Surah Al Jathiya (“Crouching”) is the 45th chapter of the Qur’an with 37 ayats. It is classified as a Meccan Surah.
This surah is a warning to those who deny the divine truth. It is a lesson of arrogance and sinfulness. People will stand before Allah on their knees. Their record of deeds will be presented to them.
“Whoever does a good deed – it is for himself; and whoever does evil – it is against the self. Then to your Lord you will be returned.”
Surah Jathiya Ayat 15
Read Surah Jathiya with Translation and Transliteration
Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Raheem
In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful
1. Ha, Meem.
تَنزِيلُ ٱلْكِتَـٰبِ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلْعَزِيزِ ٱلْحَكِيمِ
Tanzeelul Kitaabi minal laahil ‘Azeezil Hakeem
2. The revelation of the Book is from Allah, the Exalted in Might, the Wise.
إِنَّ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ لَءَايَـٰتٍۢ لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ
Innaa fis samaawaati wal ardi la Aayaatil lilmu’mineen
3. Indeed, within the heavens and earth are signs for the believers.
وَفِى خَلْقِكُمْ وَمَا يَبُثُّ مِن دَآبَّةٍ ءَايَـٰتٌۭ لِّقَوْمٍۢ يُوقِنُونَ
Wa fee khalaqikum wa maa yabussu min daaabbatin Aayaatul liqawminy-yooqinoon
4. And in the creation of yourselves and what He disperses of moving creatures are signs for people who are certain [in faith].
وَٱخْتِلَـٰفِ ٱلَّيْلِ وَٱلنَّهَارِ وَمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مِن رِّزْقٍۢ فَأَحْيَا بِهِ ٱلْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا وَتَصْرِيفِ ٱلرِّيَـٰحِ ءَايَـٰتٌۭ لِّقَوْمٍۢ يَعْقِلُونَ
Wakhtilaafil laili wannahaari wa maaa anzalal laahu minas samaaa’i mir rizqin fa ahyaa bihil arda ba’da mawtihaa wa tasreefir riyaahi Aayaatul liqawminy ya’qiloon
5. And [in] the alternation of night and day and [in] what Allah sends down from the sky of provision and gives life thereby to the earth after its lifelessness and [in His] directing of the winds are signs for a people who reason.
تِلْكَ ءَايَـٰتُ ٱللَّهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِٱلْحَقِّ ۖ فَبِأَىِّ حَدِيثٍۭ بَعْدَ ٱللَّهِ وَءَايَـٰتِهِۦ يُؤْمِنُونَ
Tilka Aayatul laahi natloohaa ‘alika bilhaqq, fabiayyi hadeesim ba’dal laahi wa Aayaatihee yu’minoon
6. These are the verses of Allah which We recite to you in truth. Then in what statement after Allah and His verses will they believe?
وَيْلٌۭ لِّكُلِّ أَفَّاكٍ أَثِيمٍۢ
Wailul likulli affaakin aseem
7. Woe to every sinful liar
يَسْمَعُ ءَايَـٰتِ ٱللَّهِ تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ يُصِرُّ مُسْتَكْبِرًۭا كَأَن لَّمْ يَسْمَعْهَا ۖ فَبَشِّرْهُ بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍۢ
Yasma’u Aayaatil laahi tutlaa ‘alaihi summa yusirru mustakbiran ka-al lam yasma’haa fabashshirhu bi’azaabin aleem
8. Who hears the verses of Allah recited to him, then persists arrogantly as if he had not heard them. So give him tidings of a painful punishment.
وَإِذَا عَلِمَ مِنْ ءَايَـٰتِنَا شَيْـًٔا ٱتَّخَذَهَا هُزُوًا ۚ أُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌۭ مُّهِينٌۭ
Wa izaa ‘alima min Aayaatinaa shai’anit takhazahaa huzuwaa; ulaaa’ika lahum ‘azaabum muheen
9. And when he knows anything of Our verses, he takes them in ridicule. Those will have a humiliating punishment.
مِّن وَرَآئِهِمْ جَهَنَّمُ ۖ وَلَا يُغْنِى عَنْهُم مَّا كَسَبُوا۟ شَيْـًۭٔا وَلَا مَا ٱتَّخَذُوا۟ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ أَوْلِيَآءَ ۖ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ
Minw waraaa’ihim Jahannamu wa laa yughnee ‘anhum maa kasaboo shai’anw wa laa mat takhazoo min doonil laahi awliyaaa’a wa lahum ‘azaabun ‘azeem
10. Before them is Hell, and what they had earned will not avail them at all nor what they had taken besides Allah as allies. And they will have a great punishment.
هَـٰذَا هُدًۭى ۖ وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ بِـَٔايَـٰتِ رَبِّهِمْ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌۭ مِّن رِّجْزٍ أَلِيمٌ
Haazaa hudanw wal lazeena kafaroo bi aayaati Rabbihim lahum ‘azaabum mir rijzin aleem (section 1)
11. This [Qur’an] is guidance. And those who have disbelieved in the verses of their Lord will have a painful punishment of foul nature.
۞ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى سَخَّرَ لَكُمُ ٱلْبَحْرَ لِتَجْرِىَ ٱلْفُلْكُ فِيهِ بِأَمْرِهِۦ وَلِتَبْتَغُوا۟ مِن فَضْلِهِۦ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
Allaahul lazee sahkhara lakumul bahra litajriyal fulku feehi bi amrihee wa litabtaghoo min fadlihee wa la’allakum tashkuroon
12. It is Allah who subjected to you the sea so that ships may sail upon it by His command and that you may seek of His bounty; and perhaps you will be grateful.
