Surah Az Zukhruf (“The Luxury”, “Ornaments of Gold”) is the 43rd chapter of the Qur’an and is classified as a Meccan Surah. It consists of a total of 99 ayat or verses.  

This surah addresses that the revelation is given to people in Arabic so that people could understand. The revelation is a mercy from Allah. It also says, those who forget Allah come under the influence of the Satan. It re-tells story of the Pharaoh’s response to Prophet Moses and Allah’s punishment came against Pharaoh and his people.  

Notable Quote:

“And gold ornament. But all that is not but the enjoyment of worldly life. And the Hereafter with your Lord is for the righteous.”
Surah Az Zukhruf Ayat 35

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Read Surah Zukhruf with English Translation and Transliteration

Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Raheem
In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful

حمٓ

Haa-Meeem
1. Ha, Meem.

وَٱلْكِتَـٰبِ ٱلْمُبِينِ

Wal Kitaabil Mubeen
2. By the clear Book,

إِنَّا جَعَلْنَـٰهُ قُرْءَ‌ٰنًا عَرَبِيًّۭا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ

Innaa ja’alnaahu Quraanan ‘Arabiyyal la’allakum ta’qiloon
3. Indeed, We have made it an Arabic Qur’an that you might understand.

وَإِنَّهُۥ فِىٓ أُمِّ ٱلْكِتَـٰبِ لَدَيْنَا لَعَلِىٌّ حَكِيمٌ

Wa innahoo feee Ummil Kitaabi Ladainaa la’aliyyun hakeem
4. And indeed it is, in the Mother of the Book with Us, exalted and full of wisdom.

أَفَنَضْرِبُ عَنكُمُ ٱلذِّكْرَ صَفْحًا أَن كُنتُمْ قَوْمًۭا مُّسْرِفِينَ

Afanadribu ‘ankumuz Zikra safhan an kuntum qawmam musrifeen
5. Then should We turn the message away, disregarding you, because you are a transgressing people?

وَكَمْ أَرْسَلْنَا مِن نَّبِىٍّۢ فِى ٱلْأَوَّلِينَ

Wa kam arsalnaa min Nabiyyin fil awwaleen
6. And how many a prophet We sent among the former peoples,

وَمَا يَأْتِيهِم مِّن نَّبِىٍّ إِلَّا كَانُوا۟ بِهِۦ يَسْتَهْزِءُونَ

Wa maa yaateehim min Nabiyyin illaa kaanoo bihee yasahzi’oon
7. But there would not come to them a prophet except that they used to ridicule him.

فَأَهْلَكْنَآ أَشَدَّ مِنْهُم بَطْشًۭا وَمَضَىٰ مَثَلُ ٱلْأَوَّلِينَ

Fa ahlaknaaa ashadda minhum batshanw wa madaa masalul lawwaleen
8. And We destroyed greater than them in [striking] power, and the example of the former peoples has preceded.

وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُم مَّنْ خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَ‌ٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضَ لَيَقُولُنَّ خَلَقَهُنَّ ٱلْعَزِيزُ ٱلْعَلِيمُ

Wa la’in sa altahum man khalaqas samaawaati wal arda la yaqoolunna khalaqa hunnal ‘Azeezul ‘Aleem
9. And if you should ask them, “Who has created the heavens and the earth?” they would surely say, “They were created by the Exalted in Might, the Knowing.”

ٱلَّذِى جَعَلَ لَكُمُ ٱلْأَرْضَ مَهْدًۭا وَجَعَلَ لَكُمْ فِيهَا سُبُلًۭا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ

Allazee ja’ala lakumul arda mahdanw wa ja’ala lakum feehaa subulal la’allakum tahtadoon
10. [The one] who has made for you the earth a bed and made for you upon it roads that you might be guided

وَٱلَّذِى نَزَّلَ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءًۢ بِقَدَرٍۢ فَأَنشَرْنَا بِهِۦ بَلْدَةًۭ مَّيْتًۭا ۚ كَذَ‌ٰلِكَ تُخْرَجُونَ

Wallazee nazzala minas samaaa’i maaa’am biqadarin fa anshamaa bihee baldatam maitaa’ kazaalika tukhrajoon
11. And who sends down rain from the sky in measured amounts, and We revive thereby a dead land – thus will you be brought forth –

وَٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلْأَزْوَ‌ٰجَ كُلَّهَا وَجَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنَ ٱلْفُلْكِ وَٱلْأَنْعَـٰمِ مَا تَرْكَبُونَ

Wallazee khalaqal azwaaja kullahaa wa ja’ala lakum minal fulki wal-an’aami maa tarkaboon
12. And who created the species, all of them, and has made for you of ships and animals those which you mount.

لِتَسْتَوُۥا۟ عَلَىٰ ظُهُورِهِۦ ثُمَّ تَذْكُرُوا۟ نِعْمَةَ رَبِّكُمْ إِذَا ٱسْتَوَيْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ وَتَقُولُوا۟ سُبْحَـٰنَ ٱلَّذِى سَخَّرَ لَنَا هَـٰذَا وَمَا كُنَّا لَهُۥ مُقْرِنِينَ

Litastawoo ‘alaa zuhoorihee summa tazkuroo ni’mata Rabbikum izastawaitum ‘alaihi wa taqooloo Subhaanal lazee sakhkhara lana haaza wa maa kunnaa lahoo muqrineen
13. That you may settle yourselves upon their backs and then remember the favor of your Lord when you have settled upon them and say. “Exalted is He who has subjected this to us, and we could not have [otherwise] subdued it.

وَإِنَّآ إِلَىٰ رَبِّنَا لَمُنقَلِبُونَ

Wa innaaa ilaa Rabbinaa lamunqaliboon
14. And indeed we, to our Lord, will [surely] return.”

وَجَعَلُوا۟ لَهُۥ مِنْ عِبَادِهِۦ جُزْءًا ۚ إِنَّ ٱلْإِنسَـٰنَ لَكَفُورٌۭ مُّبِينٌ

Wa ja’aloo lahoo min ‘ibaadihee juz’aa; innal insaana lakafoorum mubeen (section 1)
15. But they have attributed to Him from His servants a portion. Indeed, man is clearly ungrateful.

أَمِ ٱتَّخَذَ مِمَّا يَخْلُقُ بَنَاتٍۢ وَأَصْفَىٰكُم بِٱلْبَنِينَ

Amit takhaza mimmaa yakhluqu banaatinw wa asfaakum bilbaneen
16. Or has He taken, out of what He has created, daughters and chosen you for [having] sons?

وَإِذَا بُشِّرَ أَحَدُهُم بِمَا ضَرَبَ لِلرَّحْمَـٰنِ مَثَلًۭا ظَلَّ وَجْهُهُۥ مُسْوَدًّۭا وَهُوَ كَظِيمٌ

Wa izaa bushshira ahaduhum bimaa daraba lir Rahmaani masalan zalla wajhuhoo muswaddanw wa hua kazeem
17. And when one of them is given good tidings of that which he attributes to the Most Merciful in comparison, his face becomes dark, and he suppresses grief.

أَوَمَن يُنَشَّؤُا۟ فِى ٱلْحِلْيَةِ وَهُوَ فِى ٱلْخِصَامِ غَيْرُ مُبِينٍۢ

Awa mai yunashsha’u fil hilyati wa huwa fil khisaami ghairu mubeen
18. So is one brought up in ornaments while being during conflict unevident [attributed to Allah ]?

وَجَعَلُوا۟ ٱلْمَلَـٰٓئِكَةَ ٱلَّذِينَ هُمْ عِبَـٰدُ ٱلرَّحْمَـٰنِ إِنَـٰثًا ۚ أَشَهِدُوا۟ خَلْقَهُمْ ۚ سَتُكْتَبُ شَهَـٰدَتُهُمْ وَيُسْـَٔلُونَ

Wa ja’alul malaaa’ikatal lazeena hum ‘ibaadur Rahmaani inaasaa; a shahidoo khalaqhum; satuktabu shahaa datuhum wa yus’aloon
19. And they have made the angels, who are servants of the Most Merciful, females. Did they witness their creation? Their testimony will be recorded, and they will be questioned.

وَقَالُوا۟ لَوْ شَآءَ ٱلرَّحْمَـٰنُ مَا عَبَدْنَـٰهُم ۗ مَّا لَهُم بِذَ‌ٰلِكَ مِنْ عِلْمٍ ۖ إِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا يَخْرُصُونَ

Wa qaaloo law shaaa’ar Rahmaanu maa ‘abadnaahum; maa lahum bizaalika min ‘ilmin in hum illaa yakhrusoon
20. And they said, “If the Most Merciful had willed, we would not have worshipped them.” They have of that no knowledge. They are not but falsifying.

أَمْ ءَاتَيْنَـٰهُمْ كِتَـٰبًۭا مِّن قَبْلِهِۦ فَهُم بِهِۦ مُسْتَمْسِكُونَ

Am aatainaahum Kitaabam min qablihee fahum bihee mustamsikoon
21. Or have We given them a book before the Qur’an to which they are adhering?

بَلْ قَالُوٓا۟ إِنَّا وَجَدْنَآ ءَابَآءَنَا عَلَىٰٓ أُمَّةٍۢ وَإِنَّا عَلَىٰٓ ءَاثَـٰرِهِم مُّهْتَدُونَ

Bal qaalooo innaa wajadnaaa aabaaa’anaa ‘alaaa ummatinw wa innaa ‘alaaa aasaarihim muhtadoon
22. Rather, they say, “Indeed, we found our fathers upon a religion, and we are in their footsteps [rightly] guided.”

وَكَذَ‌ٰلِكَ مَآ أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ فِى قَرْيَةٍۢ مِّن نَّذِيرٍ إِلَّا قَالَ مُتْرَفُوهَآ إِنَّا وَجَدْنَآ ءَابَآءَنَا عَلَىٰٓ أُمَّةٍۢ وَإِنَّا عَلَىٰٓ ءَاثَـٰرِهِم مُّقْتَدُونَ

Wa kazaalika maaa arsalnaa min qablika fee qaryatim min nazeerin illaa qaala mutrafoohaaa innaa wajadnaaa aabaaa’anaa ‘alaaa ummatinw wa innaa ‘alaaa aasaarihim muqtadoon
23. And similarly, We did not send before you any warner into a city except that its affluent said, “Indeed, we found our fathers upon a religion, and we are, in their footsteps, following.”

۞ قَـٰلَ أَوَلَوْ جِئْتُكُم بِأَهْدَىٰ مِمَّا وَجَدتُّمْ عَلَيْهِ ءَابَآءَكُمْ ۖ قَالُوٓا۟ إِنَّا بِمَآ أُرْسِلْتُم بِهِۦ كَـٰفِرُونَ

Qaala awa law ji’tukum bi ahdaa mimmaa wajattum ‘alaihi aabaaa’akum qaalooo innaa bimaaa ursiltum bihee kaafiroon
24. [Each warner] said, “Even if I brought you better guidance than that [religion] upon which you found your fathers?” They said, “Indeed we, in that with which you were sent, are disbelievers.”

