Surah Ad Dukhan (“Smoke”) is the 44th chapter of the Qur’an and is classified as a Meccan Surah. It consists of a total of 59 ayat or verses.
This surah warns about the day of judgement (qiyamah) and the punishment of Allah. There will be a division between the righteous and wicked and Allah will rule the final decision. The righteous will be rewarded and in a “secure place”.
[They will say], “Our Lord, remove from us the torment; indeed, we are believers.”
Surah Ad Dukhan Ayat 12
Read Surah Ad Dukhan with English Translation and Transliteration
Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Raheem
In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful
1. Ha, Meem.
Wal Kitaabil Mubeen
2. By the clear Book,
إِنَّآ أَنزَلْنَـٰهُ فِى لَيْلَةٍۢ مُّبَـٰرَكَةٍ ۚ إِنَّا كُنَّا مُنذِرِينَ
Innaaa anzalnaahu fee lailatim mubaarakah; innaa kunnaa munzireen
3. Indeed, We sent it down during a blessed night. Indeed, We were to warn [mankind].
فِيهَا يُفْرَقُ كُلُّ أَمْرٍ حَكِيمٍ
Feehaa yufraqu kullu amrin hakeem
4. On that night is made distinct every precise matter –
أَمْرًۭا مِّنْ عِندِنَآ ۚ إِنَّا كُنَّا مُرْسِلِينَ
Amram min ‘indinaaa; innaa kunnaa mursileen
5. [Every] matter [proceeding] from Us. Indeed, We were to send [a messenger]
رَحْمَةًۭ مِّن رَّبِّكَ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ هُوَ ٱلسَّمِيعُ ٱلْعَلِيمُ
Rahmatam mir rabbik; innahoo Huwas Samee’ul ‘Aleem
6. As mercy from your Lord. Indeed, He is the Hearing, the Knowing.
رَبِّ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَآ ۖ إِن كُنتُم مُّوقِنِينَ
Rabbis samaawaati wal ardi wa maa bainahumaa; in kuntum mooqineen
7. Lord of the heavens and the earth and that between them, if you would be certain.
لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ يُحْىِۦ وَيُمِيتُ ۖ رَبُّكُمْ وَرَبُّ ءَابَآئِكُمُ ٱلْأَوَّلِينَ
Laaa ilaaha illaa Huwa yuhyee wa yumeetu Rabbukum wa Rabbu aabaaa’ikumul awwaleen
8. There is no deity except Him; He gives life and causes death. [He is] your Lord and the Lord of your first forefathers.
بَلْ هُمْ فِى شَكٍّۢ يَلْعَبُونَ
Bal hum fee shakkiny yal’aboon
9. But they are in doubt, amusing themselves.
فَٱرْتَقِبْ يَوْمَ تَأْتِى ٱلسَّمَآءُ بِدُخَانٍۢ مُّبِينٍۢ
Fartaqib Yawma taatis samaaa’u bidukhaanim mubeen
10. Then watch for the Day when the sky will bring a visible smoke.
يَغْشَى ٱلنَّاسَ ۖ هَـٰذَا عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌۭ
Yaghshan naasa haazaa ‘azaabun aleem
11. Covering the people; this is a painful torment.
رَّبَّنَا ٱكْشِفْ عَنَّا ٱلْعَذَابَ إِنَّا مُؤْمِنُونَ
Rabbanak shif ‘annal ‘azaaba innaa mu’minoon
12. [They will say], “Our Lord, remove from us the torment; indeed, we are believers.”
أَنَّىٰ لَهُمُ ٱلذِّكْرَىٰ وَقَدْ جَآءَهُمْ رَسُولٌۭ مُّبِينٌۭ
Annaa lahumuz zikraa wa qad jaaa’ahum Rasoolum mubeen
13. How will there be for them a reminder [at that time]? And there had come to them a clear Messenger.
ثُمَّ تَوَلَّوْا۟ عَنْهُ وَقَالُوا۟ مُعَلَّمٌۭ مَّجْنُونٌ
Summaa tawallaw ‘anhu wa qaaloo mu’allamum majnoon
14. Then they turned away from him and said, “[He was] taught [and is] a madman.”
إِنَّا كَاشِفُوا۟ ٱلْعَذَابِ قَلِيلًا ۚ إِنَّكُمْ عَآئِدُون
Innaa kaashiful ‘azaabi qaleelaa; innakum ‘aaa’indoon
15. Indeed, We will remove the torment for a little. Indeed, you [disbelievers] will return [to disbelief].
يَوْمَ نَبْطِشُ ٱلْبَطْشَةَ ٱلْكُبْرَىٰٓ إِنَّا مُنتَقِمُونَ
Yawma nabtishul batsha tal kubraa innaa muntaqimoon
16. The Day We will strike with the greatest assault, indeed, We will take retribution.
۞ وَلَقَدْ فَتَنَّا قَبْلَهُمْ قَوْمَ فِرْعَوْنَ وَجَآءَهُمْ رَسُولٌۭ كَرِيمٌ
Wa laqad fatannaa qablahum qawma Fir’awna wa jaaa’ahum Rasoolun kareem
17. And We had already tried before them the people of Pharaoh, and there came to them a noble messenger,
أَنْ أَدُّوٓا۟ إِلَىَّ عِبَادَ ٱللَّهِ ۖ إِنِّى لَكُمْ رَسُولٌ أَمِينٌۭ
An addooo ilaiya ‘ibaadal laahi innee lakum Rasoolun ameen
18. [Saying], “Render to me the servants of Allah . Indeed, I am to you a trustworthy messenger,”
