Surah Muhammad (“Chapter of Muhammad”) is the 47th chapter of the Qur’an with 38 ayats. It is classified as a Medinan Surah. 

The Surah talks about the real struggle that takes place between truth and falsehood. The separation will take place between these two groups and one will be rewarded and the other, those who deny, will be punished.

Notable Quote:

 “[This] worldly life is only amusement and diversion. And if you believe and fear Allah, He will give you your rewards and not ask you for your properties.”
Surah Muhammad Ayat 36

 Skip To Tafsir by Ibn Kathir

Read Surah Muhammad with English Translation and Transliteration

Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Raheem
In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful

ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ وَصَدُّوا۟ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ أَضَلَّ أَعْمَـٰلَهُمْ

Allazeena kafaroo wa saddoo’an sabeelil laahi adalla a’maalahum
1. Those who disbelieve and avert [people] from the way of Allah – He will waste their deeds.

وَٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَعَمِلُوا۟ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ وَءَامَنُوا۟ بِمَا نُزِّلَ عَلَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍۢ وَهُوَ ٱلْحَقُّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ ۙ كَفَّرَ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّـَٔاتِهِمْ وَأَصْلَحَ بَالَهُمْ

Wallazeena aamanoo wa ‘amilus saalihaati wa aamanoo bimaa nuzzila ‘alaa Muhammadinw-wa huwal haqqu mir Rabbihim kaffara ‘anhum saiyiaatihim wa aslaha baalahum
2. And those who believe and do righteous deeds and believe in what has been sent down upon Muhammad – and it is the truth from their Lord – He will remove from them their misdeeds and amend their condition.

ذَ‌ٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ ٱتَّبَعُوا۟ ٱلْبَـٰطِلَ وَأَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ ٱتَّبَعُوا۟ ٱلْحَقَّ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ ۚ كَذَ‌ٰلِكَ يَضْرِبُ ٱللَّهُ لِلنَّاسِ أَمْثَـٰلَهُمْ

Zaalika bi annal lazeena kafarut taba’ul baatila wa annal lazeena aamanut taba’ul haqqa mir Rabbihim; kazaalika yadribul laahu linnaasi amsaalahum
3. That is because those who disbelieve follow falsehood, and those who believe follow the truth from their Lord. Thus does Allah present to the people their comparisons.

فَإِذَا لَقِيتُمُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ فَضَرْبَ ٱلرِّقَابِ حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَآ أَثْخَنتُمُوهُمْ فَشُدُّوا۟ ٱلْوَثَاقَ فَإِمَّا مَنًّۢا بَعْدُ وَإِمَّا فِدَآءً حَتَّىٰ تَضَعَ ٱلْحَرْبُ أَوْزَارَهَا ۚ ذَ‌ٰلِكَ وَلَوْ يَشَآءُ ٱللَّهُ لَٱنتَصَرَ مِنْهُمْ وَلَـٰكِن لِّيَبْلُوَا۟ بَعْضَكُم بِبَعْضٍۢ ۗ وَٱلَّذِينَ قُتِلُوا۟ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ فَلَن يُضِلَّ أَعْمَـٰلَهُمْ

Fa-izaa laqeetumul lazeena kafaroo fadarbar riqaab, hattaaa izaa askhan tumoohum fashuddul wasaaq, fa immaa mannnam ba’du wa immaa fidaaa’an hattaa tada’al harbu awzaarahaa; zaalika wa law yashaaa’ul laahu lantasara minhum wa laakil laiyabluwa ba’dakum biba’d; wallazeena qutiloo fee sabeelil laahi falany yudilla a’maalahum
4. So when you meet those who disbelieve [in battle], strike [their] necks until, when you have inflicted slaughter upon them, then secure their bonds, and either [confer] favor afterwards or ransom [them] until the war lays down its burdens. That [is the command]. And if Allah had willed, He could have taken vengeance upon them [Himself], but [He ordered armed struggle] to test some of you by means of others. And those who are killed in the cause of Allah – never will He waste their deeds.

سَيَهْدِيهِمْ وَيُصْلِحُ بَالَهُمْ

Sa-yahdeehim wa yusihu baalahum
5. He will guide them and amend their condition

وَيُدْخِلُهُمُ ٱلْجَنَّةَ عَرَّفَهَا لَهُمْ

Wa yudkhiluhumul jannata ‘arrafahaa lahum
6. And admit them to Paradise, which He has made known to them.

يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓا۟ إِن تَنصُرُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ يَنصُرْكُمْ وَيُثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَكُمْ

Yaaa ayyuhal lazeena aamanooo in tansurul laaha yansurkum wa yusabbit aqdaamakum
7. O you who have believed, if you support Allah, He will support you and plant firmly your feet.

وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ فَتَعْسًۭا لَّهُمْ وَأَضَلَّ أَعْمَـٰلَهُمْ

Wallazeena kafaroo fata’ sal lahum wa adalla a’maalahum
8. But those who disbelieve – for them is misery, and He will waste their deeds.

ذَ‌ٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ كَرِهُوا۟ مَآ أَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ فَأَحْبَطَ أَعْمَـٰلَهُمْ

Zaalika bi annahum karihoo maaa anzalal laahu faahbata a’maalahum
9. That is because they disliked what Allah revealed, so He rendered worthless their deeds.

۞ أَفَلَمْ يَسِيرُوا۟ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ فَيَنظُرُوا۟ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَـٰقِبَةُ ٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ دَمَّرَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ ۖ وَلِلْكَـٰفِرِينَ أَمْثَـٰلُهَا

Afalam yaseeroo fil ardi fayanzuroo kaifa kaana ‘aaqibatul lazeena min qablihim; dammaral laahu ‘alaihim wa lilkaafireena amsaaluhaa
10. Have they not traveled through the land and seen how was the end of those before them? Allah destroyed [everything] over them, and for the disbelievers is something comparable.

ذَ‌ٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ مَوْلَى ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَأَنَّ ٱلْكَـٰفِرِينَ لَا مَوْلَىٰ لَهُمْ

Zaalika bi annal laaha mawlal lazeena aamanoo wa annal kaafireena laa mawlaa lahum (section 1)
11. That is because Allah is the protector of those who have believed and because the disbelievers have no protector.

إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ يُدْخِلُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ وَعَمِلُوا۟ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ جَنَّـٰتٍۢ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِهَا ٱلْأَنْهَـٰرُ ۖ وَٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ يَتَمَتَّعُونَ وَيَأْكُلُونَ كَمَا تَأْكُلُ ٱلْأَنْعَـٰمُ وَٱلنَّارُ مَثْوًۭى لَّهُمْ

Innal-laaha yudkhilul lazeena aamanoo wa ‘amilus saalihaati Jannaatin tajree min tahtihal anhaaru wallazeena kafaroo yatamatta’oona wa yaakuloona kamaa taakuluian’aamu wan Naaru maswallahum
12. Indeed, Allah will admit those who have believed and done righteous deeds to gardens beneath which rivers flow, but those who disbelieve enjoy themselves and eat as grazing livestock eat, and the Fire will be a residence for them.

وَكَأَيِّن مِّن قَرْيَةٍ هِىَ أَشَدُّ قُوَّةًۭ مِّن قَرْيَتِكَ ٱلَّتِىٓ أَخْرَجَتْكَ أَهْلَكْنَـٰهُمْ فَلَا نَاصِرَ لَهُمْ

Wa ka ayyim min qaryatin hiya ashaddu quwwatam min qaryatikal lateee akhrajatka ahlaknaahum falaa naasira lahum
13. And how many a city was stronger than your city [Makkah] which drove you out? We destroyed them; and there was no helper for them.