فَٱنتَقَمْنَا مِنْهُمْ ۖ فَٱنظُرْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَـٰقِبَةُ ٱلْمُكَذِّبِينَ

Fantaqamnaa minhum fanzur kaifa kaana ‘aaqibatul mukazzibeen (section 2)
25. So we took retribution from them; then see how was the end of the deniers.

وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَ‌ٰهِيمُ لِأَبِيهِ وَقَوْمِهِۦٓ إِنَّنِى بَرَآءٌۭ مِّمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ

Wa iz qaala Ibraaheemu liabeehi wa qawmiheee innane baraaa’um mimmaa ta’budo
26. And [mention, O Muhammad], when Abraham said to his father and his people, “Indeed, I am disassociated from that which you worship

إِلَّا ٱلَّذِى فَطَرَنِى فَإِنَّهُۥ سَيَهْدِينِ

Illal lazee fataranee innahoo sa yahdeen
27. Except for He who created me; and indeed, He will guide me.”

وَجَعَلَهَا كَلِمَةًۢ بَاقِيَةًۭ فِى عَقِبِهِۦ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ

Wa ja’alahaa Kalimatam baaqiyatan fee ‘aqibihee la’al lahum yarji’oon
28. And he made it a word remaining among his descendants that they might return [to it].

بَلْ مَتَّعْتُ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ وَءَابَآءَهُمْ حَتَّىٰ جَآءَهُمُ ٱلْحَقُّ وَرَسُولٌۭ مُّبِينٌۭ

Bal matta’tu haaa’ulaaa’i wa aabaaa’ahum hattaa jaaa’a humul haqqu wa Rasoolum mubeen
29. However, I gave enjoyment to these [people of Makkah] and their fathers until there came to them the truth and a clear Messenger.

وَلَمَّا جَآءَهُمُ ٱلْحَقُّ قَالُوا۟ هَـٰذَا سِحْرٌۭ وَإِنَّا بِهِۦ كَـٰفِرُونَ

Wa lammaa jaaa’ahumul haqqu qaaloo haazaa sihrunw wa innaa bihee kaafiroon
30. But when the truth came to them, they said, “This is magic, and indeed we are, concerning it, disbelievers.”

وَقَالُوا۟ لَوْلَا نُزِّلَ هَـٰذَا ٱلْقُرْءَانُ عَلَىٰ رَجُلٍۢ مِّنَ ٱلْقَرْيَتَيْنِ عَظِيمٍ

Wa qaaloo law laa nuzzila haazal Quraanu ‘alaa rajulim minal qaryataini ‘azeem
31. And they said, “Why was this Qur’an not sent down upon a great man from [one of] the two cities?”

أَهُمْ يَقْسِمُونَ رَحْمَتَ رَبِّكَ ۚ نَحْنُ قَسَمْنَا بَيْنَهُم مَّعِيشَتَهُمْ فِى ٱلْحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنْيَا ۚ وَرَفَعْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ فَوْقَ بَعْضٍۢ دَرَجَـٰتٍۢ لِّيَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُهُم بَعْضًۭا سُخْرِيًّۭا ۗ وَرَحْمَتُ رَبِّكَ خَيْرٌۭ مِّمَّا يَجْمَعُونَ

Ahum yaqsimoona rahmata Rabbik; Nahnu qasamnaa bainahum ma’eeshatahum fil hayaatid dunyaa wa rafa’naa ba’dahum fawqa ba’din darajaatil liyattakhiza ba’duhum ba’dan sukhriyyaa; wa rahmatu Rabbika khairum mimmaa yajma’oon
32. Do they distribute the mercy of your Lord? It is We who have apportioned among them their livelihood in the life of this world and have raised some of them above others in degrees [of rank] that they may make use of one another for service. But the mercy of your Lord is better than whatever they accumulate.

وَلَوْلَآ أَن يَكُونَ ٱلنَّاسُ أُمَّةًۭ وَ‌ٰحِدَةًۭ لَّجَعَلْنَا لِمَن يَكْفُرُ بِٱلرَّحْمَـٰنِ لِبُيُوتِهِمْ سُقُفًۭا مِّن فِضَّةٍۢ وَمَعَارِجَ عَلَيْهَا يَظْهَرُونَ

Wa law laaa any yakoonan naasu ummatanw waahidatal laja’alnaa limany yakfuru bir Rahmaani libu yootihim suqufam min fiddatinw wa ma’aarija ‘alaihaa yazharoon
33. And if it were not that the people would become one community [of disbelievers], We would have made for those who disbelieve in the Most Merciful – for their houses – ceilings and stairways of silver upon which to mount

وَلِبُيُوتِهِمْ أَبْوَ‌ٰبًۭا وَسُرُرًا عَلَيْهَا يَتَّكِـُٔونَ

Wa libu yootihim abwaabanw wa sururan ‘alaihaa yattaki’oon
34. And for their houses – doors and couches [of silver] upon which to recline

وَزُخْرُفًۭا ۚ وَإِن كُلُّ ذَ‌ٰلِكَ لَمَّا مَتَـٰعُ ٱلْحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنْيَا ۚ وَٱلْءَاخِرَةُ عِندَ رَبِّكَ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ

Wa zukhrufaa; wa in kullu zaalika lammaa mataa’ul hayaatid dunyaa; wal aakhiratu ‘inda Rabbika lilmuttaqeen (section 3)
35. And gold ornament. But all that is not but the enjoyment of worldly life. And the Hereafter with your Lord is for the righteous.

وَمَن يَعْشُ عَن ذِكْرِ ٱلرَّحْمَـٰنِ نُقَيِّضْ لَهُۥ شَيْطَـٰنًۭا فَهُوَ لَهُۥ قَرِينٌۭ

Wa mai ya’shu ‘an zikrir Rahmaani nuqaiyid lahoo Shaitaanan fahuwa lahoo qareen
36. And whoever is blinded from remembrance of the Most Merciful – We appoint for him a devil, and he is to him a companion.

وَإِنَّهُمْ لَيَصُدُّونَهُمْ عَنِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُم مُّهْتَدُونَ

Wa innahum la yasuddoo nahum ‘anis sabeeli wa yahsaboona annahum muhtadoon
37. And indeed, the devils avert them from the way [of guidance] while they think that they are [rightly] guided

حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا جَآءَنَا قَالَ يَـٰلَيْتَ بَيْنِى وَبَيْنَكَ بُعْدَ ٱلْمَشْرِقَيْنِ فَبِئْسَ ٱلْقَرِينُ

Hattaaa izaa jaaa’anaa qaala yaa laita bainee wa bainaka bu’dal mashriqaini fabi’sal qareen
38. Until, when he comes to Us [at Judgement], he says [to his companion], “Oh, I wish there was between me and you the distance between the east and west – how wretched a companion.”

وَلَن يَنفَعَكُمُ ٱلْيَوْمَ إِذ ظَّلَمْتُمْ أَنَّكُمْ فِى ٱلْعَذَابِ مُشْتَرِكُونَ

Wa lai yanfa’akumul Yawma iz zalamtum annakum fil ‘azaabi mushtarikoon
39. And never will it benefit you that Day, when you have wronged, that you are [all] sharing in the punishment.

أَفَأَنتَ تُسْمِعُ ٱلصُّمَّ أَوْ تَهْدِى ٱلْعُمْىَ وَمَن كَانَ فِى ضَلَـٰلٍۢ مُّبِينٍۢ

Afa anta tusmi’us summa aw tahdil ‘umya wa man kaana fee dalaalim mubeen
40. Then will you make the deaf hear, [O Muhammad], or guide the blind or he who is in clear error?

فَإِمَّا نَذْهَبَنَّ بِكَ فَإِنَّا مِنْهُم مُّنتَقِمُونَ

Fa immaa nazhabanna bika fa innaa minhum muntaqimoon
41. And whether [or not] We take you away [in death], indeed, We will take retribution upon them.

أَوْ نُرِيَنَّكَ ٱلَّذِى وَعَدْنَـٰهُمْ فَإِنَّا عَلَيْهِم مُّقْتَدِرُونَ

Aw nuriyannakal lazee wa’adnaahum fa innaa ‘alaihim muqtadiroon
42. Or whether [or not] We show you that which We have promised them, indeed, We are Perfect in Ability.

فَٱسْتَمْسِكْ بِٱلَّذِىٓ أُوحِىَ إِلَيْكَ ۖ إِنَّكَ عَلَىٰ صِرَ‌ٰطٍۢ مُّسْتَقِيمٍۢ

Fastamsik billazeee oohi ya ilaika innaka ‘alaa Siraatim Mustaqeem
43. So adhere to that which is revealed to you. Indeed, you are on a straight path.

وَإِنَّهُۥ لَذِكْرٌۭ لَّكَ وَلِقَوْمِكَ ۖ وَسَوْفَ تُسْـَٔلُونَ

Wa innahoo lazikrul laka wa liqawmika wa sawfa tus’aloon
44. And indeed, it is a remembrance for you and your people, and you [all] are going to be questioned.

وَسْـَٔلْ مَنْ أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رُّسُلِنَآ أَجَعَلْنَا مِن دُونِ ٱلرَّحْمَـٰنِ ءَالِهَةًۭ يُعْبَدُونَ

Was’al man arsalnaa min qablika mir Rusulinaaa aja’alnaa min doonir Rahmaani aalihatany yu badoon (section 4)
45. And ask those We sent before you of Our messengers; have We made besides the Most Merciful deities to be worshipped?

وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا مُوسَىٰ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَآ إِلَىٰ فِرْعَوْنَ وَمَلَإِي۟هِۦ فَقَالَ إِنِّى رَسُولُ رَبِّ ٱلْعَـٰلَمِينَ

Wa laqad arsalnaa Moosaa bi aayaatinaaa ilaa Fir’awna wa mala’ihee faqaala innee Rasoolu Rabbil ‘aalameen
46. And certainly did We send Moses with Our signs to Pharaoh and his establishment, and he said, “Indeed, I am the messenger of the Lord of the worlds.”

فَلَمَّا جَآءَهُم بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَآ إِذَا هُم مِّنْهَا يَضْحَكُونَ

Falammma jaaa’ahum bi aayaatinaaa izaa hum minhaa yadhakoon
47. But when he brought them Our signs, at once they laughed at them.

وَمَا نُرِيهِم مِّنْ ءَايَةٍ إِلَّا هِىَ أَكْبَرُ مِنْ أُخْتِهَا ۖ وَأَخَذْنَـٰهُم بِٱلْعَذَابِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ

Wa maa nureehim min aayatin illaa hiya akbaru min ukhtihaa wa akhaznaahum bil’azaabi la’allahum yarji’oon
48. And We showed them not a sign except that it was greater than its sister, and We seized them with affliction that perhaps they might return [to faith].