وَأَن لَّا تَعْلُوا۟ عَلَى ٱللَّهِ ۖ إِنِّىٓ ءَاتِيكُم بِسُلْطَـٰنٍۢ مُّبِينٍۢ
Wa al laa ta’loo ‘alal laahi innee aateekum bisultaanim mubeen
19. And [saying], “Be not haughty with Allah . Indeed, I have come to you with clear authority.
وَإِنِّى عُذْتُ بِرَبِّى وَرَبِّكُمْ أَن تَرْجُمُونِ
Wa innee ‘uztu bi Rabbee wa rabbikum an tarjumoon
20. And indeed, I have sought refuge in my Lord and your Lord, lest you stone me.
وَإِن لَّمْ تُؤْمِنُوا۟ لِى فَٱعْتَزِلُونِ
Wa il lam tu’minoo lee fa’taziloon
21. But if you do not believe me, then leave me alone.”
فَدَعَا رَبَّهُۥٓ أَنَّ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ قَوْمٌۭ مُّجْرِمُونَ
Fada’aa rabbahooo anna haaa’ulaaa’i qawmum mujrimoon
22. And [finally] he called to his Lord that these were a criminal people.
فَأَسْرِ بِعِبَادِى لَيْلًا إِنَّكُم مُّتَّبَعُونَ
Fa asri bi’ibaadee lailan innakum muttaba’oon
23. [ Allah said], “Then set out with My servants by night. Indeed, you are to be pursued.
وَٱتْرُكِ ٱلْبَحْرَ رَهْوًا ۖ إِنَّهُمْ جُندٌۭ مُّغْرَقُونَ
Watrukil bahra rahwan innahum jundum mughraqoon
24. And leave the sea in stillness. Indeed, they are an army to be drowned.”
كَمْ تَرَكُوا۟ مِن جَنَّـٰتٍۢ وَعُيُونٍۢ
Kam tarakoo min jannaatinw wa ‘uyoon
25. How much they left behind of gardens and springs
وَزُرُوعٍۢ وَمَقَامٍۢ كَرِيمٍۢ
Wa zuroo’inw wa maqaa min kareem
26. And crops and noble sites
وَنَعْمَةٍۢ كَانُوا۟ فِيهَا فَـٰكِهِينَ
Wa na’matin kaanoo feehaa faakiheen
27. And comfort wherein they were amused.
كَذَٰلِكَ ۖ وَأَوْرَثْنَـٰهَا قَوْمًا ءَاخَرِينَ
Kazaalika wa awrasnaahaa qawman aakhareen
28. Thus. And We caused to inherit it another people.
فَمَا بَكَتْ عَلَيْهِمُ ٱلسَّمَآءُ وَٱلْأَرْضُ وَمَا كَانُوا۟ مُنظَرِينَ
Famaa bakat ‘alaihimus samaaa’u wal ardu wa maa kaanoo munzareen
29. And the heaven and earth wept not for them, nor were they reprieved.
وَلَقَدْ نَجَّيْنَا بَنِىٓ إِسْرَٰٓءِيلَ مِنَ ٱلْعَذَابِ ٱلْمُهِينِ
Wa laqad najjainaa Baneee Israaa’eela minal’azaabil muheen
30. And We certainly saved the Children of Israel from the humiliating torment –
مِن فِرْعَوْنَ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ كَانَ عَالِيًۭا مِّنَ ٱلْمُسْرِفِينَ
Min Fir’awn; innahoo kaana ‘aaliyam minal musrifeen
31. From Pharaoh. Indeed, he was a haughty one among the transgressors.
وَلَقَدِ ٱخْتَرْنَـٰهُمْ عَلَىٰ عِلْمٍ عَلَى ٱلْعَـٰلَمِينَ
Wa laqadikh tarnaahum ‘alaa ‘ilmin ‘alal ‘aalameen
32. And We certainly chose them by knowledge over [all] the worlds.
وَءَاتَيْنَـٰهُم مِّنَ ٱلْءَايَـٰتِ مَا فِيهِ بَلَـٰٓؤٌۭا۟ مُّبِينٌ
Wa aatainaahum minal aayaati maa feehi balaaa’um mubeen
33. And We gave them of signs that in which there was a clear trial.
إِنَّ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ لَيَقُولُونَ
Inna haaa’ulaaa’i la yaqooloon
34. Indeed, these [disbelievers] are saying,
إِنْ هِىَ إِلَّا مَوْتَتُنَا ٱلْأُولَىٰ وَمَا نَحْنُ بِمُنشَرِينَ
In hiya illaa mawtatunal oolaa wa maa nahnu bimun shareen
35. “There is not but our first death, and we will not be resurrected.
فَأْتُوا۟ بِـَٔابَآئِنَآ إِن كُنتُمْ صَـٰدِقِينَ
Faatoo bi aabaaa’inaaa inkuntum saadiqeen
36. Then bring [back] our forefathers, if you should be truthful.”
أَهُمْ خَيْرٌ أَمْ قَوْمُ تُبَّعٍۢ وَٱلَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ أَهْلَكْنَـٰهُمْ ۖ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا۟ مُجْرِمِينَ
Ahum khayrun am qawmu Tubba’inw wallazeena min qablihim; ahlaknaahum innahum kaanoo mujrimeen
37. Are they better or the people of Tubba’ and those before them? We destroyed them, [for] indeed, they were criminals.
وَمَا خَلَقْنَا ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضَ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا لَـٰعِبِينَ
Wa maa khalaqnas samaawaati wal arda wa maa baina humaa laa’ibeen
38. And We did not create the heavens and earth and that between them in play.
مَا خَلَقْنَـٰهُمَآ إِلَّا بِٱلْحَقِّ وَلَـٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ
