ لَهُۥٓ أَندَادًۭا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ رَبُّ ٱلْعَـٰلَمِينَ
Qul a’innakum latakfuroona billazee khalaqal arda fee yawmaini wa taj’aloona lahooo andaadaa; zaalika Rabbul ‘aalameen
9. Say, “Do you indeed disbelieve in He who created the earth in two days and attribute to Him equals? That is the Lord of the worlds.”
وَجَعَلَ فِيهَا رَوَٰسِىَ مِن فَوْقِهَا وَبَـٰرَكَ فِيهَا وَقَدَّرَ فِيهَآ أَقْوَٰتَهَا فِىٓ أَرْبَعَةِ أَيَّامٍۢ سَوَآءًۭ لِّلسَّآئِلِينَ
Wa ja’ala feehaa rawaa siya min fawqihaa wa baaraka feehaa wa qaddara feehaaaa aqwaatahaa feee arba’ati ayyaamin sawaaa’al lissaaa’ileen
10. And He placed on the earth firmly set mountains over its surface, and He blessed it and determined therein its [creatures’] sustenance in four days without distinction – for [the information] of those who ask.
ثُمَّ ٱسْتَوَىٰٓ إِلَى ٱلسَّمَآءِ وَهِىَ دُخَانٌۭ فَقَالَ لَهَا وَلِلْأَرْضِ ٱئْتِيَا طَوْعًا أَوْ كَرْهًۭا قَالَتَآ أَتَيْنَا طَآئِعِينَ
Summas tawaaa ilas-samaaa’i wa hiya dukhaanun faqaala lahaa wa lil ardi’tiyaaa taw’an aw karhan qaalataaa atainaa taaa’i’een
11. Then He directed Himself to the heaven while it was smoke and said to it and to the earth, “Come [into being], willingly or by compulsion.” They said, “We have come willingly.”
فَقَضَىٰهُنَّ سَبْعَ سَمَـٰوَاتٍۢ فِى يَوْمَيْنِ وَأَوْحَىٰ فِى كُلِّ سَمَآءٍ أَمْرَهَا ۚ وَزَيَّنَّا ٱلسَّمَآءَ ٱلدُّنْيَا بِمَصَـٰبِيحَ وَحِفْظًۭا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ تَقْدِيرُ ٱلْعَزِيزِ ٱلْعَلِيمِ
Faqadaahunna sab’a samaawaatin fee yawmaini wa awhaa fee kulli samaaa’in amarahaa; wa zaiyannassa maaa’ad dunyaa bimasaabeeha wa hifzaa; zaalika taqdeerul ‘Azeezil ‘Aleem
12. And He completed them as seven heavens within two days and inspired in each heaven its command. And We adorned the nearest heaven with lamps and as protection. That is the determination of the Exalted in Might, the Knowing.
فَإِنْ أَعْرَضُوا۟ فَقُلْ أَنذَرْتُكُمْ صَـٰعِقَةًۭ مِّثْلَ صَـٰعِقَةِ عَادٍۢ وَثَمُودَ
Fa-in a’radoo faqul anzartukum saa’iqatam misla saa’iqati ‘Aadinw wa Samood
13. But if they turn away, then say, “I have warned you of a thunderbolt like the thunderbolt [that struck] ‘Aad and Thamud.
إِذْ جَآءَتْهُمُ ٱلرُّسُلُ مِنۢ بَيْنِ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمِنْ خَلْفِهِمْ أَلَّا تَعْبُدُوٓا۟ إِلَّا ٱللَّهَ ۖ قَالُوا۟ لَوْ شَآءَ رَبُّنَا لَأَنزَلَ مَلَـٰٓئِكَةًۭ فَإِنَّا بِمَآ أُرْسِلْتُم بِهِۦ كَـٰفِرُونَ
Iz jaaa’at humur Rusulu mim baini aydeehim wa min khalfihim allaa ta’budooo illal laaha qaaloo law shaaa’a Rabunaa la anzala malaaa ‘ikatan fa innaa bimaaa ursiltum bihee kaafiroon
14. [That occurred] when the messengers had come to them before them and after them, [saying], “Worship not except Allah .” They said, “If our Lord had willed, He would have sent down the angels, so indeed we, in that with which you have been sent, are disbelievers.”
فَأَمَّا عَادٌۭ فَٱسْتَكْبَرُوا۟ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ بِغَيْرِ ٱلْحَقِّ وَقَالُوا۟ مَنْ أَشَدُّ مِنَّا قُوَّةً ۖ أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْا۟ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَهُمْ هُوَ أَشَدُّ مِنْهُمْ قُوَّةًۭ ۖ وَكَانُوا۟ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَا يَجْحَدُونَ
Fa ammaa ‘Aadun fastak baroo fil ardi bighairul haqqi wa qaaloo man ashaddu minnaa quwwatan awalam yaraw annal laahal lazee khalaqahum Huwa ashaddu minhum quwwatanw wa kaanoo bi Aayaatinaa yajhadoon
15. As for ‘Aad, they were arrogant upon the earth without right and said, “Who is greater than us in strength?” Did they not consider that Allah who created them was greater than them in strength? But they were rejecting Our signs.
فَأَرْسَلْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ رِيحًۭا صَرْصَرًۭا فِىٓ أَيَّامٍۢ نَّحِسَاتٍۢ لِّنُذِيقَهُمْ عَذَابَ ٱلْخِزْىِ فِى ٱلْحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنْيَا ۖ وَلَعَذَابُ ٱلْءَاخِرَةِ أَخْزَىٰ ۖ وَهُمْ لَا يُنصَرُونَ
Fa arsalnaa ‘alaihim reehan sarsaran feee ayyaamin nahisaatil linuzeeqahum ‘azaabal khizyi fil hayaatid dunyaa wa la’azaabul Aakhirati akhzaa wa hum laa yunsaroon
16. So We sent upon them a screaming wind during days of misfortune to make them taste the punishment of disgrace in the worldly life; but the punishment of the Hereafter is more disgracing, and they will not be helped.
وَأَمَّا ثَمُودُ فَهَدَيْنَـٰهُمْ فَٱسْتَحَبُّوا۟ ٱلْعَمَىٰ عَلَى ٱلْهُدَىٰ فَأَخَذَتْهُمْ صَـٰعِقَةُ ٱلْعَذَابِ ٱلْهُونِ بِمَا كَانُوا۟ يَكْسِبُونَ
Wa ammaa Samoodu fahadinaahum fastahabbul ‘ama ‘alal huda fa akhazathum saa’iqatul ‘azaabil hooni bimaa kaanoo yaksiboon
17. And as for Thamud, We guided them, but they preferred blindness over guidance, so the thunderbolt of humiliating punishment seized them for what they used to earn.
وَنَجَّيْنَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَكَانُوا۟ يَتَّقُونَ
Wa najjainal lazeena aamanoo wa kaanoo yattaqoon (section 2)
18. And We saved those who believed and used to fear Allah.
وَيَوْمَ يُحْشَرُ أَعْدَآءُ ٱللَّهِ إِلَى ٱلنَّارِ فَهُمْ يُوزَعُونَ
Wa yawma yuhsharu a’daaa’ul laahi ilan Naari fahum yooza’oon
19. And [mention, O Muhammad], the Day when the enemies of Allah will be gathered to the Fire while they are [driven] assembled in rows,
حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا مَا جَآءُوهَا شَهِدَ عَلَيْهِمْ سَمْعُهُمْ وَأَبْصَـٰرُهُمْ وَجُلُودُهُم بِمَا كَانُوا۟ يَعْمَلُونَ
Hattaaa izaa maa jaaa’oohaa shahida ‘alaihim samu’uhum wa absaaruhum wa julooduhum bimaa kaanoo ya’maloon
20. Until, when they reach it, their hearing and their eyes and their skins will testify against them of what they used to do.
وَقَالُوا۟ لِجُلُودِهِمْ لِمَ شَهِدتُّمْ عَلَيْنَا ۖ قَالُوٓا۟ أَنطَقَنَا ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَنطَقَ كُلَّ شَىْءٍۢ وَهُوَ خَلَقَكُمْ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍۢ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ
Wa qaaloo lijuloodihim lima shahittum ‘alainaa qaaloo antaqanal laahul lazeee antaqa kulla shai’inw wa Huwa khalaqakum awwala marratinw wa ilaihi turja’oon
21. And they will say to their skins, “Why have you testified against us?” They will say, “We were made to speak by Allah, who has made everything speak; and He created you the first time, and to Him you are returned.
وَمَا كُنتُمْ تَسْتَتِرُونَ أَن يَشْهَدَ عَلَيْكُمْ سَمْعُكُمْ وَلَآ أَبْصَـٰرُكُمْ وَلَا جُلُودُكُمْ وَلَـٰكِن ظَنَنتُمْ أَنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يَعْلَمُ كَثِيرًۭا مِّمَّا تَعْمَلُونَ
Wa maa kuntum tastatiroona ai-yashhada ‘alaikum sam’ukum wa laaa absaarukum wa laa juloodukum wa laakin zanantum annal laaha laa ya’lamu kaseeram mimmaa ta’maloon
22. And you were not covering yourselves, lest your hearing testify against you or your sight or your skins, but you assumed that Allah does not know much of what you do.
وَذَٰلِكُمْ ظَنُّكُمُ ٱلَّذِى ظَنَنتُم بِرَبِّكُمْ أَرْدَىٰكُمْ فَأَصْبَحْتُم مِّنَ ٱلْخَـٰسِرِينَ
Wa zaalikum zannukumul lazee zanantum bi-Rabbikum ardaakum fa asbahtum minal khaasireen
23. And that was your assumption which you assumed about your Lord. It has brought you to ruin, and you have become among the losers.”
فَإِن يَصْبِرُوا۟ فَٱلنَّارُ مَثْوًۭى لَّهُمْ ۖ وَإِن يَسْتَعْتِبُوا۟ فَمَا هُم مِّنَ ٱلْمُعْتَبِينَ
Fa-iny yasbiroo fan Naaru maswal lahum wa iny-yasta’tiboo famaa hum minal mu’tabeen
24. So [even] if they are patient, the Fire is a residence for them; and if they ask to appease [ Allah ], they will not be of those who are allowed to appease.
۞ وَقَيَّضْنَا لَهُمْ قُرَنَآءَ فَزَيَّنُوا۟ لَهُم مَّا بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَمَا خَلْفَهُمْ وَحَقَّ عَلَيْهِمُ ٱلْقَوْلُ فِىٓ أُمَمٍۢ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِن قَبْلِهِم مِّنَ ٱلْجِنِّ وَٱلْإِنسِ ۖ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا۟ خَـٰسِرِينَ
Wa qaiyadnaa lahum quranaaa’a fazaiyanoo lahum maa baina aideehim wa maa khalfahum wa haqqa ‘alaihimul qawlu feee umamin qad khalat min qablihim minal jinni wal insi innahum kaanoo khaasireen (section 3)
25. And We appointed for them companions who made attractive to them what was before them and what was behind them [of sin], and the word has come into effect upon them among nations which had passed on before them of jinn and men. Indeed, they [all] were losers.
وَقَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ لَا تَسْمَعُوا۟ لِهَـٰذَا ٱلْقُرْءَانِ وَٱلْغَوْا۟ فِيهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَغْلِبُونَ
Wa qaalal lazeena kafaroo laa tasma’oo lihaazal Quraani walghaw feehi la’allakum taghlihoon
26. And those who disbelieve say, “Do not listen to this Qur’an and speak noisily during [the recitation of] it that perhaps you will overcome.”
فَلَنُذِيقَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ عَذَابًۭا شَدِيدًۭا وَلَنَجْزِيَنَّهُمْ أَسْوَأَ ٱلَّذِى كَانُوا۟ يَعْمَلُونَ
Falanuzeeqannal lazeena kafaroo ‘azaaban shadeedanw wa lanajziyannahum aswallazee kaanoo ya’maloon
27. But We will surely cause those who disbelieve to taste a severe punishment, and We will surely recompense them for the worst of what they had been doing.
ذَٰلِكَ جَزَآءُ أَعْدَآءِ ٱللَّهِ ٱلنَّارُ ۖ لَهُمْ فِيهَا دَارُ ٱلْخُلْدِ ۖ جَزَآءًۢ بِمَا كَانُوا۟ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَا يَجْحَدُونَ
Zaalika jazaaa’u a’daaa’il laahin Naaru lahum feehaa daarul khuld, jazaaa’am bimaa kaanoo bi aayaatinaa yajhadoon
28. That is the recompense of the enemies of Allah – the Fire. For them therein is the home of eternity as recompense for what they, of Our verses, were rejecting.
وَقَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ رَبَّنَآ أَرِنَا ٱلَّذَيْنِ أَضَلَّانَا مِنَ ٱلْجِنِّ وَٱلْإِنسِ نَجْعَلْهُمَا تَحْتَ أَقْدَامِنَا لِيَكُونَا مِنَ ٱلْأَسْفَلِينَ
Wa qaalal lazeena kafaroo Rabbanaaa arinal lazaini adal laanaa minal jinni wal insi naj’alhumaa tahta aqdaaminaa liyakoonaa minal asfaleen
29. And those who disbelieved will [then] say, “Our Lord, show us those who misled us of the jinn and men [so] we may put them under our feet that they will be among the lowest.”
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ قَالُوا۟ رَبُّنَا ٱللَّهُ ثُمَّ ٱسْتَقَـٰمُوا۟ تَتَنَزَّلُ عَلَيْهِمُ ٱلْمَلَـٰٓئِكَةُ أَلَّا تَخَافُوا۟ وَلَا تَحْزَنُوا۟ وَأَبْشِرُوا۟ بِٱلْجَنَّةِ ٱلَّتِى كُنتُمْ تُوعَدُونَ
Innal lazeena qaaloo Rabbunal laahu summas taqaamoo tatanazzalu ‘alaihimul malaaa ‘ikatu allaa takhaafoo wa laa tahzanoo wa abshiroo bil Jannnatil latee kuntum too’adoon
30. Indeed, those who have said, “Our Lord is Allah ” and then remained on a right course – the angels will descend upon them, [saying], “Do not fear and do not grieve but receive good tidings of Paradise, which you were promised.
نَحْنُ أَوْلِيَآؤُكُمْ فِى ٱلْحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنْيَا وَفِى ٱلْءَاخِرَةِ ۖ وَلَكُمْ فِيهَا مَا تَشْتَهِىٓ أَنفُسُكُمْ وَلَكُمْ فِيهَا مَا تَدَّعُونَ
Nahnu awliyaaa’ukum fil hayaatid dunyaa wa fil Aakhirati wa lakum feehaa maa tashtaheee anfusukum wa lakum feehaa ma tadda’oon
31. We [angels] were your allies in worldly life and [are so] in the Hereafter. And you will have therein whatever your souls desire, and you will have therein whatever you request [or wish]
نُزُلًۭا مِّنْ غَفُورٍۢ رَّحِيمٍۢ
Nuzulam min Ghafoorir Raheem (section 4)
32. As accommodation from a [Lord who is] Forgiving and Merciful.”
وَمَنْ أَحْسَنُ قَوْلًۭا مِّمَّن دَعَآ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَعَمِلَ صَـٰلِحًۭا وَقَالَ إِنَّنِى مِنَ ٱلْمُسْلِمِينَ
Wa man ahsanu qawlam mimman da’aaa ilal laahi wa ‘amila saalihanw wa qaala innanee minal muslimeen
33. And who is better in speech than one who invites to Allah and does righteousness and says, “Indeed, I am of the Muslims.”
وَلَا تَسْتَوِى ٱلْحَسَنَةُ وَلَا ٱلسَّيِّئَةُ ۚ ٱدْفَعْ بِٱلَّتِى هِىَ أَحْسَنُ فَإِذَا ٱلَّذِى بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَهُۥ عَدَٰوَةٌۭ كَأَنَّهُۥ وَلِىٌّ حَمِيمٌۭ
Wa laa tastawil hasanatu wa las saiyi’ah; idfa’ billatee hiya ahsanu fa’izal lazee bainaka wa bainahoo ‘adaawatun ka’annahoo waliyun hameem
34. And not equal are the good deed and the bad. Repel [evil] by that [deed] which is better; and thereupon the one whom between you and him is enmity [will become] as though he was a devoted friend.
وَمَا يُلَقَّىٰهَآ إِلَّا ٱلَّذِينَ صَبَرُوا۟ وَمَا يُلَقَّىٰهَآ إِلَّا ذُو حَظٍّ عَظِيمٍۢ
Wa maa yulaqqaahaaa illal lazeena sabaroo wa maa yulaqqaahaaa illaa zoo hazzin ‘azeem
35. But none is granted it except those who are patient, and none is granted it except one having a great portion [of good].
وَإِمَّا يَنزَغَنَّكَ مِنَ ٱلشَّيْطَـٰنِ نَزْغٌۭ فَٱسْتَعِذْ بِٱللَّهِ ۖ إِنَّهُۥ هُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلْعَلِيمُ
Wa immaa yanzaghannaka minash Shaitaani nazghun fasta’iz billaahi innahoo Huwas Samee’ul ‘Aleem
36. And if there comes to you from Satan an evil suggestion, then seek refuge in Allah . Indeed, He is the Hearing, the Knowing.
وَمِنْ ءَايَـٰتِهِ ٱلَّيْلُ وَٱلنَّهَارُ وَٱلشَّمْسُ وَٱلْقَمَرُ ۚ لَا تَسْجُدُوا۟ لِلشَّمْسِ وَلَا لِلْقَمَرِ وَٱسْجُدُوا۟ لِلَّهِ ٱلَّذِى خَلَقَهُنَّ إِن كُنتُمْ إِيَّاهُ تَعْبُدُونَ
Wa min Aayaatihil lailu wannahaaru washshamsu walqamar; laa tasjudoo lishshamsi wa laa lilqamari wasjudoo lillaahil lazee khala qahunna in kuntum iyyaahu ta’budoon
37. And of His signs are the night and day and the sun and moon. Do not prostrate to the sun or to the moon, but prostate to Allah, who created them, if it should be Him that you worship.
