Assalamualaikum.

Surah Al Jathiya (Arabic Text: سورة الجاثية) is the 45th chapter of the Qur’an with 37 ayats. It is classified as a Meccan Surah and titled in English as the “Crouching”. 

 This surah is a warning to those who deny the divine truth. It is a lesson of arrogance and sinfulness. People will stand before Allah on their knees. Their record of deeds will be presented to them. 

Notable Quote:

“Whoever does a good deed – it is for himself; and whoever does evil – it is against the self. Then to your Lord you will be returned.”
Surah Jathiya Ayat 15

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Read Surah Jathiya with Translation and Transliteration

Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Raheem
In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful

حمٓ

Haa-Meeem
1. Ha, Meem.

تَنزِيلُ ٱلْكِتَـٰبِ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ ٱلْعَزِيزِ ٱلْحَكِيمِ

Tanzeelul Kitaabi minal laahil ‘Azeezil Hakeem
2. The revelation of the Book is from Allah, the Exalted in Might, the Wise.

إِنَّ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَ‌ٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ لَءَايَـٰتٍۢ لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ

Innaa fis samaawaati wal ardi la Aayaatil lilmu’mineen
3. Indeed, within the heavens and earth are signs for the believers.

وَفِى خَلْقِكُمْ وَمَا يَبُثُّ مِن دَآبَّةٍ ءَايَـٰتٌۭ لِّقَوْمٍۢ يُوقِنُونَ

Wa fee khalaqikum wa maa yabussu min daaabbatin Aayaatul liqawminy-yooqinoon
4. And in the creation of yourselves and what He disperses of moving creatures are signs for people who are certain [in faith].

وَٱخْتِلَـٰفِ ٱلَّيْلِ وَٱلنَّهَارِ وَمَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مِن رِّزْقٍۢ فَأَحْيَا بِهِ ٱلْأَرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا وَتَصْرِيفِ ٱلرِّيَـٰحِ ءَايَـٰتٌۭ لِّقَوْمٍۢ يَعْقِلُونَ

Wakhtilaafil laili wannahaari wa maaa anzalal laahu minas samaaa’i mir rizqin fa ahyaa bihil arda ba’da mawtihaa wa tasreefir riyaahi Aayaatul liqawminy ya’qiloon
5. And [in] the alternation of night and day and [in] what Allah sends down from the sky of provision and gives life thereby to the earth after its lifelessness and [in His] directing of the winds are signs for a people who reason.

تِلْكَ ءَايَـٰتُ ٱللَّهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِٱلْحَقِّ ۖ فَبِأَىِّ حَدِيثٍۭ بَعْدَ ٱللَّهِ وَءَايَـٰتِهِۦ يُؤْمِنُونَ

Tilka Aayatul laahi natloohaa ‘alika bilhaqq, fabiayyi hadeesim ba’dal laahi wa Aayaatihee yu’minoon
6. These are the verses of Allah which We recite to you in truth. Then in what statement after Allah and His verses will they believe?

وَيْلٌۭ لِّكُلِّ أَفَّاكٍ أَثِيمٍۢ

Wailul likulli affaakin aseem
7. Woe to every sinful liar

يَسْمَعُ ءَايَـٰتِ ٱللَّهِ تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ يُصِرُّ مُسْتَكْبِرًۭا كَأَن لَّمْ يَسْمَعْهَا ۖ فَبَشِّرْهُ بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍۢ

Yasma’u Aayaatil laahi tutlaa ‘alaihi summa yusirru mustakbiran ka-al lam yasma’haa fabashshirhu bi’azaabin aleem
8. Who hears the verses of Allah recited to him, then persists arrogantly as if he had not heard them. So give him tidings of a painful punishment.

وَإِذَا عَلِمَ مِنْ ءَايَـٰتِنَا شَيْـًٔا ٱتَّخَذَهَا هُزُوًا ۚ أُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌۭ مُّهِينٌۭ

Wa izaa ‘alima min Aayaatinaa shai’anit takhazahaa huzuwaa; ulaaa’ika lahum ‘azaabum muheen
9. And when he knows anything of Our verses, he takes them in ridicule. Those will have a humiliating punishment.

مِّن وَرَآئِهِمْ جَهَنَّمُ ۖ وَلَا يُغْنِى عَنْهُم مَّا كَسَبُوا۟ شَيْـًۭٔا وَلَا مَا ٱتَّخَذُوا۟ مِن دُونِ ٱللَّهِ أَوْلِيَآءَ ۖ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

Minw waraaa’ihim Jahannamu wa laa yughnee ‘anhum maa kasaboo shai’anw wa laa mat takhazoo min doonil laahi awliyaaa’a wa lahum ‘azaabun ‘azeem
10. Before them is Hell, and what they had earned will not avail them at all nor what they had taken besides Allah as allies. And they will have a great punishment.

هَـٰذَا هُدًۭى ۖ وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ بِـَٔايَـٰتِ رَبِّهِمْ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌۭ مِّن رِّجْزٍ أَلِيمٌ

Haazaa hudanw wal lazeena kafaroo bi aayaati Rabbihim lahum ‘azaabum mir rijzin aleem (section 1)
11. This [Qur’an] is guidance. And those who have disbelieved in the verses of their Lord will have a painful punishment of foul nature.

۞ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِى سَخَّرَ لَكُمُ ٱلْبَحْرَ لِتَجْرِىَ ٱلْفُلْكُ فِيهِ بِأَمْرِهِۦ وَلِتَبْتَغُوا۟ مِن فَضْلِهِۦ وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ

Allaahul lazee sahkhara lakumul bahra litajriyal fulku feehi bi amrihee wa litabtaghoo min fadlihee wa la’allakum tashkuroon
12. It is Allah who subjected to you the sea so that ships may sail upon it by His command and that you may seek of His bounty; and perhaps you will be grateful.

وَسَخَّرَ لَكُم مَّا فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَ‌ٰتِ وَمَا فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًۭا مِّنْهُ ۚ إِنَّ فِى ذَ‌ٰلِكَ لَءَايَـٰتٍۢ لِّقَوْمٍۢ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ

Wa sakhkhara lakum maa fis samaawaati wa maa fil ardi jamee’am minhu; inna feezaalika la Aayaatil liqawminy yatafakkaroon
13. And He has subjected to you whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth – all from Him. Indeed in that are signs for a people who give thought.

قُل لِّلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ يَغْفِرُوا۟ لِلَّذِينَ لَا يَرْجُونَ أَيَّامَ ٱللَّهِ لِيَجْزِىَ قَوْمًۢا بِمَا كَانُوا۟ يَكْسِبُونَ

Qul lillazeena aamanoo yaghfiroo lillazeena laa yarjoona ayyaamal laahi liyajziya qawmam bimaa kaanoo yaksiboon
14. Say, [O Muhammad], to those who have believed that they [should] forgive those who expect not the days of Allah so that He may recompense a people for what they used to earn.

مَنْ عَمِلَ صَـٰلِحًۭا فَلِنَفْسِهِۦ ۖ وَمَنْ أَسَآءَ فَعَلَيْهَا ۖ ثُمَّ إِلَىٰ رَبِّكُمْ تُرْجَعُونَ

Maa ‘amila saalihan falinafsihee wa man asaaa’a fa’alaihaa summa ilaa Rabbikum turja’oon
15. Whoever does a good deed – it is for himself; and whoever does evil – it is against the self. Then to your Lord you will be returned.

وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَا بَنِىٓ إِسْرَ‌ٰٓءِيلَ ٱلْكِتَـٰبَ وَٱلْحُكْمَ وَٱلنُّبُوَّةَ وَرَزَقْنَـٰهُم مِّنَ ٱلطَّيِّبَـٰتِ وَفَضَّلْنَـٰهُمْ عَلَى ٱلْعَـٰلَمِينَ

Wa laqad aatainaa Baneee Israaa’eelal Kitaaba walhukma wan Nubuwwata wa razaqnaahum minat taiyibaati wa faddalnaahum;alal ‘aalameen
16. And We did certainly give the Children of Israel the Scripture and judgement and prophethood, and We provided them with good things and preferred them over the worlds.

وَءَاتَيْنَـٰهُم بَيِّنَـٰتٍۢ مِّنَ ٱلْأَمْرِ ۖ فَمَا ٱخْتَلَفُوٓا۟ إِلَّا مِنۢ بَعْدِ مَا جَآءَهُمُ ٱلْعِلْمُ بَغْيًۢا بَيْنَهُمْ ۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ يَقْضِى بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ ٱلْقِيَـٰمَةِ فِيمَا كَانُوا۟ فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ

Wa aatainaahum baiyinaatim minal amri famakh talafooo illaa mim ba’di maa jaaa’ahumul ‘ilmu baghyam bainahum; inna Rabbaka yaqdee bainahum Yawmal Qiyaamati feemaa kaanoo feehi yakhtalifoon
17. And We gave them clear proofs of the matter [of religion]. And they did not differ except after knowledge had come to them – out of jealous animosity between themselves. Indeed, your Lord will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection concerning that over which they used to differ.

ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَـٰكَ عَلَىٰ شَرِيعَةٍۢ مِّنَ ٱلْأَمْرِ فَٱتَّبِعْهَا وَلَا تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَآءَ ٱلَّذِينَ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

Summa ja’alnaaka ‘alaa sharee’atim minal amri fattabi’haa wa laa tattabi’ahwaaa’al-lazeena laa ya’lamoon
18. Then We put you, [O Muhammad], on an ordained way concerning the matter [of religion]; so follow it and do not follow the inclinations of those who do not know.

إِنَّهُمْ لَن يُغْنُوا۟ عَنكَ مِنَ ٱللَّهِ شَيْـًۭٔا ۚ وَإِنَّ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَآءُ بَعْضٍۢ ۖ وَٱللَّهُ وَلِىُّ ٱلْمُتَّقِينَ

Innahum lany yughnoo ‘anka minal laahi shai’aa; wa innaz zaalimeena ba’duhum awliyaaa’u ba’dinw wallaahu waliyyul muttaqeen
19. Indeed, they will never avail you against Allah at all. And indeed, the wrongdoers are allies of one another; but Allah is the protector of the righteous.

هَـٰذَا بَصَـٰٓئِرُ لِلنَّاسِ وَهُدًۭى وَرَحْمَةٌۭ لِّقَوْمٍۢ يُوقِنُونَ

Haazaa basaaa’iru linnaasi wa hudanw wa rahmatul liqawminy yooqinoon
20. This [Qur’an] is enlightenment for mankind and guidance and mercy for a people who are certain [in faith].

أَمْ حَسِبَ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱجْتَرَحُوا۟ ٱلسَّيِّـَٔاتِ أَن نَّجْعَلَهُمْ كَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَعَمِلُوا۟ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ سَوَآءًۭ مَّحْيَاهُمْ وَمَمَاتُهُمْ ۚ سَآءَ مَا يَحْكُمُونَ

Am hasibal lazeenaj tarahus saiyiaati an naj’alahum kallazeena aamanoo wa ‘amilu saalihaati sawaaa’am mahyaahum wa mamaatuhum; saaa’a maa yahkumoon (section 2)
21. Or do those who commit evils think We will make them like those who have believed and done righteous deeds – [make them] equal in their life and their death? Evil is that which they judge.

وَخَلَقَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَ‌ٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضَ بِٱلْحَقِّ وَلِتُجْزَىٰ كُلُّ نَفْسٍۭ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ

Wa khalaqal laahus samaawaati wal arda bilhaqqi wa litujzaa kullu nafsim bimaa kasabat wa hum laa yuzlamoon
22. And Allah created the heavens and earth in truth and so that every soul may be recompensed for what it has earned, and they will not be wronged.

أَفَرَءَيْتَ مَنِ ٱتَّخَذَ إِلَـٰهَهُۥ هَوَىٰهُ وَأَضَلَّهُ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ عِلْمٍۢ وَخَتَمَ عَلَىٰ سَمْعِهِۦ وَقَلْبِهِۦ وَجَعَلَ عَلَىٰ بَصَرِهِۦ غِشَـٰوَةًۭ فَمَن يَهْدِيهِ مِنۢ بَعْدِ ٱللَّهِ ۚ أَفَلَا تَذَكَّرُونَ

Afara’ayta manit takhaza ilaahahoo hawaahu wa adal lahul laahu ‘alaa ‘ilminw wa khatama ‘alaa sam’ihee wa qalbihee wa ja’ala ‘alaa basarihee ghishaawatan famany yahdeehi mim ba’dil laah; afalaa tazakkaroon
23. Have you seen he who has taken as his god his [own] desire, and Allah has sent him astray due to knowledge and has set a seal upon his hearing and his heart and put over his vision a veil? So who will guide him after Allah ? Then will you not be reminded?

وَقَالُوا۟ مَا هِىَ إِلَّا حَيَاتُنَا ٱلدُّنْيَا نَمُوتُ وَنَحْيَا وَمَا يُهْلِكُنَآ إِلَّا ٱلدَّهْرُ ۚ وَمَا لَهُم بِذَ‌ٰلِكَ مِنْ عِلْمٍ ۖ إِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا يَظُنُّونَ

Wa qaaloo maa hiya illaa hayaatunad dunyaa namootu wa nahyaa wa maa yuhlikunaaa illad dahr; wa maa lahum bizaalika min ‘ilmin in hum illaayazunnoon
24. And they say, “There is not but our worldly life; we die and live, and nothing destroys us except time.” And they have of that no knowledge; they are only assuming.

وَإِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِمْ ءَايَـٰتُنَا بَيِّنَـٰتٍۢ مَّا كَانَ حُجَّتَهُمْ إِلَّآ أَن قَالُوا۟ ٱئْتُوا۟ بِـَٔابَآئِنَآ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـٰدِقِينَ

Wa izaa tutlaa ‘alaihim aayaatuna baiyinaatim maa kaana hujjatahum illaaa an qaalu’too bi aabaaa’inaaa in kuntum saadiqeen
25. And when Our verses are recited to them as clear evidences, their argument is only that they say, “Bring [back] our forefathers, if you should be truthful.”

قُلِ ٱللَّهُ يُحْيِيكُمْ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يَجْمَعُكُمْ إِلَىٰ يَوْمِ ٱلْقِيَـٰمَةِ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ وَلَـٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ ٱلنَّاسِ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ

Qulil laahu yuhyeekum summa yumeetukum summa yajma’ukum ilaa Yawmil Qiyaamati laa raiba feehi wa laakinna aksaran naasi laa ya’lamoon (section 3)
26. Say, ” Allah causes you to live, then causes you to die; then He will assemble you for the Day of Resurrection, about which there is no doubt, but most of the people do not know.”

وَلِلَّهِ مُلْكُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَ‌ٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ ۚ وَيَوْمَ تَقُومُ ٱلسَّاعَةُ يَوْمَئِذٍۢ يَخْسَرُ ٱلْمُبْطِلُونَ

Wa lillaahi mulkus samaawaati wal ard; wa Yawma taqoomus Saa’atu Yawma ‘iziny yakhsarul mubtiloon
27. And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. And the Day the Hour appears – that Day the falsifiers will lose.

وَتَرَىٰ كُلَّ أُمَّةٍۢ جَاثِيَةًۭ ۚ كُلُّ أُمَّةٍۢ تُدْعَىٰٓ إِلَىٰ كِتَـٰبِهَا ٱلْيَوْمَ تُجْزَوْنَ مَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ

Wa taraa kulla ummatin jaasiyah; kullu ummatin tud’aaa ilaa kitaabihaa al Yawma tujzawna maa kuntum ta’maloon
28. And you will see every nation kneeling [from fear]. Every nation will be called to its record [and told], “Today you will be recompensed for what you used to do.

هَـٰذَا كِتَـٰبُنَا يَنطِقُ عَلَيْكُم بِٱلْحَقِّ ۚ إِنَّا كُنَّا نَسْتَنسِخُ مَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ

Haazaa kitaabunaa yantiqu ‘alaikum bilhaqq; innaa kunnaa nastansikhu maa kuntum ta’maloon
29. This, Our record, speaks about you in truth. Indeed, We were having transcribed whatever you used to do.”

فَأَمَّا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَعَمِلُوا۟ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ فَيُدْخِلُهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ فِى رَحْمَتِهِۦ ۚ ذَ‌ٰلِكَ هُوَ ٱلْفَوْزُ ٱلْمُبِينُ

Fa ammal lazeena aamaanoo wa ‘amilus saalihaati fayudkhiluhum Rabbuhum fee rahmatih; zaalika huwal fawzul mubeen
30. So as for those who believed and did righteous deeds, their Lord will admit them into His mercy. That is what is the clear attainment.

وَأَمَّا ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٓا۟ أَفَلَمْ تَكُنْ ءَايَـٰتِى تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْكُمْ فَٱسْتَكْبَرْتُمْ وَكُنتُمْ قَوْمًۭا مُّجْرِمِينَ

Wa ammal lazeena kafarooo afalam takun Aayaatee tutlaa ‘alaikum fastakbartum wa kuntum qawmam mujrimeen
31. But as for those who disbelieved, [it will be said], “Were not Our verses recited to you, but you were arrogant and became a people of criminals?

وَإِذَا قِيلَ إِنَّ وَعْدَ ٱللَّهِ حَقٌّۭ وَٱلسَّاعَةُ لَا رَيْبَ فِيهَا قُلْتُم مَّا نَدْرِى مَا ٱلسَّاعَةُ إِن نَّظُنُّ إِلَّا ظَنًّۭا وَمَا نَحْنُ بِمُسْتَيْقِنِينَ

Wa izaa qeela inna wa’dallaahi haqqunw was Saa’atu laa raiba feehaa qultum maa nadree mas Saa’atu in nazunnu illaa zannanw wa maa nahnu bimustaiqineen
32. And when it was said, ‘Indeed, the promise of Allah is truth and the Hour [is coming] – no doubt about it,’ you said, ‘We know not what is the Hour. We assume only assumption, and we are not convinced.’ “

وَبَدَا لَهُمْ سَيِّـَٔاتُ مَا عَمِلُوا۟ وَحَاقَ بِهِم مَّا كَانُوا۟ بِهِۦ يَسْتَهْزِءُونَ

Wa badaa lahum saiyiaatu maa ‘amiloo wa haaqa bihim maa kaanoo bihee yastahzi’oon
33. And the evil consequences of what they did will appear to them, and they will be enveloped by what they used to ridicule.

وَقِيلَ ٱلْيَوْمَ نَنسَىٰكُمْ كَمَا نَسِيتُمْ لِقَآءَ يَوْمِكُمْ هَـٰذَا وَمَأْوَىٰكُمُ ٱلنَّارُ وَمَا لَكُم مِّن نَّـٰصِرِينَ

Wa qeelal yawma nansaakum kamaa naseetum liqaaa’a yawmikum haazaa wa maawaakumun Naaru wa maa lakum min naasireen
34. And it will be said, “Today We will forget you as you forgot the meeting of this Day of yours, and your refuge is the Fire, and for you there are no helpers.

ذَ‌ٰلِكُم بِأَنَّكُمُ ٱتَّخَذْتُمْ ءَايَـٰتِ ٱللَّهِ هُزُوًۭا وَغَرَّتْكُمُ ٱلْحَيَوٰةُ ٱلدُّنْيَا ۚ فَٱلْيَوْمَ لَا يُخْرَجُونَ مِنْهَا وَلَا هُمْ يُسْتَعْتَبُونَ

Zaalikum bi annakumut takhaztum aayaatil laahi huzuwanw wa gharratkumul hayaatud dunyaa; fal yawma laa yukhrajoona minhaa wa laahum yusta’taboon
35. That is because you took the verses of Allah in ridicule, and worldly life deluded you.” So that Day they will not be removed from it, nor will they be asked to appease [Allah].

فَلِلَّهِ ٱلْحَمْدُ رَبِّ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَ‌ٰتِ وَرَبِّ ٱلْأَرْضِ رَبِّ ٱلْعَـٰلَمِينَ

Falillaahil hamdu Rabbis samaawaati wa Rabbil ardi Rabbil-‘aalameen
36. Then, to Allah belongs [all] praise – Lord of the heavens and Lord of the earth, Lord of the worlds.

وَلَهُ ٱلْكِبْرِيَآءُ فِى ٱلسَّمَـٰوَ‌ٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ ۖ وَهُوَ ٱلْعَزِيزُ ٱلْحَكِيمُ

Wa lahul kibriyaaa’u fissamaawaati wal ardi wa Huwal ‘Azeezul Hakeem (section 4) (End Juz 25)
37. And to Him belongs [all] grandeur within the heavens and the earth, and He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.

Tafsir of Surah Al Jathiya

The purpose of the revelation of the Quran was to call people to Islam, the one true religion. It’s message was to show and provide guidance to people. This is why it’s important we continue to read the Quran regularly but let’s not forget to make it a study and understand it’s teaching. Below you benefit from reading the commentary of Surah Jathiya by Ibn Kathir and from Tafheem ul Quran by Abul A’a Maududi.

Surah Jathiya Tafsir by Ibn Kathir

Which was revealed in Makkah

 

﴿بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَـنِ الرَّحِيمِ ﴾

 

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

A Directive to contemplate over Allah’s Ayat

Allah directs His servants to contemplate His favors and gifts, as well as His great power that is demonstrated by His creating the heavens and the earth and the various types and categories of creatures in them. There are the angels, Jinns, humans, animals, birds, beasts, carnivores, insects and various kinds of sea creatures. The night and day alternate, each follows the other in succession, never ceasing to come, as decreed. One brings darkness and one brings light. Allah the Exalted also sends down the rain from the clouds when it is most needed. He is calling the rain, `provision’, because it is the resource that produces various provisions,

﴿فَأَحْيَا بِهِ الاٌّرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا﴾

 

(and revives therewith the earth after its death,) after it was dry and had no vegetation or life of any kind. Allah said next,

﴿وَتَصْرِيفِ الرِّيَـحِ﴾

 

(and in the turning about of the winds,) sometimes towards the south and sometimes towards the north. Some are easterly winds and some are westerly winds, some bringing sea breezes and some blow from the land, some coming at night and some by day. Some winds bring rain, some cause pollination and some winds just revive the soul, while some others bear no benefit. Allah said first.