أَفَمَن كَانَ عَلَىٰ بَيِّنَةٍۢ مِّن رَّبِّهِۦ كَمَن زُيِّنَ لَهُۥ سُوٓءُ عَمَلِهِۦ وَٱتَّبَعُوٓا۟ أَهْوَآءَهُم

Afaman kaana ‘alaa baiyinatim mir Rabbihee kaman zuyyina lahoo sooo’u ‘amalihee wattaba’ooo ahwaaa’ahum
14. So is he who is on clear evidence from his Lord like him to whom the evil of his work has been made attractive and they follow their [own] desires?

مَّثَلُ ٱلْجَنَّةِ ٱلَّتِى وُعِدَ ٱلْمُتَّقُونَ ۖ فِيهَآ أَنْهَـٰرٌۭ مِّن مَّآءٍ غَيْرِ ءَاسِنٍۢ وَأَنْهَـٰرٌۭ مِّن لَّبَنٍۢ لَّمْ يَتَغَيَّرْ طَعْمُهُۥ وَأَنْهَـٰرٌۭ مِّنْ خَمْرٍۢ لَّذَّةٍۢ لِّلشَّـٰرِبِينَ وَأَنْهَـٰرٌۭ مِّنْ عَسَلٍۢ مُّصَفًّۭى ۖ وَلَهُمْ فِيهَا مِن كُلِّ ٱلثَّمَرَ‌ٰتِ وَمَغْفِرَةٌۭ مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ ۖ كَمَنْ هُوَ خَـٰلِدٌۭ فِى ٱلنَّارِ وَسُقُوا۟ مَآءً حَمِيمًۭا فَقَطَّعَ أَمْعَآءَهُمْ

Masalul jannatil latee wu’idal muttaqoona feehaaa anhaarum mim maaa’in ghayri aasininw wa anhaarum mil labanil lam yataghaiyar ta’muhoo wa anhaarum min khamril lazzatil lishshaaribeena wa anhaarum min ‘asalim musaffanw wa lahum feeha min kullis samaraati wa maghfiratum mir Rabbihim kaman huwa khaalidun fin naari wa suqoo maaa’an hameeman faqatta’a am’aaa’ahum
15. Is the description of Paradise, which the righteous are promised, wherein are rivers of water unaltered, rivers of milk the taste of which never changes, rivers of wine delicious to those who drink, and rivers of purified honey, in which they will have from all [kinds of] fruits and forgiveness from their Lord, like [that of] those who abide eternally in the Fire and are given to drink scalding water that will sever their intestines?

وَمِنْهُم مَّن يَسْتَمِعُ إِلَيْكَ حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا خَرَجُوا۟ مِنْ عِندِكَ قَالُوا۟ لِلَّذِينَ أُوتُوا۟ ٱلْعِلْمَ مَاذَا قَالَ ءَانِفًا ۚ أُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ طَبَعَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَٱتَّبَعُوٓا۟ أَهْوَآءَهُمْ

Wa minhum mai yastami’ ilaika hattaaa izaa kharajoo min ‘indika qaaloo lillazeena ootul ‘ilma maazaa qaala aanifaa; ulaaa’ikal lazeena taba’al laahu ‘alaa quloobihim wattaba’ooo ahwaaa’ahum
16. And among them, [O Muhammad], are those who listen to you, until when they depart from you, they say to those who were given knowledge, “What has he said just now?” Those are the ones of whom Allah has sealed over their hearts and who have followed their [own] desires.

وَٱلَّذِينَ ٱهْتَدَوْا۟ زَادَهُمْ هُدًۭى وَءَاتَىٰهُمْ تَقْوَىٰهُمْ

Wallazeenah tadaw zaadahum hudanw wa aataahum taqwaahum
17. And those who are guided – He increases them in guidance and gives them their righteousness.

فَهَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا ٱلسَّاعَةَ أَن تَأْتِيَهُم بَغْتَةًۭ ۖ فَقَدْ جَآءَ أَشْرَاطُهَا ۚ فَأَنَّىٰ لَهُمْ إِذَا جَآءَتْهُمْ ذِكْرَىٰهُمْ

Fahal yanzuroona illas Saa’ata an taatiyahum baghtatan faqad jaaa’a ashraatuhaa; fa-annnaa lahum izaa jaaa’at hum zikraahum
18. Then do they await except that the Hour should come upon them unexpectedly? But already there have come [some of] its indications. Then what good to them, when it has come, will be their remembrance?

فَٱعْلَمْ أَنَّهُۥ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا ٱللَّهُ وَٱسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنۢبِكَ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَٱلْمُؤْمِنَـٰتِ ۗ وَٱللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مُتَقَلَّبَكُمْ وَمَثْوَىٰكُمْ

Fa’lam annahoo laaa ilaaha illal laahu wastaghfir lizambika wa lilmu’mineena walmu’minaat; wallaahu ya’lamu mutaqallabakum wa maswaakum (section 2)
19. So know, [O Muhammad], that there is no deity except Allah and ask forgiveness for your sin and for the believing men and believing women. And Allah knows of your movement and your resting place.

وَيَقُولُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ لَوْلَا نُزِّلَتْ سُورَةٌۭ ۖ فَإِذَآ أُنزِلَتْ سُورَةٌۭ مُّحْكَمَةٌۭ وَذُكِرَ فِيهَا ٱلْقِتَالُ ۙ رَأَيْتَ ٱلَّذِينَ فِى قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌۭ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَيْكَ نَظَرَ ٱلْمَغْشِىِّ عَلَيْهِ مِنَ ٱلْمَوْتِ ۖ فَأَوْلَىٰ لَهُمْ

Wa yaqoolul lazeena aamanoo law laa nuzzilat Sooratun fa izaaa unzilat Sooratum Muhkamatunw wa zukira feehal qitaalu ra aytal lazeena fee quloobihim maraduny yanzuroona ilaika nazaral maghshiyyi ‘alaihi minal mawti fa’awlaa lahum
20. Those who believe say, “Why has a surah not been sent down? But when a precise surah is revealed and fighting is mentioned therein, you see those in whose hearts is hypocrisy looking at you with a look of one overcome by death. And more appropriate for them [would have been]

طَاعَةٌۭ وَقَوْلٌۭ مَّعْرُوفٌۭ ۚ فَإِذَا عَزَمَ ٱلْأَمْرُ فَلَوْ صَدَقُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ لَكَانَ خَيْرًۭا لَّهُمْ

Taa’atunw wa qawlum ma’roof; fa izaa ‘azamal amru falaw sadaqul laaha lakaana khairal lahum
21. Obedience and good words. And when the matter [of fighting] was determined, if they had been true to Allah, it would have been better for them.

فَهَلْ عَسَيْتُمْ إِن تَوَلَّيْتُمْ أَن تُفْسِدُوا۟ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ وَتُقَطِّعُوٓا۟ أَرْحَامَكُمْ

Fahal ‘asaitum in tawallaitum an tufsidoo fil ardi wa tuqatti’ooo arhaamakum
22. So would you perhaps, if you turned away, cause corruption on earth and sever your [ties of] relationship?

أُو۟لَـٰٓئِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ لَعَنَهُمُ ٱللَّهُ فَأَصَمَّهُمْ وَأَعْمَىٰٓ أَبْصَـٰرَهُمْ

Ulaaa’ikal lazeena la’anahumul laahu fa asammahum wa a’maaa absaarahum
23. Those [who do so] are the ones that Allah has cursed, so He deafened them and blinded their vision.