فَإِنِ ٱسْتَكْبَرُوا۟ فَٱلَّذِينَ عِندَ رَبِّكَ يُسَبِّحُونَ لَهُۥ بِٱلَّيْلِ وَٱلنَّهَارِ وَهُمْ لَا يَسْـَٔمُونَ ۩
Fa inis-takbaroo fallazee na ‘inda Rabbika yusabbihoona lahoo billaili wannnahaari wa hum laa yas’amoon (make sajda)
38. But if they are arrogant – then those who are near your Lord exalt Him by night and by day, and they do not become weary.
وَمِنْ ءَايَـٰتِهِۦٓ أَنَّكَ تَرَى ٱلْأَرْضَ خَـٰشِعَةًۭ فَإِذَآ أَنزَلْنَا عَلَيْهَا ٱلْمَآءَ ٱهْتَزَّتْ وَرَبَتْ ۚ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِىٓ أَحْيَاهَا لَمُحْىِ ٱلْمَوْتَىٰٓ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىْءٍۢ قَدِيرٌ
Wa min Aayaatiheee annaka taral arda khaashi’atan fa izaaa anzalna ‘alaihal maaa’ah tazzat wa rabat; innal lazeee ahyaahaa lamuhiyil mawtaa; innahoo ‘alaa kulli shai-in Qadeer
39. And of His signs is that you see the earth stilled, but when We send down upon it rain, it quivers and grows. Indeed, He who has given it life is the Giver of Life to the dead. Indeed, He is over all things competent.
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ يُلْحِدُونَ فِىٓ ءَايَـٰتِنَا لَا يَخْفَوْنَ عَلَيْنَآ ۗ أَفَمَن يُلْقَىٰ فِى ٱلنَّارِ خَيْرٌ أَم مَّن يَأْتِىٓ ءَامِنًۭا يَوْمَ ٱلْقِيَـٰمَةِ ۚ ٱعْمَلُوا۟ مَا شِئْتُمْ ۖ إِنَّهُۥ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ
Innal lazeena yulhidoona feee Aayaatina laa yakhfawna ‘alainaa’ afamai yulqaa fin Naari khayrun am mai yaateee aaminai Yawmal Qiyaamah; i’maloo ma shi’tum innahoo bimaa ta’maloona Baseer
40. Indeed, those who inject deviation into Our verses are not concealed from Us. So, is he who is cast into the Fire better or he who comes secure on the Day of Resurrection? Do whatever you will; indeed, He is Seeing of what you do.
إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ بِٱلذِّكْرِ لَمَّا جَآءَهُمْ ۖ وَإِنَّهُۥ لَكِتَـٰبٌ عَزِيزٌۭ
Inna Lazeena kafaroo biz Zikri lammaa jaa’ahum wa innahoo la Kitaabun ‘Azeez
41. Indeed, those who disbelieve in the message after it has come to them… And indeed, it is a mighty Book.
لَّا يَأْتِيهِ ٱلْبَـٰطِلُ مِنۢ بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَلَا مِنْ خَلْفِهِۦ ۖ تَنزِيلٌۭ مِّنْ حَكِيمٍ حَمِيدٍۢ
Laa yaateehil baatilu mim baini yadaihi wa laa min khalfihee tanzeelum min Hakeemin Hameed
42. Falsehood cannot approach it from before it or from behind it; [it is] a revelation from a [Lord who is] Wise and Praiseworthy.
مَّا يُقَالُ لَكَ إِلَّا مَا قَدْ قِيلَ لِلرُّسُلِ مِن قَبْلِكَ ۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَذُو مَغْفِرَةٍۢ وَذُو عِقَابٍ أَلِيمٍۢ
Maa yuqaalu laka illaa maa qad qeela lir Rusuli min qablik; inna Rabbaka lazoo maghfiratinw wa zoo ‘iqaabin aleem
43. Nothing is said to you, [O Muhammad], except what was already said to the messengers before you. Indeed, your Lord is a possessor of forgiveness and a possessor of painful penalty.
وَلَوْ جَعَلْنَـٰهُ قُرْءَانًا أَعْجَمِيًّۭا لَّقَالُوا۟ لَوْلَا فُصِّلَتْ ءَايَـٰتُهُۥٓ ۖ ءَا۬عْجَمِىٌّۭ وَعَرَبِىٌّۭ ۗ قُلْ هُوَ لِلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ هُدًۭى وَشِفَآءٌۭ ۖ وَٱلَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ فِىٓ ءَاذَانِهِمْ وَقْرٌۭ وَهُوَ عَلَيْهِمْ عَمًى ۚ أُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ يُنَادَوْنَ مِن مَّكَانٍۭ بَعِيدٍۢ
Wa law ja’alnaahu Qur-aanan A’jamiyyal laqaaloo law laa fussilat Aayaatuhoo ‘a A’jamiyyunw wa ‘Arabiyy; qul huwa lillazeena aamanoo hudanw wa shifaaa’unw wallazeena la yu’minoona feee aazaanihim waqrunw wa huwa ‘alaihim ‘amaa; ulaaa’ika yunaadawna mim maakaanim ba’eed (section 5)
44. And if We had made it a non-Arabic Qur’an, they would have said, “Why are its verses not explained in detail [in our language]? Is it a foreign [recitation] and an Arab [messenger]?” Say, “It is, for those who believe, a guidance and cure.” And those who do not believe – in their ears is deafness, and it is upon them blindness. Those are being called from a distant place.
وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَا مُوسَى ٱلْكِتَـٰبَ فَٱخْتُلِفَ فِيهِ ۗ وَلَوْلَا كَلِمَةٌۭ سَبَقَتْ مِن رَّبِّكَ لَقُضِىَ بَيْنَهُمْ ۚ وَإِنَّهُمْ لَفِى شَكٍّۢ مِّنْهُ مُرِيبٍۢ
Wa laqad aatainaa Moosal Kitaaba fakhtulifa fee; wa lawlaa Kalimatun sabaqat mir Rabbika laqudiya bainahum; wa innahum lafee shakkim minhu mureeb
45. And We had already given Moses the Scripture, but it came under disagreement. And if not for a word that preceded from your Lord, it would have been concluded between them. And indeed they are, concerning the Qur’an, in disquieting doubt.
مَّنْ عَمِلَ صَـٰلِحًۭا فَلِنَفْسِهِۦ ۖ وَمَنْ أَسَآءَ فَعَلَيْهَا ۗ وَمَا رَبُّكَ بِظَلَّـٰمٍۢ لِّلْعَبِيدِ
Man ‘amila salihan falinafsihee wa man asaaa’a fa’alaihaa; wamaa rabbuka bizallaamil lil ‘abeed (End Juz 24)
46. Whoever does righteousness – it is for his [own] soul; and whoever does evil [does so] against it. And your Lord is not ever unjust to [His] servants.
۞ إِلَيْهِ يُرَدُّ عِلْمُ ٱلسَّاعَةِ ۚ وَمَا تَخْرُجُ مِن ثَمَرَٰتٍۢ مِّنْ أَكْمَامِهَا وَمَا تَحْمِلُ مِنْ أُنثَىٰ وَلَا تَضَعُ إِلَّا بِعِلْمِهِۦ ۚ وَيَوْمَ يُنَادِيهِمْ أَيْنَ شُرَكَآءِى قَالُوٓا۟ ءَاذَنَّـٰكَ مَا مِنَّا مِن شَهِيدٍۢ
Ilaihi yuraddu ‘ilmus Saaa’ah; wa maa takhruju min samaraatim min akmaamihaa wa maa tahmilu min unsaa wa laa tada’u illaa bi’ilmih; wa Yawma yunaadeehim aina shurakaaa’ee qaalooo aazannaaka maa minnaa min shaheed
47. To him [alone] is attributed knowledge of the Hour. And fruits emerge not from their coverings nor does a female conceive or give birth except with His knowledge. And the Day He will call to them, “Where are My ‘partners’?” they will say, “We announce to You that there is [no longer] among us any witness [to that].”
وَضَلَّ عَنْهُم مَّا كَانُوا۟ يَدْعُونَ مِن قَبْلُ ۖ وَظَنُّوا۟ مَا لَهُم مِّن مَّحِيصٍۢ
Wa dalla ‘anhum maa kaanoo yad’oona min qablu wa zannoo maa lahum mim mahees
48. And lost from them will be those they were invoking before, and they will be certain that they have no place of escape.
لَّا يَسْـَٔمُ ٱلْإِنسَـٰنُ مِن دُعَآءِ ٱلْخَيْرِ وَإِن مَّسَّهُ ٱلشَّرُّ فَيَـُٔوسٌۭ قَنُوطٌۭ
Laa yas’amul insaanu min du’aaa’il khairi wa im massa hush sharru fa ya’oosun qanoot
49. Man is not weary of supplication for good [things], but if evil touches him, he is hopeless and despairing.
وَلَئِنْ أَذَقْنَـٰهُ رَحْمَةًۭ مِّنَّا مِنۢ بَعْدِ ضَرَّآءَ مَسَّتْهُ لَيَقُولَنَّ هَـٰذَا لِى وَمَآ أَظُنُّ ٱلسَّاعَةَ قَآئِمَةًۭ وَلَئِن رُّجِعْتُ إِلَىٰ رَبِّىٓ إِنَّ لِى عِندَهُۥ لَلْحُسْنَىٰ ۚ فَلَنُنَبِّئَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ بِمَا عَمِلُوا۟ وَلَنُذِيقَنَّهُم مِّنْ عَذَابٍ غَلِيظٍۢ
Wa la in azaqnaahu rahmatam minnaa mim ba’di dar raaa’a massat hu la yaqoolanna haazaa lee wa maaa azunnus Saa’ata qaaa’imatanw wa la’in ruji’tu ilaa Rabbeee inna lee ‘indahoo lalhusnaa; falanu nabbi’annal lazeena kafaroo bimaa ‘amiloo wa lanuzeeqan nahum min ‘azaabin ghaleez
50. And if We let him taste mercy from Us after an adversity which has touched him, he will surely say, “This is [due] to me, and I do not think the Hour will occur; and [even] if I should be returned to my Lord, indeed, for me there will be with Him the best.” But We will surely inform those who disbelieved about what they did, and We will surely make them taste a massive punishment.
وَإِذَآ أَنْعَمْنَا عَلَى ٱلْإِنسَـٰنِ أَعْرَضَ وَنَـَٔا بِجَانِبِهِۦ وَإِذَا مَسَّهُ ٱلشَّرُّ فَذُو دُعَآءٍ عَرِيضٍۢ
Wa izaaa an’amnaa ‘alal insaani a’rada wa na-aa bijaani bihee wa izaa massahush sharru fazoo du’aaa’in ‘areed
51. And when We bestow favor upon man, he turns away and distances himself; but when evil touches him, then he is full of extensive supplication.
قُلْ أَرَءَيْتُمْ إِن كَانَ مِنْ عِندِ ٱللَّهِ ثُمَّ كَفَرْتُم بِهِۦ مَنْ أَضَلُّ مِمَّنْ هُوَ فِى شِقَاقٍۭ بَعِيدٍۢ
Qul araaitum in kaana min ‘indil laahi summa kafar tum bihee man adallu mimman huwa fee shiqaqim ba’eed
52. Say, “Have you considered: if the Qur’an is from Allah and you disbelieved in it, who would be more astray than one who is in extreme dissension?”
سَنُرِيهِمْ ءَايَـٰتِنَا فِى ٱلْءَافَاقِ وَفِىٓ أَنفُسِهِمْ حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَهُمْ أَنَّهُ ٱلْحَقُّ ۗ أَوَلَمْ يَكْفِ بِرَبِّكَ أَنَّهُۥ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىْءٍۢ شَهِيدٌ
Sanureehim Aayaatinaa fil aafaaqi wa feee anfusihim hattaa yatabaiyana lahum annahul haqq; awa lam yakfi bi Rabbika annahoo ‘alaa kulli shai-in Shaheed
53. We will show them Our signs in the horizons and within themselves until it becomes clear to them that it is the truth. But is it not sufficient concerning your Lord that He is, over all things, a Witness?
أَلَآ إِنَّهُمْ فِى مِرْيَةٍۢ مِّن لِّقَآءِ رَبِّهِمْ ۗ أَلَآ إِنَّهُۥ بِكُلِّ شَىْءٍۢ مُّحِيطٌۢ
Alaaa innahum fee miryatim mil liqaaa’i Rabbihim; alaaa innahoo bikulli shai’im muheet (section 6)
54. Unquestionably, they are in doubt about the meeting with their Lord. Unquestionably He is, of all things, encompassing.
Tafsir of Surah Fussilat
The revelation of the Qur’an was to call people to Islam and to be a book of guidance for all people.
We should read the Quran regularly, but let’s not neglect to study it’s message and it’s teaching. Below you can benefit from reading the commentary of Surah Fussilat (Surah Ha-Mim) by Ibn Kathir and from Tafheem ul Quran by Abul A’a Maududi.
Tafsir Surah Ha-Mim by Ibn Kathir
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(Ha Mim. A revelation from the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.) means, the Qur’an is revealed from the Most Gracious, Most Merciful. This is like the Ayat:
(Say Ruh Al-Qudus (Jibril) has brought it down from your Lord with truth) (16:102).
(And truly, this is a revelation from the Lord of all that exists, Which the trustworthy Ruh (Jibril) has brought down upon your heart that you may be (one) of the warners.) (26:192-194).
(A Book whereof the Ayat are explained in detail) means, its meanings are clear and its rulings are sound and wise.
(a Qur’an in Arabic) means, because it is a clear Arabic Qur’an, its meanings are precise and detailed and its words are clear and not confusing. This is like the Ayah:
((This is) a Book, the Ayat whereof are completed, and then explained in detail from One (Allah), Who is All-Wise Well-Acquainted) (11:1). meaning, it is miraculous in its wording and in its meanings.
(Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it, (it is) sent down by the All-Wise, Worthy of all praise.) (41:42).
(for people who know.) means, this clear style will be readily understood by scholars who are thoroughly versed in knowledge.
(Giving glad tidings and warning,) means, sometimes it brings glad tidings to the believers, and sometimes it brings a warning to the disbelievers.
(but most of them turn away, so they hear not.) means, most of the Quraysh did not understand anything of it at all, despite the fact that it was so clear.
(And they say: “Our hearts are under coverings…”) meaning, they are wrapped and screened,
(from that to which you invite us; and in our ears is deafness,) means, `we are deaf to the message you bring to us.’
(and between us and you is a screen,) `so nothing of what you say reaches us.’
(so work you (on your way); verily, we are working) means, go your way, and we will go our way, and we will not follow you.
(Say) `O Muhammad, to these disbelievers and idolators,’
(I am only a human being like you. It is revealed to me that your God is One God,) `not like these idols and false gods which you worship. Allah is one God,’
(therefore take straight path to Him) means, `worship Him Alone sincerely, in accordance with what He has commanded you through His Messengers.’
(and seek forgiveness of Him) means, `for your past sins.’
(And woe to the polytheists.) means, doom and destruction is their lot.
(Those who give not the Zakah) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn `Abbas that this means those who do not bear witness that there is no God except Allah. This was also the view of `Ikrimah. This is like the Ayat:
(Indeed he succeeds who purifies himself. And indeed he fails who corrupts himself.) (91:9-10) And;
(Indeed whosoever purifies himself shall achieve success. And remembers (glorifies) the Name of his Lord, and prays.) (87:14-15) And;
(And say to him: “Would you purify yourself”) (79:18) What is meant by Zakah here is purification of the soul, ridding oneself of all bad qualities, the worst of which is Shirk. The Zakah paid on one’s wealth is so called because it purifies wealth, and it is a means of increasing it, blessing it and making it more beneficial, and a means of assisting one to use it in doing good deeds. Qatadah said, “They withheld the Zakah of their wealth.” This is the apparent meaning according to many of the scholars of Tafsir, and this is the view favored by Ibn Jarir. But the matter is subject to further examination, because the obligation of Zakah was instituted during the second year after the Hijrah to Al-Madinah, according to what is stated by several scholars. Yet this Ayah was revealed in Makkah. However, it is not unlikely that the principle of giving charity and Zakah was already in place and had been enjoined at the beginning of the Prophet’s mission, as Allah says:
(but pay the due thereof on the day of their harvest) (6:141). As for the details of Zakah and how it is to be calculated according to the Nusub, were explained in Al-Madinah. This is how we may reconcile between the two opinions. Similarly, prayer was originally enjoined before sunrise and before sunset at the beginning of the Prophet’s mission; it was only on the Night of the Isra’, a year and a half before the Hijrah, that Allah enjoined upon His Messenger the five daily prayers. The conditions and essential elements of prayer were explained later, in stages. And Allah knows best. Then Allah says:
(Truly, those who believe and do righteous good deeds, for them will be an endless reward that will never stop.) Mujahid and others said, “It will never be cut off or decrease.” This is like the Ayat:
(They shall abide therein for ever.) (18:3)
(a gift without an end) (11:108)
Allah denounces the idolators who worship other gods apart from Him although He is the Creator, Subduer and Controller of all things. He says:
(Say: “Do you verily disbelieve in Him Who created the earth in two Days And you set up rivals with Him”) meaning, `false gods whom you worship alongside Him’
(That is the Lord of the that exists.) the Creator of all things is the Lord of all the creatures. Here the Ayah;
(Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days) (7:54). is explained in more detail; the creation of the earth and the creation of the heaven are discussed separately. Allah says that He created the earth first, because it is the foundation, and the foundation should be built first, then the roof. Allah says elsewhere:
(He it is Who created for you all that is on the earth. Then He rose over (Istawa ila) the heaven and made them seven heavens) (2:29). With regard to the Ayat:
(Are you more difficult to create or is the heaven that He constructed He raised its height, and has perfected it. Its night He covers with darkness and its forenoon He brings out (with light). And after that He spread the earth, And brought forth therefrom its water and its pasture. And the mountains He has fixed firmly, (to be) a provision and benefit for you and your cattle.) (79:27-33) This Ayah states that the spreading out of the earth came after the creation of the heavens, but the earth itself was created before the heavens according to some texts. This was the response of Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, as recorded by Al-Bukhari in his Tafsir of this Ayah in his Sahih. He recorded that Sa`id bin Jubayr said: “A man said to Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, saying: `I find some things in the Qur’an which confuse me:
(There will be no kinship among them that Day, nor will they ask of one another) (23:101),
(And they will turn to one another and question one another) (37:27),
(but they will never be able to hide a single fact from Allah) (4:42),
(By Allah, our Lord, we were not those who joined others in worship with Allah) (6:23) But in this Ayah they did hide something. And Allah says:
(Are you more difficult to create or is the heaven that He constructed) until;
(And after that He spread the earth.) (79:27-30) So He mentioned the creation of the heavens before the earth, then He said:
(Say: “Do you verily disbelieve in Him Who created the earth in two Days…”) until;
(We come willingly.) Here He mentioned the creation of the earth before the creation of the heavens. And He says:
(verily, Allah (Kana) is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful) (4:23).