وَقَالُوا۟ يَـٰٓأَيُّهَ ٱلسَّاحِرُ ٱدْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ بِمَا عَهِدَ عِندَكَ إِنَّنَا لَمُهْتَدُون

Wa qaaloo yaaa ayyuhas saahirud’u lanaa Rabbaka bimaa ‘ahida ‘indaka innanaa lamuhtadoon
49. And they said [to Moses], “O magician, invoke for us your Lord by what He has promised you. Indeed, we will be guided.”

فَلَمَّا كَشَفْنَا عَنْهُمُ ٱلْعَذَابَ إِذَا هُمْ يَنكُثُونَ

Falammaa kashafnaa ‘anhumul ‘azaaba izaa hum yankusoon
50. But when We removed from them the affliction, at once they broke their word.

وَنَادَىٰ فِرْعَوْنُ فِى قَوْمِهِۦ قَالَ يَـٰقَوْمِ أَلَيْسَ لِى مُلْكُ مِصْرَ وَهَـٰذِهِ ٱلْأَنْهَـٰرُ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِىٓ ۖ أَفَلَا تُبْصِرُون

Wa naadaa Fir’awnu fee qawmihee qaala yaa qawmi alaisa lee mulku Misra wa haazihil anhaaru tajree min tahtee afalaa tubsiroon
51. And Pharaoh called out among his people; he said, “O my people, does not the kingdom of Egypt belong to me, and these rivers flowing beneath me; then do you not see?

أَمْ أَنَا۠ خَيْرٌۭ مِّنْ هَـٰذَا ٱلَّذِى هُوَ مَهِينٌۭ وَلَا يَكَادُ يُبِينُ

Am ana khairum min haazal lazee huwa maheenunw wa laa yuakaadu yubeen
52. Or am I [not] better than this one who is insignificant and hardly makes himself clear?

فَلَوْلَآ أُلْقِىَ عَلَيْهِ أَسْوِرَةٌۭ مِّن ذَهَبٍ أَوْ جَآءَ مَعَهُ ٱلْمَلَـٰٓئِكَةُ مُقْتَرِنِينَ

Falaw laa ulqiya ‘alaihi aswiratum min zahabin awjaaa’a ma’ahul malaaa’ikatu muqtarineen
53. Then why have there not been placed upon him bracelets of gold or come with him the angels in conjunction?”

فَٱسْتَخَفَّ قَوْمَهُۥ فَأَطَاعُوهُ ۚ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا۟ قَوْمًۭا فَـٰسِقِينَ

Fastakhaffa qawmahoo fa ataa’ooh; innahum kaanoo qawman faasiqeen
54. So he bluffed his people, and they obeyed him. Indeed, they were [themselves] a people defiantly disobedient [of Allah ].

فَلَمَّآ ءَاسَفُونَا ٱنتَقَمْنَا مِنْهُمْ فَأَغْرَقْنَـٰهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ

Falammaaa aasafoonan taqamnaa minhum fa aghraqnaahum ajma’een
55. And when they angered Us, We took retribution from them and drowned them all.

فَجَعَلْنَـٰهُمْ سَلَفًۭا وَمَثَلًۭا لِّلْءَاخِرِينَ

Faja’alnaahum salafanw wa masalal lil aakhireen (section 5)
56. And We made them a precedent and an example for the later peoples.

۞ وَلَمَّا ضُرِبَ ٱبْنُ مَرْيَمَ مَثَلًا إِذَا قَوْمُكَ مِنْهُ يَصِدُّونَ

Wa lammaa duribab nu Maryama masalan izaa qawmu ka minhu yasidoon
57. And when the son of Mary was presented as an example, immediately your people laughed aloud.

وَقَالُوٓا۟ ءَأَـٰلِهَتُنَا خَيْرٌ أَمْ هُوَ ۚ مَا ضَرَبُوهُ لَكَ إِلَّا جَدَلًۢا ۚ بَلْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ خَصِمُونَ

Wa qaalooo ‘a-aalihatunaa khairun am hoo; maa daraboohu laka illaa jadalaa; balhum qawmun khasimoon
58. And they said, “Are our gods better, or is he?” They did not present the comparison except for [mere] argument. But, [in fact], they are a people prone to dispute.

إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا عَبْدٌ أَنْعَمْنَا عَلَيْهِ وَجَعَلْنَـٰهُ مَثَلًۭا لِّبَنِىٓ إِسْرَ‌ٰٓءِيلَ

In huwa illaa ‘abdun an’amnaa ‘alaihi wa ja’alnaahu masalal li Baneee Israaa’eel
59. Jesus was not but a servant upon whom We bestowed favor, and We made him an example for the Children of Israel.

وَلَوْ نَشَآءُ لَجَعَلْنَا مِنكُم مَّلَـٰٓئِكَةًۭ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ يَخْلُفُونَ

Wa law nashaaa’u laja’alnaa minkum malaaa’ikatan fil ardi yakhlufoon
60. And if We willed, We could have made [instead] of you angels succeeding [one another] on the earth.

وَإِنَّهُۥ لَعِلْمٌۭ لِّلسَّاعَةِ فَلَا تَمْتَرُنَّ بِهَا وَٱتَّبِعُونِ ۚ هَـٰذَا صِرَ‌ٰطٌۭ مُّسْتَقِيمٌۭ

Wa innahoo la’ilmul lis Saa’ati fala tamtarunna bihaa wattabi’oon; haazaa Siraatum Mustaqeem
61. And indeed, Jesus will be [a sign for] knowledge of the Hour, so be not in doubt of it, and follow Me. This is a straight path.

وَلَا يَصُدَّنَّكُمُ ٱلشَّيْطَـٰنُ ۖ إِنَّهُۥ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّۭ مُّبِينٌۭ

Wa laa yasuddan nakumush Shaitaanu innahoo lakum ‘aduwwum mubeen
62. And never let Satan avert you. Indeed, he is to you a clear enemy.

وَلَمَّا جَآءَ عِيسَىٰ بِٱلْبَيِّنَـٰتِ قَالَ قَدْ جِئْتُكُم بِٱلْحِكْمَةِ وَلِأُبَيِّنَ لَكُم بَعْضَ ٱلَّذِى تَخْتَلِفُونَ فِيهِ ۖ فَٱتَّقُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُونِ

Wa lammaa jaaa’a ‘Eesaa bilbaiyinaati qaala qad ji’tukum bil Hikmati wa li-ubaiyina lakum ba’dal lazee takhtalifoona feehi fattaqul laaha wa atee’oon
63. And when Jesus brought clear proofs, he said, “I have come to you with wisdom and to make clear to you some of that over which you differ, so fear Allah and obey me.

إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ هُوَ رَبِّى وَرَبُّكُمْ فَٱعْبُدُوهُ ۚ هَـٰذَا صِرَ‌ٰطٌۭ مُّسْتَقِيمٌۭ

Innal laaha Huwa Rabbee wa Rabbukum fa’budooh; haaza Siraatum Mustaqeem
64. Indeed, Allah is my Lord and your Lord, so worship Him. This is a straight path.”

فَٱخْتَلَفَ ٱلْأَحْزَابُ مِنۢ بَيْنِهِمْ ۖ فَوَيْلٌۭ لِّلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا۟ مِنْ عَذَابِ يَوْمٍ أَلِيمٍ

Fakhtalafal ahzaabu mim bainihim fawailul lillazeena zalamoo min ‘azaabi Yawmin aleem
65. But the denominations from among them differed [and separated], so woe to those who have wronged from the punishment of a painful Day.

هَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا ٱلسَّاعَةَ أَن تَأْتِيَهُم بَغْتَةًۭ وَهُمْ لَا يَشْعُرُونَ

Hal yanzuroona illas Saa’ata an taatiyahum baghtatanw wa hum laa yash’uroon
66. Are they waiting except for the Hour to come upon them suddenly while they perceive not?

ٱلْأَخِلَّآءُ يَوْمَئِذٍۭ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ إِلَّا ٱلْمُتَّقِينَ

Al akhillaaa’u Yawma’izim ba’duhum liba’din ‘aduwwun illal muttaqeen (section 6)
67. Close friends, that Day, will be enemies to each other, except for the righteous

يَـٰعِبَادِ لَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْكُمُ ٱلْيَوْمَ وَلَآ أَنتُمْ تَحْزَنُونَ

Yaa ‘ibaadi laa khawfun ‘alaikumul Yawma wa laaa antum tahzanoon
68. [To whom Allah will say], “O My servants, no fear will there be concerning you this Day, nor will you grieve,

ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَا وَكَانُوا۟ مُسْلِمِينَ

Allazeena aamanoo bi Aayaatinaa wa kaanoo muslimeen
69. [You] who believed in Our verses and were Muslims.

ٱدْخُلُوا۟ ٱلْجَنَّةَ أَنتُمْ وَأَزْوَ‌ٰجُكُمْ تُحْبَرُونَ

Udkhulul Jannata antum wa azwaajukum tuhbaroon
70. Enter Paradise, you and your kinds, delighted.”

يُطَافُ عَلَيْهِم بِصِحَافٍۢ مِّن ذَهَبٍۢ وَأَكْوَابٍۢ ۖ وَفِيهَا مَا تَشْتَهِيهِ ٱلْأَنفُسُ وَتَلَذُّ ٱلْأَعْيُنُ ۖ وَأَنتُمْ فِيهَا خَـٰلِدُونَ

Yutaafu ‘alaihim bishaa fim min zahabinw wa akwaab, wa feehaa maatashtaheehil anfusu wa talazzul a’yunu wa antum feehaa khaalidoon
71. Circulated among them will be plates and vessels of gold. And therein is whatever the souls desire and [what] delights the eyes, and you will abide therein eternally.

وَتِلْكَ ٱلْجَنَّةُ ٱلَّتِىٓ أُورِثْتُمُوهَا بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ

Wa tilkal jannatul lateee ooristumoohaa bimaa kuntum ta’maloon
72. And that is Paradise which you are made to inherit for what you used to do.

لَكُمْ فِيهَا فَـٰكِهَةٌۭ كَثِيرَةٌۭ مِّنْهَا تَأْكُلُونَ

Lakum feehaa faakihatun kaseeratum minhaa taakuloon
73. For you therein is much fruit from which you will eat.

إِنَّ ٱلْمُجْرِمِينَ فِى عَذَابِ جَهَنَّمَ خَـٰلِدُونَ

Innal mujrimeena fee ‘azaabi jahannama khaalidoon
74. Indeed, the criminals will be in the punishment of Hell, abiding eternally.

لَا يُفَتَّرُ عَنْهُمْ وَهُمْ فِيهِ مُبْلِسُونَ

Laa yufattaru ‘anhum wa hum feehi mublisoon
75. It will not be allowed to subside for them, and they, therein, are in despair.

وَمَا ظَلَمْنَـٰهُمْ وَلَـٰكِن كَانُوا۟ هُمُ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ

Wa maa zalamnaahum wa laakin kaanoo humuz zaalimeen
76. And We did not wrong them, but it was they who were the wrongdoers.