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ ٱلْقُرْءَانَ أَمْ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبٍ أَقْفَالُهَآ

Afalaa yatadabbaroonal Qur-aana am ‘alaa quloobin aqfaaluhaa
24. Then do they not reflect upon the Qur’an, or are there locks upon [their] hearts?

إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱرْتَدُّوا۟ عَلَىٰٓ أَدْبَـٰرِهِم مِّنۢ بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ ٱلْهُدَى ۙ ٱلشَّيْطَـٰنُ سَوَّلَ لَهُمْ وَأَمْلَىٰ لَهُمْ

Innal lazeenar taddoo ‘alaaa adbaarihim mim ba’di maa tabaiyana lahumul hudash Shaitaanu sawwala lahum wa amlaa lahum
25. Indeed, those who reverted back [to disbelief] after guidance had become clear to them – Satan enticed them and prolonged hope for them.

ذَ‌ٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُوا۟ لِلَّذِينَ كَرِهُوا۟ مَا نَزَّلَ ٱللَّهُ سَنُطِيعُكُمْ فِى بَعْضِ ٱلْأَمْرِ ۖ وَٱللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ إِسْرَارَهُمْ

Zaalika bi annahum qaaloo lillazeena karihoo maa nazzalal laahu sanutee’ukum fee ba’dil amri wallaahu ya’lamu israarahum
26. That is because they said to those who disliked what Allah sent down, “We will obey you in part of the matter.” And Allah knows what they conceal.

فَكَيْفَ إِذَا تَوَفَّتْهُمُ ٱلْمَلَـٰٓئِكَةُ يَضْرِبُونَ وُجُوهَهُمْ وَأَدْبَـٰرَهُمْ

Fakaifa izaa tawaffat humul malaaa’ikatu yadriboona wujoohahum wa adbaa rahum
27. Then how [will it be] when the angels take them in death, striking their faces and their backs?

ذَ‌ٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمُ ٱتَّبَعُوا۟ مَآ أَسْخَطَ ٱللَّهَ وَكَرِهُوا۟ رِضْوَ‌ٰنَهُۥ فَأَحْبَطَ أَعْمَـٰلَهُمْ

Zaalika bi annahumut taba’oo maaa askhatal laaha wa karihoo ridwaanahoo fa ahbata a’maalahum (section 3)
28. That is because they followed what angered Allah and disliked [what earns] His pleasure, so He rendered worthless their deeds.

أَمْ حَسِبَ ٱلَّذِينَ فِى قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ أَن لَّن يُخْرِجَ ٱللَّهُ أَضْغَـٰنَهُمْ

Am hasibal lazeena fee quloobihim maradun al lan yukhrijal laahu adghaanahum
29. Or do those in whose hearts is disease think that Allah would never expose their [feelings of] hatred?

وَلَوْ نَشَآءُ لَأَرَيْنَـٰكَهُمْ فَلَعَرَفْتَهُم بِسِيمَـٰهُمْ ۚ وَلَتَعْرِفَنَّهُمْ فِى لَحْنِ ٱلْقَوْلِ ۚ وَٱللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ أَعْمَـٰلَكُمْ

Wa law nashaaa’u la-arainaakahum fala ‘araftahum bi seemaahum; wa lata’rifan nahum fee lahnil qawl; wallaahu ya’lamu a’maalakum
30. And if We willed, We could show them to you, and you would know them by their mark; but you will surely know them by the tone of [their] speech. And Allah knows your deeds.

وَلَنَبْلُوَنَّكُمْ حَتَّىٰ نَعْلَمَ ٱلْمُجَـٰهِدِينَ مِنكُمْ وَٱلصَّـٰبِرِينَ وَنَبْلُوَا۟ أَخْبَارَكُمْ

Wa lanabluwannakum hattaa na’lamal mujaahideena minkum wassaabireena wa nabluwa akhbaarakum
31. And We will surely test you until We make evident those who strive among you [for the cause of Allah ] and the patient, and We will test your affairs.

إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ وَصَدُّوا۟ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَشَآقُّوا۟ ٱلرَّسُولَ مِنۢ بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ ٱلْهُدَىٰ لَن يَضُرُّوا۟ ٱللَّهَ شَيْـًۭٔا وَسَيُحْبِطُ أَعْمَـٰلَهُمْ

Innnal lazeena kafaroo wa saddoo ‘an sabeelil laahi wa shaaaqqur Rasoola mim ba’di maa tabaiyana lahumul hudaa lany yadurrul laaha shai’anw wa sa yuhbitu a’maalahum
32. Indeed, those who disbelieved and averted [people] from the path of Allah and opposed the Messenger after guidance had become clear to them – never will they harm Allah at all, and He will render worthless their deeds.

۞ يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓا۟ أَطِيعُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا۟ ٱلرَّسُولَ وَلَا تُبْطِلُوٓا۟ أَعْمَـٰلَكُمْ

Yaaa ayyuhal lazeena aamanoo atee’ul laaha wa atee’ur Rasoola wa laa tubtilooo a’maalakum
33. O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and do not invalidate your deeds.

إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ وَصَدُّوا۟ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ ثُمَّ مَاتُوا۟ وَهُمْ كُفَّارٌۭ فَلَن يَغْفِرَ ٱللَّهُ لَهُمْ

Innal lazeena kafaroo wa saddoo ‘an sabeelil laahi summa maatoo wa hum kuffaarun falany yaghfirallaahu lahum
34. Indeed, those who disbelieved and averted [people] from the path of Allah and then died while they were disbelievers – never will Allah forgive them.

فَلَا تَهِنُوا۟ وَتَدْعُوٓا۟ إِلَى ٱلسَّلْمِ وَأَنتُمُ ٱلْأَعْلَوْنَ وَٱللَّهُ مَعَكُمْ وَلَن يَتِرَكُمْ أَعْمَـٰلَكُمْ

Falaa tahinoo wa tad’ooo ilas salmi wa antumul a’lawna wallaahu ma’akum wa lany yatirakum a’maalakum
35. So do not weaken and call for peace while you are superior; and Allah is with you and will never deprive you of [the reward of] your deeds.

إِنَّمَا ٱلْحَيَوٰةُ ٱلدُّنْيَا لَعِبٌۭ وَلَهْوٌۭ ۚ وَإِن تُؤْمِنُوا۟ وَتَتَّقُوا۟ يُؤْتِكُمْ أُجُورَكُمْ وَلَا يَسْـَٔلْكُمْ أَمْوَ‌ٰلَكُمْ

Innamal hayaatud dunyaa la’ibunw wa lahw; wa in tu’minoo wa tattaqoo yu’tikum ujoorakum wa laa yas’alkum amwaalakum
36. [This] worldly life is only amusement and diversion. And if you believe and fear Allah, He will give you your rewards and not ask you for your properties.

إِن يَسْـَٔلْكُمُوهَا فَيُحْفِكُمْ تَبْخَلُوا۟ وَيُخْرِجْ أَضْغَـٰنَكُمْ

Iny yas’alkumoohaa fa yuhfikum tabkhaloo wa yukhrij adghaanakum
37. If He should ask you for them and press you, you would withhold, and He would expose your unwillingness.