(Most Powerful, All-Wise) (4:56).
(All-Hearer, All-Seer) (4:58). It is as if He was and is no longer.’ Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, replied:
(There will be no kinship among them that Day, nor will they ask of one another) (23:101), this will happen when the Trumpet is blown for the first time.
(And all who are in the heavens and all who are on the earth will swoon away, except him whom Allah wills) (39:68), and at that time there will be no kinship among them, nor will they ask of one another. Then when the Sur will be blown again,
(And they will turn to one another and question one another) (37:27). With regard to the Ayat,
(By Allah, our Lord, we were not those who joined others in worship with Allah) (6:23) and
(but they will never be able to hide a single fact from Allah) (4:42), Allah will forgive the sincere believers their sins, then the idolators will say, `Let us say that we never joined others in worship with Allah.’ Then a seal will be placed over their mouths, and their hands will speak. Then it will be known that not a single fact can be hidden from Allah, and at that point,
(those who disbelieved will wish) (4:42). Allah created the earth in two days, then He created the heavens, then He (Istawa ila) the heaven and gave it its shape in two more days. Then He spread the earth, which means that He brought forth therefrom its water and its pasture. And He created the mountains, sands, inanimate things, rocks and hills and everything in between, in two more days. This is what Allah says:
((He) spread (the earth)) (79:30) And Allah’s saying:
((He) created the earth in two Days) So He created the earth and everything in it in four days, and He created the heavens in two days.
(verily, Allah (Kana) is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful) (4:23). This is how He described Himself, and this is how He still is. Whatever Allah wills comes to pass, so do not be confused about the Qur’an, for all of it comes from Allah.”’ This was recorded by Al-Bukhari.
((He) created the earth in two Days) means, on Sunday and Monday.
(He placed therein firm mountains from above it, and He blessed it,) means, He blessed it and gave it the potential to be planted with seeds and bring forth produce.
(And measured therein its sustenance) means, what its people need of provision and places in which to plant things and grow crops. This was on Tuesday and Wednesday, which together with the two previous days add up to four days.
(in four Days equal for all those who ask.) meaning, for those who want to ask about that, so that they might know. `Ikrimah and Mujahid said concerning the Ayah:
(and measured therein its sustenance): “He placed in every land that which is not suited for any other land.” Ibn `Abbas, Qatadah and As-Suddi said, concerning the Ayah,
(equal for all those who ask): this means, “For whoever wants to ask about that.” Ibn Zayd said:
(and measured therein its sustenance in four Days equal for all those who ask. ) “According to whatever a person who is need of provision wants, Allah measures out for him what he needs.” This is like what they said concerning the Ayah:
(And He gave you of all that you asked for) (14:34). And Allah knows best.
(Then He rose over (Istawa ila) towards the heaven when it was smoke,) i.e., steam which arose from it when the earth was created.
(and said to it and to the earth: “Come both of you willingly or unwillingly.”) meaning, `respond to My command and be subjected to this action, willingly or unwillingly.’
(They both said: “We come willingly.”) meaning, `we will respond to You willingly and everything that You want to create in us — angels, Jinn and men — will all be obedient to You.’
(Then He completed and finished their creation (as) seven heavens in two Days) means, He finished forming them as seven heavens in two more days, which were Thursday and Friday.
(and He decreed in each heaven its affair. ) means, He placed in each heaven whatever it needs of angels and things which are known only unto Him.
(And We adorned the nearest (lowest) heaven with lamps) means, the stars and planets which shine on the people of the earth.
(as well as to guard.) means, as protection against the Shayatin, lest they listen to the angels on high.
(Such is the Decree of Him, the Almighty, the All-Knower) means, the Almighty Who has subjugated all things to His control, the All-Knower Who knows all the movements of His creatures.
Allah says: `Say, O Muhammad, to these idolators who disbelieve in the message of truth that you have brought: If you turn away from that which I have brought to you from Allah, then I warn you of the punishment of Allah like the punishment that the past nations suffered for disbelieving in the Messengers.’
(a Sa`iqah like the Sa`iqah which overtook `Ad and Thamud.) and other similar nations who did what they did,
(When the Messengers came to them, from before them and behind them) This is like the Ayah:
(And remember (Hud) the brother of `Ad, when he warned his people in Al-Ahqaf. And surely, there have passed away warners before him and after him) (46:21). which means that in the neighboring towns and cities, Allah sent Messengers who commanded the people to worship Allah Alone with no partner or associate, and they brought good news as well as warnings. They saw the punishment Allah sent upon His enemies, and the blessings which He bestowed upon His friends, yet despite all of this, they did not believe in them. On the contrary, they denied them and rejected them, and said:
(If our Lord had so willed, He would surely have sent down the angels.) meaning, if Allah were to send Messengers, they would be angels sent from His presence.
(So, indeed we disbelieve in that with which you have been sent.) means, `because you are a mere human; we will not follow you because you are just men like us.’
(As for `Ad, they were arrogant in the land without right.) means, they were arrogant, stubborn and disobedient.
(and they said: “Who is mightier than us in strength”) They boasted of their physical strength, and power; they thought that this would protect them from Allah’s punishment.
(See they not that Allah Who created them was mightier in strength than them.) means, do they not realize, when they are showing enmity, that He is the Almighty Who created all things and gave them whatever strength they have, and that His onslaught will be far greater This is like the Ayah:
(With Hands did We construct the heaven. Verily, We are able to extend the vastness of space thereof.) (51:47) They openly opposed the Almighty and denied His signs and disobeyed His Messenger. Allah said:
(So We sent upon them a Sarsar wind). Some said that this was a strongly blowing wind; others said that it was a cold wind. It was also said that it is the wind that makes a noise. The truth that it was all of these things, for it was a strong wind that was an apt punishment for their being deceived by their physical strength. It was also intensely cold, as Allah says:
(with a Sarsar wind!) (69:6), meaning a very cold wind. It also made a furious sound. Additionally, there is a famous river in the east which is called Sarsar because of the noise it makes as it flows.
(in days of calamity) means, consecutive days.
(seven nights and eight days in succession) (69: 7). This is like the Ayah:
(on a day of calamity, continuous) (54:19) i.e., the punishment began on a day which was of evil omen for them, and this evil omen continued for them,
(seven nights and eight days in succession) (69:7) until they were destroyed, every last one of them, and their humiliation in this world was joined to their punishment in the Hereafter. Allah says:
(that We might give them a taste of disgracing torment in this present worldly life. But surely the torment of the Hereafter will be more disgracing.) meaning, more humiliating for them.
(and they will never be helped.) means, in the Hereafter, just as they were never helped in this world, and they had no one who could protect them from Allah or save them from His punishment.
(And as for Thamud, We showed them the path of truth) Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Abu Al-Aliyah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd said, “We explained to them. ” Ath-Thawri said, “We called them.” Allah’s saying;
(but they preferred blindness to guidance;) means, `We showed them the truth and made it clear to them through the words of their Prophet Salih, but they opposed him and rejected him, and they slaughtered the she-camel of Allah which He had made a sign for them of the truth of their Prophet.’
(so the Sa`iqah of disgracing torment seized them) means, Allah sent upon them the Sayhah, earthquake, intense humiliation, punishment and torment.
(because of what they used to earn) means, because of their disbelief and rejection.
(And We saved those who believed) means, `We saved them from among them, and no harm came to them;’ Allah saved them along with His Prophet Salih, peace be upon him, because of their fear of Allah.
(And (remember) the Day that the enemies of Allah will be gathered to the Fire, then they will be driven.) means, remind these idolators of the Day when they will be gathered to the Fire and they will be driven, i.e., the keepers of Hell will gather the first of them with the last of them, as Allah says elsewhere:
(And We shall drive the criminals to Hell, in a thirsty state) (19:86). n
(Till, when they reach it,) means, when they stand at its edge,
(their hearing (ears) and their eyes and their skins will testify against them as to what they used to do.) means, all their deeds, earlier and later; not a single letter will be concealed.
(And they will say to their skins, “Why do you testify against us”) they will blame their limbs and their skins when they testify against them, at which point their limbs will answer:
(They will say: “Allah has caused us to speak — as He causes all things to speak, and He created you the first time,) means, and He cannot be opposed or resisted, and to Him you will return. Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Bazzar narrated that Anas bin Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah laughed and smiled one day, and said:
(Will you not ask about why I laughed)” They said, “O Messenger of Allah, why did you laugh” He said:
(I was amazed at how a servant will dispute with his Lord on the Day of Resurrection. He will say, “My Lord, did You not promise me that you would not treat me unjustly” Allah will say, “Yes.” The man will say, “I will not accept any witness against me except from myself.” Allah will say, “Is it not sufficient that I and the angels, the noble scribes, are witnesses” These words will be repeated several times, then a seal will be placed over his mouth and his organs (or limbs) will speak about what he used to do. Then he will say, “Away with you! It was only for your sake that I was arguing!”)” It was recorded by him and Ibn Abi Hatim. It was also recorded by Muslim and An-Nasa’i. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Abu Burdah said that Abu Musa said, “The disbeliever or the hypocrite will be called to account and his Lord will show him his deeds, but he will deny them and say, `O Lord, by Your glory, this angel has written about me something that I did not do.’ The angel will say to him, `Did you not do such and such on such and such a day in such and such a place’ He will say, `No, by Your glory O Lord, I did not do it.’ When he does that, a seal will be placed over his mouth.” Al-Ash`ari, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “I think that the first part of his body to speak will be his right thigh.” Allah’s saying:
(And you have not been hiding yourselves (in the world), lest your ears and your eyes and your skins should testify against you;) means, their organs and skins will say to them, when they blame them for testifying against them, `you did not hide from us what you used to do, on the contrary, you openly committed disbelief and sin, and you claimed that you did not care, because you did not believe that Allah knew about all your deeds.’ Allah says:
(but you thought that Allah knew not much of what you were doing. And that thought of yours which you thought about your Lord, has brought you to destruction;) meaning, `this evil thought, i.e., your belief that Allah did not know much of what you were doing, is what has caused you to be doomed and has made your losers before your Lord.’
(and you have become of those utterly lost!) means, `in the place of Resurrection, you have lost your own selves and your families.’ Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “I was hiding beneath the covering of the Ka`bah, and three men came along — a man from the Quraysh and two of his brothers-in-law from Thaqif, or a man from Thaqif and two of his brothers-in-law from the Quraysh. Their bellies were very fat, and did not have much understanding. They said some words I could not hear, then one of them said, `Do you think that Allah can hear what we are saying now’ The other said, `If we raise our voices, He will hear it, but if we do not raise our voices, He will not hear it.’ The other said, `If He can hear one thing from us, He can hear everything.’ I mentioned this to the Prophet , then Allah revealed the words:
(And you have not been hiding yourselves (in the world), lest your ears and your eyes and your skins should testify against you) until;
(of those utterly lost!) This is how it was recorded by At-Tirmidhi. A similar report was also narrated by Ahmad (through a different chain), Muslim and At-Tirmidhi, and Al-Bukhari and Muslim also recorded (a different chain).
(Then, if they bear the torment patiently, then the Fire is the home for them, and if they seek to please Allah, yet they are not of those who will ever be allowed to please Allah.) means, whether they bear it patiently or not, they are in the Fire and they will have no escape or way out from it, and even if they try to please Allah and offer excuses, nothing of that will be accepted from them. Ibn Jarir said, “The meaning of the Ayah,
(and if they seek to please Allah,) is: They will ask to go back to this world, but this plea will not be answered. This is like the Ayah:
(They will say: “Our Lord! Our wretchedness overcame us, and we were (an) erring people. Our Lord! Bring us out of this. If ever we return (to evil), then indeed we shall be wrongdoers.” He will say: “Remain you in it with ignominy! And speak you not to Me!”)” (23:106-108).
(who have made fair seeming to them, what was before them and what was behind them.) means, they made their deeds attractive to them in the past. As far as the future is concerned, they only see themselves as doing good, as Allah says:
(And whosoever turns away blindly from the remembrance of the Most Gracious, We appoint for him a Shaytan to be a companion for him. And verily, they hinder them from the path, but they think that they are guided aright!) (43:36-37)
(And the Word is justified against them) means, the Word of torment, just as it was justified against the nations of the past who did what they did, men and Jinn alike.
(Indeed they (all) were the losers.) means, they are all equal in terms of loss and being doomed.
(And those who disbelieve say: “Listen not to this Qur’an…”) means, they advised one another not to pay heed to the Qur’an or obey its commands.
(and make noise in the midst of its) means, when it is recited, do not listen to it. This was the view of Mujahid. “And make noise in the midst of its (recitation)” means whistling and trying to make the Messenger of Allah confused when he recited Qur’an, which is what the Quraysh did.
(that you may overcome.) means, this is the practice of these ignorant disbelievers and those who follow in their footsteps, when they hear the Qur’an. Allah commanded us to be different from that, and said:
(So, when the Qur’an is recited, listen to it, and be silent that you may receive mercy.) (7:204). Then Allah says:
(But surely, We shall cause those who disbelieve to taste a severe torment, ) meaning, in return for what they do when they hear the Qur’an.
(and certainly, We shall requite them the worst of what they used to do.) means, for their evil deeds.
(That is the recompense of the enemies of Allah: the Fire. Therein will be for them the eternal home, a recompense for that they used to deny Our Ayat. And those who disbelieve will say: “Our Lord! Show us those among Jinn and men who led us astray, that we may crush them under our feet so that they become the lowest.”) It was reported that `Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, said, concerning the phrase,
(those who led us astray): “Iblis and the son of Adam who killed his brother.” As-Suddi reported that `Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, said; “Iblis is followed by everyone who commits Shirk and the son of Adam is followed by everyone who commits a major sin. So Iblis is the one who calls people to every evil thing, such as Shirk and lesser sins.” As for the first son of Adam, it is as confirmed in the Hadith:
(No soul is wrongfully killed, but a share of the burden ﴿of that sin﴾ will be upon the first son of Adam, because he was the first one who set the precedent of killing another.)
(that we may crush them under our feet) means, `make them beneath us in the torment, so that they will be punished more severely than us.’
(so that they become the lowest.) means, in the lowest level of Hell, as already mentioned in Al-A`raf, where the followers ask Allah to multiply the torment for their leaders:
((Allah) said: “For each one there is double (torment), but you know not.”) (7:38) i.e., Allah will give each of them the torment and punishment they deserve for their deeds. This is like the Ayah:
(Those who disbelieved and hinder (men) from the path of Allah, for them We will add torment to the torment because they used to spread corruption.) (16:88).
(Verily, those who say: “Our Lord is Allah,” and then they stand firm,) means, they do good deeds sincerely for the sake of Allah, and they obey Allah, doing what Allah has prescribed for them. Ibn Jarir recorded that Sa`id bin `Imran said, “I read this Ayah to Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him:
(Verily, those who say: “Our Lord is Allah,” and then they stand firm,) He said, `Those are the ones who do not associate anything with Allah.”’ Then he reported a narration of Al-Aswad bin Hilal, who said, “Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him, said, `What do you say about this Ayah:
(Verily, those who say: “Our Lord is Allah,” and then they stand firm,)’ They said:
(“Our Lord is Allah,” and then they stand firm,) `They shun sin.’ He said, `You have not interpreted it improperly.’ They say: `Our Lord is Allah, then they stand firm and do not turn to any other god besides Him. ”’ This was also the view of Mujahid, `Ikrimah, As-Suddi and others. Ahmad recorded that Sufyan bin `Abdullah Ath-Thaqafi said, “I said, `O Messenger of Allah, tell me something that I can adhere to.’ He said:
(Say, my Lord is Allah, then stand firm.) I said, `O Messenger of Allah, what do you fear most for me’ The Messenger of Allah took hold of the edge of his tongue and said,
(This is.)” This was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah; At-Tirmidhi said, “Hasan Sahih.” Muslim also recorded it in his Sahih, and An-Nasa’i recorded that Sufyan bin `Abdullah Ath-Thaqafi said, “I said, `O Messenger of Allah, tell me something about Islam that I will not have to ask anyone about it after you.’ He said:
(Say: I believe in Allah, then stand firm.)” — then he mentioned the rest of the Hadith.