Maa khalaqnaahumaaa illaa bilhaqqi wa laakinna aksarahum laa ya’lamoon
39. We did not create them except in truth, but most of them do not know.
إِنَّ يَوْمَ ٱلْفَصْلِ مِيقَـٰتُهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ
Inna yawmal fasli meeqaatuhum ajma’een
40. Indeed, the Day of Judgement is the appointed time for them all –
يَوْمَ لَا يُغْنِى مَوْلًى عَن مَّوْلًۭى شَيْـًۭٔا وَلَا هُمْ يُنصَرُونَ
Yawma laa yughnee mawlan ‘am mawlan shai’anw wa laa hum yunsaroon
41. The Day when no relation will avail a relation at all, nor will they be helped –
إِلَّا مَن رَّحِمَ ٱللَّهُ ۚ إِنَّهُۥ هُوَ ٱلْعَزِيزُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ
Illaa mar rahimal laah’ innahoo huwal ‘azeezur raheem
42. Except those [believers] on whom Allah has mercy. Indeed, He is the Exalted in Might, the Merciful.
إِنَّ شَجَرَتَ ٱلزَّقُّومِ
Inna shajarataz zaqqoom
43. Indeed, the tree of zaqqum
44. Is food for the sinful.
كَٱلْمُهْلِ يَغْلِى فِى ٱلْبُطُونِ
Kalmuhli yaghlee filbutoon
45. Like murky oil, it boils within bellies
46. Like the boiling of scalding water.
خُذُوهُ فَٱعْتِلُوهُ إِلَىٰ سَوَآءِ ٱلْجَحِيمِ
Khuzoohu fa’tiloohu ilaa sawaaa’il Jaheem
47. [It will be commanded], “Seize him and drag him into the midst of the Hellfire,
ثُمَّ صُبُّوا۟ فَوْقَ رَأْسِهِۦ مِنْ عَذَابِ ٱلْحَمِيمِ
Summa subboo fawqa raasihee min ‘azaabil hameem
48. Then pour over his head from the torment of scalding water.”
ذُقْ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ ٱلْعَزِيزُ ٱلْكَرِيمُ
Zuq innaka antal ‘azeezul kareem
49. [It will be said], “Taste! Indeed, you are the honored, the noble!
إِنَّ هَـٰذَا مَا كُنتُم بِهِۦ تَمْتَرُونَ
Inna haazaa maa kuntum bihee tamtaroon
50. Indeed, this is what you used to dispute.”
إِنَّ ٱلْمُتَّقِينَ فِى مَقَامٍ أَمِينٍۢ
Innal muttaqeena fee maqaamin ameen
51. Indeed, the righteous will be in a secure place;
فِى جَنَّـٰتٍۢ وَعُيُونٍۢ
Fee jannaatinw wa ‘uyoon
52. Within gardens and springs,
يَلْبَسُونَ مِن سُندُسٍۢ وَإِسْتَبْرَقٍۢ مُّتَقَـٰبِلِينَ
Yalbasoona min sundusinw wa istabraqim mutaqaabileen
53. Wearing [garments of] fine silk and brocade, facing each other.
كَذَٰلِكَ وَزَوَّجْنَـٰهُم بِحُورٍ عِينٍۢ
Kazaalika wa zawwajnaahum bihoorin ‘een
54. Thus. And We will marry them to fair women with large, [beautiful] eyes.
يَدْعُونَ فِيهَا بِكُلِّ فَـٰكِهَةٍ ءَامِنِينَ
Yad’oona feehaa bikulli faakihatin aamineen
55. They will call therein for every [kind of] fruit – safe and secure.
لَا يَذُوقُونَ فِيهَا ٱلْمَوْتَ إِلَّا ٱلْمَوْتَةَ ٱلْأُولَىٰ ۖ وَوَقَىٰهُمْ عَذَابَ ٱلْجَحِيمِ
Laa yazooqoona feehal mawtaa illal mawtatal oolaa wa qaqaahum ‘azaabal jaheem
56. They will not taste death therein except the first death, and He will have protected them from the punishment of Hellfire
فَضْلًۭا مِّن رَّبِّكَ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ هُوَ ٱلْفَوْزُ ٱلْعَظِيمُ
Fadlam mir rabbik; zaalika huwal fawzul ‘azeem
57. As bounty from your Lord. That is what is the great attainment.
فَإِنَّمَا يَسَّرْنَـٰهُ بِلِسَانِكَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ
Fa innamaa yassarnaahu bilisaanika la’allahum yatazakkaroon
58. And indeed, We have eased the Qur’an in your tongue that they might be reminded.
فَٱرْتَقِبْ إِنَّهُم مُّرْتَقِبُونَ
Fartaqib innahum murta qiboon
59. So watch, [O Muhammad]; indeed, they are watching [for your end].
The Tafsir of Surat Ad-Dukhan
Chapter – 44
Which was revealed in Makkah
In Musnad Al-Bazzar, it is recorded from Abu At-Tufayl `Amir bin Wathilah from Zayd bin Harithah that the Messenger of Allah said to Ibn Sayyad:
(I am concealing something, what is it) And the Messenger of Allah was concealing Surat Ad-Dukhan from him. He (Ibn Sayyad) said: “It is Ad-Dukh.” The Messenger of Allah said,
(Be off with you! Whatever Allah wills happens.)
(1. Ha Mim.) (2. By the manifest Book that makes things clear.) (3. We sent it down on a blessed night. Verily, We are ever warning.) (4. Therein (that night) is decreed every matter, Hakim.) (5. As a command from Us. Verily, We are ever sending,) (6. (As) a mercy from your Lord. Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.) (7. The Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, if you (but) have a faith with certainty.) (8. La ilaha illa Huwa. He gives life and causes death — your Lord and the Lord of your forefathers.)
The Qur’an was revealed on Laylatul-Qadr
Allah tells us that He revealed the Magnificent Qur’an on a blessed night, Laylatul-Qadr (the Night of Decree), as He says elsewhere:
(Verily, We have sent it down in the Night of Al-Qadr) (97:1). This was in the month of Ramadan, as Allah tells us:
(The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur’an) (2:185). We have already quoted the relevant Hadiths in (the Tafsir of) Surat Al-Baqarah, and there is no need to repeat them here.
(Verily, We are ever warning.) means, telling them what is good for them and what is harmful for them, according to Shari`ah, so that the proof of Allah may be established against His servants.