﴿لاّيَـتٍ لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ﴾

 

(are signs for the believers), then

﴿يُوقِنُونَ﴾

 

(who have faith with certainty), then

﴿يَعْقِلُونَ﴾

 

(who understand), thus ascending from one honorable stage to what is more honorable and higher in grade. These Ayat are similar to an Ayah in Surat Al-Baqarah

﴿إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَاخْتِلَـفِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ وَالْفُلْكِ الَّتِى تَجْرِى فِى الْبَحْرِ بِمَا يَنفَعُ النَّاسَ وَمَآ أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ مِنَ السَّمَآءِ مِن مَّآءٍ فَأَحْيَا بِهِ الاٌّرْضَ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا وَبَثَّ فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ دَآبَّةٍ وَتَصْرِيفِ الرِّيَـحِ وَالسَّحَابِ الْمُسَخَّرِ بَيْنَ السَّمَآءِ وَالأَرْضِ لآيَـتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ ﴾

 

(Verily, in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, and the ships which sail through the sea with that which is of use to mankind, and the water which Allah sends down from the sky and makes the earth alive therewith after its death, and the moving creatures of all kinds that He has spread therein, and in the veering of winds and clouds which are held between the sky and the earth, are indeed signs for people of understanding.) (2:164)

The Description of the Sinful Liar and His Requital

Allah the Exalted says,

﴿تِلْكَ آيَـتُ اللَّهِ﴾

 

(These are the Ayat of Allah) — in reference to the Qur’an with the proofs and evidences that it contains,

﴿نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِالْحَقِّ﴾

 

(which We recite to you with truth.) for they contain the truth from the Truth (i.e., Allah). Therefore, if they do not believe in Allah’s Ayat nor abide by them, what speech after Allah and His Ayat will they then believe in Allah said next,

﴿وَيْلٌ لِّكُلِّ أَفَّاكٍ أَثِيمٍ ﴾

 

(Woe to every sinful liar.) who lies in his speech, often swears, who is worthless, commits and utters sinful acts and statements, and disbelieves in Allah’s Ayat,

﴿يَسْمَعُ ءَايَـتِ اللَّهِ تُتْلَى عَلَيْهِ﴾

 

(Who hears the Ayat of Allah Tutla (recited) to him,) meaning, being recited to him,

﴿ثُمَّ يُصِرُّ﴾

 

(yet persists) in his disbelief, denial, pride and rebellion,

﴿كَأَن لَّمْ يَسْمَعْهَا﴾

 

(as if he heard them not. ) as if he did not hear them being recited to him,

﴿فَبَشِّرْهُ بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ﴾

 

(So announce to him a painful torment!) convey the news to him that on the Day of Resurrection, he will have a painful, severe torment from Allah. Allah said,

﴿وَإِذَا عَلِمَ مِنْ ءَايَـتِنَا شَيْئاً اتَّخَذَهَا هُزُواً﴾

 

(And when he learns something of Our Ayat, he makes them a jest.) if he learns anything from the Qur’an, he disbelieves in it and takes it as the subject of jest and ridicule,

﴿أُوْلَـئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ مُّهِينٌ﴾

 

(For such there will be a humiliating torment.) as recompense for ridiculing the Qur’an and jesting about it. In the Sahih, Muslim recorded from `Abdullah bin `Umar that the Messenger of Allah prohibited traveling with the Qur’an to enemy lands for fear that the Qur’an might be desecrated by the enemy. Allah explained the type of torment that these people earn on the Day of Return;

﴿مِّن وَرَآئِهِمْ جَهَنَّمُ﴾

 

(In front of them there is Hell.) meaning, all those who have these evil characteristics will end up in Hellfire on the Day of Resurrection,

﴿وَلاَ يُغْنِى عَنْهُم مَّا كَسَبُواْ شَيْئاً﴾

 

(And that which they have earned will be of no profit to them, ) their wealth and children will not avail them,

﴿وَلاَ مَا اتَّخَذُواْ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ أَوْلِيَآءَ﴾

 

(nor those whom they have taken as protecting friends besides Allah.) nor will the false gods that they worshipped besides Allah benefit them in the least,

﴿وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عظِيمٌ﴾

 

(And theirs will be a great torment.) Allah the Exalted said,

﴿هَـذَا هُدًى﴾

 

(This is Huda (guidance).) in reference to the Qur’an,

﴿وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ بِـَايَـتِ رَبِّهِمْ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ مِّن رِّجْزٍ أَلِيمٌ﴾

 

(And those who disbelieve in the Ayat of their Lord, for them there is a painful torment of Rijz.) that is agonizing and severe. Allah knows best.

The Subjugation of the Sea, etc., is among Allah’s Signs

Allah the Exalted mentions some of the favors He gave to His servants, such as subjecting the sea for their service,

﴿لِتَجْرِىَ الْفُلْكُ فِيهِ بِأَمْرِهِ﴾

 

(that ships may sail through the sea by His command,) i.e., of Allah the Exalted, Who ordered the sea to carry ships,

﴿وَلِتَبْتَغُواْ مِن فَضْلِهِ﴾

 

(and that you may seek of His bounty,) in commercial and business transactions,

﴿وَلَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ﴾

 

(and that you may be thankful.) for earning various provisions brought to you from far away provinces and distant areas through the sea. Allah the Exalted said,

﴿وَسَخَّرَ لَكُمْ مَّا فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَمَا فِى الاٌّرْضِ﴾

 

(And has subjected to you all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth;) the stars, the mountains, the seas, the rivers and all that you use for your benefit; these are all from His favor, kindness and bounty. Allah’s statement next,

﴿جَمِيعاً مِّنْهُ﴾

 

(it is all from Him.) Alone without partners in giving any of it. Allah the Exalted said in another Ayah,

﴿وَمَا بِكُم مِّن نِّعْمَةٍ فَمِنَ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ إِذَا مَسَّكُمُ الضُّرُّ فَإِلَيْهِ تَجْـَرُونَ ﴾

 

(And whatever of blessings you have, it is from Allah. Then, when harm touches you unto Him you cry aloud for help.) (16:53) Ibn Jarir recorded that Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas said about Allah’s statement,

﴿وَسَخَّرَ لَكُمْ مَّا فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَمَا فِى الاٌّرْضِ جَمِيعاً مِّنْهُ﴾

 

(And has subjected to you all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth; it is all from Him.) “Everything is from Allah, and that is a Name from His Names. So it all comes from Him without rivals to dispute His authority; surely, this fact is completely certain.” Allah said.

﴿إِنَّ فِى ذلِكَ لآيَـتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ﴾

 

(Verily, in it are signs for a people who think deeply.)

 

The Command to be Patient with the Harm of Idolators

Allah’s saying;

﴿قُل لِّلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ يَغْفِرُواْ لِلَّذِينَ لاَ يَرْجُونَ أَيَّامَ اللَّهِ﴾

 

(Say to the believers to forgive those who hope not for the Days of Allah,) means, let the believers forgive the disbelievers and endure the harm that they direct against them. In the beginning of Islam, Muslims were ordered to observe patience in the face of the oppression of the idolators and the People of the Scriptures so that their hearts may incline towards Islam. However, when the disbelievers persisted in stubbornness, Allah legislated for the believers to fight in Jihad. Statements of this meaning were collected from `Abdullah bin `Abbas and Qatadah. Mujahid said about Allah’s statement,

﴿لاَ يَرْجُونَ أَيَّامَ اللَّهِ﴾

 

(those who hope not for the Days of Allah,) “They do not appreciate Allah’s favors.” Allah said,

﴿لِيَجْزِىَ قَوْماً بِمَا كَانُواْ يَكْسِبُونَ﴾

 

(that He may recompense people, according to what they have earned.) meaning, if the believers forgive the disbelievers in this life, Allah will still punish the disbelievers for their evil in the Hereafter. Allah’s statement next,

﴿مَنْ عَمِلَ صَـلِحاً فَلِنَفْسِهِ وَمَنْ أَسَآءَ فَعَلَيْهَا ثُمَّ إِلَى رَبِّكُمْ تُرْجَعُونَ ﴾

 

(Whosoever does a good deed, it is for himself, and whosoever does evil, it is against (himself). Then to your Lord you will be made to return.) meaning, you will all return to Allah on the Day of Resurrection, when you and your actions will be displayed before Him. Then, He will recompense you for your deeds, good for good and evil for evil.

﴿وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَا بَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ الْكِتَـبَ وَالْحُكْمَ وَالنُّبُوَّةَ وَرَزَقْنَـهُمْ مِّنَ الطَّيِّبَـتِ وَفَضَّلْنَـهُمْ عَلَى الْعَـلَمينَ – وَءاتَيْنَـهُم بَيِّنَـتٍ مِّنَ الاٌّمْرِ فَمَا اخْتَلَفُواْ إِلاَّ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَآءَهُمُ الْعِلْمُ بَغْياً بَيْنَهُمْ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ يَقْضِى بِيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ فِيمَا كَانُواْ فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ – ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَـكَ عَلَى شَرِيعَةٍ مِّنَ الاٌّمْرِ فَاتَّبِعْهَا وَلاَ تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَآءَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ ﴾

Preference of Allah to the Children of Israel and their dispute thereafter

Allah the Exalted mentions the favors He granted the Children of Israel, such as revealing the Divine Books to them, sending the Messengers to them and granting them kingship. Allah said,

﴿وَلَقَدْ ءَاتَيْنَا بَنِى إِسْرَءِيلَ الْكِتَـبَ وَالْحُكْمَ وَالنُّبُوَّةَ وَرَزَقْنَـهُمْ مِّنَ الطَّيِّبَـتِ﴾

 

(And indeed We gave the Children of Israel the Scripture, and the understanding of the Scripture and its laws, and the prophethood; and provided them with good things,) such as foods and drinks,

﴿وَفَضَّلْنَـهُمْ عَلَى الْعَـلَمينَ﴾

 

(and preferred them above the nations.) of their time,

﴿وَءاتَيْنَـهُم بَيِّنَـتٍ مِّنَ الاٌّمْرِ﴾

 

(And gave them clear proofs in matters.) `We gave them evidences, proofs and unequivocal signs.’ Therefore, the proof has been established against them, yet they differed among themselves after the proof came to them, out of transgression against each other,

﴿إِنَّ رَبَّكَ﴾

 

(Verily, your Lord) `O Muhammad’,

﴿يَقْضِى بَيْنَهُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَـمَةِ فِيمَا كَانُواْ فِيهِ يَخْتَلِفُونَ﴾

 

(will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection about that wherein they used to differ. ) He will judge between them by His just judgement.

 

Warning to this Ummah against following the Ways of the Children of Israel

This Ayah contains a warning to the Muslim Ummah as well. It warns them not to take the path the Jews took nor adopt their ways. This is why Allah said,

﴿ثُمَّ جَعَلْنَـكَ عَلَى شَرِيعَةٍ مِّنَ الاٌّمْرِ فَاتَّبِعْهَا﴾

 

(Then We have put you on a (legal) way of commandment. So follow you that.) `follow what was revealed to you from your Lord, O Muhammad, there is no true deity except Him, and turn away from the idolators.’ Allah said,

﴿وَلاَ تَتَّبِعْ أَهْوَآءَ الَّذِينَ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَإِنَّهُمْ لَن يُغْنُواْ عَنكَ مِنَ اللَّهِ شَيْئاً وَإِنَّ الظَّـلِمِينَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلِيَآءُ بَعْضٍ﴾

 

(and follow not the desires of those who know not. Verily, they can avail you nothing against Allah. Verily, the wrongdoers are protecting friends of one another,) Allah says, `what will the loyalty that the idolators give each other avail them’ Indeed, all they will earn from their protecting friends is more loss, destruction and demise,

﴿وَاللَّهُ وَلِىُّ الْمُتَّقِينَ﴾

 

(but Allah is the Protector of those who have Taqwa.) and He will deliver them from the darkness to the light. In contrast, all the false deities are the protecting friends of those who disbelieve, taking them out of the light to the darkness. Allah said,

﴿هَـذَا بَصَـئِرُ لِلنَّاسِ﴾

 

(This is a clear insight and evidence for man- kind,) in reference to the Qur’an,

﴿وَهُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يُوقِنُونَ﴾

 

(and a guidance and a mercy for people who have faith with certainty.)