(on them the angels will descend). Mujahid, As-Suddi, Zayd bin Aslam and his ﴿Zayd’s﴾ son said, “This means, at the time of death, and they will say,
(Fear not). ” Mujahid, `Ikrimah and Zayd bin Aslam said, “This means not to fear “that which you will face in the Hereafter.”
(nor grieve!) `for what you have left behind of worldly things, children, family, wealth and debt, for we will take care of it for you.’
(But receive the glad tidings of Paradise which you have been promised!) So they give glad tidings of the end of bad things and the arrival of good things. This is like what is said in the Hadith narrated by Al-Bara’, may Allah be pleased with him:
(The angels say to the soul of the believer, “Come out, O good soul from the good body in which you used to dwell, come out to rest, and provision and a Lord Who is not angry.”) It was said that the angels will come down to them on the Day when they are brought out of their graves. Zayd bin Aslam said, “They will give him glad tidings when he dies, in his grave, and when he is resurrected.” This was recorded by Ibn Abi Hatim, and this view reconciles all the opinions; it is a good view and it is true.
(We have been your friends in the life of this world and are (so) in the Hereafter. ) means, the angels will say to the believers when death approaches: “We have been your friends, i.e., your close companions, in this world, protecting you and helping you by the command of Allah, and we will be with you in the Hereafter, keeping you from feeling lonely in your graves and when the Trumpet is blown; we will reassure you on the Day of Resurrection and will take you across the Sirat and bring you to the Gardens of delight.”
(Therein you shall have (all) that your souls desire,) means, `in Paradise you will have all that you wish for and that will delight you.’
(and therein you shall have (all) for which you ask.) means, `whatever you ask for, it will appear before you as you wish it to be.’
(An entertainment from the Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.) means, `a welcoming gift and a blessing from the One Who has forgiven your sins and Who is Merciful and Kind towards you, Who has forgiven you, concealed your faults and been Kind and Merciful.’
(And who is better in speech than he who invites to Allah,) means, he calls the servants of Allah to Him.
(and does righteous deeds, and says: “I am one of the Muslims.”) means, he himself follows that which he says, so it benefits him as well as others. He is not one of those who enjoin good but do not do it themselves, or who forbid evil yet they do it themselves. He does good and avoids doing evil, and he calls people to their Creator, may He be blessed and exalted. This is general in meaning and applies to everyone who calls people to what is good and is himself guided by what he says. The Messenger of Allah is the foremost among people in this regard, as Muhammad bin Sirin, As-Suddi and `Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said. It was also said that what was meant here is the righteous Mu’adhdhin, as it was mentioned in Sahih Muslim:
(The Mu’adhdhins will be the ones with the longest necks on the Day of Resurrection.)” In As-Sunan it is reported that the Prophet said:
(The Imam is a guarantor and the Mu’adhdhin is in a position of trust. May Allah guide the Imams and forgive the Mu’adhdhin.)” The correct view is that the Ayah is general in meaning, and includes the Mu’adhdhin and others. When this Ayah was revealed, the Adhan had not been prescribed at all. The Ayah was revealed in Makkah, and the Adhan was prescribed in Al-Madinah after the Hijrah, when it was shown to `Abdullah bin `Abd Rabbihi Al-Ansari in a dream. He told the Messenger of Allah about it, and he told him to teach it to Bilal, may Allah be pleased with him, who had a more beautiful voice, as we have discussed elsewhere. So the correct view is that the Ayah is general in meaning, as `Abdur-Razzaq said, narrating from Ma`mar, from Al-Hasan Al-Basri, who recited this Ayah:
(And who is better in speech than he who invites to Allah, and does righteous deeds, and says: “I am one of the Muslims.”) and said, “This is the beloved of Allah, this is the close friend of Allah, this is the chosen one of Allah, this is the most beloved of the all the people of earth to Allah. He responded to the call of Allah and called mankind to that to which he had responded. He did righteous deeds in response and said, `I am one of the Muslims.’ This is Allah’s Khalifah.”
(The good deed and the evil deed cannot be equal.) means, there is a huge difference between them.
(Repel (the evil) with one which is better,) means, `when someone does you wrong, repel him by treating him well,’ as `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “There is no better punishment for one who has disobeyed Allah with regard to you, than your obeying Allah with regard to him.”
(then verily he, between whom and you there was enmity, (will become) as though he was a close friend.) means, `if you treat well those who treat you badly, this good deed will lead to reconciliation, love and empathy, and it will be as if he is a close friend to you and he will feel pity for you and be kind to you.’ Then Allah says:
(But none is granted it except those who are patient) meaning, no one accepts this advice and works according to it, except for those who can be patient in doing so, for it is difficult for people to do.
(and none is granted it except the owner of the great portion) means, the one who has a great portion of happiness in this world and in the Hereafter. `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas explained this Ayah: “Allah commands the believers to be patient when they feel angry, to be forbearing when confronted with ignorance, and to forgive when they are mistreated. If they do this, Allah will save them from the Shaytan and subdue their enemies to them until they become like close friends.”
(And if an evil whisper from Shaytan tries to turn you away, then seek refuge in Allah.) means, the devils among men may be deceived by your kind treatment of him, but the devils among the Jinn, when they insinuate their evil whispers, cannot be dealt with except by seeking refuge with the Creator Who gave him power over you. If you seek refuge with Allah and turn to Him, He will stop him from harming you and bring his efforts to naught. When the Messenger of Allah stood up to pray, he would say:
(I seek refuge in Allah the All-Hearing, All-Knowing, from the accursed Shaytan and his evil insinuations, breath and impurity.)” We have already stated that there is nothing like this in the Qur’an, apart from the passage in Surat Al-A`raf, where Allah says:
(Show forgiveness, enjoin what is good, and turn away from the foolish. And if an evil whisper comes to you from Shaytan, then seek refuge with Allah. Verily, He is All-Hearer, All-Knower.) (7:199-200) and the passage in Surat Al-Mu’minun where Allah says:
(Repel evil with that which is better. We are Best-Acquainted with the things they utter. And say: “My Lord! I seek refuge with You from the whisperings of the Shayatin. And I seek refuge with You, My Lord! lest they should come near me.”) (23:96-98)
Here Allah reminds His Creation of His power, and that He is the One Who has no equal, and He is Able to do all things. Allah’s saying;
(And from among His signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon.) means, He created the night with its darkness and the day with its light, and they alternate without ceasing. And He created the sun with its shining light, and the moon with its reflected light. and He allotted their stages and gave them separate orbits in the heavens, so that by the variations in their movements man may know the stages of night and day, of weeks, months and years, and time periods related to people’s rights, acts of worship and various transactions. Moreover, because the sun and moon are the most beautiful of the heavenly bodies that can be seen in both the upper and lower realms, Allah points out that they are created entities which are in a state of enthrallment to Him, subject to His dominion and control. So He says:
(Do not prostrate yourselves to the sun nor to the moon, but prostrate yourselves to Allah Who created them, if you (really) worship Him.) meaning, `do not associate anything in worship with Him, for your worship of Him will be of no benefit to you if you worship others alongside Him, because He does not forgive the association of others in worship with Him.’ He says:
(But if they are too proud, ) i.e., to worship Him Alone, and they insist on associating others with Him,
(then there are those who are with your Lord) i.e., the angels,
(glorify Him night and day, and never are they tired.) This is like the Ayah:
(But if these disbelieve therein, then, indeed We have entrusted it to a people who are not disbelievers therein.) (6:89).
(And among His signs) means, signs of His ability to bring the dead back to life.
(that you see the earth barren,) means, lifeless, with nothing growing in it; it is dead.
(but when We send down water (rain) to it, it is stirred to life and growth.) means, it brings forth all kinds of crops and fruits.
(Verily, He Who gives it life, surely is able to give life to the dead. Indeed He is Able to do all things.)
(Verily, Yulhiduna Fi Our Ayat) Ibn `Abbas said, “Al-Ilhad means putting words in their improper places.” Qatadah and others said, “It means disbelief and obstinate behavior.”
(are not hidden from Us.) This is a stern warning and dire threat, stating that He, may He be exalted, knows who denies His signs, Names and attributes, and He will punish them for that. He says:
(Is he who is cast into the Fire better or he who comes secure on the Day of Resurrection) means, are these two equal They are not equal. Then Allah warns the disbelievers:
(Do what you will.) Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak and `Ata’ Al-Khurasani said that
(Do what you will. ) is a threat. Meaning, `do what you will of good or evil, for He knows and sees all that you do.’ He says:
(Verily, He is All-Seer of what you do.)
(Verily, those who disbelieved in the Reminder when it came to them.) Ad-Dahhak, As-Suddi and Qatadah said, “This is the Qur’an.”
(And verily, it is an honorable well-fortified respected Book.) means, it is protected and preserved, and nobody can produce anything like it.
(Falsehood cannot come to it from before it or behind it,) means, there is no way to corrupt it, because it has been sent down by the Lord of the worlds. Allah says:
((it is) sent down by the All-Wise, Worthy of all praise.) meaning, He is Wise in all that He says and does, Praiseworthy in all that He commands and forbids; everything that He does is for praiseworthy purposes and its consequences will be good.
(Nothing is said to you except what was said to the Messengers before you.) Qatadah, As-Suddi and others said, “Nothing is said to you by way of rejection and disbelief, that was not said to the Messengers who came before you. Just as you have been rejected, they were also rejected. Just as they bore their people’s insults with patience, so too you must bear your people’s insults with patience.”
(Verily, your Lord is the Possessor of forgiveness,) means, for those who turn to Him in repentance.
(and (also) the Possessor of painful punishment.) means, for those who persist in disbelief, transgression and stubborn opposition.
Allah tells us that the Qur’an is so eloquent and perfect in its wording and meanings, yet despite that the idolators do not believe in it. He tells us that their disbelief is the disbelief of stubbornness, as He says elsewhere:
(And if We had revealed it unto any of the non-Arabs, and he had recited it unto them, they would not have believed in it.) (26:198-199). If the Qur’an had been revealed in the language of the non-Arabs, they would have said, because of their stubbornness:
(Why are not its verses explained in detail What! not in Arabic and an Arab) meaning, why is it not revealed in detail in Arabic And by way of denunciation they would have said, “What! not in Arabic nor from an Arab — i.e., how can foreign words be revealed to an Arab who does not understand them This interpretation was reported from Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, As-Suddi and others.
(Say: “It is for those who believe, a guide and a cure…”) means, `say, O Muhammad: this Qur’an, for the one who believes in it, is guidance for his heart and a cure for the doubts and confusion that exists in people’s hearts.’
(And as for those who disbelieve, there is heaviness in their ears,) means, they do not understand what is in it.
(and it is blindness for them.) means they are not guided to the explanations contained therein. This is like the Ayah:
(And We send down of the Qur’an that which is a healing and a mercy to those who believe, and it increases the wrongdoers nothing but loss.) (17:82).
(They are called from a place far away.) Mujahid said, “Far away from their hearts.” Ibn Jarir said, “It is as if the one who is addressing them is calling to them from a distant place, and they cannot understand what he is saying.” This is like the Ayah:
(And the example of those who disbelieve is as that of him who shouts to those (flock of sheep) that hears nothing but calls and cries. (They are) deaf, dumb and blind. So they do not understand.) (2:171)
(And indeed We gave Musa the Scripture, but dispute arose therein.) means, they disbelieved in him and did not show him any respect.
(Therefore be patient as did the Messengers of strong will) (46:35).
(And had it not been for a Word that went forth before from your Lord,) i.e., to delay the Reckoning until the Day of Resurrection,
(the matter would have been settled between them.) means, the punishment would have been hastened for them. But they have an appointed time, beyond which they will find no escape.
(But truly, they are in grave doubt thereto.) means, their words of disbelief are not due to any wisdom or insight on their part; rather they spoke without any attempt at examining it thoroughly. This was also the interpretation of Ibn Jarir, and it is a plausible interpretation. And Allah knows best.
(Whosoever does righteous good deed, it is for himself;) means, the benefit of which will come to him.
(and whosoever does evil, it is against himself.) means, the consequences of that will come back on him.
(And your Lord is not at all unjust to (His) servants) means, He only punishes people for their sins, and He does not punish anyone except after establishing proof against him and sending a Messenger to him.
Then Allah says:
(To Him is referred the knowledge of the Hour.) meaning, no one knows about that apart from Him. Muhammad , the leader of mankind, said to Jibril, who is one of the leading angels, when he asked him about the Hour:
(The one who is asked about it does not know more than the one who is asking.)” And Allah says:
(To your Lord belongs the term thereof.) (79:44)
(None can reveal its time but He) (7:187).
(No fruit comes out of its sheath, nor does a female conceive nor brings forth (young), except by His knowledge.) means, all of that is known to Him, and nothing is hidden from your Lord the weight of a speck of dust on the earth or in the heaven. Allah says:
(not a leaf falls, but He knows it) (6:59).
(Allah knows what every female bears, and by how much the wombs fall short or exceed. Everything with Him is in (due) proportion) (13:8).
(And no aged man is granted a length of life nor is a part cut off from his life, but is in a Book. Surely, that is easy for Allah.) (35:11)
(And on the Day when He will call unto them (saying): “Where are My (so-called) partners”) means, on the Day of Resurrection, Allah will call out to the idolators before all of creation and say, “Where are My partners whom you worshipped besides Me”
(They will say: “We inform You…”) means, `we tell You,’
(that none of us bears witness to it.) means, `not one of us will bear witness today that You have any partner.’
(And those whom they used to invoke before (in this world) shall disappear from them, ) means, they will go away, and will be of no benefit to them.
(and they will perceive that they have no place of refuge) means, they will have no way of escaping from the punishment of Allah. This is like the Ayah:
(And the criminals shall see the Fire and apprehend that they have to fall therein. And they will find no way of escape from there.) (18:53)
Allah tells us that man never gets bored of asking his Lord for good things, such as wealth, physical health, etc., but if evil touches him — i.e., trials and difficulties or poverty —
(then he gives up all hope and is lost in despair.), i.e., he thinks that he will never experience anything good again.
(And truly, if We give him a taste of mercy from Us, after some adversity has touched him, he is sure to say: “This is due to my (merit)…”) means, if something good happens to him or some provision comes to him after a period of difficulty, he says, `this is because of me, because I deserve this from my Lord.’
(I think not that the Hour will be established.) means, he does not believe that the Hour will come. So when he is given some blessing, he becomes careless, arrogant and ungrateful, as Allah says:
(Nay! Verily, man does transgress. Because he considers himself self-sufficient.) (96:6)
(But if I am brought back to my Lord, surely there will be for me the best with Him.) means, `if there is a Hereafter after all, then my Lord will be generous and kind to me just as He was in this world.’ So he expects Allah to do him favors in spite of his bad deeds and lack of certain faith. Allah says:
(Then, We verily will show to the disbelievers what they have done, and We shall make them taste a severe torment.) Thus Allah threatens punishment and vengeance to those whose conduct and belief is like that.
(And when We show favor to man, he turns away and becomes arrogant;) means, he turns away from doing acts of obedience and is too proud to obey the commands of Allah. This is like the Ayah:
(But ﴿Fir`awn﴾ turned away along with his hosts) (51:39).
(but when evil touches him,) means, difficulties,
(then he has recourse to long supplications.) means, he asks at length for one thing. Long supplications are those which are long on words and short on meaning. The opposite is concise speech which is brief but full of meaning. And Allah says:
(And when harm touches man, he invokes Us, lying on his side, or sitting or standing. But when We have removed his harm from him, he passes on as if he had never invoked Us for a harm that touched him!) (10:12)
(Say) — `O Muhammad, to these idolators who disbelieve in the Qur’an’–
(Tell me, if it) — this Qur’an —
(is from Allah, and you disbelieve in it) means, `what do you think your position is before the One Who revealed it to His Messenger’ Allah says:
(Who is more astray than one who is in opposition far away.) means, he is in a state of disbelief, stubbornness and opposition to the truth, and is following a path that leads far away from guidance. Then Allah says:
(We will show them Our signs in the universe, and within themselves,) meaning, `We will show them Our evidence and proof that the Qur’an is true and has indeed been sent down from Allah to the Messenger of Allah, through external signs,
(in the universe), ‘ such as conquests and the advent of Islam over various regions and over all other religions. Mujahid, Al-Hasan and As-Suddi said, “And signs within themselves means, the battle of Badr, the conquest of Makkah, and other events which befell them, where Allah granted victory to Muhammad and his Companions, and inflicted a humiliating defeat on falsehood and its followers.” It may also be that what is meant here is man and his physical composition. As detailed in the science of anatomy, which indicates the wisdom of the Creator — may He be blessed and exalted — and the different inclinations and opposite natures that people have, good and bad, etc., and the (divine) decrees to which man is subjected, having no power to change and over which he has no control.
(until it becomes manifest to them that this (the Qur’an) is the truth. Is it not sufficient in regard to your Lord that He is a Witness over all things) means, sufficient is Allah as a Witness over the words and deeds of His servants, and He bears witness that Muhammad is telling the truth in what he says, as Allah says:
(But Allah bears witness to that which He has sent down unto you; He has sent it down with His knowledge) (4:166).
(Lo, Verily, they are in doubt concerning the meeting with their Lord.) means, they doubt that the Hour will come, they do not think about it or strive for it or pay heed to it; on the contrary, they regard it as irrelevant and do not care about it. But it will undoubtedly come to pass. Then Allah states that He is Able to do all things and He encompasses all things, and it is very easy for Him to bring about the Hour:
(Verily, He is surrounding all things!) means, all of creation is subject to His control, dominion and knowledge; He is controlling all things by His power, so whatever He wills happens, and whatever He does not will does not happen, and there is no god worthy of worship apart from Him.
This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Fussilat. To Allah be praise and blessings.