(Therein (that night) is decreed every matter, Hakim.) means, on Laylatul-Qadr, the decrees are transferred from Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz to the (angelic) scribes who write down the decrees of the (coming) year including life span, provision, and what will happen until the end of the year. This was narrated from Ibn `Umar, Mujahid, Abu Malik, Ad-Dahhak and others among the Salaf.
(Hakim) means decided or confirmed, which cannot be changed or altered. Allah says:
(As a command from Us.) meaning, everything that happens and is decreed by Allah and the revelation that He sends down — it all happens by His command, by His leave and with His knowledge.
(Verily, We are ever sending,) means, to mankind, sending Messenger who will recite to them the clear signs of Allah. The need for this was urgent.
((As) a mercy from your Lord. Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower. The Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them,) means, the One Who sent down the Qur’an is the Lord, Creator and Sovereign of the heavens and the earth and everything in between them.
(if you (but) have a faith with certainty.) Then Allah says:
(La ilaha illa Huwa. He gives life and causes death — your Lord and the Lord of your forefathers.) This is like the Ayah:
(Say: “O mankind! Verily, I am sent to you all as the Messenger of Allah — to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. La ilaha illa Huwa. He gives life and causes death…) (7:158)
(9. Nay! They play about in doubt.) (10. Then wait you for the Day when the sky will bring forth a visible smoke,) (11. Covering mankind, this is a painful torment.) (12. (They will say): “Our Lord! Remove the torment from us, really we shall become believers!”) (13. How can there be for them an admonition, when a Messenger explaining things clearly has already come to them.) (14. Then they had turned away from him and said: “(He is) one taught, a madman!”) (15. Verily, We shall remove the torment for a while. Verily, you will revert.) (16. On the Day when We shall strike you with the great Batshah. Verily, We will exact retribution.)
Alarming the Idolators with News of the Day when the Sky will bring forth a visible Smoke
Allah says, these idolaters are playing about in doubt, i.e., the certain truth has come to them, but they doubt it and do not believe in it. Then Allah says, warning and threatening them:
(Then wait you for the Day when the sky will bring forth a visible smoke.) It was narrated that Masruq said, “We entered the Masjid — i.e., the Masjid of Kufah at the gates of Kindah — and a man was reciting to his companions,
(the Day when the sky will bring forth a visible smoke.) He asked them; `Do you know what that is’ That is the smoke that will come on the Day of Resurrection. It will take away the hearing and sight of the hypocrites, but for the believers it will be like having a cold.”’ He said, “We came to Ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him, and told him about that. He was lying down, and he sat up with a start and said, `Allah said to your Prophet
(Say: “No wage do I ask of you for this, nor am I one of the pretenders.”) (38:86). And it is part of knowledge that when a man does not know something, he should say, `Allah knows best.’ I will tell you a Hadith about that. When the Quraysh did not respond to Islam and they grew stubborn, the Messenger of Allah invoked Allah against them that they would have years like the years (of drought and famine) of Yusuf. They became so exhausted and hungry that they ate bones and dead meat. They looked at the sky, but they saw nothing but smoke.”’ According to another report: “A man would look at the sky and he would see nothing between him and the sky except a smoky haze, because of his exhaustion.”
(Then wait you for the Day when the sky will bring forth a visible smoke, covering the people, this is a painful torment) A man came to the Messenger of Allah and said, “O Messenger of Allah! Pray to Allah to send rain to Mudar, for they are dying. So the Prophet prayed for rain for them, and they got rain. Then the Ayah was revealed:
(Verily, We shall remove the torment for a while. Verily, you will revert.) Ibn Mas`ud said, “Do you think that the torment will be removed for them on the Day of Resurrection When they were granted ease, they reverted to their former state. Then Allah revealed:
(On the Day when We shall strike you with the Great Batshah. Verily, We will exact retribution.)” He said, “This means the day of Badr.” Ibn Mas`ud said, “Five things have come to pass: the smoke, the (defeat of the) Romans, the (splitting of the) moon, the Batshah, and the torment.” This Hadith was narrated in the Two Sahihs. It was also recorded by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad, and by At-Tirmidhi and An-Nasa’i in their (Books of) Tafsir, and by Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abi Hatim with a number of chains of narration. A number of the Salaf, such as Mujahid, Abu Al-`Aliyah, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Ad-Dahhak and `Atiyah Al-`Awfi concurred with Ibn Mas`ud’s interpretation of this Ayah and his view that the smoke already happened. This was also the view of Ibn Jarir. According to the Hadith of Abu Sarihah, Hudhayfah bin Asid Al-Ghifari, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah looked out upon us from a room while we were discussing the Hour. He said:
(The Hour will not come until you see ten signs. The rising of the sun from the west; the smoke; the beast; the emergence of Ya’juj and Ma’juj; the appearance of `Isa bin Maryam; the Dajjal; three cases of the earth collapsing — one in the east, one in the west, and one in the Arabian Peninsula; and a fire which will emerge from the bottom of Aden and will drive the people — or gather the people — stopping with them when they stop to sleep at night or rest during the day.)” This was recorded only by Muslim in his Sahih In the Two Sahihs it was recorded that the Messenger of Allah said to Ibn Sayyad:
(I am concealing something for you.) He said, It is Ad-Dukh. The Prophet said,
(Be off with you! You cannot get further than your rank.) He said, “The Messenger of Allah was concealing from him the words,
(Then wait you for the Day when the sky will bring forth a visible smoke.)”This indicates that the smoke is yet to appear. Ibn Sayyad was a fortune-teller who heard things through the Jinn, whose speech is unclear, therefore he said, “It is Ad-Dukh,” meaning Ad-Dukhan (the smoke). When the Messenger of Allah was sure what was happening, that the source of his information was the Shayatin, he said:
(Be off with you! You cannot get further than your rank.) There are numerous Marfu` and Mawquf Hadiths, Sahih, Hasan and others, which indicate that the smoke is one of the awaited signs (of the Hour). This is also the apparent meaning of Ayat in the Qur’an. Allah says:
(Then wait you for the Day when the sky will bring forth a visible smoke.) meaning, clearly visible, such that all people will see it. According to Ibn Mas`ud’s interpretation, this was a vision which they saw because of their intense hunger and exhaustion. He also interprets the Ayah
(Covering mankind,) meaning, it covered them and overwhelmed them. But if it was only an illusion which happened to the idolators of Makkah, Allah would not have said “covering mankind.”