The Life and the Death of the Believers and the Disbelievers are not Equal

Allah the Exalted states here that the believers and the disbelievers are never equal. Allah said in another Ayah,

﴿لاَ يَسْتَوِى أَصْحَـبُ النَّارِ وَأَصْحَـبُ الْجَنَّةِ أَصْحَـبُ الْجَنَّةِ هُمُ الْفَآئِزُونَ ﴾

 

(Not equal are the dwellers of the Fire and the dwellers of the Paradise. It is the dwellers of Paradise that will be successful.) (59:20) Allah said here,

﴿أَمْ حَسِبَ الَّذِينَ اجْتَرَحُواْ السَّيِّئَـتِ﴾

 

(Or do those who earn evil deeds think) those who commit and practice evil,

﴿أَن نَّجْعَلَهُمْ كَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ سَوَآءً مَّحْيَـهُمْ وَمَمَـتُهُمْ﴾

 

(that We shall hold them equal with those who believe and do righteous good deeds, in their life and their death) treat them equally in the present life of the world and in the Hereafter

﴿سَآءَ مَا يَحْكُمُونَ﴾

 

(Worst is the judgement that they make.) `worst is the thought that they have about Us and about Our justice, thinking that We will ever make the pious and the wicked equal in the Hereafter or this life.’ At–Tabarani recorded that Shu`bah said that `Amr bin Murrah narrated that Abu Ad-Duha said that Masruq said that Tamim Ad-Dari once stood in voluntary prayer through the night until the morning only reciting this Ayah,

﴿أَمْ حَسِبَ الَّذِينَ اجْتَرَحُواْ السَّيِّئَـتِ أَن نَّجْعَلَهُمْ كَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ﴾

 

(Or do those who earn evil deeds think that We shall hold them equal with those who believe and do righteous good deeds) Allah said in reply:

﴿سَآءَ مَا يَحْكُمُونَ﴾

 

(Worst is the judgement that they make.) Allah said,

﴿وَخَلَقَ اللَّهُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضَ بِالْحَقِّ﴾

 

(And Allah has created the heavens and the earth with truth,) meaning, in justice,

﴿وَلِتُجْزَى كُلُّ نَفْسٍ بِمَا كَسَبَتْ وَهُمْ لاَ يُظْلَمُونَ﴾

 

(in order that each person may be recompensed what he has earned, and they will not be wronged.) Allah the Exalted said,

﴿أَفَرَأَيْتَ مَنِ اتَّخَذَ إِلَـهَهُ هَوَاهُ﴾

 

(Have you seen him who takes his own lust as his god), who abides by his lust, and whatever his lust portrays as good he implements it, and whatever his lust portrays as evil, he abandons it! Allah’s statement,

﴿وَأَضَلَّهُ اللَّهُ عَلَى عِلْمٍ﴾

 

(And Allah left him astray with knowledge, ) has two meanings. One of them is that Allah knew that this person deserves to be misguided, so He left him astray. The second meaning is that Allah led this person astray after knowledge reached him and the proof was established before him. The second meaning includes the first meaning, but not the opposite. Allah said,

﴿وَخَتَمَ عَلَى سَمْعِهِ وَقَلْبِهِ وَجَعَلَ عَلَى بَصَرِهِ غِشَـوَةً﴾

 

(and sealed his hearing and his heart, and put a cover on his sight.) so he does not hear what benefits him, understands not what would lead him to the guidance and sees not the evidence with which he can be enlightened. This is why Allah said,

﴿فَمَن يَهْدِيهِ مِن بَعْدِ اللَّهِ أَفَلاَ تَذَكَّرُونَ﴾

 

(Who then will guide him after Allah Will you not then remember) Allah said in a similar Ayah,

﴿مَن يُضْلِلِ اللَّهُ فَلاَ هَادِيَ لَهُ وَيَذَرُهُمْ فِى طُغْيَـنِهِمْ يَعْمَهُونَ ﴾

 

(Whomsoever Allah sends astray, none can guide him; and He lets them wander blindly in their transgressions.) (7:186).

The Conviction of the Disbelievers, Their Argument and the Refutation of it

Allah mentions here the creed of Ad-Dahriyyah and the Arab idolators who embraced their creed, denying Resurrection,

﴿وَقَالُواْ مَا هِىَ إِلاَّ حَيَاتُنَا الدُّنْيَا نَمُوتُ وَنَحْيَا﴾

 

(And they say: “There is nothing but our life of this world, we die and we live….”) They say that there is only this life, some people die while others are born to life, without Resurrection or Judgement. This was the creed of Arab idolators who used to deny Resurrection, in addition to, the creed of the atheist philosophers among them who denied the creation and Resurrection. This was also the statement of atheist philosophers who deny the Creator and think that the world will return to its original form once every thirty–six thousand years, when everything will restart its life–cycle again! They claim that this cycle was repeated for infinity, thus contradicting the sound reason and the divine revelation. They said,

﴿وَمَا يُهْلِكُنَآ إِلاَّ الدَّهْرُ﴾

 

(and nothing destroys us except Ad-Dahr (time).) Allah the Exalted said in reply,

﴿وَمَا لَهُمْ بِذَلِكَ مِنْ عِلْمٍ إِنْ هُمْ إِلاَّ يَظُنُّونَ﴾

 

(And they have no knowledge of it, they only presume.) they speculate and guess! As for the Hadith recorded by the two collectors of the Sahih, and Abu Dawud and An-Nasa’i, from Abu Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said,

«يَقُولُ تَعَالَى: يُؤْذِينِي ابْنُ آدَمَ، يَسُبُّ الدَّهْرَ وَأَنَا الدَّهْرُ، بِيَدِيَ الْأَمْرُ، أُقَلِّبُ لَيْلَهُ وَنَهَارَه»

 

(Allah the Exalted says, “The Son of `Adam annoys Me when he curses Ad-Dahr (time), while I am Ad-Dahr. In My Hand are all matters; I cause the alternation of his days and nights.”) In another narration;

«لَا تَسُبُّوا الدَّهْرَ فَإِنَّ اللهَ تَعَالَى هُوَ الدَّهْر»

 

(Do not curse Ad-Dahr (time), for Allah is Ad-Dahr.) Ash-Shafi`i, Abu `Ubaydah and several other Imams of Tafsir explained the meaning of the Prophet’s statement,

«لَا تَسُبُّوا الدَّهْرَ فَإِنَّ اللهَ هُوَ الدَّهْر»

 

(Do not abuse Ad-Dahr (time), for Allah is Ad-Dahr.) They said, “During the time of Jahiliyyah, when an affliction, a calamity or a disaster struck them, the Arabs used to say, `Woe to Ad-Dahr (time)!’ So they used to blame such incidents on Ad-Dahr, cursing Ad-Dahr in the process. Surely, it is Allah the Exalted and Most Honored Who causes these (and all) things to happen. This is why when they cursed Ad-Dahr, it was as if they were cursing Allah Himself, since truthfully, He causes all incidents to happen. Therefore, abusing Ad-Dahr was prohibited due to this consideration, for it was Allah Whom they meant by abusing Ad-Dahr, which — as we said– they accused of causing (distressful) incidents.” This is the best explanation for this subject, and it is the desired meaning. Allah knows best. We should mention that Ibn Hazm and those of the Zahiriyyah like him made an error when they used this Hadith to include Ad-Dahr among Allah’s most beautiful Names. Allah’s statement,

﴿وَإِذَا تُتْلَى عَلَيْهِمْ ءَايَـتُنَا بَيِّنَاتٍ﴾

 

(And when Our Clear Ayat are recited to them,) means, when the truth is made plain to them and used as evidence against them, asserting that Allah is able to resurrect the bodies after they have perished and disintegrated,

﴿مَّا كَانَ حُجَّتَهُمْ إِلاَّ أَن قَالُواْ ائْتُواْ بِـَابَآئِنَآ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ﴾

 

(their argument is no other than that they say: “Bring back our fathers, if you are truthful!”) `bring them back to life, if what you say is true.’ Allah the Exalted said,

﴿قُلِ اللَّهُ يُحْيِيكُمْ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ﴾

 

(Say (to them): “Allah gives you life and then causes you to die…”) `for you are witnesses that He brings you (or new life) to existence after non–existence,’

﴿كَيْفَ تَكْفُرُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَكُنتُمْ أَمْوَتًا فَأَحْيَـكُمْ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ﴾

 

(How can you disbelieve in Allah Seeing that you were dead and He gave you life. Then He will give you death, then again will bring you to life.) (2:28) Therefore, He Who is able to initiate creation, is able to restart it, as well and more obviously,

﴿وَهُوَ الَّذِى يَبْدَأُ الْخَلْقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ وَهُوَ أَهْوَنُ عَلَيْهِ﴾

 

(And He it is Who originates the creation, then He will repeat it; and this is easier for Him.) (30:27) Allah said next,

﴿ثُمَّ يَجْمَعُكُمْ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَـمَةِ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ﴾

 

(then He will assemble you on the Day of Resurrection about which there is no doubt.) `when He resurrects you, it will be on and for the Day of Resurrection, not in this life. Therefore, your statement is groundless,’

﴿ائْتُواْ بِـَابَآئِنَآ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـدِقِينَ﴾

 

Bring back our (dead) fathers, if you are truthful! Alla0h said,

﴿يَوْمَ يَجْمَعُكُمْ لِيَوْمِ الْجَمْعِ﴾

 

The Day when He will gather you (all) on the Day of Gathering. )64:9(,

﴿لأَيِّ يَوْمٍ أُجِّلَتْ – لِيَوْمِ الْفَصْلِ ﴾

 

(For what Day are these signs postponed For the Day of sorting out.) (77:12-13), and,

﴿وَمَا نُؤَخِّرُهُ إِلاَّ لاًّجَلٍ مَّعْدُودٍ ﴾

 

(And We delay it only for a term (already) fixed.) (11:104) Allah said here,

﴿ثُمَّ يَجْمَعُكُمْ إِلَى يَوْمِ الْقِيَـمَةِ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ﴾

 

(then He will assemble you on the Day of Resurrection about which there is no doubt.) there is no doubt that it will come,

﴿وَلَـكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ النَّاسِ لاَ يَعْلَمُونَ﴾

 

(But most of mankind know not.) and this is why they deny Resurrection and discount the fact that the bodies will be brought back to life. Allah the Exalted said,

﴿إِنَّهُمْ يَرَوْنَهُ بَعِيداً – وَنَرَاهُ قَرِيباً ﴾

 

(Verily, they see it afar off. But We see it (quite) near.) (70:6), they discount the possibility that Resurrection will ever come, while the believers believe that its occurrence is easy and imminent.