Tafseer by Abul A’la Maududi
41. Surah Ha Mim As Sajdah, also known as Surah Fussilat (Explained in Detail)
The name of this Surah is composed of two words, Ha-Mim and As-Sajdah, which implies that it is a Surah which begins with Ha-Mim and in which a verse requiring the performance of sajdah (prostration) has occurred.
Period of Revelation
According to authentic Traditions, it was sent down after the affirmation of the Faith by Hadrat Hamzah and before the affirmation of the Faith by Hadrat Umar. Muhammad bin Ishaq, the earliest biographer of the Holy Prophet, has related on the authority of Muhammad bin Ka’b al-Qurzi, the famous follower of the Companions, that one day some of the Quraish chiefs were sitting in their assembly in the Masjid al-Haram, while in another corner of the Mosque there was the Holy Prophet sitting by himself. This was the time when Hadrat Hamzah had already embraced Islam and the people of the Quraish were feeling upset at the growing numbers of the Muslims. On this occasion, Utbah bin Rabi’ah (the father-in-law of Abu Sufyan) said to the Quraish chiefs: “Gentlemen, if you like I would go and speak to Muhammad (upon whom be Allah’s peace and blessings) and put before him some proposals; maybe that he accepts one of them, to which we may also agree, and so he stops opposing us.” They all agreed to this, and Utbah went and sat by the Holy Prophet. When the Holy Prophet turned to him, he said: “Nephew, you know the high status that you enjoy in the community by virtue of your ancestry and family relations, but you have put your people to great trouble: you have created divisions among them and you consider them to be fools: you talk ill of their religion and gods, and say things as though all our forefathers were pagans. Now listen to me and I shall make some suggestions. Consider them well: maybe that you accept one of them.” The Holy Prophet said: “Abul Walid, say what you want to say and I shall listen to you.” He said, “Nephew, if by what you are doing, you want wealth, we will give you enough of it so that you will be the richest man among us; if you want to became an important man, we will make you our chief and will never decide a matter without you; if you want to be a king, we will accept you as our king; and if you are visited by a jinn, whom you cannot get rid of by your own power, we will arrange the best physicians and have you treated at our own expense.” ‘Utbah went on speaking in this strain and the Holy Prophet went on listening to him quietly. Then he said, “Have you said, O Abul Walid, what you had to say?” He replied that he had. The Holy Prophet said: “Well, now listen to me.”Then pronouncing Bismilah ir Rehman-ir-Raihm he began to recite this very Surah, and Utbah kept on listening to it, putting his hands behind his back and leaning on them as he listened. Coming to the verse of prostration (v. 38) the Holy Prophet prostrated himself; then raising his head, said, “This was my reply, O Abul Walid, now you may act as you please.” then Utbah arose and walked back towards the chiefs, the people saw him from afar, and said: “By God! Utbab’s face is changed. He does not look the same man that he was when he went from here.” Then, when he came back and sat down, the people asked, “What have you heard?” He replied, “By God! I have heard something the like of which I had never heard before. By God, it’s neither poetry, nor sorcery, nor magic. O chiefs of the Quraish, listen to what I say and leave this man to himself. I think what he recites is going to have its effect. If the other Arabs overcome him, you will be saved from raising your band against your brother, and the others will deal with him. But if he overcame Arabia, his sovereignty would be your sovereignty and his honor your honor.” Hearing this the chiefs spoke out:”You too, O father of Walid, have been bewitched by his tongue.” Utbah replied, “I have given you my opinion; now you may act as you please.” (Ibn Hisham, vol. I, pp. 313-314).
This story has been narrated by several other traditionists also on the authority of Hadrat Jabir bin Abdullah in different ways, with a little variation in wording. In some traditions it has also been related that when during the recitation the Holy Prophet had come to verse 13, viz.”If they turn away, say to them: I warn you of a thunderbolt the like of which had visited the Ad and the Thamud,”Utbah had spontaneously placed his hand on the Holy Prophet’s mouth, and said: “For God’s sake, have mercy on your people.” Afterwards he justified his action before the Quraish chiefs, saying: “You know that whatever Muhammad says is always fulfilled; therefore, I feared lest a torment should descend on us.” (For details, see Tafsir Ibn Kathir, vol. IV, pp. 90- 91; Al Bidayah wan-Nihayah, vol. III, p. 62).
Theme and Subject Matter
In the discourse that Allah sent down in response to what Utbah said, no attention whatever was paid to the absurd proposals that he had made to the Holy Prophet. For what he had said was, in fact, an attack on the Holy Prophet’s intention and his intellect. His assumption was that as there was no possibility of his being a Prophet and the Quran being Allah’s Revelation, inevitably the motive of his invitation must either be the desire to obtain wealth and political power, or, God forbid, he had lost his reason. In the first case, he wanted to make a bargain with the Holy Prophet; in the second, he was insulting him when he said that the Quraish chiefs would have been cured of his madness at their own expense. Obviously, when the opponents come down to such absurd things, no gentleman would like to answer them, but would ignore them and say what he himself had to say.
Therefore, ignoring what Utbah said, this Surah makes antagonism its subject of discussion, which the unbelieving Quraish were showing stubbornly and wickedly in order to defeat the message of the Qur’an. They would say to tho Holy Prophet, “You may try however hard you try: we would not listen to you. We have put coverings on our hearts and we have closed our ears. There is a wall between you and us, which would never let us meet together.”
They had given a clear notice to the Holy Prophet to the effect: “You may continue your mission of inviting the people to yourself, but we would go on opposing you as hard as we can to frustrate your mission.”
For this object they had devised the following plan: Whenever the Holy Prophet or a follower of his would try to recite the Qur’an before the people, they would at once raise such a hue and cry that no one could bear anything.
They were desperately trying to misconstrue the verses of the Qur’an and spread every kind of misunderstanding among the people. They misconstrued everything and found fault even with the straightforward things. They would isolate words and sentences from their right context, from here and there, and would add their own words in order to put new meanings on them so as to mislead the people about the Quran and the Messenger who presented it.
They would raise strange objections a specimen of which has been presented in this Surah. They said, “If an Arab presents a discourse in Arabic, what could be the miracle in it? Arabic is his mother tongue. Anyone could compose anything that he pleased in his mother tongue and then make the claim that he had received it from God. It would be a miracle if the person would suddenly arise and make an eloquent speech in a foreign tongue which he did not know. Then only could one say that the discourse was not of his own composition but a revelation from God.”
Here is a resume of what has been said in answer to this deaf and blind opposition:
The Qur’an is most certainly the Word of God, which He has sent down in Arabic. The ignorant people do not find any light of knowledge in the truths that have been presented in it plainly and clearly, but the people of understanding are seeing this light as well as benefiting by it. It is surely Allah’s mercy that He has sent down this Word for the guidance of man. If a person regarded it as an affliction, it would be his own misfortune. Good news is for those who benefit by it and warning for those who turn away from it.
If you have put coverings on your hearts and have made yourselves deaf, it is none of the Prophet’s job to make the one hear who does not want to hear, and the one who does not want to understand understand forcibly. He is a man like you; he can make only those to hear and understand, who are inclined to hear and understand.
Whether you close down your eyes and ears and put coverings on your hearts, the fact, however, is that your God is only One God, and you are not the servant of any one else. Your stubbornness cannot change this reality in any way. If you accept this truth and correct your behavior accordingly you will do good only to yourselves, and if you reject it, you will only be preparing your own doom.
Do you have any understanding as to whom you disbelieve and with whom you associate others in divinity? It is with regard to that God Who has created this limitless universe, Who is the Creator of the earth and heavens, from Whose blessings you are benefiting on the earth, and on Whose provisions you are being fed and sustained. You set up His mean creatures as His associates and then you are made to understand the truth you turn away in stubbornness.
If you still do not believe, then be aware that a sudden torment is about to visit you, the like of which had visited the Ad and the Thamud, and this torment also will not be the final punishment of your crimes, but there is in addition the accountability and the fire of Hell in the Hereafter.
Wretched is the man who gets as company such satans from among men and jinn, who show him nothing but green and pleasant, who make his follies seem fair to him, who neither let him think aright himself nor let him hear right from others. But on the Day of Reckoning when their doom overtakes them, each one of them will say that if he happened to get hold of those who had misled and deceived him in the world, he would trample them under his foot.
This Quran is an unchangeable Book. You can not defeat it by your machinations and falsehoods. Whether falsehood comes from the front or makes a secret and indirect attack from behind, it cannot succeed in refuting it.
Today when this Quran is being Presented in your own language so that you may understand it, you say that it should have been sent down in some foreign tongue. But had We sent it in a foreign tongue for your guidance, you would yourselves have called it a joke, as if to say, “What a strange thing! The Arabs are being given guidance in a non- Arabic language, which nobody understands.” This means that you, in fact, have no desire to obtain guidance. You are only inventing ever new excuses for not affirming the faith.
Have you ever considered that if it became established that the Qur’an was really from Allah, then what fate you would meet by denying it and opposing it so vehemently as you do?
Today you do not believe but soon you will see with your own eyes that the message of this Qur’an had pervaded the whole world and you have yourselves been overwhelmed by it. Then you will come to know that what you were being told was the very truth.
Besides giving these answers to the opponents, attention has been paid to the problems which the believers and the Holy Prophet himself were facing in that environment of active resistance. Not to speak of preaching the message to others, the believers were even finding it difficult to follow the way of the Faith. Any one about whom it became known that he had become a Muslim, life would become an agony. As against the dreadful combination of the enemy and its all pervading power, they were feeling utterly helpless and powerless. In this state, in the first place, they were consoled and encouraged, as if to say: “You are not, in fact, helpless and powerless, for any person who believes in God as his Lord and adheres to this belief and way of life resolutely, God’s angels descend on him and help and support him at every stage, from the life of this world till the Hereafter.” Then they were encouraged with the consolation: “The best man is be who does good, invites others to God and proclaims firmly that he is a Muslim.”
The question that was vexing the Holy Prophet at that time was as to how be should carve out a way of preaching his message when he had to face such heavy odds on every side. The solution he was given to this question was: “Although apparently the obstacles seem to be insurmountable, the weapon of good morals and character can smash and melt them away. Use this weapon patiently, and whenever Satan provokes you and incites you to use some other device, seek refuge in Allah.”
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
1-8 AL-Quran is a giver of good news and and admonition and Woe to those who deny the Hereafter and do not pay Zakah
(41:1) Ha’. Mim. (41:2) This is a revelation from the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate, (41:3) a Book whose verses have been well-expounded; an Arabic Qur’an for those who have knowledge, (41:4) one bearing good news and warning.1 Yet most of them turned away and are not wont to give heed. (41:5) They say: “Our hearts are securely wrapped up against what you call us to,2 and in our ears is a heaviness, and between you and us there is a veil.3 So act; we too are acting.”4 (41:6) Tell them, (O Prophet): “I am only a human being like you.5 It is revealed to me that your God is One God;6 so direct yourselves straight to Him,7 and seek His forgiveness. Woe to those who associate others with Allah in His Divinity,8 (41:7) who do not pay Zakah,9 and who deny the Hereafter. (41:8) As to those who have faith and do good works, surely theirs shall be a never-ending reward.10
1. This is a brief introduction to the Surah. A study of the following discourse can show what relevance the things mentioned in it have with the theme that follows. The first thing said is that this Word is being sent down by God, as if to say: You, O people, may go on saying again and again that this Word is being composed by Muhammad (peace be upon him) but the fact is that its revelation is from God, Lord of the worlds. Furthermore, the addressees have also been warned, so as to say: If you express your displeasure on hearing this discourse, this displeasure is not against Muhammad (peace be upon him) but is against God. If you reject it, you reject Allah’s Word, not a man’s word. And if you turn away from it, you do not turn away from a man but from Allah.
Secondly, that the one sending it down is that God, Who is extremely Merciful (Rehman and Rahim) to His creatures. The mention of the attribute of mercy of the sender of revelation, instead of any other attributes, points to the truth that He has sent down this Word under the requirement of His mercifulness. By this the addressees have been warned, so as to say: If someone spurns this Word, or rejects it, or expresses displeasure at it, he in fact is his own enemy. That is indeed a supreme blessing which God has sent down, out of this infinite mercy, for the guidance and well-being and happiness of man. If God were merciless to mankind, He would have left them to wander about in darkness and would have least cared what pit they fell into. But this is His bounty and beneficence that along with bringing men into existence and providing for them, He has also taken on Himself the responsibility to show them the light of knowledge in order to adorn their lives, and is sending down this Word to a servant of His for the same purpose. Now, who could be more ungrateful and a greater enemy of himself than him who, instead of benefiting from this mercy, made up his mind to fight it?
Thirdly, that the verses of this Book are well-expounded. That is, there is nothing confusing and ambiguous in it so that somebody might excuse himself from accepting it on the ground that he was unable to understand the contents of the Book. It has been plainly told in it what is the truth and what is the falsehood, what are the right beliefs and what are the wrong beliefs, what is good and what is evil, what is high morality and what is vice, in what way lies the good of man and in what he incurs loss for himself. If a person rejects such clear and manifest guidance, or pays no heed to it, he cannot offer any excuse for it. His attitude clearly implies that he wants to remain in the wrong willfully.
Fourthly, that this is an Arabic Quran, which implies this: If this Quran had been sent down in some other language, the Arabs would have presented the excuse that they were ignorant of the language in which God had sent His Book. But this is their own language. They cannot put forward the excuse that they cannot understand it. Here, one should also keep in view (verse 44) in which the same theme has been expressed in a different way. And the suspicion that in that case there is a reasonable excuse for the non-Arabs not to accept the message of the Quran has already been removed in the commentary of (Surah Yusuf, Ayat 2 and E.N. 2) on it. (For further details, please also see Rasail-o- Masail. Vol. I, pp. 19-23).
Fifthly, that this Book is for those who possess knowledge. That is, only the people of understanding can draw any benefit from this Book. For the ignorant it is as useless as a precious diamond for the one who cannot distinguish it from a mere stone.
Sixthly, that this Book gives good news and administers warning. That is, it does not consist of mere fantasy, or a philosophy, or a specimen of good literary composition, which one may accept or reject without entailing any consequence, but it is openly administering a warning to the whole world that the results of accepting and believing in it are marvelous and of rejecting it very dreadful. Thus only a fool could reject it with scant attention. 5
2. That is, it has no way open to reach our hearts.
3. That is, this invitation has divided us. It has cut us off from you. It has become a hindrance for us to join you.
4. It has two meanings:
(1) That we have nothing to do with you.
(2) That if you do not desist from your preaching, you may go on doing your mission, we will also not stop our opposition to you, and we will do whatever we can to defeat and frustrate your mission.
5. That is, it is not in my power to remove the covering that envelops your hearts, open your ears, and tear away the curtain which you have drawn between me and yourselves. I am only a man. I can make only him understand who is inclined to listen, and can only meet him who is ready to meet with me.
6. That is, you may, if you so like, put coverings on your hearts and make your ears deaf, but the fact is that you don’t have many gods: there is only One God, whose servants you are. And this is no philosophy, which I might have thought out myself, and which might have equal probability of being true or false, but this reality has been made known to me through revelation, which cannot admit of any likelihood of error.
7. That is, do not make any other your God: do not serve and worship any other deity: do not invoke and bow to any other for help: and do not obey and follow the customs and laws and codes made and set by others.
8. Seek for His forgiveness: Ask for His forgiveness for the unfaithfulness that you have been showing so far towards Him, for the shirk and disbelief and disobedience that you have been committing till now, and for the sins that you happened to commit due to forgetfulness of God.
9. Here, the meaning of the word zakat has been disputed by the commentators. Ibn Abbas and his illustrious pupils, Ikrimah and Mujahid, say that zakat here implies the purity of the soul and self which accrues from belief in Tauhid and obedience to Allah. According to this explanation, the translation of the verse would be: Woe to the mushriks, who do not adopt purity. The other group which includes commentators like Qatadah, Suddi, Hasan Basri, Dahhak, Muqatil and Ibn as-Saib take this word here also in the meaning of the zakat on property and wealth. According to this explanation, the verse means: Woe to those who do not fulfill the right of Allah by committing shirk and the right of the men by withholding the zakat.
10. The words ajrun ghaira mamnun in the original have two other meanings also:
(1) That it will be a reward which will never decrease and diminish.
(2) That this reward will not be given with reminders of good done, like the gift made by a miserly person, who keeps on reminding the beneficiary of his favor if at all he gives away anything.
9-12 Story of the creation of earth, mountains, seasons, skies and heavens
(41:9) Tell them, (O Prophet): “Do you indeed disbelieve in Him and assign compeers to Him Who created the earth in two days? He is the Lord of all beings of the Universe. (41:10) (After creating the earth) He set up firm mountains on it, blessed it,11 and provided it with sustenance in proportion to the needs of all who seek (sustenance). 12 All this was done in four days.13 (41:11) Then He turned to the heaven while it was all smoke.14 He said to the heaven and the earth: “Come (into being), willingly or unwillingly.” They said: “Here we come (into being) in willing obeisance.”15 (41:12) Then He made them seven heavens in two days and revealed to each heaven its law. And We adorned the lower heaven with lamps, and firmly secured it.16 All this is the firm plan of the All-Mighty, the All-Knowing.
11. Blessings of the earth imply those measureless and countless things which have been continuously coming out of it since millions and millions of years, and are fulfilling the ever increasing needs and requirements of all the creatures from the microscopic germs to the highly civilized man. Among these the principal blessings are the air and the water by which alone vegetable, animal and then human life became possible on the earth.
12. This sentence has been interpreted by the commentators in different ways:
Some of them interpret it to mean: The provisions of the earth were placed in it precisely according to the needs and requirements of those who ask, in exactly four days. That is, it took exactly four days, neither more nor less.
Ibn Abbas, Qatadah and Suddi interpret it to mean: The provisions of the earth were placed in it in four days. The answer to those who ask is completed. That is, whoever asks as to how long it took, his complete answer is that it took four days.