(this is a painful torment.) means, this will be said to them by way of rebuke. This is like the Ayah:
(The Day when they will be pushed down by force to the fire of Hell, with a horrible, forceful pushing. This is the Fire which you used to deny.) (52:13-14). Or some of them will say that to others.
((They will say): “Our Lord! Remove the torment from us, really we shall become believers!”) means, when the disbelievers witness the punishment of Allah, they will ask for it to be taken away from them. This is like the Ayat:
(If you could but see when they will be held over the (Hell) Fire! They will say: “Would that we were but sent back (to the world)! Then we would not deny the Ayat of our Lord, and we would be of the believers!”) (6:27)
(And warn mankind of the Day when the torment will come unto them; then the wrongdoers will say: “Our Lord! Respite us for a little while, we will answer Your Call and follow the Messengers!” (It will be said): “Had you not sworn aforetime that you would not leave (the world for the Hereafter).) (14:44) Allah says here:
(How can there be for them an admonition, when a Messenger explaining things clearly has already come to them. Then they had turned away from him and said: “(He is) one taught, a madman!”) meaning, `what further admonition do they need when We have sent them a Messenger with a clear Message and warning Yet despite that, they turned away from him, opposed him and rejected him, and they said: (He is) one taught (by a human being), a madman.’ This is like the Ayah:
(On that Day will man remember, but how will that remembrance (then) avail him) (89:23)
(And if you could but see, when they will be terrified with no escape, and they will be seized from a near place. And they will say (in the Hereafter): “We do believe (now);” but how could they receive (faith and its acceptance by Allah) from a place so far off…) (34:51-52)
(Verily, We shall remove the torment for a while. Verily, you will revert.) means, `if We were to remove the torment from you for a while, and send you back to the world, you would go back to your former state of disbelief and denial.’ This is like the Ayat:
(And though We had mercy on them and removed the distress which is on them, still they would obstinately persist in their transgression, wandering blindly.) (23:75)
(But if they were returned (to the world), they would certainly revert to that which they were forbidden. And indeed they are liars) (6:28)
The Meaning of the “Great Batshah”
(On the Day when We shall strike you with the great Batshah. Verily, We will exact retribution.) Ibn Mas`ud interpreted this to mean the day of Badr. This is also the view of a group who agreed with Ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him, about the meaning of the smoke, as discussed above. It was also narrated from Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, in a report related to him from Al-`Awfi and from Ubayy bin Ka`b, may Allah be pleased with him. This is possible, but the apparent meaning is that it refers to the Day of Resurrection, although the day of Badr was also a day of vengeance. Ibn Jarir said, “Ya`qub narrated to me; Ibn `Ulayyah narrated to me, Khalid Al-Hadhdha’ narrated to us, from `Ikrimah who said, `Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “Ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him, said that “the great Batshah” is the day of Badr, and I say that it is the Day of Resurrection.” This chain of narration is Sahih to him. This is also the view of Al-Hasan Al-Basri and of `Ikrimah according to the more authentic of the two reports narrated from him. And Allah knows best.
(17. And indeed We tried before them Fir`awn’s people, when there came to them a noble Messenger.) (18. Saying: “Deliver to me the servants of Allah. Verily, I am to you a Messenger worthy of all trust.”) (19. “And exalt not yourselves against Allah. Truly, I have come to you with a manifest authority.”) (20. “And truly, I seek refuge with my Lord and your Lord, lest you should stone me.”) (21. “But if you believe me not, then keep away from me and leave me alone.”) (22. So he (Musa) called upon his Lord (saying): “These are indeed the people who are criminals.”) (23. (Allah said): “Depart you with My servants by night. Surely, you will be pursued.”) (24. “And leave the sea as it is (quiet and divided). Verily, they are a host to be drowned.”) (25. How many of gardens and springs that they (Fir`awn’s people) left behind, (26. And green crops (fields) and goodly places,) (27. And comforts of life wherein they used to take delight!) (28. Thus (it was)! And We made other people inherit them.) (29. And the heavens and the earth wept not for them, nor were they given respite.) (30. And indeed We saved the Children of Israel from the humiliating torment,) (31. From Fir`awn; verily, he was arrogant and was of the excessive .) (32. And We chose them above the nations (Al-`Alamin) with knowledge,) (33. And granted them signs in which there was a plain trial.)
The Story of Musa and Fir`awn, and how the Children of Israel were saved
Allah tells us, `before these idolators, We tested the people of Fir`awn, the copts of Egypt.’
(when there came to them a noble Messenger.) means, Musa, peace be upon him, the one to whom Allah spoke.
(Deliver to me the servants of Allah.) This is like the Ayah:
(So let the Children of Israel go with us, and torment them not; indeed, we have come with a sign from your Lord! And peace will be upon him who follows the guidance!”) (20:47)
(Verily, I am to you a Messenger worthy of all trust.) means, `what I convey to you is trustworthy.’
(And exalt not yourselves against Allah.) means, `and do not be too arrogant to follow His signs. Accept His proof and believe in His evidence.’ This is like the Ayah:
(Verily, those who scorn My worship they will surely enter Hell in humiliation!) (40:60)
(Truly, I have come to you with a manifest authority.) means, with clear and obvious proof. This refers to the clear signs and definitive evidence with which Allah sent him.