Some of the Conditions of the Day of Resurrection and its Horrors

Allah mentions that He is the King and Owner of the heavens and earth, and the Only Ruler over them in this life and the Hereafter. Allah’s statement,

﴿وَيَوْمَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ﴾

 

(And on the Day that the Hour will be established) on the Day of Resurrection,

﴿يَخْسَرُ الْمُبْطِلُونَ﴾

 

(the followers of falsehood shall lose.) those who disbelieve in Allah and reject the clear proofs and unequivocal evidences that He has sent down to His Messengers. Allah said,

﴿وَتَرَى كُلَّ أُمَّةٍ جَاثِيَةً﴾

 

(And you will see each nation humbled to their knees (Jathiyah),) kneeling, fearful of the tremendous calamity and events. It was said that this will occur when Hellfire will be brought forth, for she will exhale once, and everyone will fall to their knees, including Ibrahim, the Khalil. He will proclaim, “Myself, myself, myself! Today, I will not ask You (O Allah) but about myself.” And even `Isa, will proclaim, “Today, I will only argue before You on my own behalf, I will not ask You about Maryam, who gave birth to me.” Allah said next,

﴿كُلُّ أمَّةٍ تُدْعَى إِلَى كِتَـبِهَا﴾

 

(each nation will be called to its Record. ) meaning, Record of deeds. Allah said in a similar Ayah,

﴿وَوُضِعَ الْكِتَـبُ وَجِـىءَ بِالنَّبِيِّيْنَ وَالشُّهَدَآءِ﴾

 

(And the Book will be presented; and the Prophets and the witnesses will be brought forward) (39:69). This is why Allah said here,

﴿الْيَوْمَ تُجْزَوْنَ مَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ﴾

 

(This Day you shall be recompensed for what you used to do.) `you will be judged according to your deeds, good and evil.’ Allah said in similar Ayat;

﴿يُنَبَّأُ الإِنسَـنُ يَوْمَئِذِ بِمَا قَدَّمَ وَأَخَّرَ – بَلِ الإِنسَـنُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ بَصِيرَةٌ – وَلَوْ أَلْقَى مَعَاذِيرَهُ ﴾

 

(On that Day man will be informed of what he sent forward, and what he left behind. Nay! Man will be a witness against himself, though he may put forth his excuses.) (75:13-15) Allah said,

﴿هَـذَا كِتَـبُنَا يَنطِقُ عَلَيْكُم بِالْحَقِّ﴾

 

(This, Our Record speaks about you with truth.) It contains the record of all your actions, without addition or deletion. Allah also said:

﴿وَوُضِعَ الْكِتَـبُ فَتَرَى الْمُجْرِمِينَ مُشْفِقِينَ مِمَّا فِيهِ وَيَقُولُونَ يوَيْلَتَنَا مَا لِهَـذَا الْكِتَـبِ لاَ يُغَادِرُ صَغِيرَةً وَلاَ كَبِيرَةً إِلاَّ أَحْصَاهَا وَوَجَدُواْ مَا عَمِلُواْ حَاضِرًا وَلاَ يَظْلِمُ رَبُّكَ أَحَدًا ﴾

 

(And the Book will be presented, and you will see the criminals, fearful of that which is therein. They will say:”Woe to us! What sort of Book is this that leaves neither a small thing nor a big thing, but has recorded it with numbers!” And they will find all that they did, placed before them, and your Lord treats no one with injustice.) (18:49) Allah’s statement,

﴿إِنَّا كُنَّا نَسْتَنسِخُ مَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ﴾

 

(Verily, We were recording what you used to do.) means, `We ordered Our scribe angels to record your deeds.’ Ibn `Abbas and others commented, “The angels record the deeds of the servants and then ascend to heaven with them. There, they meet the angels entrusted with the Records of deeds sent down from Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz on each Night of Al-Qadr, containing what Allah has written will occur from the servants, long before He created them. They will compare their records and find out that not a single letter was added or deleted.” He then recited this Ayah,

﴿إِنَّا كُنَّا نَسْتَنسِخُ مَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ﴾

 

(Verily, We were recording what you used to do.)

Allah states to us His judgement in His creation on the Day of Resurrection,

﴿فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ الصَّـلِحَـتِ﴾

 

(Then, as for those who believed and did good deeds,) Those whose hearts believed and their limbs performed good deeds, in sincerity to Allah and conforming with Islamic legislation;

﴿فَيُدْخِلُهُمْ رَبُّهُمْ فِى رَحْمَتِهِ﴾

 

(their Lord will admit them to His mercy. ) and that is Paradise. In the Sahih, Allah said to Paradise;

«أَنْتِ رَحْمَتِي، أَرْحَمُ بِكِ مَنْ أَشَاء»

 

(“You are My mercy, with which I grant mercy to whom I will,”) Allah said;

﴿ذَلِكَ هُوَ الْفَوْزُ الْمُبِينُ﴾

 

(That will be the evident success.) clear and apparent. Allah said,

﴿وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ أَفَلَمْ تَكُنْ ءَايَـتِى تُتْلَى عَلَيْكُمْ فَاسْتَكْبَرْتُمْ﴾

 

(But as for those who disbelieved (it will be said to them): “Were not Our Ayat recited to you But you were proud…”) They will be admonished and criticized with this statement, that means, `have not the Ayat of Ar-Rahman been recited to you But you did not follow them out of pride and turned away upon hearing them,’

﴿وَكُنتُمْ قَوْماً مُّجْرِمِينَ﴾

 

(and you were a people who were criminals.), `by your actions, as well as, the denial that your hearts contained.’

﴿وَإِذَا قِيلَ إِنَّ وعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقٌّ وَالسَّاعَةُ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهَا﴾

 

(And when it was said: “Verily, Allah’s promise is the truth, and there is no doubt about the coming of the Hour,”) `when the believers said these words to you;’

﴿قُلْتُم مَّا نَدْرِى مَا السَّاعَةُ﴾

 

(you said: “We know not what is the Hour…”) `we do not recognize what you are talking about,’

﴿إِن نَّظُنُّ إِلاَّ ظَنّاً﴾

 

(we do not think it but conjecture,) `we only remotely think that it might come,’

﴿وَمَا نَحْنُ بِمُسْتَيْقِنِينَ﴾

 

(and we have no firm convincing belief (therein).) `we are not sure of it.’ Allah said,

﴿وَبَدَا لَهُمْ سَيِّئَـتُ مَا عَمِلُواْ﴾

 

(And the evil of what they did will appear to them,) the repercussion of their evil deeds will become apparent to them,

﴿وَحَاقَ بِهِم﴾

 

(and will completely encircle them.) from all directions,

﴿مَا كَانُواْ بِهِ يَسْتَهْزِءُونَ﴾

 

(that which they used to mock at) of the coming torment and punishment,

﴿وَقِيلَ الْيَوْمَ نَنسَاكُمْ﴾

 

(And it will be said: “This Day We will forget you…”) `We will treat you as if We have forgotten you, casting you in the fire of Jahannam,’

﴿كَمَا نَسِيتُمْ لِقَآءَ يَوْمِكُمْ هَـذَا﴾

 

(as you forgot the meeting of this Day of yours.) `and did not work for it because you did not believe in its coming,’

﴿وَمَأْوَاكُمُ النَّارُ وَمَا لَكُمْ مِّن نَّـصِرِينَ﴾

 

(And your abode is the Fire, and there is none to help you.) In the Sahih, it is reported that Allah the Exalted will ask some of His servants on the Day of Resurrection,

«أَلَمْ أُزَوِّجْكَ؟ أَلَمْ أُكْرِمْكَ؟ أَلَمْ أُسَخِّرْ لَكَ الْخَيْلَ وَالْإِبِلَ، وَأَذَرْكَ تَرْأَسُ وَتَرْبَعُ؟ فَيَقُولُ: بَلَى يَارَبِّ. فَيَقُولُ: أَفَظَنَنْتَ أَنَّكَ مُلَاقِيَّ؟ فَيَقُولُ: لَا. فَيَقُولُ اللهُ تَعَالَى: فَالْيَوْمَ أَنْسَاكَ كَمَا نَسِيتَنِي»

 

(“Have I not given you a spouse, honored you and subjected the camels and horses to you Have I not allowed you to be a chief and a master” The servant will say in answer, “Yes, O Lord!” Allah will say, “Did you think that you would ever meet Me” He will say, “No.” Allah the Exalted will say, “then this Day, I will forget you as you forgot Me.”) Allah the Exalted said,

﴿ذَلِكُم بِأَنَّكُمُ اتَّخَذْتُمْ ءَايَـتِ اللَّهِ هُزُواً﴾

 

(This, because you took the revelations of Allah in mockery.) `We gave you this punishment as retribution because you mocked Allah’s proofs that He sent to you, and made them the subject of jokes and jest,’

﴿وَغَرَّتْكُمُ الْحَيَوةُ الدُّنْيَا﴾

 

(and the life of the world deceived you.) `this life fooled you and you were seduced by to it, thus becoming among the ultimate losers,’

﴿فَالْيَوْمَ لاَ يُخْرَجُونَ مِنْهَا﴾

 

(So this Day, they shall not be taken out from there), from Hellfire,

﴿وَلاَ هُمْ يُسْتَعْتَبُونَ﴾

 

(nor shall they be returned to the worldly life.) no apologies shall be sought from them, but they will be punished without limit or delay, just as a group of the believers will enter Paradise without limit or delay. After Allah mentioned His judgement for the believers and the disbelievers, He said,

﴿فَلِلَّهِ الْحَمْدُ رَبِّ السَّمَـوَتِ وَرَبِّ الاٌّرْضِ﴾

 

(So all praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the heavens and the Lord of the earth,) He is their Owner and the Owner of all that is in and on them, and surely,

﴿رَبِّ الْعَـلَمِينَ﴾

 

(and the Lord of all that exists.) Allah said next,

﴿وَلَهُ الْكِبْرِيَآءُ فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ﴾

 

(And His is the majesty in the heavens and the earth, ) meaning, the kingship, according to Mujahid. This Ayah means, Allah is the Almighty, Worthy of all praise; everything and everyone is subservient and in complete need of and dependent upon Him. In an authentic Hadith, the Prophet said,

«يَقُولُ اللهُ تَعَالَى: الْعَظَمَةُ إِزَارِي، وَالْكِبْرِيَاءُ رِدَائِي، فَمَنْ نَازَعَنِي وَاحِدًا مِنْهُمَا أَسْكَنْتُهُ نَارِي»

 

(Allah the Exalted said, “Glory is My robe and pride is My garment; whoever rivals Me for either of them, I will make him reside in My Fire!”) Muslim collected a similar Hadith. Allah said,

﴿وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ﴾

 

(and He is the Al-`Aziz,) Who is never resisted or rivaled,

﴿الْحَكِيمُ﴾

 

(Al-Hakim) all wise in His statements, actions, legislation and the decree that He appoints; all glory and praise are due to Him, none has the right to be worshipped but He, Alone.

***

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Al-Jathiyah. All praise and thanks are due to Allah alone.

 

Tafseer Abul A’la Maududi

45. Surah At Jathiya (The Kneeling)

Name
It is derived from the sentence wa tartt kullu ummat- in jathiyat-un of verse 28, implying thereby that it is the Surah in which the word jathiyah has occurred.

Period of Revelation
The period of the revelation of this Surah also has not been mentioned in any authentic tradition, but its subject matter clearly shows that it was revealed consecutively after Surah Ad Dukhan. The close resemblance between the contents of the two Surahs makes them look like the twin Surahs.