وَنَادَوْا۟ يَـٰمَـٰلِكُ لِيَقْضِ عَلَيْنَا رَبُّكَ ۖ قَالَ إِنَّكُم مَّـٰكِثُونَ

Wa naadaw yaa Maaliku liyaqdi ‘alainaa Rabbuka qaala innakum maakissoon
77. And they will call, “O Malik, let your Lord put an end to us!” He will say, “Indeed, you will remain.”

لَقَدْ جِئْنَـٰكُم بِٱلْحَقِّ وَلَـٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَكُمْ لِلْحَقِّ كَـٰرِهُونَ

Laqad ji’naakum bilhaqqi wa laakinna aksarakum lilhaqqi kaarihoon
78. We had certainly brought you the truth, but most of you, to the truth, were averse.

أَمْ أَبْرَمُوٓا۟ أَمْرًۭا فَإِنَّا مُبْرِمُونَ

Am abramooo amran fainnaa mubrimoon
79. Or have they devised [some] affair? But indeed, We are devising [a plan].

أَمْ يَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّا لَا نَسْمَعُ سِرَّهُمْ وَنَجْوَىٰهُم ۚ بَلَىٰ وَرُسُلُنَا لَدَيْهِمْ يَكْتُبُونَ

Am yahsaboona annaa laa nasma’u sirrahum wa najwaahum; balaa wa Rusulunaa ladaihim yaktuboon
80. Or do they think that We hear not their secrets and their private conversations? Yes, [We do], and Our messengers are with them recording.

قُلْ إِن كَانَ لِلرَّحْمَـٰنِ وَلَدٌۭ فَأَنَا۠ أَوَّلُ ٱلْعَـٰبِدِينَ

Qul in kaana lir Rahmaani walad; fa-ana awwalul ‘aabideen
81. Say, [O Muhammad], “If the Most Merciful had a son, then I would be the first of [his] worshippers.”

سُبْحَـٰنَ رَبِّ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَ‌ٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ رَبِّ ٱلْعَرْشِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ

Subhaana Rabbis samaawaati wal ardi Rabbil Arshi ‘ammaa yasifoon
82. Exalted is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, Lord of the Throne, above what they describe.

فَذَرْهُمْ يَخُوضُوا۟ وَيَلْعَبُوا۟ حَتَّىٰ يُلَـٰقُوا۟ يَوْمَهُمُ ٱلَّذِى يُوعَدُونَ

Fazarhum yakhoodoo wa yal’aboo hattaa yulaaqoo Yawmahumul lazee yoo’adoon
83. So leave them to converse vainly and amuse themselves until they meet their Day which they are promised.

وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى فِى ٱلسَّمَآءِ إِلَـٰهٌۭ وَفِى ٱلْأَرْضِ إِلَـٰهٌۭ ۚ وَهُوَ ٱلْحَكِيمُ ٱلْعَلِيمُ

Wa Huwal lazee fissamaaa’i Ilaahunw wa fil ardi Ilaah; wa Huwal Hakeemul’Aleem
84. And it is Allah who is [the only] deity in the heaven, and on the earth [the only] deity. And He is the Wise, the Knowing.

وَتَبَارَكَ ٱلَّذِى لَهُۥ مُلْكُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَ‌ٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا وَعِندَهُۥ عِلْمُ ٱلسَّاعَةِ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ

Wa tabaarakal lazee lahoo mulkus samaawaati wal ardi wa maa bainahumaa wa ‘indahoo ‘ilmus Saa’ati wa ilaihi turja’oon
85. And blessed is He to whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them and with whom is knowledge of the Hour and to whom you will be returned.

وَلَا يَمْلِكُ ٱلَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ ٱلشَّفَـٰعَةَ إِلَّا مَن شَهِدَ بِٱلْحَقِّ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ

Wa laa yamlikul lazeena yad’oona min doonihish shafaa’ata illaa man shahida bilhaqqi wa hum ya’lamoon
86. And those they invoke besides Him do not possess [power of] intercession; but only those who testify to the truth [can benefit], and they know.

وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُم مَّنْ خَلَقَهُمْ لَيَقُولُنَّ ٱللَّهُ ۖ فَأَنَّىٰ يُؤْفَكُونَ

Wa la’in sa altahum man khalaqahum la yaqoolun nallaahu fa annaa yu’fakoon
87. And if you asked them who created them, they would surely say, ” Allah .” So how are they deluded?

وَقِيلِهِۦ يَـٰرَبِّ إِنَّ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ قَوْمٌۭ لَّا يُؤْمِنُونَ

Wa qeelihee yaa Rabbi inna haa’ulaaa’i qawmul laa yu’minoon
88. And [ Allah acknowledges] his saying, “O my Lord, indeed these are a people who do not believe.”

فَٱصْفَحْ عَنْهُمْ وَقُلْ سَلَـٰمٌۭ ۚ فَسَوْفَ يَعْلَمُونَ

Fasfah ‘anhum wa qul salaam; fasawfa ya’lamoon (section 7)
89. So turn aside from them and say, “Peace.” But they are going to know.

The Tafsir of Surat Az-Zukhruf

Chapter – 43
Which was revealed in Makkah

(1. Ha Mim.) (2. By the manifest Book.) (3. Verily, We have made it a Qur’an in Arabic that you may be able to understand.) (4. And verily, it is in the Mother of the Book with Us, indeed exalted, full of wisdom.) (5. Shall We then take away the Reminder from you, because you are a people excessive.) (6. And how many a Prophet have We sent amongst the men of old.) (7. And never came there a Prophet to them but they used to mock at him.) (8. Then We destroyed men stronger (in power) than these and the example of the ancients has passed away.)

(Ha-Mim. By the manifest Book.) means, plain and clear in both wording and meaning, because it was revealed in the language of the Arabs, which is the most eloquent language for communication among people. Allah says:

(Verily, We have made it) meaning, revealed it,

(a Qur’an in Arabic) meaning, in the language of the Arabs, eloquent and clear;

(that you may be able to understand.) means, that you may understand it and ponder its meanings. This is like the Ayah:

(In the plain Arabic language.) (26:195)

(And verily, it is in the Mother of the Book with Us, indeed exalted, full of wisdom.) This explains the high status of the Qur’an among the hosts on high (the angels), so that the people of earth will respect it, venerate it and obey it.

(And verily, it) means, the Qur’an,

(is in the Mother of the Book) meaning, Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz (the Preserved Tablet). This was the view of Ibn `Abbas and Mujahid.

(with Us,) means, in Our presence. This was the view of Qatadah and others.

(indeed exalted) means, occupying a position of honor and virtue. This was the view of Qatadah.

(full of wisdom.) means, clear, with no confusion or deviation. All of this indicates its noble status and virtue, as Allah says elsewhere:

(That (this) is indeed an honorable recitation. In a Book well-guarded. Which none can touch but the pure. A revelation from the Lord of the all that exists.) (56:77-80)

(Nay, indeed it is an admonition. So whoever wills, let him pay attention to it. (It is) in Records held (greatly) in honor, exalted, purified, in the hands of scribes (angels), honorable and obedient.) (80:11-16)

(Shall We then take away the Reminder (this Qur’an) from you, because you are a people excessive.) means, `do you think that We will forgive you and not punish you, when you do not do as you have been commanded’ This was the view of Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Abu Salih, Mujahid and As-Suddi, and was the view favored by Ibn Jarir.

(Shall We then take away the Reminder (this Qur’an) from you,) Qatadah said, “By Allah, if this Qur’an had been taken away when the first generations of this Ummah rejected it, they would have been doomed, but Allah by His mercy persisted in sending it and calling them to it for twenty years, or for as long as He willed.” What Qatadah said is very good, and his point is that Allah, by His grace and mercy towards His creation, did not stop calling them to the truth and to the wise Reminder, i.e., the Qur’an, even though they were heedless and turned away from it. Indeed, He sent it so that those who were decreed to be guided might be guided by it, and so that proof might be established against those who were decreed to be.

Consolation to the Prophet for the Disbelief of Quraysh

Then Allah consoles His Prophet for the disbelief of his people, and commands him to bear it with patience.

(And how many a Prophet have We sent amongst the men of old.) meaning, among the sects (communities) of old.

(And never came there a Prophet to them but they used to mock at him.) means, they disbelieved him and mock at him.

(Then We destroyed men stronger than these) means, `We destroyed those who disbelieved in the Messengers, and they were stronger in power than these who disbelieve in you, O Muhammad.’ This is like the Ayah:

(Have they not traveled through the earth and seen what was the end of those before them They were more in number than them and mightier in strength) (40:82). And there are many similar Ayat.

(and the example of the ancients has passed away. ) Mujahid said, “The way of their life.” Qatadah said, “Their punishment.” Others said, “Their lesson,” i.e., `We made them a lesson for those disbelievers who came after them, that they would suffer the same end as them,’ as in the Ayah at the end of this Surah:

(And We made them a precedent, and an example to later generations.) (43:56);

(this has been the way of Allah in dealing with His servants) (40:85).

(and you will not find any change in the way of Allah.) (33:62)

(9. And indeed if you ask them: “Who has created the heavens and the earth” They will surely say: “The All-Mighty, the All-Knower created them.”) (10. Who has made for you the earth like a bed, and has made for you roads therein, in order that you may find your way.) (11. And Who sends down water from the sky in due measure, then We revive a dead land therewith, and even so you will be brought forth.) (12. And Who has created all the pairs and has appointed for you ships and cattle on which you ride,) (13. In order that you may mount on their backs, and then may remember the favor of your Lord when you mount thereon, and say: “Glory to Him Who has subjected this to us, and we could have never had it.”) (14. And verily, to Our Lord we indeed are to return!”)

The Idolators’ admission that Allah is the Sole Creator, and Further Evidence of that

Allah says: `If you, O Muhammad, were to ask these idolators who associate others with Allah and worship others besides Him,’

(“Who has created the heavens and the earth” They will surely say: “The All-Mighty, the All-Knower created them.”) In other words, they will admit that the Creator of all that is Allah Alone, with no partner or associate, yet they still worship others — idols and false gods — alongside Him.

(Who has made for you the earth like a bed,) means, smooth, stable and firm, so that you can travel about in it, and stand on it and sleep and walk about, even though it is created above water, but He has strengthened it with the mountains, lest it should shake.

(and has made for you roads therein,) means, paths between the mountains and the valleys.

(in order that you may find your way.) means, in your journeys from city to city, region to region, land to land.

(And Who sends down water from the sky in due measure, ) means, according to what is sufficient for your crops, fruits and drinking water for yourselves and your cattle.

(then We revive a dead land therewith,) means, a barren land, for when the water comes to it, it is stirred (to life), and it swells and puts forth every lovely kind (of growth). By referring to the revival of the earth, Allah draws attention to how He will bring bodies back to life on the Day of Resurrection, after they have been dead.