(And truly, I seek refuge with my Lord and your Lord, lest you should stone me.) Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, and Abu Salih said, “This refers to a verbal assault, which means insults.” Qatadah said, “Meaning `stoning’ in the literal sense, so that the meaning is: `I seek refuge with Allah, Who created me and you, from your making any harmful words or actions reach me.”’
(But if you believe me not, then keep away from me and leave me alone.) means, `then let us leave one another alone and live in peace until Allah judges between us.’ After Musa, may Allah be pleased with him, had stayed among them for a long time, and the proof of Allah had been established against them, and that only increased them in disbelief and stubbornness, he prayed to his Lord against them, a prayer which was answered. Allah says:
(And Musa said: “Our Lord! You have indeed bestowed on Fir`awn and his chiefs splendor and wealth in the life of this world, our Lord! That they may lead men astray from Your path. Our Lord! Destroy their wealth, and harden their hearts, so that they will not believe until they see the painful torment.” Allah said: “Verily, the invocation of you both is accepted. So you both keep to the straight way.”) (10:88-89) And Allah says here:
(So he (Musa) called upon his Lord (saying): “These are indeed the people who are criminals.”) Whereupon Allah commanded him to bring the Children of Israel out from among them, without the command, consent or permission of Fir`awn. Allah said:
(Depart you with My servants by night. Surely, you will be pursued.) This is like the Ayah:
And indeed We revealed to Mu0sa0 (saying): Travel by night with My servants and strike a dry path for them in the sea, fearing neither to be overtaken nor being afraid (of drowning in the sea). )20:77(
(And leave the sea as it is (quiet and divided). Verily, they are a host to be drowned.) When Musa and the Children of Israel has crossed the sea, Musa wanted to strike it with his staff so that it would go back as it had been, and it would form a barrier between then and Fir`awn and prevent him from reaching them. But Allah commanded him to leave it as it was, quiet and divided, and gave him the glad tidings that they were a host to be drowned, and that he should not fear either being overtaken by Fir`awn or drowning in the sea. Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said:
(And leave the sea as it is (quiet and divided).) means, leave it as it is and keep moving. Mujahid said:
(as it is) means, a dry path, as it is. `Do not command it to go back; leave it until the last of them have entered it.’ This was also the view of `Ikrimah, Ar-Rabi` bin Anas, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, Ibn Zayd, Ka`b Al-Ahbar, Simak bin Harb and others.
(How many of gardens and springs that they left behind. And green crops) this refers to rivers and wells.
and goodly places, means, fine dwellings and beautiful places. Muja0hid and Sa 0d bin Jubayr said:
(and goodly places,) means elevated places.
(And comforts of life wherein they used to take delight!) means, a life which they were enjoying, where they could eat whatever they wanted and wear what they liked, with wealth and glory and power in the land. Then all of that was taken away in a single morning, they departed from this world and went to Hell, what a terrible abode!
(Thus (it was)! And We made other people inherit them.) namely the Children of Israel.
(And the heavens and the earth wept not for them, ) means, they had no righteous deeds which used to ascend through the gates of the heavens, which would weep for them when they died, and they had no places on earth where they used to worship Allah which would notice their loss. So they did not deserve to be given a respite, because of their disbelief, sin, transgression and stubbornness. Ibn Jarir recorded that Sa`id bin Jubayr said, “A man came to Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, and said to him: `O Abu Al-`Abbas, Allah says,
(And the heavens and the earth wept not for them, nor were they given respite) — do the heavens and the earth weep for anybody’ He, may Allah be pleased with him, said, `Yes, there is no one who does not have a gate in the heavens through which his provision comes down and his good deeds ascend. When the believer dies, that gate is closed; it misses him and weeps for him, and the place of prayer on earth where he used to pray and remember Allah also weeps for him. But the people of Fir`awn left no trace of righteousness on the earth and they had no good deeds that ascended to Allah, so the heavens and the earth did not weep for them.”’ Al-`Awfi reported something similar from Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him.
(And indeed We saved the Children of Israel from the humiliating torment from Fir`awn; verily, he was arrogant and was of the excessive. ) Here Allah reminds them of how He saved them from their humiliation and subjugation at the hands of Fir`awn, when they were forced to do menial tasks.
(From Fir`awn; verily, he was arrogant) means, he was proud and stubborn. This is like the Ayah:
(Verily, Fir`awn exalted himself in the land) (28:4).
(but they behaved insolently and they were people self-exalting) (23:46). He was one of the excessive and held a foolish opinion of himself.
(And We chose them above the nations (Al-`Alamin) with knowledge,) Mujahid said, “This means that they were chosen above those among whom they lived.” Qatadah said, “They were chosen above the other people of their own time, and it was said that in every period there are people who are chosen above others.” This is like the Ayah:
((Allah) said: “O Musa I have chosen you above men.”) (7:144), which means, above the people of his time. This is also like the Ayah:
(and (Allah has) chosen you (Maryam) above the women of the nations (Al-`Alamin).) (3:42), i.e., Maryam was chosen above the women of her time. For Khadijah, may Allah be pleased with her, is higher than her in status or is equal to her, as was Asiyah bint Muzahim, the wife of Fir`awn. And the superiority of `A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, over all other women is like the superiority of Tharid over all other dishes.
(And granted them signs) means clear proofs and extraordinary evidence.
(in which there was a plain trial.) means, an obvious test to show who would be guided by it.
(34. Verily, these people are saying:) (35. “There is nothing but our first death, and we shall not be resurrected.”) (36. “Then bring back our forefathers, if you speak the truth!”) (37. Are they better or the people of Tubba` and those before them We destroyed them because they were indeed criminals.)