هَـٰٓأَنتُمْ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ تُدْعَوْنَ لِتُنفِقُوا۟ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ فَمِنكُم مَّن يَبْخَلُ ۖ وَمَن يَبْخَلْ فَإِنَّمَا يَبْخَلُ عَن نَّفْسِهِۦ ۚ وَٱللَّهُ ٱلْغَنِىُّ وَأَنتُمُ ٱلْفُقَرَآءُ ۚ وَإِن تَتَوَلَّوْا۟ يَسْتَبْدِلْ قَوْمًا غَيْرَكُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَكُونُوٓا۟ أَمْثَـٰلَكُم

Haaa antum haaa’ulaaa’i tud’awna litunfiqoo fee sabeelillaahi faminkum many yabkhalu wa many yabkhal fa innamaa yabkhalu ‘an nafsih; wallaahu Ghaniyyu wa antumul fuqaraaa’; wa in tatwal law yastabdil qawman ghairakum summa laa yakoonooo amsaalakum (section 4)
38. Here you are – those invited to spend in the cause of Allah – but among you are those who withhold [out of greed]. And whoever withholds only withholds [benefit] from himself; and Allah is the Free of need, while you are the needy. And if you turn away, He will replace you with another people; then they will not be the likes of you.

The Tafsir of Surat Al-Qital

Chapter – 47
Which was revealed in Al-Madinah

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

(1. Those who disbelieve and hinder (men) from the path of Allah, He will render their deeds vain.) (2. But those who believe and do righteous good deeds, and believe in that which is sent down to Muhammad — for it is the truth from their Lord — He expiates from them their sins and amends their Bal.) (3. That is because those who disbelieve follow falsehood, while those who believe follow the truth from their Lord. Thus does Allah set forth for mankind their parables.)

The Reward of the Disbelievers and the Believers Allah says,

(Those who disbelieve) meaning, in the Ayat of Allah.

(and hinder (men)) Others.

(from the path of Allah, He will render their deeds vain.) meaning, He renders their deeds vain and futile, and He denies them any rewards or blessings for them. This is similar to His saying,

(And We will approach what they have done of deeds and make them as dispersed dust.) (25:23) Allah then says,

(And those who believe and do righteous good deeds,) Which means that their hearts and souls have believed, and their limbs and their hidden and apparent acts have complied with Allah’s Law.

(And believe in that which has been sent down to Muhammad) Adding this statement to the previous one is a method of adding a specific meaning to a general one. This provides proof that after Muhammad’s advent, believing in him is a required condition for the true faith. Allah then says,

(For it is the truth from their Lord.) which is a beautifully placed parenthetical clause. Thus, Allah says,

(He expiates from them their sins and amends their Bal.) Ibn `Abbas, said, “This means their matter.” Mujahid said, “This means their affair.” Qatadah and Ibn Zayd both said, “Their condition.” And all of these are similar in meaning. It has been mentioned (from the Prophet ) in the Hadith of the responding to one who sneezes,

(May Allah guide you and rectify your (Bal) affairs.) Then Allah says,

(That is because those who disbelieve follow falsehood,) meaning, `We only invalidate the deeds of the disbelievers and overlook the sins of the righteous, and amend their affairs, because those who disbelieve follow false- hood.’ Meaning, they choose falsehood over the truth.

(while those who believe follow the truth from their Lord. Thus does Allah set forth for the people their parables.) Thus He makes the consequence of their actions clear to them, and He shows them where they will end in their next life — and Allah knows best.

(4. So, when you meet those who disbelieve (in battle), smite (their) necks until you have fully defeated them, then tighten their bonds. Thereafter (is the time) either for generosity or ransom, until the war lays down its burden. Thus, and had Allah so willed, He could have taken vengeance against them;–but (He lets you struggle) so as to test with one another. But those who are killed in the way of Allah, He will never let their deeds be lost.) (5. He will guide them and amend their condition.) (6. And admit them to Paradise, which He has made known to them.) (7. O you who believe! If you support (in the cause of) Allah, He will support you, and make your foothold firm.) (8. But as for those who disbelieve, misery awaits them, and (Allah) will make their deeds vain.) (9. That is because they hate that which Allah has sent down; so He has made their deeds fruitless.)

The Command to strike the Enemies’ Necks, tighten Their Bonds, and then free Them either by an Act of Grace or for a Ransom

Guiding the believers to what they should employ in their fights against the idolators, Allah says,

(So, when you meet those who disbelieve (in battle), smite their necks) which means, `when you fight against them, cut them down totally with your swords.’

(until you have fully defeated them,) meaning, `you have killed and utterly destroyed them.’

(tighten their bonds.) `This is referring to the prisoners of war whom you have captured. Later on, after the war ends and the conflict has ceased, you have a choice in regard to the captives: You may either act graciously toward them by setting them free without charge, or free them for a ransom that you require from them.’ It appears that this Ayah was revealed after the battle of Badr. At that time, Allah reproached the believers for sparing many of the enemy’s soldiers, and holding too many captives in order to take ransom from them. So He said then:

(It is not for a Prophet to have captives of war until he had made a great slaughter (among the enemies) in the land. You desire the commodities of this world, but Allah desires (for you) the Hereafter. Allah is Mighty and Wise. Were it not for a prior decree from Allah, a severe torment would have touched you for what you took.) (8:67-68) Allah’s saying,

(…until the war lays down its burden.) Mujahid said: “Until `Isa bin Maryam (peace be upon him) descends.” It seems as if he derived this opinion from the Prophet’s saying,

(There will always be a group of my Ummah victorious upon the truth, until the last of them fight against Ad-Dajjal.) Imam Ahmad recorded from Jubayr bin Nufayr who reported from Salamah bin Nufayl that he went to the Messenger of Allah and said, “I have let my horse go, and thrown down my weapon, for the war has ended. There is no more fighting.” Then the Prophet said to him,

(Now the time of fighting has come. There will always be a group of my Ummah dominant over others. Allah will turn the hearts of some people away (from the truth), so they (that group) will fight against them, and Allah will bestow on them (war spoils) from them (the enemies) — until Allah’s command comes to pass while they are in that state. Verily, the center of the believers’ abode is Ash-Sham. And goodness is tied around the horses’ foreheads till the Day of Resurrection.) An-Nasa’i also recorded this narration. Allah then says,

(Thus, and had Allah so willed, He could have taken vengeance against them;) which means that had He so willed, He could have taken immediate vengeance against the disbelievers with a chastisement or exemplary punishment directly from Him.

(but (He lets you struggle) so as to test with one another.) meaning, He has ordered Jihad and fighting against the enemies in order to try you and test your affairs. Allah also expresses His wisdom by the legislation of Jihad in the following two Surahs, Al `Iman and At-Tawbah, in which He says,

(Or did you think that you would enter the Paradise before Allah had made evident those of you who fight in His cause and made evident those who are steadfast) (3:142)

(Fight them; Allah will then punish them by your hands, disgrace them, grant you victory over them, satisfy the breasts of a believing people, and remove the fury of their (the believers’) hearts. Allah turns in forgiveness to whom He wills; Allah is Knowing and Wise.) ( 9:14-15)

Merit of the Martyrs

Since it is customary during wars that many of the believers die, Allah says:

(But those who are killed in the way of Allah, He will never let their deeds be lost.) which means that He would not let their good deeds go to waste, but would rather multiply and increase them. Some of them will continue being rewarded for their good deeds for the entire length of their stay in Al-Barzakh. This has been mentioned in a Hadith recorded by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad on the authority of Kathir bin Murrah, who reported from Qays Al-Judhami, may Allah be pleased with him, that Allah’s Messenger said,

(As the first drop of his blood gushes forth, a martyr is granted six merits: all of his sins are forgiven, he is shown his place in Paradise, he is married to wide-eyed Huris, he is secured from the great fear (on Judgement Day) and the torment of the grave, and he is adorned with the adornments of Iman.) Ahmad was alone in recording this Hadith. Abu Ad-Darda’, may Allah be pleased with him, reported that Allah’s Messenger said,

(A martyr is allowed to intercede for seventy members of his household. ) This was recorded by Abu Dawud, and there are numerous other Hadiths mentioning the merits of the martyrs. As for Allah’s saying,

(He will guide them) meaning, He will guide them to Jannah. This is similar to Allah’s saying,

(Indeed, those who have believed and done righteous good deeds, their Lord will guide them because of their Faith: beneath them rivers will flow in the Gardens of Pleasure.) (10:9) Allah says,

(and amend their condition.) meaning, their situation and affairs.