(and even so you will be brought forth.) Then Allah says:

(And Who has created all the pairs) meaning, of everything that grows in the earth, all kinds of plants, crops, fruits, flowers, etc., and all different kinds of animals.

(and has appointed for you ships) or vessels,

(and cattle on which you ride.) means, He has subjugated them to you and made it easy for you to eat their meat, drink their milk and ride on their backs. Allah says:

(In order that you may mount on their backs, ) meaning, sit comfortably and securely,

(on their backs) means, on the backs of these kinds of animals.

(and then may remember the favor of your Lord) means, whereby these animals are subjugated to you.

(when you mount thereon, and say: “Glory to Him Who has subjected this to us, and we could have never had it.”) means, if it were not for the fact that Allah has subjugated these things to us, we could never have done this by our own strength.’ Ibn `Abbas, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd said: “We could not have done this ourselves.”

(And verily, to Our Lord we indeed are to return.) means, `We will return to Him after our death, and our ultimate destination is with Him.’ In this Ayah, mention of earthly journeys draws attention to the journey of the Hereafter, just as elsewhere, mention of earthly provision draws attention to the importance of ensuring provision for the Hereafter, as Allah says:

(And take a provision (with you) for the journey, but the best provision is the Taqwa) (2:197). And mention of earthly garments is also used to draw attention to the raiment of the Hereafter:

(and as an adornment; and the raiment of the Taqwa, that is better) (7:26).

(15. Yet, they assign to some of His servants a share with Him. Verily, man is indeed a manifest ingrate!) (16. Or has He taken daughters out of what He has created, and He has selected for you sons) (17. And if one of them is informed of the news of that which he sets forth as a parable to the Most Gracious, his face becomes dark, and he is filled with grief!) (18. A creature who is brought up in adornments, and who in dispute cannot make itself clear) (19. And they make females the angels who themselves are servants of the Most Gracious. Did they witness their creation Their testimony will be recorded, and they will be questioned!) (20. And they said: “If it had been the will of the Most Gracious,

Condemnation of the Idolators’ attribution of Offspring to Allah

Here Allah speaks of the lies and fabrications of the idolators, when they devoted some of their cattle to their false gods and some to Allah, as He described in Surat Al-An`am where He said:

(And they assign to Allah share of the tilth and cattle which He has created, and they say: “This is for Allah” according to their claim, “and this is for our partners.” But the share of their partners reaches not Allah, while the share of Allah reaches their partners! Evil is the way they judge!) (6:136). Similarly, out of the two kinds of offspring, sons and daughters, they assigned to Him the worst and least valuable (in their eyes), i.e., daughters, as Allah says:

(Is it for you the males and for Him the females That indeed is a division most unfair!) (53:21-22) And Allah says here:

(Yet, they assign to some of His servants a share with Him. Verily, man is indeed a manifest ingrate!) Then He says:

(Or has He taken daughters out of what He has created, and He has selected for you sons) This is a denunciation of them in the strongest terms, as He goes on to say:

(And if one of them is informed of the news of that which he sets forth as a parable to the Most Gracious, his face becomes dark, and he is filled with grief!) means, if one of these people is given the news that there has been born to him one of those which he attributes to Allah, i.e., a daughter, he hates this news and it depresses and overwhelms him so much that he keeps away from people because he feels so ashamed. Allah says, so how can they dislike that so much and yet they attribute it to Allah

(A creature who is brought up in adornments, and who in dispute cannot make itself clear) means, women are regarded as lacking something, which they make up for with jewelry and adornments from the time of childhood onwards, and when there is a dispute, they cannot speak up and defend themselves clearly, so how can this be attributed to Allah

(And they make females the angels who themselves are servants of the Most Gracious.) means, that is what they believe about them, but Allah denounces them for that and says:

(Did they witness their creation) meaning, did they see Allah creating them as females

(Their testimony will be recorded,) means, concerning that,

(and they will be questioned!) means, about that, on the Day of Resurrection. This is a stern warning and a serious threat.

(And they said: “If it had been the will of the Most Gracious, we should not have worshipped them.”) means, (they said:) `if Allah had willed, He would have prevented us from worshipping these idols which are images of the angels who are the daughters of Allah; He knows about this and He approves of it.’ By saying this, they combined several types of error: First: They attributed offspring to Allah — exalted and sanctified be He far above that. Second: They claimed that He chose daughters rather than sons, and they made the angels, who are the servants of the Most Gracious, female. Third: They worshipped them with no proof, evidence or permission from Allah. This was based on mere opinion, whims and desires, imitation of their elders and forefathers, and pure ignorance. They used Allah’s decree as an excuse, and this reasoning betrayed their ignorance. Fourth: Allah denounced them for this in the strongest terms, for from the time He first sent Messengers and revealed Books, the command was to worship Him Alone with no partner or associate, and it was forbidden to worship anything other than Him. Allah says:

(And verily, We have sent among every Ummah a Messenger (proclaiming): “Worship Allah, and avoid all false deities.” Then of them were some whom Allah guided and of them were some upon whom the straying was justified. So travel through the land and see what was the end of those who denied.) (16:36)

(And ask those of Our Messengers whom We sent before you: “Did We ever appoint gods to be worshipped besides the Most Gracious”) (43:45) And Allah says in this Ayah, after mentioning this argument of theirs:

(They have no knowledge whatsoever of that.) meaning, of the truth of what they say and the arguments they put forward.

(They do nothing but lie!) means, they tell lies and fabricate untruths.

(They have no knowledge whatsoever of that. They do nothing but lie!) Mujahid said, “They do not appreciate the power of Allah.”

(21. Or have We given them any Book before this (the Qur’an) to which they are holding fast) (22. Nay! They say: “We found our fathers following a certain way and religion, and we guide ourselves by their footsteps.”) e(23. And similarly, We sent not a warner before you to any town (people) but the luxurious ones among them said: “We found our fathers following a certain way and religion, and we will indeed follow their footsteps.”) (24. He said: “Even if I bring you better guidance than that which you found your fathers following” They said: “Verily, we disbelieve in that with which you have been sent.”) (25. So We took revenge on them, then see what was the end of those who denied.)

The Idolators have no Proof

Allah condemns the idolators for worshipping others instead of Allah with no evidence or proof for doing so.

(Or have We given them any Book before this) means, before their idolatry.

(to which they are holding fast) means, with regard to what they are doing. This is not the case. This is like the Ayah:

(Or have We revealed to them an authority (a Scripture), which speaks of that which they have been associating with Him) (30:35) meaning, that did not happen. Then Allah says:

(Nay! They say: “we found our fathers following a certain way and religion (Ummah), and we guide ourselves by their footsteps.”) meaning, they have no grounds for their belief in idolatry apart from the fact that they are imitating their fathers and forefathers who were following a certain Ummah or way, i.e., religion. The word Ummah is used in a similar manner elsewhere, where Allah says:

(And verily, this your religion (Ummah) is one religion) (23:52), and they said;

(and we by their footsteps) means, behind them

(We guide ourselves) This is their claim with no evidence. Then Allah points out that what these people say was already said by those who were like them among the nations of the past who disbelieved in the Messengers. Their hearts and their words are similar.

(Likewise, no Messenger came to those before them but they said: “A sorcerer or a madman!” Have they transmitted this saying to these Nay, they are themselves a people transgressing beyond bounds!) (51:52-53) And Allah says here:

(And similarly, We sent not a warner before you to any town (people) but the luxurious ones among them said: “We found our fathers following a certain way and religion, and we will indeed follow their footsteps.”) Then He says:

(Say) — `O Muhammad, to these idolators –‘

(“Even if I bring you better guidance than that which you found your fathers following” They said: “Verily, we disbelieve in that with which you have been sent.”) `Even if they were convinced of the truth of what you have brought to them, they will not follow it, because of their evil intentions and their arrogance towards the truth and its people.’

(So We took revenge on them) means, on the disbelieving nations, by inflicting various kinds of punishments, as Allah has described in the stories of those nations.

(then see what was the end of those who denied) means, see what became of them, how they were destroyed and how Allah saved the believers.

(26. And (remember) when Ibrahim said to his father and his people: “Verily, I am innocent of what you worship,”) (27. “Except Him Who created me; and verily, He will guide me.”) (28. And he made it a word lasting among his offspring, that they may turn back.) (29. Nay, but I gave to these and their fathers to enjoy, till there came to them the truth, and a Messenger making things clear.) (30. And when the truth came to them, they said: “This is magic, and we disbelieve therein.”) (31. And they say: “Why is not this Qur’an sent down to some great man of the two towns”) (32. Is it they who would portion out the mercy of your Lord It is We Who portion out between them their livelihood in this world, and We raised some of them above others in ranks, so that some may employ others in their work. But the mercy of your Lord is better than what they amass.) (33. And were it not that mankind would have become of one community, We would have provided for those who disbelieve in the Most Gracious, silver roofs for their houses, and elevators whereby they ascend,) (34. And for their houses, doors, and thrones on which they could recline,) (35. And adornments of gold. Yet all this would have been nothing but an enjoyment of this world. And the Hereafter with your Lord is for those who have Taqwa.)

Ibrahim’s Declaration of Tawhid Here

Allah tells us about His servant, Messenger and close Friend, the leader of the monotheists and the father of all subsequent Prophets, from whom Quraysh were descended and claimed to have taken their religion. He disowned his father’s and his people’s worship of idols and said:

(“Verily, I am innocent of what you worship, except Him Who created me; and verily, He will guide me.” And he made it a Word lasting among his offspring,) The Word means the worship of Allah Alone with no partner or associate, and the denunciation of all gods apart from Him, i.e., La ilaha illallah. He left this word as an example to be followed by those of his progeny who were guided by Allah.

(that they may turn back.) means, come back to this word. `Ikrimah, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, As-Suddi and others commented on the Ayah:

(And he made it a Word lasting among his offspring,) “This means, La ilaha illallah, and there are still those among his offspring who say it.” A similar view was narrated from Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him. Ibn Zayd said, “The word of Islam,” which refers to the same thing suggested by the group.

How the People of Makkah turned away from the Messenger and opposed Him, and His Response

Allah further says:

(Nay, but I gave to these) means, the idolators,

(and their fathers) means, they lived a long life in their misguidance.

(till there came to them the truth, and a Messenger making things clear.) means, his message is clear and his warning is clear.

(And when the truth came to them, they said: “This is magic, and we disbelieve therein.”) means, they were arrogant and stubborn, and they pushed him away out of disbelief, envy and transgression.