وَسَخَّرَ لَكُم مَّا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًۭا مِّنْهُ ۚ إِنَّ فِى ذَٰلِكَ لَءَايَـٰتٍۢ لِّقَوْمٍۢ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ
Wa sakhkhara lakum maa fis samaawaati wa maa fil ardi jamee’am minhu; inna feezaalika la Aayaatil liqawminy yatafakkaroon
13. And He has subjected to you whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth – all from Him. Indeed in that are signs for a people who give thought.
قُل لِّلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ يَغْفِرُوا۟ لِلَّذِينَ لَا يَرْجُونَ أَيَّامَ ٱللَّهِ لِيَجْزِىَ قَوْمًۢا بِمَا كَانُوا۟ يَكْسِبُونَ
Qul lillazeena aamanoo yaghfiroo lillazeena laa yarjoona ayyaamal laahi liyajziya qawmam bimaa kaanoo yaksiboon
14. Say, [O Muhammad], to those who have believed that they [should] forgive those who expect not the days of Allah so that He may recompense a people for what they used to earn.
مَنْ عَمِلَ صَـٰلِحًۭا فَلِنَفْسِهِۦ ۖ وَمَنْ أَسَآءَ فَعَلَيْهَا ۖ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمْ تُرْجَعُونَ
Maa ‘amila saalihan falinafsihee wa man asaaa’a fa’alaihaa summa ilaa Rabbikum turja’oon
15. Whoever does a good deed – it is for himself; and whoever does evil – it is against the self. Then to your Lord you will be returned.
وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَا بَنِىٓ إِسْرَٰٓءِيلَ ٱلْكِتَـٰبَ وَٱلْحُكْمَ وَٱلنُّبُوَّةَ وَرَزَقْنَـٰهُم مِّنَ ٱلطَّيِّبَـٰتِ وَفَضَّلْنَـٰهُمْ عَلَى ٱلْعَـٰلَمِينَ
Wa laqad aatainaa Baneee Israaa’eelal Kitaaba walhukma wan Nubuwwata wa razaqnaahum minat taiyibaati wa faddalnaahum;alal ‘aalameen
16. And We did certainly give the Children of Israel the Scripture and judgement and prophethood, and We provided them with good things and preferred them over the worlds.
وَءَاتَيْنَـٰهُم بَيِّنَـٰتٍۢ مِّنَ ٱلْأَمْرِ ۖ فَمَا ٱخْتَلَفُوٓا۟ إِلَّا مِنۢ بَعْدِ مَا جَآءَهُمُ ٱلْعِلْمُ بَغْيًۢا بَيْنَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ يَقْضِى بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ ٱلْقِيَـٰمَةِ فِيمَا كَانُوا۟ فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ
Wa aatainaahum baiyinaatim minal amri famakh talafooo illaa mim ba’di maa jaaa’ahumul ‘ilmu baghyam bainahum; inna Rabbaka yaqdee bainahum Yawmal Qiyaamati feemaa kaanoo feehi yakhtalifoon
17. And We gave them clear proofs of the matter [of religion]. And they did not differ except after knowledge had come to them – out of jealous animosity between themselves. Indeed, your Lord will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection concerning that over which they used to differ.
ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَـٰكَ عَلَىٰ شَرِيعَةٍۢ مِّنَ ٱلْأَمْرِ فَٱتَّبِعْهَا وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَآءَ ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ
Summa ja’alnaaka ‘alaa sharee’atim minal amri fattabi’haa wa laa tattabi’ahwaaa’al-lazeena laa ya’lamoon
18. Then We put you, [O Muhammad], on an ordained way concerning the matter [of religion]; so follow it and do not follow the inclinations of those who do not know.
إِنَّهُمْ لَن يُغْنُوا۟ عَنكَ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ شَيْـًۭٔا ۚ وَإِنَّ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَآءُ بَعْضٍۢ ۖ وَٱللَّهُ وَلِىُّ ٱلْمُتَّقِينَ
Innahum lany yughnoo ‘anka minal laahi shai’aa; wa innaz zaalimeena ba’duhum awliyaaa’u ba’dinw wallaahu waliyyul muttaqeen
19. Indeed, they will never avail you against Allah at all. And indeed, the wrongdoers are allies of one another; but Allah is the protector of the righteous.
هَـٰذَا بَصَـٰٓئِرُ لِلنَّاسِ وَهُدًۭى وَرَحْمَةٌۭ لِّقَوْمٍۢ يُوقِنُونَ
Haazaa basaaa’iru linnaasi wa hudanw wa rahmatul liqawminy yooqinoon
20. This [Qur’an] is enlightenment for mankind and guidance and mercy for a people who are certain [in faith].
أَمْ حَسِبَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱجْتَرَحُوا۟ ٱلسَّيِّـَٔاتِ أَن نَّجْعَلَهُمْ كَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَعَمِلُوا۟ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ سَوَآءًۭ مَّحْيَاهُمْ وَمَمَاتُهُمْ ۚ سَآءَ مَا يَحْكُمُونَ
Am hasibal lazeenaj tarahus saiyiaati an naj’alahum kallazeena aamanoo wa ‘amilu saalihaati sawaaa’am mahyaahum wa mamaatuhum; saaa’a maa yahkumoon (section 2)
21. Or do those who commit evils think We will make them like those who have believed and done righteous deeds – [make them] equal in their life and their death? Evil is that which they judge.
وَخَلَقَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضَ بِٱلْحَقِّ وَلِتُجْزَىٰ كُلُّ نَفْسٍۭ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ
Wa khalaqal laahus samaawaati wal arda bilhaqqi wa litujzaa kullu nafsim bimaa kasabat wa hum laa yuzlamoon
22. And Allah created the heavens and earth in truth and so that every soul may be recompensed for what it has earned, and they will not be wronged.
أَفَرَءَيْتَ مَنِ ٱتَّخَذَ إِلَـٰهَهُۥ هَوَىٰهُ وَأَضَلَّهُ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ عِلْمٍۢ وَخَتَمَ عَلَىٰ سَمْعِهِۦ وَقَلْبِهِۦ وَجَعَلَ عَلَىٰ بَصَرِهِۦ غِشَـٰوَةًۭ فَمَن يَهْدِيهِ مِنۢ بَعْدِ ٱللَّهِ ۚ أَفَلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ
Afara’ayta manit takhaza ilaahahoo hawaahu wa adal lahul laahu ‘alaa ‘ilminw wa khatama ‘alaa sam’ihee wa qalbihee wa ja’ala ‘alaa basarihee ghishaawatan famany yahdeehi mim ba’dil laah; afalaa tazakkaroon
23. Have you seen he who has taken as his god his [own] desire, and Allah has sent him astray due to knowledge and has set a seal upon his hearing and his heart and put over his vision a veil? So who will guide him after Allah ? Then will you not be reminded?
وَقَالُوا۟ مَا هِىَ إِلَّا حَيَاتُنَا ٱلدُّنْيَا نَمُوتُ وَنَحْيَا وَمَا يُهْلِكُنَآ إِلَّا ٱلدَّهْرُ ۚ وَمَا لَهُم بِذَٰلِكَ مِنْ عِلْمٍ ۖ إِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا يَظُنُّونَ
Wa qaaloo maa hiya illaa hayaatunad dunyaa namootu wa nahyaa wa maa yuhlikunaaa illad dahr; wa maa lahum bizaalika min ‘ilmin in hum illaayazunnoon
24. And they say, “There is not but our worldly life; we die and live, and nothing destroys us except time.” And they have of that no knowledge; they are only assuming.
وَإِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ ءَايَـٰتُنَا بَيِّنَـٰتٍۢ مَّا كَانَ حُجَّتَهُمْ إِلَّآ أَن قَالُوا۟ ٱئْتُوا۟ بِـَٔابَآئِنَآ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـٰدِقِينَ
Wa izaa tutlaa ‘alaihim aayaatuna baiyinaatim maa kaana hujjatahum illaaa an qaalu’too bi aabaaa’inaaa in kuntum saadiqeen
25. And when Our verses are recited to them as clear evidences, their argument is only that they say, “Bring [back] our forefathers, if you should be truthful.”
قُلِ ٱللَّهُ يُحْيِيكُمْ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يَجْمَعُكُمْ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ ٱلْقِيَـٰمَةِ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ وَلَـٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ ٱلنَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ
Qulil laahu yuhyeekum summa yumeetukum summa yajma’ukum ilaa Yawmil Qiyaamati laa raiba feehi wa laakinna aksaran naasi laa ya’lamoon (section 3)
26. Say, ” Allah causes you to live, then causes you to die; then He will assemble you for the Day of Resurrection, about which there is no doubt, but most of the people do not know.”
وَلِلَّهِ مُلْكُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ وَيَوْمَ تَقُومُ ٱلسَّاعَةُ يَوْمَئِذٍۢ يَخْسَرُ ٱلْمُبْطِلُونَ
Wa lillaahi mulkus samaawaati wal ard; wa Yawma taqoomus Saa’atu Yawma ‘iziny yakhsarul mubtiloon
27. And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. And the Day the Hour appears – that Day the falsifiers will lose.
وَتَرَىٰ كُلَّ أُمَّةٍۢ جَاثِيَةًۭ ۚ كُلُّ أُمَّةٍۢ تُدْعَىٰٓ إِلَىٰ كِتَـٰبِهَا ٱلْيَوْمَ تُجْزَوْنَ مَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ
Wa taraa kulla ummatin jaasiyah; kullu ummatin tud’aaa ilaa kitaabihaa al Yawma tujzawna maa kuntum ta’maloon
28. And you will see every nation kneeling [from fear]. Every nation will be called to its record [and told], “Today you will be recompensed for what you used to do.
هَـٰذَا كِتَـٰبُنَا يَنطِقُ عَلَيْكُم بِٱلْحَقِّ ۚ إِنَّا كُنَّا نَسْتَنسِخُ مَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ
Haazaa kitaabunaa yantiqu ‘alaikum bilhaqq; innaa kunnaa nastansikhu maa kuntum ta’maloon
29. This, Our record, speaks about you in truth. Indeed, We were having transcribed whatever you used to do.”
فَأَمَّا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَعَمِلُوا۟ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ فَيُدْخِلُهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ فِى رَحْمَتِهِۦ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ ٱلْفَوْزُ ٱلْمُبِينُ
Fa ammal lazeena aamaanoo wa ‘amilus saalihaati fayudkhiluhum Rabbuhum fee rahmatih; zaalika huwal fawzul mubeen
30. So as for those who believed and did righteous deeds, their Lord will admit them into His mercy. That is what is the clear attainment.
وَأَمَّا ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓا۟ أَفَلَمْ تَكُنْ ءَايَـٰتِى تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ فَٱسْتَكْبَرْتُمْ وَكُنتُمْ قَوْمًۭا مُّجْرِمِينَ
Wa ammal lazeena kafarooo afalam takun Aayaatee tutlaa ‘alaikum fastakbartum wa kuntum qawmam mujrimeen
31. But as for those who disbelieved, [it will be said], “Were not Our verses recited to you, but you were arrogant and became a people of criminals?