Subject Matter and Topics
It answers the doubts and objections of the disbelievers of Makkah about Tauhid and the Hereafter and warns them for their attitude that they had adopted against the message of the Qur’an.

The discourse begins with the arguments for Tauhid. In this connection, reference has been made to the count- less Signs that are found in the world, from man’s own body to the earth and heavens, and it is pointed out that everywhere around him man finds things which testify to Tauhid which he refuses to acknowledge. If man sees carefully the variety of animals, the day and night, the rainfall and the vegetation thereby, the winds and his own creation, and ponders over them intelligently, without prejudice, he will find these Signs sufficiently convincing of the truth that this universe is not Godless, nor under the control of many gods, but it has been created by One God, and He alone is its Controller and Ruler. However, the case of the person who is determined not to acknowledge and wants to remain involved in doubts and suspicions is different. He cannot be blessed with the faith and conviction from anywhere in the world.

A little below, in the beginning of the second section, it has been reiterated that the things man is exploiting in the world, and the countless forces and agencies that are serving his interests in the universe, did not come into being just accidentally, nor have they been provided by the gods and goddesses, but it is One God alone, Who has supplied and subjected these to him from Himself. If only a person uses his mind properly and rightly, his own intellect will proclaim that God alone is man’s real Benefactor and He alone deserves that man should pay obeisance to Him.

After this, the disbelievers of Makkah have been taken to task and reproved for their stubbornness, arrogance, mockery and insistence on disbelief with which they were resisting the invitation of the Qur’an they have been warned that this Qur’an has brought the same blessing which had been granted to the children of Israel before, by virtue of which they became distinguished above all the people of the world. Then, when they failed to recognize the true worth of this blessing and disputed their religion and lost it, this blessing now has been sent to them. This is such a code of guidance which shows the clear highway of Religion to man. The people who would turn it down by their own folly, would only prepare for their own doom, and only such people would become worthy of God’s succour and mercy who would adopt obedience to it and lead a life of piety and righteousness.

In this connection, the followers of the Holy Prophet have been instructed that they should forbear and pardon the absurd and foolish behavior towards them of the people fearless of God, for if they showed patience God Himself would deal with their opponents and would reward them for their fortitude.

Then, there is a criticism of the erroneous ideas that the disbelievers hold about the Hereafter. They said that life was only this worldly life there was no life hereafter. Man dies in the course of time just as a watch stops functioning suddenly. The body is not survived by any soul, which might be seized and then breathed again into the human body some time in the future. In this regard, they challenged the Holy Prophet, saying: “If you lay a claim to this, then raise our dead forefathers back to life.” In answer to this, Allah has given the following arguments:

“You do not say this on the basis of any knowledge but are uttering this grave thing on the basis of conjecture. Do you really have the knowledge that there is no other life after death, and the souls are not seized but are annihilated?”

“Your this claim rests mainly on this that you have not seen any dead person rising back to life and returning to the world. Is this basis strong enough for a person to make a claim that the dead people will never rise to life?When you do not experience and observe a thing, does it mean that you have the knowledge that it does not exist at all?

It is utterly against reason and justice that the good and the bad, the obedient and the disobedient, the oppressor and the oppressed, should be made equal ultimately. Neither a good act should bear a good result nor an evil act an evil result; neither the grievances of the oppressed be redressed nor the oppressor be punished, but everyone should meet with the same fate ultimately. Whoever has formed this view about the universe of God, has formed a patently wrong view. The unjust and wicked people adopt this view because they do not want to face the evil results of their deeds, but this world of God is not a lawless kingdom; it is rather a system based on the Truth, in which there can be no question of the injustice of regarding the good and the bad as equal.

That the creed of the denial of the Hereafter is highly destructive of morals. This is adopted only by such people as are the slaves of their lusts, and for the reason that they should have full freedom to serve their lusts. Then, when they have adopted this creed, it goes on making them more and more perverse till at last their moral sense becomes dead and all avenues of guidance are closed against them.

After giving these arguments Allah says most emphatically: “Just as you did not become living of your own accord, but became living by Our power, so you do not die of your own accord, but die when We send death on you. And a time is certainly coming when you will all be gathered together. If you do not believe in this because of your ignorance and folly today, you may not; when the time arrives, you will see for yourself that you are present before your God and your whole book of conduct is ready accurately, which bears evidence against each of your misdeeds. Then you will come to know how dearly has your denial of the Hereafter and your mockery of it cost you.”

In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.


1-11 Food for thought to those who are seeking the signs of Allah and If they do not believe in Allah and His revelations then in what report will they believe?


(45:1) Ha’. Mim. (45:2) This Book is a revelation from the Most Mighty, the Most Wise.1 (45:3) Behold, for those who believe2 there are (myriad) Signs in the heavens and the earth (45:4) and in your own creation; and in the animals which He spreads out over the earth too there are Signs for those endowed with sure faith;3 (45:5) and in the succession of night and day,4 and in the provision5 that Allah sends down from the sky wherewith He gives life to the earth after it had been lifeless,6 and in the change of the winds:7 (in all these) there are Signs for people who use reason. (45:6) These are Allah’s Signs that We rehearse to you in Truth. In what kind of discourse after Allah and His Signs will they, then, believe?8 (45:7) Woe to every guilty impostor (45:8) who hears Allah’s Signs being rehearsed to him, and yet persists in his pride, as though he had not heard it.9 Announce to him, then, the tidings of a grievous chastisement. (45:9) Whenever he comes to know anything of Our Signs, he makes them an object of jest.10 For such there awaits a humiliating chastisement. (45:10) Hell is behind them.11 Their worldly earnings shall not avail them, nor those whom they took as protectors instead of Allah.12 An awesome chastisement lies in store for them. (45:11) This (Qur’an) is the true guidance. Those who deny the Signs of their Lord shall suffer the torment of a woeful scourge.


1. In this brief introduction to the Surah, the listeners have been warned of two things:

(1) That this Book is not the composition of Muhammad (peace be upon him) himself, but it is being sent down to him by Allah.

(2) That it is being sent down by that Allah Who is All- Mighty as well as All-Wise. His being the Almighty demands that man should not dare disobey His commands, for if he disobeys Him, he cannot escape His punishment. And His being the All-Wise demands that man should obey and follow His Guidance and His commands with full satisfaction and willingness of the heart, for there can be no possibility of His teachings being wrong or inadequate or harmful in any way.

2. To begin the discourse like this after the introduction, indicates that in the background there are the objections of the people of Makkah, which they were raising against the teachings of the Prophet (peace be upon him). They said: After all, how can we believe this one man when he says that all those great beings to whose shrines we have been dedicated and devoted so far, are nothing and that Godhead belongs to only One God? About this it is being said that the world is replete with the signs of the reality to which they are being invited. If only they saw with open eyes, they would find those signs in themselves and outside them everywhere, which testify that this whole universe is the creation of One and only One God, and He alone is its Master and Ruler and Controller. It didn’t need to be pointed out what was the nature of the signs in the earth and heavens, for the dispute at that time centered around the point that the polytheists were insisting on believing in other gods and deities besides Allah, and the Quran gave the message that there was neither a god nor a deity beside One God. Therefore, it was apparent by itself from the content that the signs were of the truth of Tauhid and of the refutation of shirk.

As for the sentence: The signs are for those who believe, it means that although the signs are meant for all human beings, only those people can reach the right conclusion from their observation, who are inclined to believe. As for the heedless people, who live like animals and the stubborn people who are resolved not to believe, the existence and the non-existence of the signs is equal. The splendor and beauty of the garden is for those who can see. A blind man cannot perceive any splendor and beauty, for him even the existence of the garden is meaningless. 4

3. That is, the case of those who have made up their minds not to believe, or of those who have chosen for themselves to remain lost in the blind alleys of doubt, is different, but when those who have not locked up their hearts against belief and conviction, will consider seriously their own creation, the structure of their own body, and the variety of animals found on the earth, they will see countless signs as will leave no doubt in their minds that all this did not come into being without a God, or that it stood in need of more than one God for its creation. (For explanation, see (Surah Al-Anaam, Ayats 37-38); (Surah An-Nahl, Ayats 5,8); (Surah Al-Hajj, Ayat 57); (Surah Al-Muminun, Ayats 12-14); (Surah Al-Furqan, Ayat 54); (Surah Ash-Shuara, Ayats 78-81); (Surah An-Naml, Ayat 64); (Surah Ar-Room, Ayats 20-21, 54); (E.Ns 14 to 18 of Surah As-Sajdah); (Surah YaSeen, Ayats 71- 73); (Surah Az-Zumar, Ayat 6); and (E.Ns 97, 98, 110 of Surah Al-Mumin).

4. The difference of the night and day is a sign because one follows the other with full regularity, because one is bright and the other dark, because over a certain period the day goes on shortening and the night lengthening gradually till the two become equal in duration, then again the day goes on lengthening and the night shortening till the two again become equal in duration. These different kinds of variations found in the night and the day and the great aspects of wisdom that accrue from these, are a clear pointer to the fact that the Creator of the sun and the earth and of every thing on the earth is one and that one All- Powerful Being is keeping both these spheres under His control. Such a Being is not deaf and blind and unwise but All-Wise, Who has established this unalterable system and made His earth a suitable place for the countless species of life, which He has created here in the form of vegetables, animals and men. (For explanation, see (Surah Younus, Ayat 67), (Surah An Naml, Ayat 86); (Surah Al-Qasas, Ayats 71-73); (Surah Luqman, Ayat 29 and E.N. 50); (Surah YaSeen, Ayat 37 and E.N. 32).

5. Provision: Rainfall as becomes evident from the following sentence.

6. For explanation, see (Surah Al-Muminun, Ayats 18-20); (Surah Al-Furqan, Ayats 48-49); (Surah Ash-Shuara, Ayat 7); (Surah An-Naml, Ayat 61); (Surah Ar-Room, Ayats 24, 48), (Surah YaSeen: E.Ns 26 to 31).

7. The circulation of the winds implies the circulation of the different kinds of winds at different times, on different parts of the earth and at different heights, which cause change of the seasons. What deserves attention is not only that above the surface of the earth there is a thick atmosphere, which contains all those elements needed by living beings for breathing, and this thick covering has kept the earth’s population safe from many of the heavenly calamities. Besides, another noteworthy thing is that the air is not just filled inertly in the atmosphere, but it blows occasionally in different ways. Sometimes a cool wind blows and sometimes a hot wind. Sometimes it stops blowing and sometimes it starts blowing. Sometimes it blows soft and sometimes strong, and sometimes it assumes the proportions of a storm. Sometimes a dry wind blows and sometimes a moist wind. Sometimes it brings the rain and sometimes it drives away the clouds. These different kinds of the winds do not blow without a purpose, but under a law and a system, which testifies that this arrangement is based on perfect wisdom, and it is serving great objectives. Then it is deeply related with coolness and heat, which go on increasing and decreasing according to the changing conditions and relationships between the earth and the sun. Furthermore, it has a deep relation with the seasonal changes and the distribution of the rain. All these facts proclaim that these arrangements have not been made haphazardly by some blind nature. Nor the sun and the earth and the air and water and vegetation and animals have separate controllers, but inevitably One God alone is the Creator of them all, and it is His Wisdom that has established this system for a great objective, and it is His power that it is functioning regularly according to a preordained law.