(And they say) means, objecting to that which Allah has revealed to him,

(Why is not this Qur’an sent down to some great man of the two towns) meaning, why was this Qur’an not revealed to some man who was great and prominent in their eyes, from the two towns, i.e., Makkah and At-Ta’if This was the view of Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, `Ikrimah, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd. Several scholars of Tafsir stated that by this, the Quraysh meant Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah and `Urwah bin Mas`ud Ath-Thaqafi. The apparent meaning is that what they meant was a great man from either of the two towns. Allah responded to their rejection by saying:

(Is it they who would portion out the mercy of your Lord) meaning, the matter has nothing to do with them; it is for Allah to decide. Allah knows best where to direct His Message, and He does not reveal it except to the one who is the purest in heart and soul, and of the noblest descent. Then Allah points out that He differentiates among His creation in terms of what He gives them of wealth, provision, intellect, understanding and other visible and hidden strengths:

(It is We Who portion out between them their livelihood in this world,)

(so that some may employ others in their work.) It was said that this means that some employ others in their work, because one needs the other, and vice versa. This was the view of As-Suddi and others.

(But the mercy of your Lord is better than which they amass.) means, the mercy of Allah towards His creation is better for them than the wealth and conveniences of this world which they possess.

Wealth is not a Sign of Divine Pleasure

(And were it not that mankind would have become of one community,) means, `were it not for the fact that many ignorant people would think that Our giving them wealth was a sign that We love the person to whom We give it, and thus they would have agreed upon disbelief for the sake of wealth.’ This is the view of Ibn `Abbas, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi and others.

(We would have provided for those who disbelieve in the Most Gracious, silver roofs for their houses, and elevators) means, ladders and staircases of silver. This was the view of Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah, As-Suddi, Ibn Zayd and others.

(whereby they ascend,) means, go up. And their houses would have doors, i.e., locks on their doors,

(and thrones on which they could recline,) means, all of that would be made of silver.

(And adornments) means, and gold. This was the view of Ibn `Abbas, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd.

(Yet all this would have been nothing but an enjoyment of this world.) means, all that belongs to this transient world which is insignificant before Allah. He hastens their reward for good deeds in the form of luxuries in this world, so that when they reach the Hereafter, they will have no good merits with Allah for which they may be rewarded, as was reported in the Sahih Hadith. It was reported in another Hadith:

(If this world were worth a gnat’s wing before Allah, He would not give a disbeliever a drink of water.) Al-Baghawi narrated its chain of narration.

(And the Hereafter with your Lord is (only) for those who have Taqwa.) means, it is exclusively for them, and no one else will share it with them. When `Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, visited the Messenger of Allah in seclusion, when he was keeping away from his wives, and he saw him resting on a rough mat which had left marks on his side, his eyes filled with tears and he said, “O Messenger of Allah, look at this Chosroes and this Caesar with all that they have, and you are the best of Allah’s creation. ” The Messenger of Allah was reclining, but he sat up and said:

(Are you in doubt, O son of Al-Khattab) Then he said:

(Those are people for whom the enjoyments are hastened in this world.) According to another report:

(Does it not please you that this world is for them and the Hereafter is for us) In as the Two Sahihs and elsewhere, it is reported that the Messenger of Allah said:

(Do not drink from vessels of gold and silver, and do not eat from plates of the same, for these things are for them in this world and for us in the Hereafter.) Allah has granted these things to them in this world because it is insignificant, as was reported by At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah via Abu Hazim from Sahl bin Sa`d, who said, “The Messenger of Allah said:

n(If this world were worth a gnat’s wing before Allah, He would never give a disbeliever a drink of water.)” At-Tirmidhi said: “Hasan Sahih.”

(36. And whosoever Ya`shu (turns away blindly) from the remembrance of the Most Gracious, We appoint for him Shaytan to be a Qarin (a companion) to him.) (37. And verily, they hinder them from the path, but they think that they are guided aright!) (38. Till, when (such a one) comes to Us, he says, “Would that between me and you were the distance of the two easts (or the east and west) a worst companion (indeed)!”) (39. It will profit you not this Day as you did wrong, (and) that you will be sharers in the punishment.) (40. Can you make the deaf to hear, or can you guide the blind or him who is in manifest error) (41. And even if We take you away, We shall indeed take vengeance on them.) (42. Or (if) We show you that wherewith We threaten them, then verily, We have perfect command over them.) (43. So hold you fast to that which is revealed to you. Verily, you are on the straight path.) (44. And verily, this is indeed a Dhikr for you and your people, and you will be questioned.) (45. And ask whom We sent before you of Our Messengers: “Did We ever appoint gods to be worshipped besides the Most Gracious”)

The Shaytan is the Companion of the One Who turns away from Ar-Rahman

(And whosoever Ya`shu (turns away blindly)) means, whoever willfully ignores and turns away

(from the remembrance of the Most Gracious,) Al-`Asha (the root of Ya`sh) refers to weakness of vision; what is meant here is weakness of insight.

(We appoint for him Shaytan to be a Qarin (a companion) to him.) This is like the Ayat:

(And whoever contradicts and opposes the Messenger after the right path has been shown clearly to him) (4:115),

(So when they turned away, Allah turned their hearts away) (61:5), and

(And We have assigned for them intimate companions, who have made fair seeming to them, what was before them and what was behind them) (41:25). Allah says here:

(And verily, they hinder them from the path, but they think that they are guided aright! Until, when he comes to Us,) meaning, for this person who willfully neglects true guidance, We send to him a Shaytan to lead him astray and show him the path to Hell. When he comes before Allah on the Day of Resurrection, he will complain about the Shaytan who was appointed to accompany him.

(he says, “Would that between me and you were the distance of the two easts — a worst companion (indeed)!”) Some of them recited it; (????? ????? ?????????) (Till, when they both come to Us.) referring to the companion Shaytan and the one whom he accompanies. Then Allah says:

(It will profit you not this Day as you did wrong, (and) that you will be sharers in the punishment.) means, `your being together in the Fire will not help you in the slightest, and you will both partake of the painful punishment.’ Allah says:

Can you make the deaf to hear, or can you guide the blind or him who is in manifest error? means, `that is not up to you. All you have to do is convey the Message, but you do not have to guide them. Allah guides whomsoever He wills and sends astray whomsoever He wills, and He is Wise and Just in doing so.’

Allah’s Vengeance upon the Enemies of His Messenger will surely come to pass

Allah further says:

(And even if We take you away, We shall indeed take vengeance on them.) means, `We will inevitably wreak vengeance upon them and punish them, even if you pass away.’

(Or (if) We show you that wherewith We threaten them, then verily, We have perfect command over them.) means, `We are able to do both,’ but Allah will not take His Messenger (in death) until He gives him the joy of seeing his enemies brought low and gives him power and authority over them and their wealth. This was the view of As-Suddi and was the opinion favored by Ibn Jarir.

Encouragement to adhere to the Qur’an

Allah then says;

(So hold you fast to that which is revealed to you. Verily, you are on the straight path.) means, hold fast to the Qur’an which has been sent down to your heart, for it is truth and what it leads to is truth that shows the way to the straight path that leads to Gardens of Delight and eternal, everlasting goodness.

(And verily, this is a Dhikr for you and your people,) It was said that this means, `it is an honor for you and your people;’ this was the view of Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd. This means that it is an honor for them in that it was revealed in their language, so they are the people who have the best understanding of it among mankind and hence are obliged to be the most steadfast in adhering to its commandments. This is how the best of them were, the first immigrants and those who emulated them and followed them. It was also said that the meaning of the phrase;

(And verily, this is indeed a Dhikr for you and your people,) was that `it was sent to remind you and your people.’ The fact that they are singled out does not exclude others. This is like the Ayat:

(Indeed, We have sent down for you (O mankind) a Book in which there is Dhikrukum (your Reminder). Will you not then understand) (21:10)

(And warn your tribe of near kindred) (26:214)

(and you will be questioned.) means, `about this Qur’an, and how you acted upon it and what your response to it was.’

(And ask whom We sent before you of Our Messengers: “Did We ever appoint gods to be worshipped besides the Most Gracious”) means, `all the Messengers called their people to the same as that to which you are calling mankind, namely the worship of Allah Alone with no partner or associate, and they forbade the worship of idols and false gods.’ This is like the Ayah:

(And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (nation) a Messenger (proclaiming): “Worship Allah, and avoid all false deities.”) (16:36) Mujahid said that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud recited it: (????????? ????????? ??????????? ?????????? ???????? (????) ?????????) (And ask those whom We sent before you of Our Messengers.) This was narrated by Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and As-Suddi from Ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him. Yet this appears to be an explanation rather than an alternate version of recitation. And Allah knows best.

(46. And indeed We did send Musa with Our Ayat to Fir`awn and his chiefs. He said: “Verily, I am a Messenger of the Lord of all that exists.”) (47. But when he came to them with Our Ayat, behold, they laughed at them). (48. And not an Ayah We showed them but it was greater than its fellow preceding it, and We seized them with torment, in order that they might turn.) (49. And they said (to Musa): “O you sorcerer! Invoke your Lord for us according to what He has made a pact with you. Verily, We shall guide ourselves.”) (50. But when We removed the torment from them, behold, they broke their covenant.)

Musa was sent with the Message of Tawhid to Fir`awn and His Chiefs

Here Allah tells us about His servant and Messenger Musa, peace be upon him, and how He sent him to Fir`awn and his chiefs. That is, his governors, ministers, leaders and followers among the Egyptians and the Children of Israel. Allah sent him to call them to worship Allah alone, with no partner or associate, and to forbid them from worshipping anything other than Him. He sent him with mighty signs, such as his hand and his staff, other signs such as the flood, locusts, Qummal, frogs and blood, and the loss of their crops and lives. Yet despite all that they remained arrogant and stubbornly refused to follow him; they rejected his message and made fun of it, and laughed at the one who had brought it.

(And not an Ayah We showed them but it was greater than its fellow preceding it,) but despite that they would not give up their sin, misguidance, ignorance and confusion. Every time one of these signs came to them, they would go and implore Musa, saying,

(“O you sorcerer!…”) meaning, expert or knowledgeable one — this was the view of Ibn Jarir. The scholars of that time were the sorcerers or magicians, and magic was not regarded as something reprehensible by them at that time, so this was not a slight on their part. They were in a state of need, so it would not have been appropriate for them to insult him. This was a way of honoring him, as they thought. On each occasion, they promised Musa that if the torment was lifted from them, they would believe in him and let the Children of Israel go with him, but on each occasion they went back on their word. This is like the Ayat:

(So We sent on them: the flood, the locusts, the Qummal, the frogs, and the blood; manifest signs, yet they remained arrogant, and they were of those people who were criminals. And when the punishment struck them, they said: “O Musa! Invoke your Lord for us because of His promise to you. If you remove the punishment from us, we indeed shall believe in you, and we shall let the Children of Israel go with you.” But when We removed the punishment from them to a fixed term, which they had to reach, behold! they broke their word!) (7:133-135)

(51. And Fir`awn proclaimed among his people (saying): “O my people! Is not mine the dominion of Egypt, and these rivers flowing underneath me. See you not then”) (52. “Am I not better than this one (Musa) who is despicable and can scarcely express himself clearly”) (53. Why then are not golden bracelets bestowed on him, or angels sent along with him”) (54. Thus he fooled his people, and they obeyed him. Verily, they were ever a people who were rebellious.) (55. So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all.) (56. And We made them a precedent, and an example to later generations.)