وَإِذَا قِيلَ إِنَّ وَعْدَ ٱللَّهِ حَقٌّۭ وَٱلسَّاعَةُ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهَا قُلْتُم مَّا نَدْرِى مَا ٱلسَّاعَةُ إِن نَّظُنُّ إِلَّا ظَنًّۭا وَمَا نَحْنُ بِمُسْتَيْقِنِينَ
Wa izaa qeela inna wa’dallaahi haqqunw was Saa’atu laa raiba feehaa qultum maa nadree mas Saa’atu in nazunnu illaa zannanw wa maa nahnu bimustaiqineen
32. And when it was said, ‘Indeed, the promise of Allah is truth and the Hour [is coming] – no doubt about it,’ you said, ‘We know not what is the Hour. We assume only assumption, and we are not convinced.’ “
وَبَدَا لَهُمْ سَيِّـَٔاتُ مَا عَمِلُوا۟ وَحَاقَ بِهِم مَّا كَانُوا۟ بِهِۦ يَسْتَهْزِءُونَ
Wa badaa lahum saiyiaatu maa ‘amiloo wa haaqa bihim maa kaanoo bihee yastahzi’oon
33. And the evil consequences of what they did will appear to them, and they will be enveloped by what they used to ridicule.
وَقِيلَ ٱلْيَوْمَ نَنسَىٰكُمْ كَمَا نَسِيتُمْ لِقَآءَ يَوْمِكُمْ هَـٰذَا وَمَأْوَىٰكُمُ ٱلنَّارُ وَمَا لَكُم مِّن نَّـٰصِرِينَ
Wa qeelal yawma nansaakum kamaa naseetum liqaaa’a yawmikum haazaa wa maawaakumun Naaru wa maa lakum min naasireen
34. And it will be said, “Today We will forget you as you forgot the meeting of this Day of yours, and your refuge is the Fire, and for you there are no helpers.
ذَٰلِكُم بِأَنَّكُمُ ٱتَّخَذْتُمْ ءَايَـٰتِ ٱللَّهِ هُزُوًۭا وَغَرَّتْكُمُ ٱلْحَيَوٰةُ ٱلدُّنْيَا ۚ فَٱلْيَوْمَ لَا يُخْرَجُونَ مِنْهَا وَلَا هُمْ يُسْتَعْتَبُونَ
Zaalikum bi annakumut takhaztum aayaatil laahi huzuwanw wa gharratkumul hayaatud dunyaa; fal yawma laa yukhrajoona minhaa wa laahum yusta’taboon
35. That is because you took the verses of Allah in ridicule, and worldly life deluded you.” So that Day they will not be removed from it, nor will they be asked to appease [Allah].
فَلِلَّهِ ٱلْحَمْدُ رَبِّ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَرَبِّ ٱلْأَرْضِ رَبِّ ٱلْعَـٰلَمِينَ
Falillaahil hamdu Rabbis samaawaati wa Rabbil ardi Rabbil-‘aalameen
36. Then, to Allah belongs [all] praise – Lord of the heavens and Lord of the earth, Lord of the worlds.
وَلَهُ ٱلْكِبْرِيَآءُ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ ۖ وَهُوَ ٱلْعَزِيزُ ٱلْحَكِيمُ
Wa lahul kibriyaaa’u fissamaawaati wal ardi wa Huwal ‘Azeezul Hakeem (section 4) (End Juz 25)
37. And to Him belongs [all] grandeur within the heavens and the earth, and He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.
The Tafsir of Surat Al-Jathiyah
Chapter – 45
Which was revealed in Makkah
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
(1. Ha Mim.) (2. The revelation of the Book is from Allah, the Almighty, the All-Wise.) (3. Verily, in the heavens and the earth are signs for the believers.) (4. And in your creation, and what He spread (through the earth) of moving creatures are signs for people who have faith with certainty.) (5. And in the alternation of night and day, and the provision that Allah sends down from the sky, and revives therewith the earth after its death, and in the turning about of the winds, are signs for a people who understand.)
A Directive to contemplate over Allah’s Ayat
Allah directs His servants to contemplate His favors and gifts, as well as His great power that is demonstrated by His creating the heavens and the earth and the various types and categories of creatures in them. There are the angels, Jinns, humans, animals, birds, beasts, carnivores, insects and various kinds of sea creatures. The night and day alternate, each follows the other in succession, never ceasing to come, as decreed. One brings darkness and one brings light. Allah the Exalted also sends down the rain from the clouds when it is most needed. He is calling the rain, `provision’, because it is the resource that produces various provisions,
(and revives therewith the earth after its death,) after it was dry and had no vegetation or life of any kind. Allah said next,
(and in the turning about of the winds,) sometimes towards the south and sometimes towards the north. Some are easterly winds and some are westerly winds, some bringing sea breezes and some blow from the land, some coming at night and some by day. Some winds bring rain, some cause pollination and some winds just revive the soul, while some others bear no benefit. Allah said first.