According to Ibn Zaid it means: The provisions of the earth were placed in it for those who ask within four days, precisely in accordance with the demand and need of everyone.
As far as the rules of the language are concerned, the words of the verse admit of all these three meanings, but in our opinion the first two meanings have no merit. In view of the context, it is immaterial whether the work was completed in exactly four days and not in more or less four days. There is no need whatever for such an addition to make up for any deficiency in supporting the description of Allah’s perfect power, perfect providence and perfect wisdom. Likewise, the commentary: The answer to those who ask is completed, is a very weak commentary. There is no indication in the theme preceding the verse and following it, to show that at that time somebody had asked the question as to how long it had taken for those works to be completed, and this verse was sent down as an answer to it. That is why we prefer to adopt the third meaning. In our opinion the correct meaning of the verse is this: Allah placed within the earth the full provisions of food precisely and exactly in accordance with the demands and needs of every kind of creature that Allah would create in the earth from the beginning of the creation till Resurrection. There are countless kinds of vegetation found on land and in water and the food requirements of each kind are different from those of other kinds. Allah has created countless species of living creatures in the air and on land and in water, and every species demands a different kind of food. Then unique among all these is the species of man, who requires different kinds of food not only for the development and nourishment of his body but also for the satisfaction of his taste. Who beside Allah could know how many members of the different kinds of creatures would be born on this globe, from the beginning of life till its end, and when and where they would be born and how much and what kind of food would be required for their nourishment? Just as He had made the plan of creating those creatures who stood in need of food in His scheme of creation, so He made full arrangements of food also to meet their requirements and demands.
In the modern age, the people who have brought out the Islamic edition of the Marxist conception of Socialism in the name of “the Quranic order of providence”, translate the words sawa-al-lis-sa-ilin as equal for all those who ask, and raise the edifice of reasoning on it, saying that Allah has kept equal provisions for all the people in the earth. Therefore, in order to fulfill the intention of the verse a system of the state is needed, which may provide equal rations of food to everybody. For, in the system of individual ownership the equality which the Quranic law demands cannot be established. But these people, in their enthusiasm to press the Quran in the service of their theories, forget that those who ask, who have been mentioned in this verse, are not only human beings but all those different species of animals and plants who need food for survival. Has Allah really established equality among all of them, or even among all the members of each different species of the creatures, in the matter of the provision of food? Do you find anywhere in this entire system of nature the arrangement of the distribution of equal rations of food? If that is not the case, it means that in the vegetable and animal kingdom, where the distribution of the provisions is directly being arranged by the State of Allah, and not by the human state, Allah Himself is violating His own this “Quranic law”, rather, God forbid, is practicing injustice! Then, they also forgo that “those who ask” also include those animals which man domesticates and arranging provisions for which is also his responsibility, e.g. sheep, goats, cows, buffaloes, horses, donkeys, mules, camels, etc: If the Quranic law is that equal food be given to all those who ask, and to enforce the same law a state is needed, which may administer the order of providence, will that state establish economic equality between men and animals also?
13. Here, the commentators generally have been confronted with this question: If it is admitted that the creation of the earth took two days and the setting up of the mountains and placing of the provisions and blessings in it took four days, and the creation of the heavens, as mentioned below, took another two days, the total number of the days would be eight, whereas at several places in the Quran Allah has said that the creation of the earth and heavens took six days in all. (For example,see (Surah Al- Aaraf, Ayat 54); (Surah Younus, Ayat 3), (Surah Houd, Ayat 7); (Surah Al-Furqan, Ayat 59). On this very basis, almost all the commentators agree that these four days include the two days of the creation of the earth. That is, two days were taken for the creation of the earth and two days for the creation of the rest of the things within the earth, as mentioned below. Thus, the earth along with its provisions became complete in four days in all. But this not only is against the apparent words of the Quran, but the difficulty also is, in fact, an imaginary difficulty, to avoid which a need for this interpretation has been felt. The two days of the creation of the earth are, in fact, not separate from the two days in which this universe as a whole was created. If we consider the following verses, we see that in them the creation of both the earth and the heavens has been mentioned together, and then it has been stated that Allah made the seven heavens in two days. These seven heavens imply the whole universe, one part of which is also our earth. Then, when like the other countless stars and planets of the universe this earth also took the shape of a unique globe within two days, Allah began to prepare it for animate creatures, and in four days created in it all those provisions which have been mentioned in the above verse. What development works were carried out in the other stars and planets in these four days have not been mentioned by Allah, for not to speak of the man of the period of the revelation of the Quran, even the man of the present age does not have the capability to digest and assimilate this information.
14. Three things need to be explained here:
First, by heaven is meant the whole universe, as becomes obvious from the following sentences. In other words, turning to the heaven means that Allah turned to the creation of the universe.
Second, by smoke is implied the initial and primary stage of matter, in which it lay diffused in space in a shapeless, dust like condition before the formation of the universe. Scientists of the modern age describe the same thing as nebulae, and the same also is their view about the beginning of the universe: that is, before creation the matter of which the universe was built lay diffused in smoke-like nebulous form.
Third, it would be wrong to interpret “then He turned to the heaven” to mean that first He created the earth, then set mountains in it, then arranged blessings and provisions of food in it, and then, at the end, He turned towards the creation of the universe. This misunderstanding is removed by the following sentence: “He said to it and the earth: Come both of you, willingly or by compulsion. They said: We have come willingly.” This makes it clear that in this verse and in the following verses, mention is being made of the time when there was neither the earth nor the heaven, but the creation of the universe was being started. Only the word thumma (then) cannot be made the argument to say that the earth had been created before the heavens. There are several instances of this in the Quran that the word thumma is not necessarily used to show the chronological order but it is also used for the order of Presentation. (Please see (E.N. 12 of Surah Az-Zumar).
Among the earliest commentators the dispute has been going on for ages as to what was created first according to the Quran, the earth or the heavens. One group of them argues on the basis of this verse and (verse 29 of Surah Al- Baqarah )that the earth was created first. The other group argues from (verses 27-33 of Surah An-Naziat) that the heavens were created first, because there it has been clearly stated that the earth was created after the heavens. But the fact is that nowhere in the Quran has the mention of the creation of the universe been made to teach Physics or Astronomy, but while inviting towards belief in the doctrines to Tauhid and the Hereafter, like countless other signs, the creation of the heavens and the earth has also been presented as food for thought. For this purpose it was not at all necessary that the chronological order of the creation of the heavens and the earth should have been presented, and it should have been told whether the heavens were created first or the earth. No matter whether this was created first or that, in any case both are an evidence of Allah Almighty’s being the One and only Deity, and are a testimony that their Creator has not created this whole universe as a plaything for a care-free person. That is why the Quran sometimes mentions the creation of the earth first and sometimes the creation of the heavens first. Where the object is to make man realize the blessings of God, there generally it has mentioned the earth first, for it is closer to man; and where the object is to give man the concept of God’s greatness and His omnipotence there it has generally mentioned the heavens first, for the scene of the revolving heavens has always been awe-inspiring for man.
15. In these words Allah has described the nature of His method of creation in a manner as to differentiate between divine creation and human workmanship. When man wants to make something, he prepares a plan for it in his mind, then gathers together the necessary material, then works persistently hard to mold the material according to his plan, and in the process of his effort the material which he wants to mold according to his mental plan constantly resists him; so much so that sometimes the resistance of the material succeeds and the thing is not made precisely according to the desired plan, and sometimes man’s effort overcomes the resistance and he succeeds in giving it the desired form and shape. For example, when a tailor wants to make a shirt, he first conceives in his mind the shape of the shirt, then arranging the cloth he tries to cut and sew it according to his concept of the shirt, and during this effort, he has to face constantly the resistance of the cloth, for it does not easily yield to be molded according to the tailor’s concept; so much so that sometimes the resistance of the cloth dominates and the shirt doesn’t take the desired shape, and sometimes the tailor’s effort dominates and he is able to shape it precisely according to his concept. Now, consider Allah’s mode of creation. The matter of the universe lay scattered and diffused in the form of smoke. Allah willed to give it the shape of the universe as it is now. For this purpose, He did not have to sit down, like a human artisan, and chisel and mold the earth and the moon and the sun and the other stars and planets, but He only commanded the scheme of the universe that was in His Mind to come into being, i.e. the smoke like diffused matter to take the shape of the galaxies and stars and planets, which He wanted to create. This matter did not have the power to resist the command of Allah. Allah did not have to make any effort to give it the shape of the universe. No sooner was the command given than the matter started contracting and condensing and taking shape obediently according to the scheme of its Master, so that the whole universe including the earth became ready as planned.
This same scheme of Allah’s method of creation has been described at several other places in the Quran like this: When Allah decides to do something He only commands it to be and it is done. (See (Surah Al-Baqarah, Ayat 117); (Surah Aal-Imran, Ayats 47, 59); (Surah An-Nahl, Ayat 40); (Surah Maryam, Ayat 35); (Surah YaSeen, Ayat 82), (Surah Al-Mumin, Ayat 68).
16. To understand these verses well, it would be useful to study the following portions of the Tafheem al-Quran: (Surah Al-Baqarah, Ayat 29); (Surah Ar-Raad, Ayat 2); (Surah Al-Hijr, Ayats 16-18); (Surah Al-Anbiya, Ayats 30-33); (Surah Al-Hajj, Ayat 65); (Surah Al-Muminun, Ayat 17); (Surah YaSeen: E.N. 37), and (E.Ns 5-9 of Surah As-Saaffat).”
13-18 Warning to the disbelievers and the example of Allah’s scourge upon the nations of A’d and Thamud
(41:13) But if they turn away,17 tell them: “I warn you against a sudden scourge like that which struck Ad and Thamud.” (41:14) When the Messengers (of Allah) came to them from the front and from the rear,18 saying: “Do not serve any but Allah”; they said: “Had our Lord so willed, He would have sent down angels. So we deny the Message you have brought.”19 (41:15) As for Ad, they waxed proud in the land without justification and said: “Who is greater than we in strength?” Did they not see that Allah, Who created them, is greater in strength than they? They continued to deny Our Signs, (41:16) whereupon We sent upon them a fierce wind on inauspicious days20 that We might make them taste a degrading chastisement in the life of this world.21 And surely the chastisement of the Hereafter is even more degrading. There will be none to help them there. (41:17) As for Thamud, We bestowed guidance upon them, but they preferred to remain blind rather than be guided. At last a humiliating scourge overtook them on account of their misdeeds. (41:18) Yet We delivered those who believed and were God-fearing.22
17. That is, if they do not believe that God and Deity is One and only One, Who has created this earth and the whole universe, and if they still persist in their ignorance that they would make others as their deities beside Him, others who are in fact His creatures and slaves, and regard them as His associates in His Being and rights and powers, then warning for them is like that of what stuck Aad and Thamud.
18. This sentence can have several meanings:
(1) That the Messengers continued to come to them one after the other.
(2) That the Messengers tried in every way to make them understand the truth and did not leave any stone unturned to bring them to the right path.
(3) That the Messengers came to them in their own country as well as in the adjoining countries.
19. That is, if Allah had disapproved of our religion, and had willed to send a messenger to us to keep us away from it, He would have sent the angels. As you are not an angel but a man like us, we do not believe that you have been sent by God, and sent for the purpose that we give up our religion and adopt the way of life that you are presenting. The disbelievers’ saying that they deny, what you have been sent with, was only sarcastic. It does not mean that they believed him to have been sent by God and then denied what he said. But this is a sarcastic expression of the type that Pharaoh had uttered before his courtiers about the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him): This messenger of yours, who has been sent to you, seems to be utterly mad. (Surah Ash-Shuara, Ayat 27). For further explanation, see (E.N. 11 of Surah YaSeen).
20. “Evil days” does not mean that the days in themselves were evil or ill-omened, and the torrent came because the people of Aad met with those evil or ill-omened days. If this were the meaning and there were some ill omen in the days themselves, the torment would have visited all the nations of the world. The correct meaning, therefore, is that since in those days God’s torment descended on this nation, the days were evil or ill-omened for the people of Aad. It is not correct to argue on the basis of the verse that some days are ill-omened and some auspicious.
The lexicographers have disputed the meaning of the words rih-an sarsaran, which have been used for the stormy wind. Some say that they imply an intensely hot wind, others say that they imply an extremely cold wind, and some others say that they imply a wind which produces a great noise when it blows. In any case, they all agree that the words are used for a severe storm.
The details of this torment given at other places in the Quran show that this wind continued to rage for seven nights and eight days consecutively. It swept the people off the ground and they fell down dead and lay scattered here and there like hollow trunks of the palm-tree. (Surah Al- Haaqqah, Ayat 7). It left rotting everything on which it blew. (Surah Adh-Dhariyat, Ayat 42). When the people of Aad saw it advancing, they rejoiced with the hope that the dense clouds would bring much rain, which would water their withering crops. But when it came, it laid waste the entire land. (Surah Al-Ahqaf, Ayats 24-25).
21. This ignominious torment was an answer to their arrogance and vanity because of that which they had assumed greatness in the land without any right, and would boast that there was none more powerful than them on the entire earth. Allah disgraced them and destroyed the major part of their population along with their civilization. The remnant of their population was humbled and debased before those very nations whom they used to overawe by their show of power and might (for the details of the story of Aad see (Surah Al-Aaraf, Ayats 65-72); (Surah Houd, Ayats 50-60); (Surah Al-Muminun, Ayats 32-41); (Surah Ash- Shuara, Ayats 123-140); (Surah Al-Ankabut, Ayat 40) and the relevant E.Ns).
22. For the details of the story of Thamud see (Surah Al- Aaraf, Ayats 73-79); (Surah Houd, Ayats 61-68); (Surah Al- Hijr, Ayats 80-84); (Surah Bani-Israil, Ayat 59); (Surah AshShuaara, Ayats 141-159); (Surah An-Naml, Ayats 45-53) and the E.Ns.
19-25 On the Day of Judgement people’s own ears, eyes and skins will bear witness against them relating to their misdeeds
(41:19) Imagine the Day when Allah’s enemies will be mustered to the Fire,23 and the people of the former times will be detained until the arrival of people of the later times,24 (41:20) and when all have arrived, their ears, their eyes, and their skins shall bear witness against them, stating all that they had done in the life of the world.25 (41:21) They will ask their skins: “Why did you bear witness against us?” The skins will reply: “Allah gave us speech,26 as He gave speech to all others. He it is Who created you for the first time and it is to Him that you will be sent back. (41:22) When you used to conceal yourselves (while committing misdeeds) you never thought that your ears or your eyes or your skins would ever bear witness against you; you rather fancied that Allah does not know a great deal of what you do. (41:23) This thought of yours about your Lord has led to your perdition and you have become among the losers.”27 (41:24) In this state, whether they bear with patience (or not), Fire alone shall be their abode. And if they seek to make amends, they will not be allowed to do so.28 (41:25) We had assigned to them companions who embellished for them all that was before them and behind them.29 Thus the same decree (of chastisement) which had overtaken the previous generations of jinn and human beings (also) became due against them. Surely they became the losers.
23. What is meant to be said hare is: When they will be rounded up to be presented in the Court of Allah, though the words used are to the effect: When they will be gathered to be driven to Fire of Hell, for Hell in any case will be their final destination.
24. That is, All the former and latter generations and races will be gathered together at a time and called to account together. For, whatever a person does in his lifetime, whether good or evil, its influence and impact does not end with his life but continues to operate even after his death for long periods of time, for which he is totally responsible. Likewise, whatever a generation does in its own time, its influence continues to affect the later generations for centuries, and it is responsible for its heritage. It is inevitable to examine all these influences and their results and to collect their evidences. For that very reason, generation after generation of the people will go on arriving and will be withheld. The court will start its work when all the former and latter generations will have assembled together in the Plain of Resurrection. (For further explanation, see( Surah Al-Aaraf, Ayats 38-39 and E.N. 30) on it.
25. The explanation of this given in the Hadith is that when a stubborn culprit will go on denying his crimes, and will even belie all the witnesses, then the limbs of his body will bear the witness, one after the other, by the command of Allah, and will tell what offenses he had committed through them. This thing has been reported by Anas, Abu Musa Ashari, Abu Said Khudri and Ibn Abbas from the Prophet (peace be upon him), and traditionists like Muslim, Nasai, Ibn Jarir, Ibn Abi Hatim, Bazzar and others have related these in their books. (For further explanation, see (E.N. 55 of Surah YaSeen).
This verse is one of those many verses which prove that the Hereafter will not only be a spiritual world but human beings will be resurrected with the body and soul as they are now in this world. Not only this: they will be given the same body in which they live now. The same particles and atoms which composed their bodies in the world will be collected on the Day of Resurrection, and they will be resurrected with the same previous bodies in which they had lived and worked in the world. Evidently, the limbs of man can bear the witness in the Hereafter only in case they are the same limbs with which he committed a crime in his previous life. This subject is borne out decisively and absolutely by the following verses of the Quran: (Surah Bani-Israil, Ayats 49-51, 98); (Surah Al-Muminun, Ayats 35- 38, (82-83); (Surah An-Noor, Ayat 24); (Surah As-Sajdah, Ayat 10); (Surah YaSeen, Ayats 65, 78, 79); (Surah As-Saafat, Ayats 16-18); (Surah Al-Waqiah, Ayats 47-50); (Surah An-Naziat, Ayats 10-14).
26. This shows that not only man’s own limbs will bear witness on the Day of Resurrection, but every such thing before which man would have committed any crime will also speak out. The same thing has been said in Surah Al- Zilzal, thus: The earth will cast out all the burdens, which lie within it, and man will say: what has befallen it? On that Day shall it relate whatever had happened (on it), because your Lord will have commanded it (to do so). (verses 2-5).