Fir`awn’s Address to His People and how Allah punished Him

Allah tells us how Fir`awn stubbornly persisted in his rebellion and disbelief. He assembled his people and addressed them in a vainglorious fashion, boasting of his dominion over Egypt.

(Is not mine the dominion of Egypt, and these rivers flowing underneath me) Qatadah said, “They had gardens and rivers of flowing water.”

(See you not then) means, `do you not see my position of might and power’ — implying that Musa and his followers were poor and weak. This is like the Ayah:

(Then he gathered (his people) and cried aloud, saying: “I am your lord, most high.” So Allah seized him with punishment for his last and first transgression.) (79:23-25)

(Am I not better than this one who is despicable) As-Suddi said, “He was saying, `indeed I am better than this one, who is despicable’.” Some of the grammarians of Basrah said that Fir`awn — may the curse of Allah be upon him — was saying that he was better than Musa, peace be upon him. But this is an obvious lie, may continued curses be upon him until the Day of Resurrection. By describing Musa as despicable he meant — as Sufyan said — insignificant. Qatadah and As-Suddi said, “He meant, weak.” Ibn Jarir said, “He meant, he had no power, authority or wealth.”

(and can scarcely express himself clearly) means, he cannot speak clearly, he stammers and cannot speak well. Fir`awn’s description of Musa as “despicable” is a lie; rather it is he who was despicable and insignificant, lacking in physical, moral and religious terms, and it is Musa who was noble, truthful, righteous and upright.

(and can scarcely express himself clearly). This was also a lie. Although something happened to Musa’s tongue when he was a child, when it was burnt by a coal. He asked Allah to loosen the knot from his tongue (i.e., to correct his speech defect) so that they could understand what he said, and Allah had answered his prayer and said:

(You are granted your request, O Musa) (20:36). It may be the case that some problem remained which he had not asked to be relieved of, as Al-Hasan Al-Basri suggested, and that he had asked only to be relieved of that which stood in the way of his conveying the Message. A person cannot be blamed for physical matters over which he has no control. Even though Fir`awn had the intelligence to understand that, he wanted to confuse and mislead his people, who were ignorant and stupid. So he said:

(Why then are not golden bracelets bestowed on him…) meaning, adornments which are placed on the arms. This was the view of Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Qatadah and others.

(or angels sent along with him) meaning, to serve him and to testify that he is telling the truth. He looked only at outward appearances and did not understand the true inner matters that are clearer than what he focused on, if only he had understood that. Allah says:

(Thus he fooled his people, and they obeyed him.) meaning, he confused them and invited them to misguidance, and they responded to him.

(Verily, they were ever a people who were rebellious.) Then Allah says:

(So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said it means: “When they angered Us means, they provoked Our wrath.” Ad-Dahhak said, it means “They made Us angry.” This was also the view of Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi, Qatadah, As-Suddi and other scholars of Tafsir. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Uqbah bin `Amir, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah said:

(When you see that Allah gives a person what he wants even though he is persisting in sin, that means that Allah is enticing him into destruction.) Then he recited:

(So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all.) It was reported that Tariq bin Shihab said, “I was with `Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, and the issue of sudden death was mentioned. He said, `It is a relief for the believer and a source of regret for the disbeliever.’ Then he recited the Ayah:

(So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all). ” `Umar bin `Abdul-`Aziz, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “I found that punishment comes with negligence, meaning the Ayah:

(So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all).”

(And We made them a precedent, and an example to later generations.) Abu Mijlaz said, “Precedent for others who do the same as they did.” He and Mujahid said, “An example, i.e., a lesson to those who come after them.” Allah is the One Who guides to the straight path, and unto Him is the final return.

(57. And when the son of Maryam is quoted as an example, behold, your people cry aloud thereat.) (58. And say: “Are our gods better or is he” They quoted not the above example except for argument. Nay! But they are a quarrelsome people.) (59. He was not more than a servant. We granted Our favor to him, and We made him an example for the Children of Israel.) (60. And if it were Our will, We would have made angels to replace you on the earth.) (61. And he shall be a known sign for (the coming of) the Hour. Therefore have no doubt concerning it. And follow Me! This is the straight path.) (62. And let not Shaytan hinder you. Verily, he (Shaytan) to you is a plain enemy.) (63. And when `Isa came with clear proofs, he said: “I have come to you with Al-Hikmah, and in order to make clear to you some of that in which you differ. Therefore have Taqwa of Allah and obey me.”) (64. “Verily, Allah! He is my Lord and your Lord. So worship Him. This is the straight path.”) (65. But the sects from among themselves differed. So woe to those who do wrong from the torment of a painful Day!)

The Contempt of the Quraysh for the son of Maryam, and His true Status with Allah

Allah tells us how the Quraysh persisted in their disbelief and stubborn arguments:

(And when the son of Maryam is quoted as an example, behold, your people cry aloud thereat.) Several others narrated that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, As-Suddi and Ad-Dahhak said, “They laughed, i.e., they were astounded by that.” Qatadah said, “They were repelled by that and they laughed.” Ibrahim An-Nakha`i said, “They turned away.” The reason for this was mentioned by Muhammad bin Ishaq in As-Sirah. He said, “According to what I have heard, the Messenger of Allah sat down one day with Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah in the Masjid, and An-Nadr bin Al-Harith came and sat down with them. There were also other men from the Quraysh in the gathering. The Messenger of Allah spoke, then An-Nadr bin Al-Harith came up to him and the Messenger of Allah spoke to him until he defeated him in argument. Then he recited to him and to them,

(Certainly you and that which you are worshipping now besides Allah, are (but) fuel for Hell! (Surely) you will enter it.) (21:98) Then the Messenger of Allah got up and went to sit with `Abdullah bin Al-Zab`ari At-Tamimi. Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah said to him, `By Allah, An-Nadr bin Al-Harith could not match the son of `Abd Al-Muttalib in argument. Muhammad claims that we and these gods that we worship are fuel for Hell.’ `Abdullah bin Az-Zab`ari said, `By Allah, if I meet with him I will defeat him in argument. Ask Muhammad whether everyone that is worshipped instead of Allah will be in Hell with those who worshipped him, for we worship the angels, and the Jews worship `Uzayr, and the Christians worship the Messiah `Isa bin Maryam.’ Al-Walid and those who were sitting with him were amazed at what `Abdullah bin Az-Zab`ari said, and they thought that he had come up with a good point. He said this to the Messenger of Allah , who said:

(Everyone who likes to worship something other than Allah will be with the one whom he worshipped, for indeed they are worshipping the Shaytan and whomever told them to worship that person.)” Then Allah revealed the words:

(Verily, those for whom the good has preceded from Us, they will be removed far therefrom (Hell)) (21:101), meaning that `Isa, `Uzayr and rabbis and monks who were also worshipped, who spent their lives in devotion towards Allah. The misguided people who came after them took them as lords instead of Allah. Concerning the notion of worshipping the angels as daughters of Allah, the following words were revealed:

(And they say: “The Most Gracious has begotten a son (or children).” Glory to Him! They are but honored servants.) (21:26) Concerning `Isa bin Maryam, the fact that he is worshipped instead of Allah, and to the amazement of Al-Walid and the others who were present at the argument, the following was revealed:

(And when the son of Maryam is quoted as an example, behold, your people cry aloud thereat.) meaning, they take this argument as a basis for rejecting your message. Then Allah mentions `Isa bin Maryam and says:

(He was not more than a servant. We granted Our favor to him, and We made him an example for the Children of Israel. And if it were Our will, We would have made angels to replace you on the earth. And he (`Isa) shall be a known sign for the Hour. ) meaning, the miracles and signs that happened at his hands, such as raising the dead and healing the sick, are sufficient as signs of the approach of the Hour.

(Therefore have no doubt concerning it. And follow Me! This is the straight path).” Ibn Jarir mentioned that Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, commented on the Ayah:

(And when the son of Maryam is quoted as an example, behold, your people cry aloud thereat.) “This means the Quraysh, when it was said to them:

(Certainly you and that which you are worshipping now besides Allah, are (but) fuel for Hell! (Surely) you will enter it.) (21:98) The Quraysh said to him: `What about `Isa bin Maryam’ He said:

(He is the servant and Messenger of Allah.) They said, `By Allah, he means that we should take him as a lord just as the Christians took `Isa son of Maryam as a lord.’ Then Allah said:

(They quoted not the above example except for argument. Nay! But they are a quarrelsome people).”

(And say: “Are our gods better or is he”). Qatadah said, “They were saying, `our gods are better than him’.” Qatadah said; “Ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him, recited it (???????????? ?????? ???? ????) (Are our gods better or is this (person))” they mean Muhammad .

(They quoted not the above example except for argument.) means, for the sake of stubborn argument, for they knew that he (`Isa ) was not included in the Ayah (21:98), because that would not make sense. The words,

(Certainly you and that which you are worshipping now besides Allah, are (but) fuel for Hell!) (21:98) are addressed to the Quraysh, for they used to worship idols and false gods — they did not worship the Messiah so why should he be included in what the Ayah says What they said was only for the sake of argument; they did not really believe in it. Imam Ahmad, may Allah have mercy on him, recorded that Abu Umamah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah said:

g(No people go astray after having been guided, but they resort to (futile) argument.) Then the Messenger of Allah recited this Ayah:

(They quoted not the above example except for argument. Nay! But they are a quarrelsome people).” It was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Ibn Jarir. At-Tirmidhi said, “This Hadith is Hasan Sahih, we do not know it except from the Hadith of Hajjaj bin Dinar…”

(He (`Isa) was not more than a servant. We granted Our favor to him,) means, `Isa, peace be upon him; he was no more than one of the servants of Allah whom Allah blessed with prophethood and messengership.

(and We made him an example for the Children of Israel.) means, `a sign, proof and evidence of Our power to do whatever We will.’

(And if it were Our will, We would have made angels to replace you on the earth.) As-Suddi said, “They would have taken your place on (the earth). ” Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, and Qatadah said, “They would have succeeded one another just as you succeed one another.” This view is implied by the former veiw. Mujahid said, “They would have populated the earth instead of you.” Allah’s saying:

(And he (`Isa) shall be a known sign for (the coming of) the Hour.) The correct view concerning this phrase is that it refers to his descent before the Day of Resurrection, as Allah says:

(And there is none of the People of the Scripture but must believe in him before his death) (4:159). — meaning before the death of `Isa, peace be upon him —

And on the Day of Resurrection, he will be a witness against them )4:159(. This meaning has the support from an alternate recitation of the Aya0t? (????????? ???????? ???????????) (And he shall be a known sign for (the coming of) the Hour.) means, evidence that the Hour will surely come. Mujahid said:

(And he shall be a sign for (the coming of) the Hour.) means, sign and “One of the signs of the Hour will be the appearance of `Isa son of Maryam before the Day of Resurrection. ” Something similar was also narrated from Abu Hurayrah, Ibn `Abbas, `Abu Al-`Aliyah, Abu Malik, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and others. Many Mutawatir Hadiths report that the Messenger of Allah said that `Isa will descend before the Day of Resurrection as a just ruler and fair judge.