(are signs for the believers), then
(who have faith with certainty), then
(who understand), thus ascending from one honorable stage to what is more honorable and higher in grade. These Ayat are similar to an Ayah in Surat Al-Baqarah
(Verily, in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, and the ships which sail through the sea with that which is of use to mankind, and the water which Allah sends down from the sky and makes the earth alive therewith after its death, and the moving creatures of all kinds that He has spread therein, and in the veering of winds and clouds which are held between the sky and the earth, are indeed signs for people of understanding.) (2:164)
(6. These are the Ayat of Allah, which We recite to you with truth. Then in which speech after Allah and His Ayat will they believe) (7. Woe to every sinful liar.) (8. Who hears the Ayat of Allah Tutla (recited) to him, yet persists with pride as if he heard them not. So announce to him a painful torment!) (9. And when he learns something of Our Ayat, he makes them a jest. For such there will be a humiliating torment.) (10. In front of them there is Hell. And that which they have earned will be of no profit to them, nor those whom they have taken as protective friends besides Allah. And theirs will be a great torment.) (11. This is guidance. And those who disbelieve in the Ayat of their Lord, for them there is a painful torment of Rijz.)
The Description of the Sinful Liar and His Requital
Allah the Exalted says,
(These are the Ayat of Allah) — in reference to the Qur’an with the proofs and evidences that it contains,
(which We recite to you with truth.) for they contain the truth from the Truth (i.e., Allah). Therefore, if they do not believe in Allah’s Ayat nor abide by them, what speech after Allah and His Ayat will they then believe in Allah said next,
(Woe to every sinful liar.) who lies in his speech, often swears, who is worthless, commits and utters sinful acts and statements, and disbelieves in Allah’s Ayat,
(Who hears the Ayat of Allah Tutla (recited) to him,) meaning, being recited to him,
(yet persists) in his disbelief, denial, pride and rebellion,
(as if he heard them not. ) as if he did not hear them being recited to him,
(So announce to him a painful torment!) convey the news to him that on the Day of Resurrection, he will have a painful, severe torment from Allah. Allah said,
(And when he learns something of Our Ayat, he makes them a jest.) if he learns anything from the Qur’an, he disbelieves in it and takes it as the subject of jest and ridicule,
(For such there will be a humiliating torment.) as recompense for ridiculing the Qur’an and jesting about it. In the Sahih, Muslim recorded from `Abdullah bin `Umar that the Messenger of Allah prohibited traveling with the Qur’an to enemy lands for fear that the Qur’an might be desecrated by the enemy. Allah explained the type of torment that these people earn on the Day of Return;
(In front of them there is Hell.) meaning, all those who have these evil characteristics will end up in Hellfire on the Day of Resurrection,
(And that which they have earned will be of no profit to them, ) their wealth and children will not avail them,
(nor those whom they have taken as protecting friends besides Allah.) nor will the false gods that they worshipped besides Allah benefit them in the least,
(And theirs will be a great torment.) Allah the Exalted said,
(This is Huda (guidance).) in reference to the Qur’an,
(And those who disbelieve in the Ayat of their Lord, for them there is a painful torment of Rijz.) that is agonizing and severe. Allah knows best.
(12. Allah, it is He Who has subjected to you the sea, that ships may sail through it by His command, and that you may seek of His bounty, and that you may be thankful.) (13. And has subjected to you all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth; it is all (as a favor and kindness) from Him. Verily, in it are signs for a people who think deeply.) (14. Say to the believers to forgive those who hope not for the Days of Allah, that He may recompense people, according to what they have earned.) (15. Whosoever does a good deed, it is for himself, and whosoever does evil, it is against (himself). Then to your Lord you will be made to return.)
The Subjugation of the Sea, etc., is among Allah’s Signs
Allah the Exalted mentions some of the favors He gave to His servants, such as subjecting the sea for their service,
(that ships may sail through the sea by His command,) i.e., of Allah the Exalted, Who ordered the sea to carry ships,
(and that you may seek of His bounty,) in commercial and business transactions,
(and that you may be thankful.) for earning various provisions brought to you from far away provinces and distant areas through the sea. Allah the Exalted said,
(And has subjected to you all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth;) the stars, the mountains, the seas, the rivers and all that you use for your benefit; these are all from His favor, kindness and bounty. Allah’s statement next,
(it is all from Him.) Alone without partners in giving any of it. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah,
(And whatever of blessings you have, it is from Allah. Then, when harm touches you unto Him you cry aloud for help.) (16:53) Ibn Jarir recorded that Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said about Allah’s statement,
(And has subjected to you all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth; it is all from Him.) “Everything is from Allah, and that is a Name from His Names. So it all comes from Him without rivals to dispute His authority; surely, this fact is completely certain.” Allah said.
(Verily, in it are signs for a people who think deeply.)
The Command to be Patient with the Harm of Idolators
(Say to the believers to forgive those who hope not for the Days of Allah,) means, let the believers forgive the disbelievers and endure the harm that they direct against them. In the beginning of Islam, Muslims were ordered to observe patience in the face of the oppression of the idolators and the People of the Scriptures so that their hearts may incline towards Islam. However, when the disbelievers persisted in stubbornness, Allah legislated for the believers to fight in Jihad. Statements of this meaning were collected from `Abdullah bin `Abbas and Qatadah. Mujahid said about Allah’s statement,
(those who hope not for the Days of Allah,) “They do not appreciate Allah’s favors.” Allah said,
(that He may recompense people, according to what they have earned.) meaning, if the believers forgive the disbelievers in this life, Allah will still punish the disbelievers for their evil in the Hereafter. Allah’s statement next,
(Whosoever does a good deed, it is for himself, and whosoever does evil, it is against (himself). Then to your Lord you will be made to return.) meaning, you will all return to Allah on the Day of Resurrection, when you and your actions will be displayed before Him. Then, He will recompense you for your deeds, good for good and evil for evil.