(And (He will) admit them to Paradise, which He has made known to them.) It means that He has acquainted them with Paradise and guided them to it. Mujahid said: “The people of Paradise will be guided to their houses and dwellings and whatever sections Allah has ordained for them in it. They will not make mistakes in this, nor will they ask anyone for directions to their dwellings — as if they had dwelt in it from the time they were first created.” Al-Bukhari recorded from Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri, may Allah be pleased with him, that Allah’s Messenger said,

(After the believers securely pass the Fire (on the Day of Judgement), they will be held back upon a bridge between Paradise and the Fire. There, they will have any acts of injustice that they committed against one another in the life of this world rectified. After they are completely purified and cleansed (from injustice), they will be admitted into Paradise. By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, each one of them will find his way to his dwelling in Paradise better than he found his way to his dwelling in the worldly life.)

Support Allah’s Cause, He will then support You

Allah then says:

(O you who believe! If you support (the cause of) Allah, He will support you and make your foothold firm.) This is similar to His saying,

(Indeed, Allah will surely support those who support Him (His cause).) (22:40) That is because the reward is comparable to the type of deed that is performed. Thus, Allah says here,

(and make your foothold firm.) Allah then says,

(But as for those who disbelieve — misery awaits them) This misery is the opposite of making firm the footholds of the believers who support the cause of Allah and His Messenger . It has been confirmed in a Hadith that Allah’s Messenger said,

(Misery awaits the servant of the Dinar; misery awaits the servant of the Dirham; misery awaits the servant of velvet. Misery awaits him, and degeneracy; and if he is pricked by a thorn, may he not find anyone to pull it for him.) This means may Allah not cure him. Then Allah says,

(and (Allah) will make their deeds vain.) meaning, He will nullify them and make them fruitless. Thus, Allah says,

(That is because they hate that which Allah has sent down;) which means that they did not want or like what Allah revealed.

(so He made their deeds fruitless.)

(10. Have they not traveled through the earth and seen what happened in the end to those before them Allah destroyed them completely, and a similar (awaits) the disbelievers.) (11. That is because Allah is the Protector of those who believe, whereas the disbelievers have no protector.) (12. Certainly Allah will admit those who believe and do righteous good deeds, into Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise); while those who disbelieve enjoy their life and eat as cattle eat; but the Fire will be their abode.) (13. And how many a town mightier than your town that has driven you out We have destroyed, with none to help them!)

Admonition and Fire for the Disbelievers; Paradise for Those Who have Taqwa

Allah says,

(Have they not traveled) meaning, those who associate partners with Allah and deny His Messenger .

(through the land and seen what happened in the end to those before them Allah destroyed them completely,) which means that Allah punished them because of their denial and disbelief, and saved the believers from among them. That is why He says,

(and a similar (end awaits) the disbelievers.) Then Allah says,

(That is because Allah is the Protector of all those who believe, whereas the disbelievers have no protector.) After the battle of Uhud, Abu Sufyan Sakhr bin Harb, the commander of the idolators at that time, inquired about the Prophet , Abu Bakr, and `Umar, may Allah be pleased with them. When he heard no response, he announced: “Verily, those three have died!” `Umar then responded to him: “You lie, O enemy of Allah! Allah has indeed saved those who will displease you. Indeed, those whom you mentioned are all alive!” Abu Sufyan then said: “Well, today makes up for (the defeat on) the day of Badr, and the war has its ups and downs. And indeed, you are going to find mutilation (in the bodies of your dead) that I did not command, nor did I prohibit.” Then he turned around chanting: “Glory to Hubal (their greatest idol), Glory to Hubal.” Allah’s Messenger said:

(Aren’t you going to respond to him) The Companions said: “What should we say, O Messenger of Allah” He said:

(Say: “Allah is Most High and Most Glorious.”) Then Abu Sufyan said: “We have Al-`Uzza (their second idol), and you have no `Uzza. (honor).” Allah’s Messenger said:

(Aren’t you all going to respond to him) They said: “What should we say, O Messenger of Allah” He said:

(Say: “Allah is our Protector, and you have no protector.”) Allah then says,

(Verily, Allah will admit those who believe and do righteous good deeds into Gardens through which rivers flow.) meaning, on the Day of Resurrection.

(Whereas those who disbelieve enjoy their life and eat as cattle eat. ) Which means that the disbelievers enjoy their worldly life and eat in it like animals, munching and gnawing (with greed). They have no concern other than that. Thus, it has been confirmed in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah said,

(A believer eats with one intestine, and a disbeliever eats with seven intestines.) Then Allah says,

(but the Fire will be their abode.) meaning, on the Day of their Reckoning. Allah then says,

(And how many a town mightier than your town that has driven you out) meaning, Makkah.

(We have destroyed, with none to help them!) gThis is a great threat and severe warning to the people of Makkah because they rejected Allah’s Messenger , who was the chief of the Messengers and the last of the Prophets. If Allah had destroyed the previous nations because of their denial of their Messengers, what then would those (people of Makkah) expect that Allah would do to them in the worldly life and the Hereafter And if the torment were to be lifted off some of them in this life by the blessing of the presence of the Messenger, the Prophet of Mercy, the torment will be stored for them in their next life, as Allah says,

(Their torment will be doubled! They could not bear to hear (the preaching), and they used not to see (the truth).) (11:20) Concerning Allah’s saying,

(than Your town that has driven you out) This means, `its people who have driven you (Muhammad ) out from amongst them (the people of Makkah).’ Ibn Abi Hatim recorded from Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, that when Allah’s Messenger left Makkah (at the time of Hijrah — migration), and he reached the cave and hid inside it, he looked back toward Makkah and said,

(You are the most beloved to Allah among Allah’s lands, and you are also the most beloved to me among Allah’s lands. Were it not that the idolators have driven me out from you, I would never have left you.) Ibn `Abbas then said, “The worst of enemies is he who transgresses against Allah in His own sacred place, who kills a person who is not trying to kill him, or who kills because of Jahiliyyah vengeance. Allah then revealed to His Prophet ,

(And how many a town mightier than your town that has driven you out have We destroyed, with none to help them!)”

(14. Can then he, who stands on clear evidence from his Lord, be like those for whom their evil deeds are beautified for them, while they follow their own lusts) (15. The description of Paradise which is promised to those who have Taqwa, (is that) in it are rivers of water that are not Asin, rivers of milk the taste of which never changes, rivers of wine delicious to those who drink it, and rivers of refined honey; and therein for them are all kinds of fruits, and forgiveness from their Lord. Can this be likened to those who abide eternally in the Fire and are given to drink boiling water that severs their intestines)

The Worshipper of the Truth and the Worshipper of Lust are not Equal

Allah says:

(Can then he, who stands on clear evidence from his Lord…) This means a person who is upon clear vision and certainty concerning Allah’s commands and His religion, because of the guidance and knowledge that Allah has revealed in His Book, and because of the pure nature upon which Allah has created him.

((Can he) be likened to those for whom their evil deeds are beautified for them, while they follow their own lusts) which means that they cannot be equal. This is similar to Allah’s saying,

(Can he who knows that what has been revealed unto you from your Lord is the truth be like him who is blind) (13:19) And,

(Not equal are the people of the Fire and the people of Paradise. The People of Paradise will be the successful ones.) (59:20)

Description of Paradise and Its Rivers

Allah then says:

(The description of Paradise which is promised for those who have Taqwa…) `Ikrimah said,

(The description of Paradise) “This means its description.”