Refutation of Those Who deny the Resurrection
Here Allah denounces the idolators for their denial of the Resurrection and their belief that there is nothing after this life and no life or resurrection after death, which they based on the fact that their forefathers had died and had not returned. They said, If the resurrection is true,
(Then bring back our forefathers, if you speak the truth!) This is false evidence and a specious argument, for the resurrection will happen on the Day of Judgement, not in this world; it will happen when this world has ended and ceased to be. Allah will bring all creatures back, created anew. He will make the evildoers fuel for the fire of Hell, and on that Day you will be witnesses over mankind and the Messenger will be a witness over you. Then Allah threatens them and warns them of the irresistible torment other idolators like who denied the resurrection, suffered. Such as the people of Tubba`, i.e., Saba’. Allah destroyed them, wreaked havoc upon their land and scattered them here and there throughout the land, as we have already seen in Surah Saba’. This was brought about because the idolators denied the Resurrection. Here too, the idolaters are compared to them. They Tubba` were Arab descendants of Qahtan, just as these people (Quraysh) were Arab descendants of `Adnan. Among the people of Himyar — who are also known as Saba’ — when a man became their king, they called him Tubba`, just as the title Chosroes was given to the king of Persia, Caesar to the king of the Romans, Fir`awn to the disbelieving ruler of Egypt, Negus to the king of Ethiopia, and so on among other nations. But it so happened that one of the Tubba` left Yemen and went on a journey of conquest until he reached Samarqand, expanding his kingdom and domain. He is the one who founded Al-Hirah. It is agreed that he passed through Al-Madinah during the days of Jahiliyyah. He fought its inhabitants but they resisted him; they fought him by day and supplied him with food by night, so he felt ashamed before them and refrained from harming them. He was accompanied by two Jewish rabbis who advised him and told him that he would never prevail over this city, for it would be the place to which a Prophet would migrate towards the end of time. So he retreated and took them (the two rabbis) with him to Yemen. When he passed by Makkah, he wanted to destroy the Ka`bah, but they told him not to do that either. They told him about the significance of this House, that it had been built by Ibrahim Al-Khalil, peace be upon him, and that it would become of great importance through that Prophet who would be sent towards the end of time. So he respected it, performed Tawaf around it, and covered it with a fine cloth. Then he returned to Yemen and invited its people to follow the religion of guidance along with him. At that time, the religion of Musa, peace be upon him, was the religion followed by those who were guided, before the coming of the Messiah, peace be upon him. So the people of Yemen accepted the religion of guidance along with him. `Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah said:
(I do not know whether Tubba` was a Prophet or not.) It was narrated that Tamim bin `Abdur-Rahman said: ” `Ata’ bin Abi Rabah said, `Do not revile Tubba`, for the Messenger of Allah forbade reviling him.”’ And Allah knows best.
(38. And We created not the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, for mere play.) (39. We created them not except with truth, but most of them know not.) (40. Verily, the Day of Judgement is the time appointed for all of them –) (41. The Day when a near relative cannot avail a near relative in aught, and no help can they receive,) (42. Except him on whom Allah has mercy. Verily, He is the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful.)
This World was created for a Wisdom
Here Allah tells us of His justice, and that He is far above mere play, folly and falsehood. This is like the Ayah:
(And We created not the heaven and the earth and all that is between them without purpose! That is the consideration of those who disbelieve! Then woe to those who disbelieve from the Fire!) (38:27)
(Did you think that We had created you in play, and that you would not be brought back to Us So Exalted be Allah, the True King: La ilaha illa Huwa, the Lord of the Supreme Throne!) (23:115-116) Then Allah says:
(Verily, the Day of Judgement is the time appointed for all of them) This is the Day of Resurrection, when Allah will judge between all creatures, and He will punish the disbelievers and reward the believers.
(is the time appointed for all of them) means, He will gather all of them, the first and the last of them.
(The Day when a near relative cannot avail a near relative in aught,) means, no relative will be able to help another relative. This is like the Ayah:
(Then, when the Trumpet is blown, there will be no kinship among them that Day, nor will they ask of one another.) (23:101)
(And no friend will ask a friend (about his condition). Though they shall be made to see one another) (70:10-11) which means, he will not ask his brother about how he is, even though he can see him with his own eyes.
(and no help can they receive,) means, no relative will help another, and no help will come to him from outside.
(Except him on whom Allah has mercy.) means, and nothing will be of any avail that Day except the mercy of Allah towards His creation.
(Verily, He is the All-Mighty, the Most Merciful.) means, he is the Almighty, with immense mercy.
(43. Verily, the tree of Zaqqum) (44. Will be the food of the sinners.) (45. Like boiling oil, it will boil in the bellies,) (46. Like the boiling of scalding water.) (47. (It will be said:) “Seize him and drag him into the midst of blazing Fire,”) (48. “Then pour over his head the torment of boiling water.”) (49. “Taste you (this)! Verily, you were (pretending to be) the mighty, the generous.”) (50. “Verily, this is that whereof you used to doubt!”)
The Condition of the Idolators and Their Punishment on the Day of Resurrection
Allah tells us how He will punish the disbelievers who deny the meeting with Him:
(Verily, the tree of Zaqqum will be the food of the sinners.) Those who sinned by their words and in deeds. These are the disbelievers. More than one commentator stated that this referred to Abu Jahl; undoubtedly he is included among those referred to in this Ayah, but it is not specifically about him. Ibn Jarir recorded that Abu Ad-Darda’ was reciting to a man:
(Verily, the tree of Zaqqum will be the food of the sinners.) The man said, “The food of the orphan.” Abu Ad-Darda’, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “Say, the tree of Zaqqum is the food of the evildoer.” i.e., he will not have any other food apart from that. Mujahid said, “If a drop of it were to fall on the earth, it would corrupt the living of all the people of earth.” A similar Marfu` report has been narrated earlier.
(Like boiling oil,) means, like the dregs of oil.
(it will boil in the bellies, like the boiling of scalding water.) means, because of its heat and rancidity.
(Seize him) means the disbeliever. It was reported that when Allah says to the keepers of Hell, “Seize him,” seventy thousand of them will rush to seize him.
(and drag him) means, drag him by pulling him and pushing him on his back. Mujahid said:
(Seize him and drag him) means, take him and push him.