(16. And indeed We gave the Children of Israel the Scripture, and the understanding of the Scripture and its laws, and the prophethood; and provided them with good things, and preferred them above the nations.) (17. And gave them clear proofs in matters. And they differed not until after the knowledge came to them, through envy among themselves. Verily, your Lord will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection about that wherein they used to differ.) (18. Then We have put you on a (legal) way of commandment. So follow you that, and follow not the desires of those who know not.) (19. Verily, they can avail you nothing against Allah. Verily, the wrongdoers are protecting friends of one another, but Allah is the Protector of those who have Taqwa.) (20. This is a clear insight and evidence for mankind, and a guidance and a mercy for people who have faith with certainty.)
Preference of Allah to the Children of Israel and their dispute thereafter
Allah the Exalted mentions the favors He granted the Children of Israel, such as revealing the Divine Books to them, sending the Messengers to them and granting them kingship. Allah said,
(And indeed We gave the Children of Israel the Scripture, and the understanding of the Scripture and its laws, and the prophethood; and provided them with good things,) such as foods and drinks,
(and preferred them above the nations.) of their time,
(And gave them clear proofs in matters.) `We gave them evidences, proofs and unequivocal signs.’ Therefore, the proof has been established against them, yet they differed among themselves after the proof came to them, out of transgression against each other,
(Verily, your Lord) `O Muhammad’,
(will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection about that wherein they used to differ. ) He will judge between them by His just judgement.
Warning to this Ummah against following the Ways of the Children of Israel
This Ayah contains a warning to the Muslim Ummah as well. It warns them not to take the path the Jews took nor adopt their ways. This is why Allah said,
(Then We have put you on a (legal) way of commandment. So follow you that.) `follow what was revealed to you from your Lord, O Muhammad, there is no true deity except Him, and turn away from the idolators.’ Allah said,
(and follow not the desires of those who know not. Verily, they can avail you nothing against Allah. Verily, the wrongdoers are protecting friends of one another,) Allah says, `what will the loyalty that the idolators give each other avail them’ Indeed, all they will earn from their protecting friends is more loss, destruction and demise,
(but Allah is the Protector of those who have Taqwa.) and He will deliver them from the darkness to the light. In contrast, all the false deities are the protecting friends of those who disbelieve, taking them out of the light to the darkness. Allah said,
(This is a clear insight and evidence for man- kind,) in reference to the Qur’an,
(and a guidance and a mercy for people who have faith with certainty.)
(21. Or do those who earn evil deeds think that We shall hold them equal with those who believe and do righteous good deeds, in their present life and after their death Worst is the judgement that they make.) (22. And Allah has created the heavens and the earth with truth, in order that each person may be recompensed what he has earned, and they will not be wronged.) (23. Have you seen him who takes his own lust as his god And Allah, left him astray with knowledge, and sealed his hearing and his heart, and put a cover on his sight. Who then will guide him after Allah Will you not then remember)
The Life and the Death of the Believers and the Disbelievers are not Equal
Allah the Exalted states here that the believers and the disbelievers are never equal. Allah said in another Ayah,
(Not equal are the dwellers of the Fire and the dwellers of the Paradise. It is the dwellers of Paradise that will be successful.) (59:20) Allah said here,
(Or do those who earn evil deeds think) those who commit and practice evil,
(that We shall hold them equal with those who believe and do righteous good deeds, in their life and their death) treat them equally in the present life of the world and in the Hereafter
(Worst is the judgement that they make.) `worst is the thought that they have about Us and about Our justice, thinking that We will ever make the pious and the wicked equal in the Hereafter or this life.’ At–Tabarani recorded that Shu`bah said that `Amr bin Murrah narrated that Abu Ad-Duha said that Masruq said that Tamim Ad-Dari once stood in voluntary prayer through the night until the morning only reciting this Ayah,
(Or do those who earn evil deeds think that We shall hold them equal with those who believe and do righteous good deeds) Allah said in reply:
(Worst is the judgement that they make.) Allah said,
(And Allah has created the heavens and the earth with truth,) meaning, in justice,
(in order that each person may be recompensed what he has earned, and they will not be wronged.) Allah the Exalted said,
(Have you seen him who takes his own lust as his god), who abides by his lust, and whatever his lust portrays as good he implements it, and whatever his lust portrays as evil, he abandons it! Allah’s statement,
(And Allah left him astray with knowledge, ) has two meanings. One of them is that Allah knew that this person deserves to be misguided, so He left him astray. The second meaning is that Allah led this person astray after knowledge reached him and the proof was established before him. The second meaning includes the first meaning, but not the opposite. Allah said,
(and sealed his hearing and his heart, and put a cover on his sight.) so he does not hear what benefits him, understands not what would lead him to the guidance and sees not the evidence with which he can be enlightened. This is why Allah said,
(Who then will guide him after Allah Will you not then remember) Allah said in a similar Ayah,
(Whomsoever Allah sends astray, none can guide him; and He lets them wander blindly in their transgressions.) (7:186).
(24. And they say: “There is nothing but our life of this world, we die and we live and nothing destroys us except Ad-Dahr (time). And they have no knowledge of it, they only presume.) (25. And when Our Clear Ayat are recited to them, their argument is no other than that they say: “Bring back our (dead) fathers, if you are truthful!”) (26. Say (to them): “Allah gives you life, then causes you to die, then He will assemble you on the Day of Resurrection about which there is no doubt. But most of mankind know not.”)