(In it are rivers of water that are not Asin,) Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Al-Hasan, and Qatadah all said, “It does not change.” Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak, and `Ata’ Al-Khurasani all said, “It is not foul-smelling.” The Arabs say Asin if its (water) scent changes.

(rivers of milk, the taste of which never changes,) which means that the milk is of utmost whiteness, sweetness, and richness. It has been mentioned in a Hadith attributed to the Prophet “Their milk did not come out of the udders of cattle.”

(rivers of wine delightful to those who drink it, ) hich means that the wine does not have a bad taste or foul smell like that of the worldly life. Rather, it is good in its appearance, taste, smell, and effect, as Allah says,

(it (the wine) has no bad effects, nor does it cause intoxication.) (37:47) and,

(From which (the wine) they will have no headache, nor will they be intoxicated.) (56:19)

(white, delicious to the drinkers.)(37:46) It has been mentioned in a Hadith attributed to the Prophet , “Their wine was not pressed under men’s feet.”

(and rivers of refined honey;) which means that the honey is of utmost purity and pleasant color, taste, and smell. It has been mentioned in a Hadith attributed to the Prophet , “Their honey did not come out of the bellies of bees.” Imam Ahmad recorded from Hakim bin Mu`awiyah who narrated from his father that Allah’s Messenger said,

(Verily, there is in Paradise a lake of milk, a lake of water, a lake of honey, and a lake of wine. The rivers then gush out of them. At-Tirmidhi reported this narration in his section of the Description of Paradise, and he said, “Hasan Sahih. In the Sahih, it is recorded that Allah’s Messenger said,

(When you ask Allah, ask Him for Al-Firdaws, because it is the central and highest part of the Paradise, and from it gush the rivers of the Paradise and above it is the Throne of the Most Merciful.)Allah says,

(…and therein for them are all kinds of fruits, …) This similar to His saying,

(They will call in it for every kind of fruit in peace and security.) (44:55) And His saying,

(In them will be every kind of fruits in pairs.) (55:52) Allah says

(. ..and forgiveness from their Lord.) meaning, in addition to all of the above. Allah says,

(Can this be likened to those who abide eternally in the Fire) meaning, `can those that We have described their position in the Paradise be like those who will abide eternally in the Fire’ They are not equal, and nor are those who will be in the high ranks (in the Paradise) and those who will be in the lowest depths (Hell).

(and are given to drink boiling water) meaning, extremely hot; so hot that it is unbearable.

(that severs their intestines) meaning, that will cut their insides — both bowels and intestines. We seek refuge in Allah from that.

(16. And among them are some who listen to you till when they go out from you, they say to those who have received knowledge: “What is it that he has said just now “Such are men whose hearts Allah has sealed because they followed their lusts.) (17. And as for those who accept guidance, He increases them in guidance and bestows on them their Taqwa.) (18. Do they then await except that the Hour should come upon them suddenly But already there have come (some of) its portents; and when it (actually) is on them, how can they benefit then by their reminder) (19. So know that La ilaha illallah and ask forgiveness for your sin, and also for (the sin of) believing men and women. And Allah knows well your moving about, and your place of rest.)

The Description of the Situation of the Hypocrites and the Command to maintain Tawhid and seek Forgiveness

Allah describes the hypocrites’ stupidity and limited understanding. They used to sit before Allah’s Messenger and listen to his words without understanding anything. Then when they left from his presence,

(they say to those who have received knowledge) from the Companions

(“What is it that he has said just now”) meaning, at this moment. They did not understand what he said, nor did they care about it. Allah says,

(Such are the men whose hearts Allah has sealed because they followed their lusts.) which means that they had neither sound understanding nor correct intentions. Allah then says,

(And as for those who accept guidance, He increases them in guidance) which means that those who seek guidance, Allah facilitates it for them; He guides them to it, makes them firm on it, and gives them more of it.

(and bestows on them their Taqwa. ) meaning, He inspires them to their righteous guidance. Allah then says,

(Do they then await except that the Hour should come upon them suddenly) meaning, while they are unaware of it.

(But already there have come (some of) its portents;) meaning, the signs of its approach. This is similar to Allah’s saying,

(This is a warner of the warners of old. The approaching Day has drawn near.) (53:56-57) And His saying,

(The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has split.) (54:1) And His saying,

(The command of Allah is coming, so do not be impatient for it.) (16:1) And His saying,

(The people’s Day of Reckoning has approached while they turn away in heedlessness.) (21:1) Thus, the Messenger’s advent is one of the signs of the Hour, because he is the Finality of the Messengers. With him, Allah has completed the religion and established the evidence against all people in a way that was never done by a previous Prophet. Allah’s Messenger has most clearly informed about the signs and indications of the Hour, as we have discussed elsewhere. Al-Bukhari recorded from Sahl bin Sa`d, may Allah be pleased with him, that he saw Allah’s Messenger bring his index and middle fingers together while he said,

(I have been sent before the Hour as these two (fingers).) Allah continues,

(and when it (actually) is on them, how can they benefit then by their reminder) meaning, how would remembering benefit the disbelievers when the Hour comes upon them This is similar to Allah’s saying,

(On that Day will the human being remember, but what would that remembrance avail him then) (89:23) And His saying,

(They will say (in the Hereafter): “Now we believe in it!” But how could they claim belief from such a far place) (34:52) Allah then says,

(So know that La ilaha illallah) This is a declaration that there is no true God except Allah. It is not something that is easy for him to command the people to have knowledge of. That is why Allah connected it with,

(and ask forgiveness for your sin and for the believing men and women.) In the Sahih, it is recorded that Allah’s Messenger used to say,

(O Allah, forgive my sin, my ignorance, my immoderation in my affairs, and all that You know better about my (faults) than myself. O Allah, forgive for me my joking, my seriousness, my unintended error, and my deliberate (mistakes) — and I have done of all that.) It is also reported in the Sahih that he used to say at the end of the prayer,

(O Allah, forgive for me what I have previously done, what I may commit in future, what I have committed secretly, what I have committed openly, what I have done excessively, and all sins that You know better than me. You are my God. There is no (true) God except You.) It is also recorded in the Sahih that he used to say,

(O people! Repent to your Lord! Verily, I ask Allah for forgiveness and repent to Him more than seventy times every day.) Allah then says,

(And Allah knows well your moving about, and your place of rest.) means, He knows how you behave during the day, and where you settle at night. This is similar to His saying,

(It is He Who takes your souls by night and knows all that you do by day.)(6:60) And He says,

(And there is no moving creature on earth but its provision is up to Allah, and He knows its dwelling place and its deposit (before birth and after death) — all is in a clear register.) (11:6)

(20. Those who believe say: “Why is not a Surah sent down (for us)” But now that a decisive Surah is sent down mentioning fighting, you can see those in whose hearts is disease (of hypocrisy) looking at you with the look of one who is about to faint for fear of death. But it was better for them.) (21. Obedience and good words. And when the matter is resolved, then if they had been true to Allah, it would have been better for them.) (22. So would you perhaps, if you turned away, spread corruption on earth, and sever your ties of kinship) (23. Such are the ones whom Allah has cursed, so that He has made them deaf and blinded their vision.)