8. That is, when these people have not believed even after Allah’s own arguments have been presented for His Existence and His Unity, what else can be there by which they will gain the faith? For Allah’s Word is the final thing by which a person can attain to this blessing, and the maximum of the rational arguments that could possibly be given to convince someone of an unseen reality have been presented in this divine Word. In spite of this if a person is bent upon denial, he may persist in his denial, for his denial cannot change the reality.

9. In other words, there is a marked difference between the person who listens to Allah’s revelations sincerely with an open mind and ponders over them seriously and the person who listens to them resolved that he would deny them, and then persists in the resolve already made without any serious thought. If the first person does not believe in the revelations immediately, it does not mean that he wants to remain an unbeliever, but because he wants to have greater satisfaction. Therefore, even if he is taking time to believe, it is just possible that another revelation might enter his heart and he might believe sincerely with full satisfaction. As for the other person, he would never believe in any revelation whatsoever, for he has already locked his heart up to every revelation of Allah. In this state such people generally are involved as are characterized by the following three qualities:

(1) They are liars; therefore, the truth does not appeal to them.

(2) They are wrongdoers; therefore, it is very hard for them to believe in a teaching or guidance that may impose moral restrictions on them.

(3) They are involved in the conceit that they know everything, and that none can teach them anything; therefore, they do not regard as worthy of attention and consideration Allah’s revelations that are recited to them, and it is all the same for them whether they listen to them or not.

10. That is, he does not rest content with mocking any one particular revelation, but mocks all the revelations. For example, when he hears that a particular thing has been mentioned in the Quran, he does not take it in its straightforward meaning, but first puts a crooked meaning on it in order to make it a subject of ridicule and mockery, then after making fun of it, says: These are strange things: one daily hears one or the other funny thing from them.

11. The word wara is used for every such thing as is hidden from man, whether it is before him or behind him. Therefore, another translation can be: They have Hell behind them. In the first case, the meaning would be: They are unconsciously running on this way and have no idea that there is Hell in front of them in which they would fall; in the second case, it would mean: They are engaged in this mischief of theirs, thoughtless of the Hereafter, and they have no idea that Hell is in pursuit of them.

12. Here, the word wali (guardian) has been used in two meanings:

(1) For those gods and goddesses and living and dead guides about whom the polytheists thought that anybody who was devoted to them, would escape Allah’s punishment, whatever he might have done in the world, for their intercession will save them from Allah’s wrath.

(2) For those chiefs and leaders and rulers whom the people took as their guides and patrons independent of God and followed them blindly and tried to please them even if they had to displease God.

This verse warns all such people that when they will face Hell in consequence of this way of lift, neither of the two kinds of the guardians will come forward to save them from it. (For explanation, see (E.N.6 of Surah Ash- Shura).


12-17 Allah has subjected the seas and all that is between the heavens and the earth for human beings and Israelites made sects in their religion after the knowledge has come to them through Torah


(45:12) Allah it is Who has subjected the sea to you so that ships may sail upon it at His bidding13 and you may seek of His Bounty14 and give thanks to Him. (45:13) He has subjected to you all that is in the heavens and the earth,15 all being from Him.16 Verily there are Signs in this for those who reflect.17 (45:14) (O Prophet), tell the believers to indulge those who have no fear of any evil days coming upon them from Allah18 so that Allah may Himself requite them for their deeds.19 (45:15) Whoever acts righteously, does so to his own good; and whoever commits an evil will suffer its consequence. All of you will then be sent back to your Lord. (45:16) Indeed We endowed the Children of Israel with the Book and Wisdom20 and Prophethood, and provided them with good things21 as sustenance, and exalted them above the peoples of the whole world. (45:17) We gave them clear directions in matters pertaining to religion. Yet they differed among themselves (not out of ignorance but) after knowledge had come to them; and they did so out of the desire to commit excesses against one another.22 On the Day of Resurrection Allah will judge among them regarding what they had differed.


13. For explanation, see (Surah Bani-Israil, Ayats 66-67); (Surah Ar-Room, Ayat 46 and the corresponding E.Ns), and (E.N. 55 of Surah Luqman); (E.N. 110 of Surah Al-Mumin) and (E.N. 54 of Surah Ash-Shura).

14. Seek His bounty: Seek lawful provisions by trade, fishing, diving, navigation and other means in the sea.

15. For explanation, see (Surah Ibrahim, Ayat 32 and E.N. 44 )on it, and (E.N. 35 of Surah Luqman).

16. This sentence has two meanings:

(1) This gift and favor of Allah is not like the gift of the worldly kings, who favor their favorites with the wealth that they have collected from the people themselves, but, on the contrary, all the good things in the universe have been created by Allah Himself, and He has granted these to man from Himself.

(2) Neither is anyone a partner of Allah in the creation of these good things, nor has anyone anything to do in making them subservient to man. Allah alone is their Creator and He alone has granted these to man from Himself.

17. That is, in their subjection and in making them beneficial for man, there are many signs for those who think and reflect. These signs clearly point to the truth that the Creator and Master and Administrator of everything and of every power in the universe, from the earth to the heavens, is One God alone Who has subjected them to a law. And that God alone is Lord of man Who has made all these things and powers favorable and helpful for man’s life his sustenance, his convenience, his development and his civilization and social life by His power and wisdom and mercy, and that God alone is worthy of man’s service and gratitude and devotion and not some other beings, who have neither any share in creating the things and powers nor anything to do with subjecting them to man and making them beneficial for him.

18. Literally: Who do not except the days of Allah. But in Arabic usage on such occasions, ayyam does not merely mean days but those memorable days in which important historical events may have taken place. For example, the word ayyam-ul-Arab is used for the important events of the history of the Arabs and the major battles of the Arab tribes, which the later generations remember for centuries. Here, ayyam-Allah implies the evil days of a nation when the wrath of Allah may descend on it and ruin it in consequence of its misdeeds. That is: Those who do not fear the coming of evil days from Allah, i.e. those who do not fear that a day will come when they will be called to account for their actions and deeds, and this same fearlessness has made them bold and stubborn in acts of wickedness.

19. The commentators have given two meanings of this verse and the words of the verse admit of both:

(1) That the believers should pardon the excesses of this wicked group so that Allah may reward them for their patience and forbearance and nobility from Himself and recompense them for the persecutions they have suffered for His sake.

(2) That the believers should pardon these people so that Allah may Himself punish them for their persecutions of them.

Some other commentators have regarded this verse as repealed. They say that this command was applicable only till the Muslims had not been permitted to fight. Then, when they were permitted to fight, this command became abrogated. But a careful study of the words of the verse shows that the claim about abrogation is not correct. The word “pardon” is never used in the sense that when a person is not able to retaliate upon another for the latter’s excesses, he should pardon him, but on such an occasion the usual words are patience and forbearance. Instead of them, when the word “pardon” has been used here, it by itself gives the meaning that the believers, in spite of their ability for retaliation, should refrain from retaliating upon the people for their excesses, whom fearlessness of God has made to transgress all limits of morality and humanity. This command does not contradict those verses in which the Muslims have been permitted to fight. Permission to fight pertains to the condition when the Muslim government has a reasonable ground for taking military action against an unbelieving people, and the command concerning forgiveness and pardon pertains to the common conditions in which the believers have to live in contact with a people who are fearless of God and have to suffer persecutions by them in different ways. The object of this command is that the Muslims should keep their moral superiority and should not stoop to the level of the morally inferior people by indulging in disputes and wrangling with them and resort to retaliation for every frivolity. As long as it is possible to respond to an accusation or objection gently and rationally, or to defend oneself against an excess, one should not refrain from this, but when things seem to be crossing these limits, one should hold his peace and entrust the matter to Allah. If the Muslims themselves become involved in a fight or quarrel with them, Allah will leave them alone to deal with them; but if they pardon and forbear, Allah will Himself deal with the wicked people and reward the oppressed ones for their patience.

20. Hukm (judgment) implies three things:

(1) Knowledge and understanding of the Book and Religion.

(2) Wisdom to act according to the intention of the Book.

(3) Capability to give right decisions in disputes.

21. It does not mean that they were given preference over all the people of the world forever, rather it means: Allah had chosen the children of Israel from among all the contemporary nations of the world for the service that they should hold fast to the divine Book and should rise as the standard bearers of God worship in the world.

22. For explanation, see (Surah Al-Baqarah, Ayat 213); (Surah Aal-Imran, Ayat 19) and (E.Ns 22, 23 of Ash-Shura).


18-21 Wrongdoers are protectors of one another while the protector of righteous is Allah Himself


(45:18) And then We set you, (O Prophet), on a clear high road in religious matters.23 So follow that and do not follow the desires of those who do not know. (45:19) Surely they will be of no avail to you against Allah.24 Indeed the wrong-doers are friends of each other, whereas Allah is the friend of the God-fearing. (45:20) These are the lights of discernment for people and guidance and mercy for those endowed with sure faith.25 (45:21) Do26 the evil-doers imagine that We shall make them equal to those who believe and do good, making their lives and deaths alike? How vile is their judgement!27


23. It means: The mission that had been entrusted to the children of Israel before you has now been entrusted to you. They, in spite of receiving knowledge, created such differences in religion out of selfish motives and stirred up such divisions among themselves that they became disqualified to call the people to God’s way. Now you have been set upon the clear pathway of religion so that you may perform the service which the children of Israel have failed to perform and became disqualified to perform it. (For further explanation, see (Ash-Shura, Ayats 13-15 and E.Ns 20 to 26).

24. That is, if you make any changes in Allah’s religion only to please them, they will not be able to save you from Allah’s accountability and punishment.

25. That is, this Book and this Shariah present such a light for all the people of the world, which distinguishes the truth from falsehood, but only such people receive any guidance from it who believe in its truth; for them only it is a mercy.

26. After the invitation to Tauhid, the discourse now turns to the theme of the Hereafter.

27. This is the moral reasoning for the truth of the Hereafter. The difference of good and evil in morals and of goodness and wickedness in deeds necessarily demands that the good and the evil people should not meet with one and the same end, but the good should be rewarded for their good and the wicked punished for their evil deeds. Otherwise, if the good and the evil end up similarly, the distinction of virtue and vice in morals becomes meaningless and God becomes unjust. The people who follow evil ways in the world do want that there should be no accountability and no rewards and punishments, for this concept goes against their enjoyment of life, but it is against the justice and wisdom of the Lord of the worlds that He should treat the good and the evil alike, and should not care to see how the righteous believer has lived his life in the world and how the sinful unbeliever has been enjoying it. One of them kept himself subjected to moral restrictions all his life, rendered the rights of those to whom they were due, restrained himself from the unlawful benefits and pleasures, and continued to incur losses for the sake of the truth. The other fulfilled his desires in every possible wary, neither recognized the rights of God nor hesitated from violating the rights of the people, but went on collecting benefits and good things of life in every possible way. Can it be expected of God that He would overlook the difference between the lives of the two kinds of men? If the end of both be the same, no greater injustice could be conceived. (For further explanation, see (Surah Younus, Ayat 4); (Surah Houd, Ayat 106); (Surah An-Nahl, Ayats 38,39); ( Surah Al- Hajj, E.N. 9), (Surah An-Naml, E.N. 86), (Surah Ar-Rum, Ayat 7-8); (Surah Suad, Ayat 28;and E.N. 30) on it.