The Conviction of the Disbelievers, Their Argument and the Refutation of it
Allah mentions here the creed of Ad-Dahriyyah and the Arab idolators who embraced their creed, denying Resurrection,
(And they say: “There is nothing but our life of this world, we die and we live….”) They say that there is only this life, some people die while others are born to life, without Resurrection or Judgement. This was the creed of Arab idolators who used to deny Resurrection, in addition to, the creed of the atheist philosophers among them who denied the creation and Resurrection. This was also the statement of atheist philosophers who deny the Creator and think that the world will return to its original form once every thirty–six thousand years, when everything will restart its life–cycle again! They claim that this cycle was repeated for infinity, thus contradicting the sound reason and the divine revelation. They said,
(and nothing destroys us except Ad-Dahr (time).) Allah the Exalted said in reply,
(And they have no knowledge of it, they only presume.) they speculate and guess! As for the Hadith recorded by the two collectors of the Sahih, and Abu Dawud and An-Nasa’i, from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Allah the Exalted says, “The Son of `Adam annoys Me when he curses Ad-Dahr (time), while I am Ad-Dahr. In My Hand are all matters; I cause the alternation of his days and nights.”) In another narration;
(Do not curse Ad-Dahr (time), for Allah is Ad-Dahr.) Ash-Shafi`i, Abu `Ubaydah and several other Imams of Tafsir explained the meaning of the Prophet’s statement,
(Do not abuse Ad-Dahr (time), for Allah is Ad-Dahr.) They said, “During the time of Jahiliyyah, when an affliction, a calamity or a disaster struck them, the Arabs used to say, `Woe to Ad-Dahr (time)!’ So they used to blame such incidents on Ad-Dahr, cursing Ad-Dahr in the process. Surely, it is Allah the Exalted and Most Honored Who causes these (and all) things to happen. This is why when they cursed Ad-Dahr, it was as if they were cursing Allah Himself, since truthfully, He causes all incidents to happen. Therefore, abusing Ad-Dahr was prohibited due to this consideration, for it was Allah Whom they meant by abusing Ad-Dahr, which — as we said– they accused of causing (distressful) incidents.” This is the best explanation for this subject, and it is the desired meaning. Allah knows best. We should mention that Ibn Hazm and those of the Zahiriyyah like him made an error when they used this Hadith to include Ad-Dahr among Allah’s most beautiful Names. Allah’s statement,
(And when Our Clear Ayat are recited to them,) means, when the truth is made plain to them and used as evidence against them, asserting that Allah is able to resurrect the bodies after they have perished and disintegrated,
(their argument is no other than that they say: “Bring back our fathers, if you are truthful!”) `bring them back to life, if what you say is true.’ Allah the Exalted said,
(Say (to them): “Allah gives you life and then causes you to die…”) `for you are witnesses that He brings you (or new life) to existence after non–existence,’
(How can you disbelieve in Allah Seeing that you were dead and He gave you life. Then He will give you death, then again will bring you to life.) (2:28) Therefore, He Who is able to initiate creation, is able to restart it, as well and more obviously,
(And He it is Who originates the creation, then He will repeat it; and this is easier for Him.) (30:27) Allah said next,
(then He will assemble you on the Day of Resurrection about which there is no doubt.) `when He resurrects you, it will be on and for the Day of Resurrection, not in this life. Therefore, your statement is groundless,’
Bring back our (dead) fathers, if you are truthful! Alla0h said,
The Day when He will gather you (all) on the Day of Gathering. )64:9(,
(For what Day are these signs postponed For the Day of sorting out.) (77:12-13), and,
(And We delay it only for a term (already) fixed.) (11:104) Allah said here,
(then He will assemble you on the Day of Resurrection about which there is no doubt.) there is no doubt that it will come,
(But most of mankind know not.) and this is why they deny Resurrection and discount the fact that the bodies will be brought back to life. Allah the Exalted said,
(Verily, they see it afar off. But We see it (quite) near.) (70:6), they discount the possibility that Resurrection will ever come, while the believers believe that its occurrence is easy and imminent.
(27. And to Allah belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth. And on the Day that the Hour will be established — on that Day the followers of falsehood shall lose.) (28. And you will see each nation humbled to their knees (Jathiyah), each nation will be called to its Record (of deeds). This Day you shall be recompensed for what you used to do.) (29. This Our Record speaks about you with truth. Verily, We were recording what you used to do.)
Some of the Conditions of the Day of Resurrection and its Horrors
Allah mentions that He is the King and Owner of the heavens and earth, and the Only Ruler over them in this life and the Hereafter. Allah’s statement,
(And on the Day that the Hour will be established) on the Day of Resurrection,
(the followers of falsehood shall lose.) those who disbelieve in Allah and reject the clear proofs and unequivocal evidences that He has sent down to His Messengers. Allah said,
(And you will see each nation humbled to their knees (Jathiyah),) kneeling, fearful of the tremendous calamity and events. It was said that this will occur when Hellfire will be brought forth, for she will exhale once, and everyone will fall to their knees, including Ibrahim, the Khalil. He will proclaim, “Myself, myself, myself! Today, I will not ask You (O Allah) but about myself.” And even `Isa, will proclaim, “Today, I will only argue before You on my own behalf, I will not ask You about Maryam, who gave birth to me.” Allah said next,
(each nation will be called to its Record. ) meaning, Record of deeds. Allah said in a similar Ayah,
(And the Book will be presented; and the Prophets and the witnesses will be brought forward) (39:69). This is why Allah said here,
(This Day you shall be recompensed for what you used to do.) `you will be judged according to your deeds, good and evil.’ Allah said in similar Ayat;
(On that Day man will be informed of what he sent forward, and what he left behind. Nay! Man will be a witness against himself, though he may put forth his excuses.) (75:13-15) Allah said,
(This, Our Record speaks about you with truth.) It contains the record of all your actions, without addition or deletion. Allah also said:
(And the Book will be presented, and you will see the criminals, fearful of that which is therein. They will say:”Woe to us! What sort of Book is this that leaves neither a small thing nor a big thing, but has recorded it with numbers!” And they will find all that they did, placed before them, and your Lord treats no one with injustice.) (18:49) Allah’s statement,
(Verily, We were recording what you used to do.) means, `We ordered Our scribe angels to record your deeds.’ Ibn `Abbas and others commented, “The angels record the deeds of the servants and then ascend to heaven with them. There, they meet the angels entrusted with the Records of deeds sent down from Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz on each Night of Al-Qadr, containing what Allah has written will occur from the servants, long before He created them. They will compare their records and find out that not a single letter was added or deleted.” He then recited this Ayah,
(Verily, We were recording what you used to do.)