The Situation of the True Believer and the Sick-Hearted when the Command for Jihad was revealed

Allah mentions that the believers were hoping that Jihad would be legislated. But when Allah ordained it, many of the people turned back, as Allah says,

(Have you not seen those who were told: “Restrain your hands (from fighting), establish the Salah, and give Zakah.” But then when fighting was ordained for them, you find a party of them fearing the people as they fear Allah or more. They said: “Our Lord! Why have You decreed fighting upon us If only You have postponed us for a short period.” Say: “The enjoyment of this world is little. The Hereafter is far better for him who had Taqwa of (Allah), and you will not be dealt with unjustly, even as much as a thin thread (inside a date’s pit).”)(4:77) Similarly, Allah says here,

(Those who believe say: “Why is not a Surah sent down (for us)”) means, a Surah containing an order to fight. Then He says,

(But now that a decisive Surah is sent down mentioning fighting, you can see those in whose hearts is disease looking at you with the look of one who is about to faint for fear of death.) meaning, due to their fear, terror, and cowardice concerning meeting the enemies. Allah then encourages them by saying,

(But it was better for them, obedience and good words.) which means that it would have been better for them to listen and obey in that present situation.

(When the matter (of fighting) is resolved.) which means when the situation becomes serious and the time of fighting truly arrives.

(if they had been true to Allah,) meaning, by making their intentions sincerely for Him.

(it would have been better for them) Allah then says,

(So would you perhaps, if you turned away) meaning, from Jihad and you withdrew from it.

(spread corruption on earth, and sever your ties of kinship) which means, would you then go back to your old practices of the time of ignorance: shedding blood and severing kinship ties Allah then says,

(Such are the ones whom Allah has cursed, so He has made them deaf and blinded their vision.) This involves a general prohibition of spreading corruption on earth, and a specific prohibition of severing the ties of kinship. In fact, Allah has commanded the people to establish righteousness on earth, as well as to join the ties of kinship by treating the relatives well in speech, actions, and spending wealth in charity. Many authentic and sound Hadiths have been reported through numerous routes of transmission from Allah’s Messenger in this regard. Al-Bukhari recorded from Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, that Allah’s Messenger said,

(After Allah completed creating the creation, the womb stood up and pulled at the lower garment of the Most Merciful. He said, ‘Stop that!’ It replied, ‘My stand here is the stand of one seeking refuge in you from severance of ties.’ Allah said, ‘Would it not please you that I join whoever joins you and sever whoever severs you’ It replied, ‘Yes indeed!’ He said, ‘You are granted that!’) Abu Hurayrah then added, “Read if you wish:

(So would you perhaps, if you turned away, spread corruption on earth, and sever your ties of kinship)” Then Al-Bukhari recorded it with another wording which states that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Read if you wish: (So would you perhaps, if you turned away, spread corruption on earth, and sever your ties of kinship)) Muslim also recorded it. Imam Ahmad recorded from Abu Bakrah, may Allah be pleased with him, that Allah’s Messenger said:

(No sin deserves that Allah hasten its punishment in the worldly life, in addition to what He reserves in the Hereafter for those who commit it, more than injustice and severance of the ties of kinship.) This was also recorded by Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, and Ibn Majah. At-Tirmidhi said, “This Hadith is Sahih.” Imam Ahmad recorded from Thawban, may Allah be pleased with him, that Allah’s Messenger said,

(Whoever likes for his life to be extended, and his provision increased, let him connect his ties of kinship.) Ahmad was alone in recording this narration, but it has a supporting narration in the Sahih. Imam Ahmad recorded from `Abdullah bin `Amr, may Allah be pleased with him, that Allah’s Messenger said,

(Verily, the womb is attached to the Throne. And connecting its ties does not mean dealing evenly (with the kinsfolk), but it rather means that if one’s kinsfolk sever the ties, he connects them.) This Hadith was also recorded by Al-Bukhari. Ahmad also recorded from `Abdullah bin `Amr, may Allah be pleased with him, that Allah’s Messenger said,

(The womb will be placed on the Day of Resurrection, curved like a spinning wheel, speaking with an eloquent fluent tongue, calling to severing whoever had severed it, and joining whoever had joined it.) Imam Ahmad recorded from `Abdullah bin `Amr, may Allah be pleased with him, that Allah’s Messenger said,

(The merciful ones will be granted mercy from the Most Merciful. Have mercy on those on earth — the One above the heavens will then have mercy on you. And Ar-Rahim (the womb) is from Ar-Rahman, so whoever joins it, it joins him; and whoever severs it, it severs him.) Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi both recorded this Hadith and it has been reported with continuous chains of transmission. At-Trimidhi said, “Hasan Sahih.” There are numerous other Hadiths in this regard.

(24. Will they not then reflect upon the Qur’an, or are there locks upon their hearts) (25. Verily, those who have turned back as disbelievers after guidance had become clear to them — Shaytan has enticed them and filled them with false hopes.) (26. That is because they said to those who hate what Allah has sent down: “We will obey you in part of the matter.” And Allah knows their secrets.) (27. Then how (will it be) when the angels will take their souls at death, striking their faces and their backs) (28. That is because they followed that which angered Allah and hated what earns His pleasure, so He rendered their deeds worthless.)

The Command to reflect upon the Qur’an

Commanding the people to reflect and ponder upon the Qur’an, and prohibiting them from turning away from it, Allah says,

(Will they not then reflect upon the Qur’an, or are there locks upon their hearts) means, there indeed are locks upon some hearts, firmly closing them so that none of its meanings can reach them. Ibn Jarir recorded from Hisham bin `Urwah, from his father, may Allah be pleased with him, that Allah’s Messenger once recited this Ayah,

(Will they not then reflect upon the Qur’an, or are there locks upon their hearts) and a young man from Yemen said, “Indeed, there are locks upon them — until Allah opens them totally or slightly.” After that `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, always liked that young man, and kept that to himself until he became in charge, upon which he utilized him (as a consultant).

Condemning Apostasy

Allah then says,

(Verily, those who have turned back) meaning, they departed from the faith and returned to disbelief.

(… after guidance had become clear to them — Shaytan has enticed them) meaning he adorned and beautified that (apostasy) for them.

(and filled them with false hopes.) meaning, he tempted them, and deceived them.

(That is because they said to those who hate what Allah sent down: “We will obey your in part of the matter.”) means, they plotted secretly with them and gave them evil advice — as is the common practice of the hypocrites who declare the opposite of what they conceal. Because of this, Allah says,

(And Allah knows their secrets. ) whatever they hide and conceal, Allah is well-acquainted with it and He knows it. This is similar to His saying,

(…And Allah records all that they plot by night.) (4:81) Allah then says,

(How (will it be) when the angels will take their souls at death, striking their faces and their backs) That is, how their situation will be when the angels come to take their lives, and their souls cling to their bodies, causing the angels to extract them by force, harshness, and beating. This is similar to Allah’s saying,

(If you could but see when the angels take away the lives of the disbelievers, striking their faces and their backs.) (8:50) And His saying,

(If you could but see when the wrongdoers are in the agonies of death, while the angels extend their hands) (6:93). meaning, to beat them.

((saying): “Deliver your souls! This day you will be recompensed with the torment of degradation because of what you used to utter against Allah other than the truth, and because you used to arrogantly reject His signs.”) (6:93) Because of the above, Allah says,

(That is because they pursued what angered Allah and disliked what earns His pleasure, so He rendered their deeds worthless.)

(29. Or do those in whose hearts is a disease, think that Allah will not expose their ill–wills) (30. Had We so willed, We could have shown them clearly to you, so that you would know them by their marks; but you will know them by the tone of their speech! And Allah knows (all) your deeds.) (31. And We will surely, try you until We know those who strive among you and the patient, and We will put to a test all your affairs.)