(into the midst of blazing Fire.) means, into the middle of it.
(Then pour over his head the torment of boiling water.) This is like the Ayah:
(boiling water will be poured down over their heads. With it will melt what is within their bellies, as well as (their) skins.) (22:19-20). The angel will strike him with a hooked rod of iron and split his head open, then he will pour boiling water over his head. It will go down through his body, melting through his stomach and intestines, until it goes through his heels; may Allah protect us from that.
(Taste you (this)! Verily, you were (pretending to be) the mighty, the generous.) means, they (the keepers of Hell) will say that to him by way of ridicule and rebuke. Ad-Dahhak reported that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: “This means, you are neither mighty nor generous.” And Allah’s saying:
(Verily, this is that whereof you used to doubt!) is like His saying:
(The Day when they will be pushed down by force to the fire of Hell, with a horrible, forceful pushing. This is the Fire which you used to deny. In this magic, or do you not see) (52: 13-15) Similarly Allah said:
(Verily, this is that where of you used to doubt!)
(51. Verily, those who have Taqwa, will be in place of security.) (52. Among Gardens and Springs,) (53. Dressed in Sundus and Istabraq, facing each other,) (54. So (it will be). And We shall marry them to Hur (fair females) with wide lovely eyes,) (55. They will call therein for every kind of fruit in peace and security;) (56. They will never taste death therein except the first death, and He will save them from the torment of the blazing Fire,) (57. As a bounty from your Lord! That will be the supreme success!) (58.
JAWAD TO DO AYAH ONLY GOES UP TO AYAH 246
The State of Those Who have Taqwa and the Delights
They will enjoy in Paradise When Allah describes the state of the doomed, He follows that with a description of the life of the blessed. For this reason the Qur’an is called Al-Mathani (i.e., oft-repeated).
(Verily, those who have Taqwa,) i.e., those who fear Allah and are dutiful towards Him in this world,
(will be in place of security.) means, in the Hereafter, i.e., in Paradise, where they will be safe from death and the fear of leaving it, and from every kind of worry, grief, terror and exhaustion, and from the Shaytan and his wiles, and from all other troubles and disasters.
(Among Gardens and Springs). This is in direct contrast to the state of the doomed, who will have the tree of Zaqqum and boiling water.
(Dressed in Sundus) means, the finest of silk, such as shirts and the like.
(and Istabraq) means, silk which is woven with shiny threads, like a splendid garment which is worn over regular clothes.
(facing each other, ) means, sitting on thrones where none of them will sit with his back to anyone else.
(So (it will be). And We shall marry them to Hur (fair females) with wide lovely eyes,) This will be a gift in addition to the beautiful wives given to them.
(with whom no man or Jinn has had Tamth (sexual intercourse) before them.) (55:56)
((In beauty) they are like rubies and Marjan.) (55:58)
(Is there any reward for good other than good) (55:60)
(They will call therein for every kind of fruit in peace and security;) means, whatever kinds of fruit they ask for will be brought to them, and they will have the security of knowing that this supply will never come to an end or be withheld; these fruits will be brought to them whenever they want.
(They will never taste death therein except the first death, ) This is an exception which reinforces the negation. The meaning is that they will never taste death there. It was reported in the Two Sahihs that the Messenger of Allah said:
(Death will be brought forth in the image of a fine ram. It will be made to stand between Paradise and Hell, then it will be slaughtered. It will be said, “O people of Paradise, it is eternal, no more death; and O people of Hell, it is eternal, no more death.”) This Hadith was already quoted in our discussion of Surah Maryam. `Abdur-Razzaq recorded that Abu Sa`id and Abu Hurayrah said, “The Messenger of Allah said:
(It will be said to the people of Paradise, “It is granted to you that you will be healthy and will never fall ill, you will live and never die, you will enjoy a life of luxury and will never be miserable, you will be youthful and will never grow old.”)” This was recorded by Muslim. It was reported that Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah said:
(Whoever has Taqwa of Allah, he will enter Paradise and enjoy a life of luxury and he will never be miserable. He will live therein and never die, his clothes will never wear out and his youth will never fade.)”
(and He will save them from the torment of the blazing Fire,) means, along with this great and eternal blessing, He will also have saved them from the agonizing torment in the depths of Hell, so they will have achieved their desired aim and avoided the thing they feared. Allah says,
(As a bounty from your Lord! That will be the supreme success!) meaning, that will be from His bounty and kindness towards them. It was reported in the Two Sahihs that the Messenger of Allah said:
(Work and strive hard, and know that no one will enter Paradise by virtue of his deeds.) They said, “Not even you, O Messenger of Allah” He said,
(Not even me, unless Allah showers me with His mercy and grace.)
(Certainly, We have made this easy in your tongue, in order that they may remember. ) means, `We have made this Qur’an, which We have sent down, easy, plain and clear, in your language which is the most eloquent, clear and beautiful of all languages.’
(in order that they may remember.) means, in order that they may understand and know. Despite the fact that it is so plain and clear, there are still people who disbelieve, who stubbornly go against it. Allah says to His Messenger , consoling him and promising him victory, and warning those who reject him that they will be destroyed.
(Wait then; verily, they (too) are waiting.) meaning, `they will come to know who will be victorious and whose word will prevail in this world and in the Hereafter. For victory will be for you, O Muhammad, and for your brothers among the Prophets and Messengers, and for the believers who followed you,’ as Allah says:
(Allah has decreed: “Verily, it is I and My Messengers who shall be the victorious.”) (58:21)
(Verily, We will indeed make victorious Our Messengers and those who believe in this world’s life and on the Day when the witnesses will stand forth, — the Day when their excuses will be of no profit to wrongdoers. Theirs will be the curse, and theirs will be the evil abode.) (40:51-52)
This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Ad-Dukhan. All praise and thanks are due to Allah and in Him is all strength and protection.