(30. Then, as for those who believed and did good deeds, their Lord will admit them to His mercy. That will be the evident success.) (31. But as for those who disbelieved (it will be said to them): “Were not Our Ayat recited to you But you were proud, and you were a people who were criminals.”) (32. And when it was said: “Verily, Allah’s promise is the truth, and there is no doubt about the coming of the Hour,” you said: “We know not what is the Hour: we do not think it but conjecture, and we have no firm convincing belief (therein).”) (33. And the evil of what they did will appear to them, and that which they used to mock at will completely encircle them.) (34. And it will be said: “This Day We will forget you as you forgot the meeting of this Day of yours. And your abode is the Fire, and there is none to help you.”) (35. This, because you took the revelations of Allah in mockery, and the life of the world deceived you. So this Day, they shall not be taken out from there (Hell), nor shall they be returned to the worldly life.) (36. So all praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the heavens and the Lord of the earth, and the Lord of all that exists.) (37. And His is the majesty in the heavens and the earth, and He is Al-`Aziz, Al-Hakim.)
Allah states to us His judgement in His creation on the Day of Resurrection,
(Then, as for those who believed and did good deeds,) Those whose hearts believed and their limbs performed good deeds, in sincerity to Allah and conforming with Islamic legislation;
(their Lord will admit them to His mercy. ) and that is Paradise. In the Sahih, Allah said to Paradise;
(“You are My mercy, with which I grant mercy to whom I will,”) Allah said;
(That will be the evident success.) clear and apparent. Allah said,
(But as for those who disbelieved (it will be said to them): “Were not Our Ayat recited to you But you were proud…”) They will be admonished and criticized with this statement, that means, `have not the Ayat of Ar-Rahman been recited to you But you did not follow them out of pride and turned away upon hearing them,’
(and you were a people who were criminals.), `by your actions, as well as, the denial that your hearts contained.’
(And when it was said: “Verily, Allah’s promise is the truth, and there is no doubt about the coming of the Hour,”) `when the believers said these words to you;’
(you said: “We know not what is the Hour…”) `we do not recognize what you are talking about,’
(we do not think it but conjecture,) `we only remotely think that it might come,’
(and we have no firm convincing belief (therein).) `we are not sure of it.’ Allah said,
(And the evil of what they did will appear to them,) the repercussion of their evil deeds will become apparent to them,
(and will completely encircle them.) from all directions,
(that which they used to mock at) of the coming torment and punishment,
(And it will be said: “This Day We will forget you…”) `We will treat you as if We have forgotten you, casting you in the fire of Jahannam,’
(as you forgot the meeting of this Day of yours.) `and did not work for it because you did not believe in its coming,’
(And your abode is the Fire, and there is none to help you.) In the Sahih, it is reported that Allah the Exalted will ask some of His servants on the Day of Resurrection,
(“Have I not given you a spouse, honored you and subjected the camels and horses to you Have I not allowed you to be a chief and a master” The servant will say in answer, “Yes, O Lord!” Allah will say, “Did you think that you would ever meet Me” He will say, “No.” Allah the Exalted will say, “then this Day, I will forget you as you forgot Me.”) Allah the Exalted said,
(This, because you took the revelations of Allah in mockery.) `We gave you this punishment as retribution because you mocked Allah’s proofs that He sent to you, and made them the subject of jokes and jest,’
(and the life of the world deceived you.) `this life fooled you and you were seduced by to it, thus becoming among the ultimate losers,’
(So this Day, they shall not be taken out from there), from Hellfire,
(nor shall they be returned to the worldly life.) no apologies shall be sought from them, but they will be punished without limit or delay, just as a group of the believers will enter Paradise without limit or delay. After Allah mentioned His judgement for the believers and the disbelievers, He said,
(So all praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the heavens and the Lord of the earth,) He is their Owner and the Owner of all that is in and on them, and surely,
(and the Lord of all that exists.) Allah said next,
(And His is the majesty in the heavens and the earth, ) meaning, the kingship, according to Mujahid. This Ayah means, Allah is the Almighty, Worthy of all praise; everything and everyone is subservient and in complete need of and dependent upon Him. In an authentic Hadith, the Prophet said,
(Allah the Exalted said, “Glory is My robe and pride is My garment; whoever rivals Me for either of them, I will make him reside in My Fire!”) Muslim collected a similar Hadith. Allah said,
(and He is the Al-`Aziz,) Who is never resisted or rivaled,
(Al-Hakim) all wise in His statements, actions, legislation and the decree that He appoints; all glory and praise are due to Him, none has the right to be worshipped but He, Alone.
This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Jathiyah. All praise and thanks are due to Allah alone.