22-26 He who has made his own desires as his god, Allah let him go astray and set a seal upon his ears and heart


(45:22) Allah created the heavens and the earth in Truth28 that each person may be requited for his deeds. They shall not be wronged.29 (45:23) Did you ever consider the case of him who took his desire as his god,30 and then Allah caused him to go astray despite knowledge,31 and sealed his hearing and his heart, and cast a veil over his sight?32 Who, after Allah, can direct him to the Right Way? Will you not take heed?33 (45:24) They say: “There is no life other than our present worldly life: herein we live and we die, and it is only (the passage of) time that destroys us. Yet the fact is that they know nothing about this and are only conjecturing.34 (45:25) And when Our Clear Signs are rehearsed to them,35 their only contention is: “Bring back to us our fathers if you are truthful.”36 (45:26) Tell them, (O Prophet): “It is Allah Who gives you life and then causes you to die,37 and He it is Who will then bring all of you together on the Day of Resurrection, a Day regarding which there can be no doubt.38 Yet most people do not know.39


28. That is, Allah has not created the earth and the heavens for mere sport, but it is a wise system with a purpose. In this system it is absolutely unimaginable that the people who may have accomplished good deeds by the right use of the powers and means and resources granted by Allah, and the people who may have spread mischief and wickedness by their wrong use, should end up ultimately in the dust after death, and there should be no life Hereafter in which their good and bad deeds should lead to good or bad results according to justice. If this were so, this universe would be the plaything of a thoughtless being, and not a purposeful system devised by a Wise Being. (For further explanation, see, (Surah Al-Anaam: 73); (Surah Younus, Ayats 5-6), (Surah Ibrahim, Ayat 19), (Surah An-Nahl, Ayat 3), (Surah Al- Ankabut, Ayat 44 and E.Ns 75, 76); (Surah Ar-Room, Ayat 8 and E.N. 6) on it.

29. In this context the sentence clearly means: If the good people are not rewarded for their goodness, and the wicked are not punished for their wickedness, and the grievances of the oppressed are not redressed, it would be injustice. There cannot be such an injustice in the kingdom of God. Likewise, there cannot also be the other kind of injustice that a good man be given a lesser reward than what is due to him, or a bad man be given a greater punishment than what he deserves.

30. “Desire his god” implies that one should become a slave of his lusts and desires. He should do whatever he likes whether God has forbidden it, and should not do what he dislikes, whether God has made it obligatory. When a man starts obeying somebody like this, it means that his deity is not God but the one whom he is obeying without question, no matter whether he calls him his lord (with the tongue) or not, and carves out an image of him and worship him or not. For when he has worshiped him directly without question, it is enough to make him a deity and after this practical shirk one cannot be absolved from the guilt of shirk only because he did not call the object of his worship as his deity with the tongue, nor prostrated himself before it. The major commentators also have given the same commentary of this verse. Ibn Jarir says: The forbidden things by Allah are forbidden. He does not regard the things made lawful by Him as lawful. Abu Bakr al-Jassas gives this meaning: He obeys his desires as one should obey his God. Zamakhshari explains it, thus: He is obedient to the desires of his self. He follows his self wherever it beckons him, as if he serves him as one should serve his God. (For further explanation, see (E.N. 56 of Surah Al- Furqan); (E.N. 63 of Surah Saba); (E.N. 53 of Surah YaSeen), and (E.N. 38 of Surah Ash-Shura).

31. The words adalla hulla-huala ilm-in may either mean: The person in spite of being knowledgeable was driven astray by Allah, for he had become a slave of his desires; or Allah, by virtue of His knowledge that he had made his desires as his god, drove him astray.

32. For the commentary of letting a person go astray and setting a seal upon his heart and ears and a covering on his eyes, see (Surah Al-Baqarah, Ayats 7, 18); (Surah Al-Anaam, Ayat 25 and E.N. 28); (Surah Al-Aaraf, Ayat 100); (Surah At- Taubah, Ayats 87, 93); (Surah Younus, Ayat 74 and E.N. 73); (Surah Ar-Raad, Ayat 27); (Surah Ibrahim, Ayats 4, 27); (Surah An-Nahl, Ayat 108); (Surah Bani-Israil, Ayat 46); (Surah Ar-Room, Ayat 59); (Surah Fatir, Ayat 8 and E.Ns 16, 17), and (E.N. 54 of Surah Al-Muminun).

33. From the context in which this verse occurs, it becomes obvious that only those people deny the Hereafter, who want to serve their desires and who regard belief in the Hereafter as an obstacle to their freedom. Then, once they have denied the Hereafter, their servitude of the self goes on increasing and they go on wandering further into deviation. They commit every kind of evil without feeling any qualms. They do not hesitate to usurp the rights of others. They cannot be expected to restrain themselves when there is an opportunity for them to commit an excess or injustice only because of a regard for justice and truth in their hearts. The events and incidents that can serve as a warning for a man are witnessed by them too, but they draw the wrong conclusion that whatever they are doing is right and they should do the same. No word of advice moves them. No argument, which can stop a man from evil, appeals to them; but they go on devising and furnishing more and more arguments to justify their unbridled freedom, and their minds remain day and night engaged only in devising ways and means of fulfilling their own interests and desires in every possible way instead of engaging in a good thought. This is an express proof of the fact that the denial of the Hereafter is destructive for human morals. The only thing that can restrain man within the bounds of humanity is the feeling that man is not irresponsible but has to render an account of his deeds before God. Being devoid of this feeling, even if a person is highly learned, he cannot help adopting an attitude and behavior worse than that of the animals.

34. This is, there is no means of knowledge by which they might have known with certainty that after this life there is no other life for man, and that man’s soul is not seized by the command of God, but he dies and perishes merely in the course of time. The deniers of the Hereafter say these things not on the basis of any knowledge but on mere conjecture. The maximum that they could say scientifically is: We do not know whether there is any life after death or not; but they cannot say: We know that there is no other life after this life. Likewise, they cannot make the claim of knowing scientifically that man’s soul is not seized by God’s command but he perishes after death just like a watch which suddenly stops functioning. The most they can say is just this: We do not know what exactly happens in either case. Now the question is: When to the extent of the means of human knowledge there is an equal possibility of there being life after death or there being no life after death, and the soul’s being seized by Allah’s command, or man’s dying of himself in the course of time, what is the reason that these people abandon the probability of the possibility of the Hereafter and give their judgment in favor of its denial? Do they have any other reason than this that they, in fact, decide this question on the basis of their desire and not by any argument? As they do not like that there should be any life after death and death should mean total annihilation and not seizure of the soul by Allah’s command, they make their heart’s desire their creed and deny the other probability.

35. “Our clear verses”: the Revelations in which strong arguments have been given for the possibility of the Hereafter and in which it has been stated that its occurrence is the demand of both wisdom and justice, and its non-occurrence renders the whole system of the universe meaningless and absurd.

36. In other words, what they meant to say was: When somebody tells them that there is life after death, he must raise a dead person from the grave and present him before them. And if this is not done, they cannot believe that the dead would ever be raised to life once again at some time in the future, whereas nobody ever told them that the dead would be raised to life in this world as and when required separately, but what was said was: On the Day of Resurrection Allah will raise all human beings to life simultaneously and will subject them to accountability and punish and reward them accordingly.

37. This is the answer to their saying that death comes to man automatically in the course of time. It means: Neither you get life accidentally nor your death occurs automatically. It is God Who gives you life and it is He Who takes it away.

38. This is the answer to their demand: Bring back our forefathers if you are truthful. To this it has been said: This will not happen now separately for individuals, but a Day has been fixed for gathering all mankind together.

39. That is, it is lack of knowledge and right understanding which is the real cause of the people’s denying the Hereafter; otherwise it is not its coming but its not coming which is against reason. If a person reflects rightly on the system of the universe and on his own self, he will himself realize that there can be no doubt about the coming of the Hereafter.


27-37 Allah’s address to the disbelievers on the day of judgement


(45:27) Allah’s is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth,40 and on the Day when the Hour (of Resurrection) shall come to pass, the followers of falsehood shall be in utter loss. (45:28) On that Day you shall see every people fallen on their knees.41 Every people will be summoned to come forth and see its Record and will be told: “Today you shall be requited for your deeds. (45:29) This is Our Record which bears witness against you with truth; We used to record all what you did.”42 (45:30) As for those who believe and act righteously, their Lord shall admit them to His Mercy. That indeed is the manifest triumph. (45:31) But those who denied the Truth, they shall be told: “Were My Signs not rehearsed to you? But you waxed proud43 and became a guilty people.” (45:32) And when it was said to them: “Surely Allah’s promise is true, and there is no doubt regarding the Hour of Resurrection,” you were wont to say: “We do not know what the Hour (of Resurrection) is. We are simply making conjectures and are not at all certain.”44 (45:33) (On that Day) the evil of their deeds will become apparent to them45 and what they had mocked at will encompass them, (45:34) and it will be said: “We will forget you today as you forgot the meeting of this Day of yours. The Fire shall now be your abode, and you shall have none to come to your aid. (45:35) You reached this end because you made Allah’s Signs an object of jest and the life of the world deluded you.” So they shall not be taken out of the Fire nor shall they be asked to make amends (and thus please their Lord).46 (45:36) So all praise be to Allah, the Lord of the heavens, the Lord of the earth, the Lord of the whole Universe. (45:37) His is the glory in the heavens and the earth. He is the Most Mighty, the Most Wise.


40. In view of the context, this sentence by itself gives the meaning that it is not at all beyond the power of God Who is ruling over this great and marvelous universe that He should bring the human beings whom He has created in the first instance back into existence once again.

41. That is, the dread and terror of the Plain of Resurrection and the awe of the divine court will be such that it will break the stubbornness of the most arrogant and boastful people, and everyone will be found fallen on his knees humbly.

42. The only possible way of getting a thing recorded is not by means of the pen and paper only. Man himself has discovered in this world several other forms of recording human words and actions and reproducing them exactly and accurately; and we cannot even imagine what other possibilities of it lie yet undiscovered, which man himself will discover and exploit in the future. Now, who can know how and by what means is Allah getting recorded man’s every word, his every movement and action, even his hidden intentions and motives and desires and ideas, and how He will place before every man and every group and every nation his or its whole lifework accurately and exactly?

43. That is, you thought it was below your dignity to believe in Allah’s revelations and submit to them, and considered yourselves to be above subjection and servitude.

44. The people mentioned in (verse 24 )above were those who denied the Hereafter openly and absolutely, here those who are not sure of it although they do not deny its possibility because of conjecture. Apparently there is a vast difference between the two groups in that one of them denies the Hereafter absolutely and the other regards it as possible on the basis of conjecture. But as for the result and final end, there is no difference between them, for the moral consequences of the denial of the Hereafter and of lack of the faith in it are the same. A person, whether he disbelieves in the Hereafter or lacks faith in it, will in either case be inevitably devoid of the feeling of accountability before God, and this lack of feeling will necessarily involve him in the error and deviation of thought and action. Only faith and belief in the Hereafter can keep a man on the right track in the world. In the absence of it, both doubt and denial give him a similar attitude of irresponsibility, and since this same attitude of irresponsibility is the real cause of man’s being doomed in the Hereafter, therefore neither the denier of it can escape Hell nor the one who lacks faith in it.

45. That is, there they will come to know that their ways of behavior, their practices and manners, and their actions and pastimes, which they regarded as very good in the world were, in fact, very bad: they had committed a basic mistake in thinking that they were not answerable to anyone, and this had rendered their entire lifework fruitless and vain.

46. This last sentence depicts the manner of a master who after rebuking some of his servants turns to others and says: Well, these wretched people now deserve such and such punishment!