Exposing the Hidden Secret of the Hypocrites Allah says,

(Or do those in whose hearts is disease think that Allah would never expose their ill–wills) meaning, do the hypocrites think that Allah will not expose their affair to His believing servant Yes indeed, He will expose their affair and manifest it so that those with insight will be able to understand it. In that regard, Allah revealed Surah Bara’ah (or At-Tawbah), in which He clarified the hypocrites’ scandals, and pinpointed their practices that are indicative of their hypocrisy. Because of that, this Surah (Surah Bara’ah) is also called “The Exposer”. Adghan is the plural of Dighn, which means what the souls harbor of envy and hatred toward Islam and its people who support it. Allah then says,

(Had We so willed, We could have shown them clearly to you, so that you would know them by their marks.) Allah is telling His Messenger , “Had We willed, O Muhammad, We would have shown you the specific individuals who are hypocrites, so that you would plainly know them.” However, Allah did not do that in regard to all of the hypocrites. He conceals His creation, lets their affairs run according to apparent purity, and leaves the inner secrets to the One Who is well aware of them. Allah then adds,

(But you will know them by the tone of their speech!) which means, `you will know them by their speech that reveals their intentions.’ A person declares his association through the context and meaning of his words — as the Commander of the faithful `Uthman bin `Affan, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “Never would one conceal a secret but Allah will expose it by the look on his face and the uncontrolled words of his tongue.” Allah then says,

(And We will surely try you) meaning, `We will surely test you with commands and prohibitions.’

(until We know those who strive among you and the patient, and We will put to a test all your affairs.) There is absolutely no doubt that Allah’s knowledge precedes the occurrence of all events. In this Ayah, “until We know” means `until We know of its occurrence.’ This is why Ibn `Abbas said in regard to this and similar texts, “Except so that We may know, means, so that We may see.”

(32. Verily, those who disbelieve, and hinder from the path of Allah, and oppose the Messenger, after the guidance has been clearly shown to them, they will not harm Allah in the least, but He will make their deeds fruitless,) (33. O you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and invalidate not your deeds.) (34. Verily, those who disbelieved and obstructed others from the path of Allah and then died as disbelievers — never will Allah not forgive them.) (35. So do not lose heart and beg for peace while you are superior. Allah is with you and He will never deprive you of (the reward of) your deeds.)

Nullifying the Disbelievers’ Deeds and the Command to chase Them

Allah then informs about those who disbelieve, obstruct others from the path of Allah, oppose the Messenger and contend with him, and revert from the faith after guidance has become clear to them. He indicates that those people can never harm Allah in the least, and rather they only harm themselves and become losers on the Day of Resurrection. He will nullify their deeds. Allah will not reward them even the weight of a mosquito (i.e., the smallest thing) for any good that they did before their apostasy, but would instead totally invalidate and destroy it. Their apostasy wipes away their good deeds entirely, just as the good deeds would normally wipe away the evil deeds. Imam Ahmad Ibn Nasr Al-Marwazi reported in Kitab As-Salah (the Book of Prayer) that Abu Al-`Aliyah said, “The Prophet’s Companions used to think that no sin would harm a person who says `La ilaha illallah,’ just as no good deed would benefit a person who joins partners with Allah. So Allah revealed,

(Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and do not invalidate your deeds.) This made them fear that some sins could nullify their deeds.” It has also been reported from Ibn `Umar, may Allah be pleased with him, that he said, “We, the Companions of Allah’s Messenger , used to think that good deeds would all be accepted, until Allah revealed,

(Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and do not invalidate your deeds. ) So we asked each other: `What is it that can nullify our deeds’ So we said, `The major sins, great offenses that require admission into the Fire and immoral sins.’ But then Allah revealed,

(Verily, Allah does not forgive joining partners with Him in worship, but He forgives except that to whom He wills.) (4:48) After this was revealed, we ceased saying that. We thereafter continued to fear for those who committed great sins and immoral sins and to have hope for those who did not.” Then, Allah commands His believing servants to obey Him and His Messenger , which would result in their happiness in this worldly life and the Hereafter. He also prohibits them from apostasy, because that would result in the nullification of their deeds. Thus He says,

(and do not invalidate your deeds.) meaning, by apostasy. Thus, Allah says after this,

(Verily, those who disbelieved and obstructed others from the path of Allah and then died as disbelievers — never will Allah forgive them.) This is similar to His saying,

(Verily, Allah does not forgive joining partners with Him in worship, but He forgives except that to whom He wills.) (4:48) Allah then addresses His believing servants by saying,

(So do not lose heart) meaning, do not be weak concerning the enemies.

(and beg for peace) meaning, compromise, peace, and ending the fighting between you and the disbelievers while you are in a position of power, both in great numbers and preparations. Thus, Allah says,

(So do not lose heart and beg for peace while you are superior.) meaning, in the condition of your superiority over your enemy. If, on the other hand, the disbelievers are considered more powerful and numerous than the Muslims, then the Imam (general commander) may decide to hold a treaty if he judges that it entails a benefit for the Muslims. This is like what Allah’s Messenger did when the disbelievers obstructed him from entering Makkah and offered him treaty in which all fighting would stop between them for ten years. Consequently, he agreed to that. Allah then says:

(And Allah is with you) This contains the good news of victory and triumph over the enemies.

(and He will never deprive you of (the reward of) your deeds.) meaning, Allah will never invalidate your deeds, nullify them, or deprive you of them, but rather He will give you your rewards complete, without any reduction.” And Allah knows best.

(36. This worldly life is only amusement and diversion. And if you believe and have Taqwa of Allah, He will grant you your rewards, and will not ask from you (to sacrifice all of) your possessions.) (37. If He would demand of you all of it and urge you, you would withhold. And He will expose your (secret) ill–wills.) (38. Here you are now invited to spend in Allah’s cause; but among you are those who withhold (stingily). And whoever acts stingily is but stingy toward himself. For Allah is indeed free of needs, while you are the needy. And if you turn away, He will replace you with other people; then they will not be like you.)

Showing the Triviality of the Worldly Life and encouraging Spending

Expressing the insignificance and worthlessness of the worldly life, Allah says,

(This worldly life is only amusement and diversion.) which means that such is its outcome, except for that which is done for the sake of Allah. Because of this, Allah says,

(And if you believe and have Taqwa of Allah, He will grant you your rewards, and will not ask from you (to sacrifice all of) your possessions.) meaning, He is in no need of you, and asks you for nothing. He only ordained giving charity from your wealth so that you would help your needy brothers. The benefit of that would then come back to you, as well as the rewards. Allah then says,

(If He would demand of you all of it and urge you, you would withhold.) meaning, if He pressures you much, you would become stingy.

(And He will expose your (secret) ill–wills.) Qatadah said, “Allah knows that extracting wealth (i.e., money from people) brings about ill-wills. ” Indeed, Qatadah has said the truth, because money is dear to the people, and they do not spend it except in things that are dearer to them than it. Allah then says,

(Here you are now invited to spend in Allah’s cause; but among you are those who withhold (stingily).) meaning, they refuse to spend. Allah continues,

(And whoever acts stingily is but stingy toward himself.) meaning, he only reduces his own rewards, and the bad outcome of that will come back to him.

(For Allah is indeed Al-Ghani) Allah is in need of nothing else, whereas everything is ever in need of Him. Thus, Allah says,

(while you are the needy.) meaning, specifically of Him. The description of Allah as Al-Ghani (in no need) is a necessary description of Allah; on the other hand, the description of the creation as Faqr (needy) is a necessary description for them that they cannot avoid. Allah then says,

(And if you turn away, ) which means, if you turn away from obeying Him and adhering to His Laws.

(He will replace you with other people; then they will not be like you.) meaning, rather, they will be people who will listen to Him and obey His commands.

This concludes the Tafsir of Surat Al-Qital. And Allah is worthy of all praise and gratitude.