27. Hasan Basri has explained this verse thus: Every man’s attitude and conduct is determined by the thought and conjecture that he has about his God. The conduct of a righteous believer is right because his thought and conjecture about his Lord is right, and the conduct of a disbeliever and a hypocrite and a sinful person is wrong because his thought and conjecture about his Lord is wrong. This same theme has the Prophet (peace be upon him) expressed in a comprehensive and brief Hadith, thus: Your Lord says: I am with the thought and conjecture that My servant holds about Me. (Bukhari, Muslim).
28. It can also mean this: If they would want to return to the world, they would not be able to return, and this: If they would want to come out from Hell, they would not be able to come out of it, and this: If they would want to offer an excuse or repentance, it would not be accepted.
29. This is the permanent and eternal way of Allah that He dots not let the men with evil intentions and desires have good companions, but lets them have bad companions according to their own inclinations. Then, as they go on descending into the depths of vice, more and more evil and wicked men and devils go on joining them as their associates and advisers and companions. Some people’s saying that so-and-so is himself a very good man but happens to have bad companions is, in fact, contrary to fact. The law of nature is that every man gets the same sort of friends as he himself is. If bad people happen to be associated with a good man, they cannot remain associated with him for long. Likewise, if good and noble men happen to be associated with evil intentioned and immoral men by chance, their association cannot last long. An evil man naturally attracts only evil men to himself and only evil men become attracted towards him just as filth attracts flits and flits are attracted by the filth.
The meaning of: “Who have made attractive for them what was before them and what was behind them” is this: They assured them that their past had been glorious and their future would also be bright. They made them see everything attractive and pleasant on every side. They told them that those who criticized them were foolish because they were not doing anything novel or strange. Those who had made any progress in the world before them had been doing the same that they were doing. Ahead of them there was no Hereafter at all in which they might have to be called to account for their deeds. But if at all, the Hereafter did take place, as some foolish people assert it would, the God who was blessing them in the world would bless them there too. Hell had not been made for them but for those whom God had deprived of His blessings here.
26-32 Those who do not listen to Al-Quran shall be sternly punished and those who do not listen to those who say our God is Allah and then stay firm on it, angels are assigned for their protection
(41:26) The deniers of the Truth say: “Do not give ear to the Qur’an and cause interruption when it is recited; thus perhaps you will gain the upper hand.”30 (41:27) We shall certainly make these unbelievers taste a terrible chastisement and shall fully requite them according to the worst deeds that they committed. (41:28) That is the recompense of the enemies of Allah � the Fire, their abiding home. That will be the re-compense for their denying Our Signs. (41:29) There the unbelievers will say: “Our Lord, show us those that led us astray, both jinn and humans, and we will trample them under our feet so that they are utterly degraded.”31 (41:30) Those32 who say “Allah is our Lord” and then remain steadfast,33 upon them descend angels34 (and say): “Do not fear nor grieve,35 and receive good tidings of Paradise which you were promised. (41:31) We are your companions in this world and in the Hereafter. There you shall have all that you desire and all what you will ask for. (41:32) This is by way of hospitality from Him Who is Most Forgiving, Most Merciful.”
30. This was one of those plans of the disbelievers of Makkah with which they wanted to frustrate the Prophet’s (peace be upon him) mission of preaching his message. They knew well haw impressive was the Quran, how high was the character of the man presenting it, and how effective and inspiring the style of his preaching. They knew that anyone who heard such matchless discourses in such an attractive style from such a noble person could not help being hued and charmed. Therefore, they planned that they should neither hear it themselves nor let anyone else hear it; whenever Muhammad (peace be upon him) should start reciting it, they should create noise, clap hands, pass taunting remarks and raise all sorts of objections and such a hue and cry as to subdue his voice. By this plan they hoped they would be able to defeat the Prophet of Allah.
31. That is, in the world these people were at the beck and call of their leaders and religious guides and deceitful devils, but when on the Day of Resurrection they will come to know where their leaders had led them, they will curse them and would wish that they should somehow get hold of them so that they may trample them under their foot.
32. After warning the disbelievers of the consequences of their opposition to the truth and their stubbornness, the address now turns to the believers and the Prophet (peace be upon him).
33. That is, they did not call Allah their Lord merely incidentally, nor were they involved in the error to regard Allah as their Lord and at the same time others as well as their lords, but they embraced the faith sincerely and stood by it steadfastly: neither adopted a creed contrary to it later nor mixed it up with a false creed, but they fulfilled the demands of the doctrine of Tauhid in their practical lives as well.
“Then remain upright” has been explained by the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the eminent companions thus:
Anas has reported that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Many people called Allah their Lord, but most of them became disbelievers. Firm and steadfast is he who remained firm on this creed till his death. (Ibn Jarir, Nasai, Ibn Abi Hatim).
Abu Bakr Siddiq has explained it thus: Then he did not associate another with Allah: did not attend to any other deity beside Him. (Ibn Jarir).
Umar once recited this verse on the pulpit and said: By God, the steadfast are those who remained firm on obedience to Allah: did not run about from place to place like foxes. (Ibn Jarir).
Uthman says: Performed his deeds sincerely for the sake of Allah only. (Kashsaf).
Ali says: Performed the duties enjoined by Allah faithfully and obediently. (Kashshaf).
34. It is not necessary that the coming down of the angels may be perceptible, and the believers may see them with the eyes, or hear their voices with the ears. Although Allah also sends the angels openly for whomever He wills, generally their coming down for the believers, especially in hard times when they are being persecuted by the enemies of the truth, takes place in imperceptible ways and their voices penetrate into the depths of the heart as peace and tranquility instead of just striking the ear-drums. Some commentators have regarded this coming down of the angels as restricted to the time of death or grave, or the Plain of Resurrection. But if the conditions in which these verses were sent down are kept in view, there remains no doubt that the real object of stating this thing here is to mention the coming down of the angels on those who struggle with their lives in this world in the cause of the truth, so that they are consoled and encouraged and they rest assured that they are not helpless but the angels of Allah are at their back. Although the angels also come to receive the believers at the time of death and they also welcome them in the grave (in the state of burzakh), and they will also accompany them constantly on the Day of Resurrection, from the time Resurrection takes place till their entry into Paradise, yet their company is not particularly restricted to the Hereafter but remains available in this world also. The context clearly shows that in the conflict between the truth and falsehood just as the worshipers of falsehood are accompanied by the devils and mischievous people, so are the believers accompanied by the angels. On the one hand, the companions of the worshipers of falsehood show their misdeeds seem fair to them and assure them that the tyrannical and dishonest acts that they are committing are the very means of their success and through them only will their leadership and dominance remain safe in the world. On the other hand, the angels come down to the worshipers of the truth and give them the message that is being mentioned in the following sentences.
35. These are very comprehensive words, which contain a new theme of consolation and peace for the believers, in every stage of life, from the world till the Hereafter. This counsel of the angels in this world means: No matter how strong and powerful be the forces of falsehood, you should not be afraid of them, and whatever hardships and deprivations you may have to experience on account of your love of the truth, you should not grieve on account of them, for ahead there lie in store for you such things against which every blessing of the world is insignificant. When the angels say the same words at the time of death, they mean this: There is no cause of fear for you in the destination you are heading for, for Paradise awaits you there, and you have no cause of grief for those whom you are leaving behind in the world, for we are your guardians and companions here. When the angels will say these very words in the intermediary state between death and Resurrection and in the Plain of Resurrection, they will mean: Here, there is nothing but peace for you. Do not grieve for the hardships you had to suffer in the world, and do not fear what you are going to face in the Hereafter, for we are giving you the good news of Paradise, which used to be promised to you in the world.
33-44 The best in speech is the one who calls people towards Allah, do good deeds and say, “I am a Muslim” And Example of Allah’s signs and Nothing is said to Muhammad which was not said to the prior Prophets and AL-Quran is a guide and healing for the believers
(41:33) And who is fairer in speech than he who calls to Allah and acts righteously and says: “I am a Muslim”?36 (41:34) (O Prophet), good and evil are not equal. Repel (evil) with that which is good, and you will see that he, between whom and you there was enmity, shall become as if he were a bosom friend (of yours).37 (41:35) But none attains to this except those who are steadfast;38 none attains to this except those endowed with mighty good fortune.39 (41:36) And if you are prompted by a provocation from Satan, seek refuge with Allah.40 He, and He alone, is All-Hearing, All- Knowing.41 (41:37) And42 of His Signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon.43 Do not prostrate yourselves before the sun, nor before the moon, but prostrate yourselves before Allah Who created them, if it is Him that you serve.44 (41:38) But if they wax proud45 (and persist in their attitude, it does not matter, for) the angels near-stationed to your Lord glorify Him night and day, and never grow weary.46 (41:39) And of His Signs is that you see the earth withered, then We send down water upon it, and lo! it quivers and swells. Surely He Who gives life to the dead earth will also give life to the dead.47 Surely He has power over everything. (41:40) Those48 who pervert Our Signs49 are not hidden from Us.50 Is he who will be cast into the Fire better, or he who comes secure on the Day of Resurrection? Do as you wish; He sees all what you do. (41:41) These are the ones who rejected the Good Counsel when it came to them, although it is certainly a Mighty Book.51 (41:42) Falsehood may not enter it from the front or from the rear.52 It is a revelation that has been sent down from the Most Wise, the Immensely Praiseworthy. (41:43) (O Prophet), nothing is said to you but what was already said to the Messengers before you. Surely your Lord is the Lord of forgiveness53 and the Lord of grievous chastisement. (41:44) Had We revealed this as a non-Arabic Qur’an they would have said: “Why were its verses not clearly expounded? How strange, a non-Arabic scripture and an Arab audience!”54 Tell them: “It is a guidance and a healing to the believers. But to those who do not believe, it serves as a plug in their ears and a covering over their eyes. It is as if they are being called from a place far away.55
36. After consoling and encouraging the believers, now they are being exhorted towards their real duty. In the preceding verse they were told: Being firm in the service to Allah and standing steadfast on this way after adopting it is by itself the basic good, which makes man a friend of the angels and worthy of Paradise. Now they are being told: The next thing which wins man the highest place of honor is that he should do good deeds himself and should invite others to the service of Allah, and even in the environment of severe antagonism where to proclaim Islam is tantamount to inviting hardships for oneself, one should firmly say that one is a Muslim. To understand the full significance of these words, one should keep in view the conditions in which they were said. The conditions were that anyone who proclaimed to be a Muslim would feel as if he had stepped into a jungle of beasts, where everyone was rushing at him to tear him into pieces. More than that, if anyone opened his mouth to preach Islam he would feel as if he had called on the beasts to come and devour him. Such were the conditions when it was said: A person’s believing in Allah as his Lord and adopting the right way and standing steadfast on it is indeed a great and fundamental good, but the greatest good is that man should boldly say that he is a Muslim and should invite others towards Allah’s service, fearless of the consequences, and while performing this duty should remain so pure and pious in conduct and character that no one should have a cause to find fault with Islam and with those who uphold it.
37. To understand the full significance of these words, one should keep in view the conditions in which the Prophet (peace be upon him) and, through him, his followers were given this instruction. The conditions were that the invitation to the truth was being resisted and opposed with extreme stubbornness and severe antagonism, in which all bounds of morality, humanity and decency were being transgressed. Every sort of lie was being uttered against the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his companions. Every kind of evil device was being employed to defame him and to create suspicions against him in the minds of the people. Every kind of accusation was being leveled against him and a host of the propagandists were busy creating doubts against him in the hearts. In short, he and his companions were being persecuted in every possible way because of which a substantial number of the Muslims had been compelled to emigrate from the country. Then the program that had been prepared to stop him from preaching was that a hand of the mischievous people was set behind him, who would raise such a hue and cry that no one should be able to hear anything as soon as he opened his mouth to preach his message. In such discouraging conditions when apparently every way of extending invitation to Islam seemed to be blocked, the Prophet (peace be upon him) was taught this recipe for breaking the opposition.
First, it was said that goodness and evil are not equal, as if to say: Although apparently your opponents might have raised a dreadful storm of mischief and evil, as against which goodness might seem absolutely helpless and powerless, yet evil in itself has a weakness which ultimately causes its own destruction. For as long as man is man, his nature cannot help hating evil. Not only the companions of evil, even its own upholders know in their hearts that they are liars and wicked people and are being stubborn for selfish motives. Not to speak of creating dignity and honor for them in the hearts of others. It lowers them in their own esteem, and causes their morale to be weakened and destroyed in the event of every conflict. As against this evil, the good which appears to be utterly helpless and powerless, goes on operating and working and it becomes dominant in the long run. For, in the first place, the good has a power of its own which wins the hearts and no man, however perverted and corrupted, can help esteeming it in his own heart. Then, when the good and evil are engaged in a face to face conflict and their nature and merits become apparent and known, after a long drawn out struggle, not many people would be left, who would not start hating the evil and admiring the good.
Second, it was said that evil should be resisted not by the mere good but by a superior good, as if to say: If a person treats you unjustly and you forgive him, it is the mere good. The superior good is that you treat the one who ill-treats you which kindness and love.
The result would be that your worst enemy would become your closest friend, for that is human nature itself. If you remain quiet in response to an abuse, it will be mere goodness but it will not silence the abuser. But if you express good wishes for him in response to his abuses, even the most shameless opponent will feel ashamed, and then would hardly ever be able to employ invectives against you. If a person doesn’t miss any opportunity to harm you, and you go on tolerating his excesses, it may well make him even bolder in his mischief. But if on an occasion he gets into trouble and you come to his rescue, he will fall down at your feet, for no mischief can hold out against goodness. However, it would be wrong to take this general principle in the meaning that every enemy will necessarily become a close friend when you have treated him with the superior good. There are such wicked people also in the world, whose inimical nature will never change for the better no matter how tolerantly you may overlook their excesses and how benevolently you may react and respond to every evil committed by them. But such devil-incarnates are as few in the world as the embodiments of goodness are.
38. Although a very efficacious recipe, it is not easy to use. It requires a great will power, resolution, courage, power of endurance and full control over one’s own self. A man may act benevolently in response to an evil done, on an impulse, and there is nothing extraordinary in it. But when a person has to fight for years and years, for the sake of the truth, those mischievous worshipers of falsehood, who do not feel any hesitation in violating any bond of morality, and are also intoxicated with power, it requires extraordinary grit to go on resisting the evil with good, and that too with the superior good, without ever showing any lack of restraint and self-control. Such a work can be accomplished only by him who has resolved with a cool mind to work for the cause of upholding the truth, who has subdued his self to intellect and sense and in whom good and righteousness have taken such deep roots that no malice and mischief of the opponents can succeed in deposing him from his high position.
39. This is a law of nature. Only a man of very high rank is characterized by these qualities; and the one who possesses these qualities cannot be prevented by any power of the world from attaining to his goal of success. It is in no way possible that the depraved people may defeat him with their mean machinations and shameless devices.
40. Satan feels grieved when he sees that in the conflict between the truth and falsehood, meanness is being resisted with nobility and evil with goodness. He wants that he should somehow incite the fighters for the sake of the truth and their prominent men in particular, and especially their leaders, to commit such a mistake, even if once, on the basis of which he may tell the common people that evil is not being committed by one side only. If mean acts are being committed by one side, the people of the other side also are not morally any better, they too have committed such and such a shameless act. The common people do not have the capability that they may assess and counterbalance fairly the excesses being committed by one party by the reactions of the other. As long as they see that while the opponents are adopting every mean act yet these people do not swerve at all from the path of decency and nobility, goodness and righteousness, they continue to regard and esteem them highly. But if at some time they happen to commit an unworthy act, even if it is in retaliation against a grave injustice, both the sides become equal in their esteem, and the opponents also get an excuse to counter one blamable act with a thousand abuses. That is why it has been said: Be on your guard against the deceptions of Satan. He will incite you as a well wisher to take note of every abuse and every insult and attack and urge you to pay the opponent in the same coin, otherwise you would be regarded as a coward and weaken your image of strength. On every such occasion whenever you feel any undue provocation, you should take care that this is an incitement of Satan who is arousing you to anger and wants you to commit a mistake. And after having been warned, do not be involved in the misunderstanding that you have full control over yourself, and Satan cannot make you commit any mistake. This high opinion of one’s own power of judgment and will is another and more dangerous deception of Satan. Instead of it you should seek Allah’s refuge, for man can save himself from mistakes only if Allah helps and grants him protection.
The best commentary of this subject is the event which Imam Ahmad has related in his Musnad on the authority of Abu Hurairah. He says that once a man started uttering invectives against Abu Bakr in the presence of the Prophet (peace be upon him). Abu Bakr kept on hearing the invectives quietly and the Prophet (peace be upon him) kept on smiling at it. At last, when Abu Bakr could restrain himself no longer, he also uttered a harsh word for the person in response. No sooner did he utter the word, the Prophet (peace be upon him) was seized by restraint, which appeared on his face, and he rose and left the place immediately. Abu Bakr also rose and went behind him. On the way he asked: How is it that as long as the person went on abusing me, you kept quiet and smiling, but when I also said a word in retaliation, you were annoyed. The Prophet (peace be upon him) replied: As long as you were quiet, an angel remained with you who went on replying to him on your behalf, but when you spoke out, Satan came in place of the angel. I could not sit with Satan.
41. After seeking Allah’s refuge against the storm of opposition, the thing that brings patience and peace and tranquility to the heart of the believer is this conviction, Allah is not unaware. He knows whatever we are doing as well as that which is being done against us. He is hearing whatever we and our opponents utter and watches the conduct of both of us. On the basis of this very conviction, the believer entrusts his own and the opponents of the truth’s affair to Allah and remains satisfied.
This is the fifth place where the Prophet and, through him, the believers have been taught this wisdom of preaching and reforming the people. For the other four places, see (Surah Al-Aaraf, Ayats 199-204), (Surah An-Nahl, Ayats 125- 128), (Surah Al-Muminun, Ayats 96-98), (Surah Al-Ankabut, Ayats 46-47) and the E.Ns.
42. Now the discourse turns to the common people and they are made to understand the truth in a few sentences.
43 That is, they are not the objects of divine power that you may start worshiping them, thinking that Allah is manifesting Himself in their form, but they are the signs of Allah by pondering over which you can understand the reality of the universe and its system, and can know that the doctrine of the Oneness of God which the Prophets are teaching is the actual reality. The mention of the night and day before the sun and moon has been made to give the warning that the hiding of the sun and appearing of the moon at night, and the hiding of the moon and appearing of the sun in the day clearly point to the fact that neither of them is God or object of divine power, but both are helpless and powerless objects, and are moving subject to the law of God.
44. This is an answer to the philosophy that the intelligent among the polytheists generally used to propound to prove that polytheism was rational. They said that they did not bow to these objects but bowed to God through them. An answer to this has been given, so as to say: If you really are Allah’s worshipers, there is no need of these intermediaries: why don’t you bow down to Him directly?
45. If they are arrogant: If they think it is below their dignity for them to listen to you, and still persist in the ignorance in which they are involved.
46. It means this: The system of this whole universe, whose agents are the angels, is running on the basis of Allah’s Oneness and His servitude. The angels who are its agents are testifying every moment that their Lord is pure and exalted far above that another should be His associate in His Divinity and worship. Now, if a few foolish persons do not believe even after admonition, and turn away from the way that is being followed by the whole universe and persist in following the way of shirk only, let them remain involved in their folly.
The consensus is that it is obligatory to perform sajdah (prostration) here, but the jurists differ as to which of the two preceding verses requires the performance of sajdah. Ali and Abdullah bin Masud performed the sajdah at the end of (verse 37), while Ibn Abbas, Ibn Umar, Said bin Musayyab, Masruq, Qatadah, Hasan Basri, Abu Abdur Rahman as-Sulami, Ibn Sirin, Ibrahim Nakhai and several other prominent jurists have expressed the opinion that it should be performed at the end of verse 38. The same also is the opinion of Imam Abu Hanifah, and the Shafeites also have held the same view as preferable.
47. For explanation, see (Surah An-Nahl, Ayat 65); (Surah Al-Hijr, Ayats 5-7); (Surah Ar-Room, Ayat 19) and (E.N. 19 of Surah Al-Fatir).
48. After telling the common people in a few sentences that the doctrine of Tauhid and the Hereafter to which Muhammad (peace be upon him) is inviting them, is rational and the signs of the universe testify to its being right and true, the discourse again turns to the opponents who were determined to oppose it stubbornly.
49. The word yulhidun in the original is derived from ilhad which means to deviate, to turn away from the right to the wrong path, to adopt crookedness. Thus, ilhad in the revelations of Allah would mean that instead of understanding them in their clear and straightforward meaning one should misconstrue them and go astray and also lead others astray. One of the devices being adopted by the disbelievers of Makkah to defeat the message of the Quran was that they would hear the verses of the Quran and then would isolate one verse from its context, tamper with another, misconstrue a word or a sentence and thus raise every sort of objection and would mislead the people, saying that the Prophet (peace be upon him) had said such and such a thing that day.
50. These words imply a severe threat. The All-Powerful Ruler’s saying that the acts of such and such a person are not hidden from Him by itself contains the meaning that he cannot escape their consequences.
51. A mighty Book: An unchanging Book, which cannot be defeated by tricks and cunning devices, which the worshipers of falsehood are employing against it. It has the force of the truth in it, the force of true knowledge, the force of argument and reason, the force of eloquence and style, the force of divinity of God who sent it, and the force of the personality of the Messenger who presented it. No one, therefore, can defeat it by falsehood and hollow propaganda.
52 “Falsehood . . . . from before it” means that none can succeed in proving anything wrong or any teaching false in the Quran by making a frontal attack on it; “nor from behind it” means that nothing can be discovered till Resurrection which may be opposed to the truths and realities presented by the Quran; no new science, if it is really a science, can be propounded, which may contradict the knowledge contained in the Quran; no new experiment or observation can be made to prove that the guidance given to man by the Quran in respect of the beliefs, morality, law, civilization or culture, and economic, social and political life is wrong. That which this Book has declared as the truth can never be proven to be falsehood and that which it has declared as falsehood can never be proven to be the truth. Furthermore, it also means that whether falsehood makes a frontal attack, or makes a surprise attack by deception, it cannot defeat the message which the Quran has brought. In spite of all sorts of open and secret machinations of the opponents the message will spread and none shall be able to defeat and frustrate it.
53. That is, it is all due to His clemency and forgiveness that although His Messengers were opposed, abused and persecuted yet He went on giving respite to their opponents for years and years on end.
54. This is the kind of the stubbornness that the Prophet (peace be upon him) was confronting. The disbelievers said: Muhammad (peace be upon him) is an Arab. Arabic is his mother tongue. How can one believe that the Arabic Quran that he presents has not been forged by himself but has been revealed to him by God? The Quran could be believed to be the revelation of God if he had started speaking fluently in a foreign language unknown to him, like Persian, Latin, or Greek. This argument of theirs has been refuted by Allah, saying: Now when the Quran has been sent down in their own tongue so that they may understand it, they raise the objection: Why has it been sent down to an Arab in Arabic? But if it had been sent down in a foreign tongue, these very people would have said: How strange! An Arab Messenger has been sent to the Arabs, but the revelations being sent to him are in a tongue which is neither understood by him nor by his people.
55. When a person is summoned from afar, he hears a voice but does not understand what is being said to him. This is a wonderful simile which fully depicts the psychology of the stubborn opponents. Naturally when you talk to a person who is free from prejudice, he will listen to you, will try to understand what you say, will accept it if it is reasonable, with an open mind. On the contrary, the person who is not only prejudiced against you but is also malicious and spiteful, will not at all listen to you however hard you may try to make him understand your viewpoint. In spite of hearing you all the time he will not understand at all what you had been saying.
45-46 The Book given to Prophet Musa was similar to AL-Quran
(41:45) And in the past We gave Moses the Book and yet it became an object of dispute.56 If your Lord’s decree had not gone forth before, a decisive judgement would have been made among them, once and for all.57 Surely they are in a disquieting doubt about it.58 (41:46) Whoever does good, does so to his own benefit; and whoever does evil, will suffer its evil consequence. Your Lord does no wrong to His servants.59
56. That is, some people had believed in it and some others had made up their minds to oppose it.
57. It has two meanings:
(1) If Allah had not already decreed that the people would be given enough respite for consideration the disputants would have long been destroyed.
(2) If Allah had not already decreed that the disputes would finally be decided on the Day of Judgment, the reality would have been made plain as to who is in the right and who is in the wrong.
58. In this brief sentence the spiritual disease of the disbelievers of Makkah has been clearly diagnosed. It says that they are involved in doubt about the Quran and the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), and this doubt has caused them great anguish and confusion. That is, although apparently they deny the Quran as being Allah’s Word and the Prophet (peace be upon him) as being His Messenger very vehemently, yet this denial is not based on any conviction, but their minds are afflicted with great vacillation, and doubt. On the one hand, their selfish motives, their interests and their prejudices demand that they should belie the Quran and the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and oppose them strongly. On the other hand, their hearts are convened from within, that the Quran is, in fact, a unique and un-paralleled Word the like of which has never been heard from any literary man or poet. Neither can the insane utter such things in their madness, nor can devils come to teach God-worship, piety and righteousness to the people. Likewise, when they say that Muhammad (peace be upon him) is a liar, their heaps from within put them to shame, and ask: Can such a person ever be a liar? When they brand him a madman, their hearts cry out from within and ask: Do you really think that he is mad? When they accuse that Muhammad (peace be upon him) is not interested in the truth but is working for selfish motives, their hearts from within curse them and ask: Do you call this virtuous man selfish, whom you have never seen striving for the sake of wealth and power and fame, whose life has been free from every tract of selfinterest, who has always been working to bring about goodness and piety, but has never acted from any selfish motives.
59. That is, your Lord can never be so unjust as to let go to waste the good deeds of a good man and fail to punish the evil-doers for their evil.
47-51 On the Day of Judgement all other gods to whom people worship besides Allah shall vanish
(41:47) The knowledge of the Hour61 rests solely with Him.60 Not a fruit comes forth from its sheath, nor does any female conceive nor give birth to a child but it is in His knowledge.62 On that Day He will call out to them: “Where are those associates of Mine?” They will answer: “We have declared to You that none of us can bear witness to that.”63 (41:48) Then all those deities whom they once used to call upon shall vanish64 and they will come to know for sure that there is no escape for them. (41:49) Man wearies not of praying for good,65 but when evil visits him, he despairs and gives up all hope. (41:50) And if We bestow Our Mercy upon him after hardship, he will surely say: “This is what I truly deserve,66 and I do not believe that the Hour (of Resurrection) will ever come to pass; and if I am returned to my Lord, there too I shall enjoy the best.” Surely We shall fully apprise the unbelievers of what they have done, and We shall certainly make them taste a severe chastisement. (41:51) When We bestow Our favour upon man, he turns away and waxes proud;67 but when a misfortune touches him, he is full of supplication.68
61. The Hour: the Hour of Resurrection, i.e. the Hour when the evildoers will be punished for their evil and the grievances of the oppressed good people will be redressed.
62. By this the listeners have been made to realize two things:
(1) That not only of Resurrection but the knowledge of all unseen things is reserved for Allah alone; there is no other knower of the unseen.
(2) That God Who possesses the detailed knowledge of the most minor things cannot remain unaware of the acts and deeds of anybody.
Therefore, no one in His kingdom should act fearlessly, with impunity. Only according to this second meaning the sentence becomes relevant to what follows. If one studies the following sentences, the theme that immediately becomes obvious is: Don’t concern yourselves about finding our the date of the coming of Resurrection; you should, however, be anxious about the consequences of your deviations you will have to bear when it comes. This same thing had the Prophet (peace be upon him) once said to a person, who asked him the date of the coming of Resurrection. All the major collections of Hadith contain a commonly reported tradition to the effect: Once when the Prophet (peace be upon him) was on a journey, a man on the way shouted his name from a distance. The Prophet (peace be upon him) asked what he wanted to say. He said: When will Resurrection come? The Prophet (peace be upon him) replied: It must come, in any case! What preparations have you made for it?
63. That is, now we have realized that what we had in our minds was absolutely wrong. Now none among us is of the view that there is another one who is also your associate in Godhead. The words “we announce” show that on the Day of Resurrection the disbelievers will be asked again and again, on every occasion: In the world you went on refusing to believe what the Messengers of God said: now say who was in the right: they or you? And the disbelievers will every time confess that the truth indeed was that which the Messengers preached and they themselves were in the wrong because they forsook the knowledge and persisted in their own ignorance.
64. That is, in their utter hopelessness they will look around to see if they could find any one of those whom they used to serve and worship in the world, who could come to their rescue and save them from God’s torment, or at least have their punishment reduced, but they will find no helper on any side.
64. That is, in their utter hopelessness they will look around to see if they could find any one of those whom they used to serve and worship in the world, who could come to their rescue and save them from God’s torment, or at least have their punishment reduced, but they will find no helper on any side.
65. “For good”: For prosperity, abundance of provisions, good health, well-being of children, etc. And man here does not imply every human being for it also includes the prophet and the righteous people, who are free from this weakness as is being mentioned below. But here it implies the mean and shallow person who starts imploring God humbly when touched by harm and is beside himself with joy when he receives the good things of life as most human beings are involved in this weakness, it has been called a weakness of man.
66. That is, I have gotten all this because of my being worthy of it. It is my right that I should receive all this.
67. That is, he turns away from Our obedience and worship, and thinks it is below his dignity to bow to Us.
68. For other verses on this subject, see (Surah Younus, Ayat 12); (Surah Bani Israil, Ayat 83); (Surah Ar-Room, Ayat 33-36); (Surah Az-Zumar, Ayats 8-9, 49) and the E.Ns.
52-54 Have you ever considered that if Al-Quran is really from Allah and you deny it, what will happen to you
(41:52) Tell them, (O Prophet): “Did you ever consider: if this Qur’an is indeed from Allah and you still deny it, who can be in greater error than he who goes far in fiercely opposing it?”69 (41:53) Soon shall We show them Our Signs on the horizons and in their own beings until it becomes clear to them that it is the Truth.70 Is it not enough that your Lord is a witness over everything?71 (41:54) Lo, they are in doubt concerning their meeting with their Lord.72 Surely He fully encompasses everything.73
69. It does not mean that they should believe in it only owing to the danger that if it were really from Allah they would be inviting their own doom by denying it. But it means this: It is not wisdom that you should be bent upon opposing it stubbornly without seriously trying to understand what it says. You cannot assert that you have come to know that this Quran is not from God, and you have known with certainty that God has not sent it. Obviously, your refusal to believe in it as divine Word is not based on knowledge, but on conjecture, which may possibly be right as well as wrong. Now consider both the possibilities. If your conjecture were right, then, according to your own thinking, both the believers and the unbelievers would be equal, because both will became dust after death, and there is no life of Hereafter where belief and unbelief might be distinguished. But, if this Quran were really from God, and that of which it is forewarning did really take place, then think what doom you would invite for yourselves by denying it and opposing it like that. Therefore, your own interest demands that you should give up stubbornness and consider this Quran seriously; if even after due consideration, you decide not to believe in it, you may not, but you should not oppose it to the extent that you start employing falsehood and deception and persecution to bar the way of its message and prevent others from believing in it, not being content with your own unbelief.
70. This verse has two meanings and both have been given by the major commentators:
First, that they will soon see wit their own eyes that the message of the Quran has spread in all the adjoining lands, and they themselves have yielded to it. Then they will realize that what they are being told today, which they are denying, was absolutely true. Some people have objected to this meaning, saying that a message’s being dominant and overwhelming vast areas is no argument to prove that it is the truth. False messages also become dominant and their adherents also go on subduing one country after the other. But this is a superficial objection which has been raised without a thorough study of the matter. The wonderful conquests that Islam achieved in the period of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the rightly guided Caliphs, were not the signs of Allah only in the sense that the believers conquered one country after the other, but in the sense that this conquest of the countries was not like other conquests of the world, which make one man or one family or one nation master of the life and property of others and God’s earth is filled with tyranny and injustice. Contrary to this, this conquest brought with it a great religious, moral, intellectual, cultural, political, economic and social revolution; whose influence, wherever it reached, elicited what was best in man and suppressed what was worst in him. This revolution developed and nurtured the moral excellences which the world could hope to see only in the hermits and the meditating recluses and could never imagine that they could also be found among the people responsible for running the worldly affairs in the politics of the rulers, in the chambers of justice, in the wars and conquests of the commanders of forces, in the work of the tax collectors and in the commerce of the big businessmen. This revolution so raised the common people in the society created by it in respect of the sense of morality, character, cleanliness and purity that even the select people of other societies seemed to be much inferior to them. It took man out of the labyrinths of superstition and whim and put him on the broad highway of scientific research and rational thought and action. It treated and cured these diseases of the collective life of whose treatment no idea existed in the other systems, or if at all they tried to treat them, they did not succeed in it. For example, separation between men on the basis of color, race, country and language, classification of men in the same society and discrimination among them, non existence of legal rights and equality in practical life, degeneration of women and their deprivation of the basic rights, prevalence of crime, liquor drinking and use of all intoxicating drugs, the governments being above criticism and accountability, deprivation of the fundamental human rights the masses, disrespect of agreements in international relations, barbarism in wars, and such other diseases. In Arabia itself this revolution brought about order in place of chaos, peace in place of bloodshed and anarchy, piety in place of wickedness, justice in place of tyranny and injustice, purity and culture in place of filth and indecency, knowledge in place of ignorance, brotherhood and love in place of long-standing feuds, and it made a nation whose people could not dream of anything beyond leadership of their tribe, leaders of the world. These were the signs which the very generation before whom the Prophet (peace be upon him) had recited this verse for the first time, saw with their own eyes, and after that till today Allah has been constantly showing those signs. The Muslims, even during their downfall, displayed such high morals as could never be attained by those people who represent as the leaders of civilization and culture. No precedent can be found from any period of the history of the Muslims of the tyrannical treatment that has been meted out by the European nations to the subdued nations of Africa, America, Asia and of Europe itself. This is the blessing of the Quran which has so humanized Muslims that they could not become so tyrannical even when they had attained domination as the non-Muslims have been in all periods of history and are even today. A person who has eyes can himself see how the Muslims treated the Christians in Spain when they ruled it for centuries, and how the Christians treated the Muslims when they gained power there; how the Muslims behaved towards Hindus during their eight hundred year long rule in India and how the Hindus are now treating them after they have attained power; how the Muslims treated the Jews during the past 1300 years and how the Jews are treating the Muslims in Palestine.
The other meaning of this verse is that Allah will show the people in the external world around them as well as in their own selves such signs as will make manifest that the teaching the Quran is giving is the very truth. Some people have raised the objection that the people even at that time were observing the world around them and also their own selves; therefore, it would be meaningless to show them any such signs in the future. But this objection also is as superficial as the objection against the first meaning. No doubt, the external world is the same as man has been seeing in the past and his own self also is of the same nature as has been seen in every age, yet in these the signs of God are so numerous that man has never comprehended them fully nor will ever be able to do so. In every age man has met with many new signs and this will go on happening till the Resurrection Day.
71. That is, is it not enough to warn the people of their evil end that Allah is watching whatever they are doing to belie and defeat the Message of the truth?
72. That is, the basic cause of their attitude and conduct is that they are not sure that they will ever have to appear before their Lord and be held accountable for their deeds and actions.
73. That is, they cannot escape His grasp nor can anything of their deeds be prevented from being recorded by Him.