(Therefore have no doubt concerning it.) means, do not doubt that it will surely come to pass.

(And follow Me.) means, `in what I tell you about it.’

(This is the straight path. And let not Shaytan hinder you.) means, from following the truth.

(Verily, he (Satan) to you is a plain enemy. And when `Isa came with (Our) clear proofs, he said: “I have come to you with Al-Hikmah…”), meaning prophethood:

(and in order to make clear to you some of the (points) in which you differ.) Ibn Jarir said, “This means religious matters, not worldly matters.” What he said is good.

(Therefore have Taqwa of Allah) means, `with regard to what I command you to do.’

(and obey me.) means, `in what I bring to you.’

(Verily, Allah! He is my Lord and your Lord. So worship Him. This is the straight path.) means, `you and I are enslaved to Him, in need of Him and we commonly share in the worship of Him Alone, associating none with Him.’

(This is the straight path) means, `what I have brought to you is the straight path, which is the worship of the Lord, may He exalted, Alone.’

(But the sects from among themselves differed. ) means, they differed and became parties and factions, some who stated that he (`Isa) was the servant and Messenger of Allah — which is true – while others claimed that he was the son of Allah or that he himself was Allah — glorified be Allah far above what they say. Allah says:

(So woe to those who do wrong from the torment of a painful Day)!

(66. Do they only wait for the Hour that it shall come upon them suddenly while they perceive not) (67. Friends on that Day will be foes one to another except those who have Taqwa.) (68. My servants! No fear shall be on you this Day, nor shall you grieve,) (69. (You) who believed in Our Ayat and were Muslims.) (70. Enter Paradise, you and your wives, in happiness.) (71. Trays of gold and cups will be passed round them; (there will be) therein all that their souls desire, and all that eyes could delight in and you will abide therein forever.) (72. This is the Paradise, which you have been made to inherit because of your deeds that you used to do.) (73. Therein for you will be fruits in plenty, of which you will eat (as you desire).)

The Resurrection will come suddenly, and Enmity will arise between close Friends among the Disbelievers

Allah says, `do these idolaters who disbelieve in the Messengers wait’

(only for the Hour that it shall come upon them suddenly while they perceive not) means, for it is real and will inevitably come to pass, and these negligent people are unprepared for it. When it comes, it will catch them unawares, and on that Day they will feel the utmost regret when regret will not benefit them in the slightest and will not afford them any protection.

(Friends on that Day will be foes one to another except those who have Taqwa.) means, every friendship that exists for a purpose other than for the sake of Allah will turn to enmity on the Day of Resurrection, except for that which is for the sake of Allah, which will last forever. This is like the statement of Ibrahim, peace be upon him, to his people:

(You have taken (for worship) idols instead of Allah. The love between you is only in the life of this world, but on the Day of Resurrection, you shall disown each other, and curse each other, and your abode will be the Fire, and you shall have no helper.) (29:25)

Good News for Those with Taqwa on the Day of Resurrection, and Their entry into Paradise

(My servants! No fear shall be on you this Day, nor shall you grieve.) Then He will give them the glad tidings:

((You) who believed in Our Ayat and were Muslims.) means, their hearts believed and they submitted inwardly and outwardly to the Laws of Allah. Al-Mu`tamir bin Sulayman narrated that his father said: “When the Day of Resurrection comes and the people are resurrected, there will be no one left who will not be filled with terror. Then a caller will cry out:

(My servants! No fear shall be on you this Day, nor shall you grieve.) So all the people will be filled with hope, but this will be followed by the words:

((You) who believed in Our Ayat and were Muslims.) Then all of mankind will be filled with despair apart from the believers.”

(Enter Paradise, ) means, they will be told to enter Paradise.

(you and your wives,) means, your counterparts

(in happiness (Tuhbarun).) means, in delight and joy.

(Trays of gold and cups will be passed round them;) means, fine vessels of gold containing food and drink, without spouts or handles. (???????? ??? ????????? ???????????) ﴿(there will be) therein all that their souls could desire).﴾ Some of them recited:

(that their souls desire,)

(and all that eyes could delight in) means, of good food, delightful fragrances and beautiful scenes.

(and you will therein) means, in Paradise

(abide forever) means, you will never leave it or want to exchange it. Then it will be said to them, as a reminder of the blessing and favor of Allah:

(This is the Paradise, which you have been made to inherit because of your deeds that you used to do.) means, the righteous deeds which were the cause of your being included in the mercy of Allah. For no one will be admitted to Paradise by virtue of their deeds alone; that will be by the mercy and grace of Allah. But the varying ranks and degrees of Paradise will be attained according to one’s righteous deeds.

(Therein for you will be fruits in plenty,) means, of all kinds.

(of which you will eat.) means, whatever you choose and desire. When food and drink are mentioned, fruit is also mentioned to complete the picture of blessing and joy. And Allah knows best.

(74. Verily, the criminals will be in the torment of Hell to abide therein forever.) (75. (The torment) will not be lightened for them, and they will be plunged into destruction with deep regrets, sorrows and in despair therein.) (76. We wronged them not, but they were the wrongdoers.) (77. And they will cry: “O Malik (keeper of Hell)! Let your Lord make an end of us.” He will say: “Verily, you shall abide forever.”) (78. Indeed We have brought the truth to you, but most of you have a hatred for the truth.) (79. Or have they plotted some plan Then We too are planning.) (80. Or do they think that We hear not their secrets and their private counsel Yes (We do) and Our messengers are by them, to record.)

The Punishment of the Doomed

The description of the state of the blessed is followed by a description of the state of the doomed.

(Verily, the criminals will be in the torment of Hell to abide therein forever. It will not be lightened for them,) meaning, not even for one moment.

(and they will be plunged into destruction with deep regrets, sorrows and in despair therein,) means, they will despair of any goodness.

(We wronged them not, but they were the wrongdoers.) means, by their committing wrong actions after proof had been established against them and Messengers had been sent to them, but they rejected them and rebelled, so they are to be punished accordingly. And your Lord is not at all unjust to (His) servants.

(And they will cry: “O Malik…”) who is the keeper of Hell. Al-Bukhari said, “Hajjaj bin Minhal told us, Sufyan bin `Uyaynah told us, from `Amr bin `Ata, ‘ from Safwan bin Ya`la that his father, may Allah be pleased with him, said, `I heard the Messenger of Allah reciting on the Minbar:

(And they will cry: “O Malik! Let your Lord make an end of us.”) meaning, `let Him destroy our souls and give us some respite from our predicament.’ But it will be as Allah says:

(Neither will it have a complete killing effect on them so that they die nor shall its torment be lightened for them) (35:36).

(But it will be avoided by the wretched, who will enter the great Fire. There he will neither die (to be in rest) nor live (a good living).) (87:11-13). When they ask to be allowed to die, Malik will answer them:

He will say: Verily, you shall abide forever. meaning, you will have no way out from it and no refuge. Then the reason why they are doomed will be given, which is their stubborn resistance to the truth. Alla0h says:

(Indeed We have brought the truth to you, ) meaning, `We have explained it to you clearly and in detail.’

(but most of you have a hatred for the truth.) means, `but your nature could not accept it and did not seek it; on the contrary, you followed and venerated falsehood, and you stood in the way of truth and refused it, and despised its followers.’ So they will blame themselves and will feel regret at the time when regret will not be of any benefit to them. Then Allah says:

(Or have they plotted some plan Then We too are planning.) Mujahid said, “They wanted to plot some evil, but We are also planning.” What Mujahid said is like the Ayah:

(So they plotted a plot, and We planned a plan, while they perceived not.) (27:50). The idolators were trying their utmost to find ways of refuting the truth with falsehood, but Allah planned it so that the consequences of that would backfire on them. He said in refutation:

(Or do they think that We hear not their secrets and their private counsel) meaning, what they say secretly and openly.

(Yes (We do) and Our messengers are by them, to record.) means, `We know what they are doing, and the angels are also recording their deeds, major and minor.’

(81. Say: “If the Most Gracious had a son, then I am the first of the worshippers.”) (82. Glorified is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, the Lord of the Throne! Exalted be He from all that they ascribe (to Him).) (83. So leave them (alone) to speak nonsense and play until they meet the Day of theirs which they have been promised.) (84. It is He Who is the only God in the heaven and the only God on the earth. And He is the All-Wise, the All-Knower.) (85. And Blessed be He to Whom belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, and with Whom is the knowledge of the Hour, and to Whom you (all) will be returned.) (86. And those whom they invoke instead of Him have no power of intercession — except for those who bear witness to the truth knowingly, and they know.) (87. And if you ask them who created them, they will surely say: “Allah.” How then are they turned away) (88. And his saying: “O my Lord! Verily, these are a people who believe not!”) (89. So turn away from them, and say: Salam (peace!) But they will come to know.)

Allah has no Offspring Allah says:

(Say) — `O Muhammad’ —

(If the Most Gracious had a son, then I am the first of the worshippers.) meaning, `if this were so, then I would worship Him on that basis, because I am one of His servants; I obey all that He commands me and I am not too arrogant or proud to worship Him.’ This conditional phrase does not mean that what is described could happen nor that is possible as Allah says:

(Had Allah willed to take a son, He could have chosen whom He willed out of those whom He created. But glory be to Him! He is Allah, the One, the Irresistible.) (39:4). Allah says here:

(Glorified is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, the Lord of the Throne! Exalted be He from all that they ascribe (to Him).) meaning, exalted and sanctified and glorified be the Creator of all things far above having any offspring, for He is Unique, One and Eternally Self-Sufficient. There is none equal to Him or like Him, and He does not have any offspring.

(So leave them (alone) to speak nonsense) means, in their ignorance and misguidance,

(and play) in their world,

(until they meet the Day of theirs which they have been promised.) which is the Day of Resurrection, i.e., then they will come to know what their end and destination will be on that Day.

The Uniqueness of the Lord

(It is He Who is the only God in the heaven and the only God on the earth.) means, He is the God of those who are in the heavens and the God of those who are on earth; all of them worship Him and are humbled before Him.

(And He is the All-Wise, the All-Knower.) This Ayah is like the Ayah:

(And He is Allah in the heavens and on the earth; He knows what you conceal and what you reveal, and He knows what you earn.) (6:3) which means, He is the One who is called Allah in the heavens and on the earth.

(And Blessed be He to Whom belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them,) means, He is their Creator and Sovereign, the One Who is controlling them with none to resist or oppose His rule. Blessed and exalted be He far above the notion of His having a child. He is eternally free of all faults and shortcomings, because He is the Lord, the Exalted, the Almighty, the Sovereign of all things, Who is in control of all affairs.

(and with Whom is the knowledge of the Hour, ) means, no one knows when it will happen except Him.

(and to Whom you (all) will be returned.) means, and each person will be requited for his deeds; if they are good, then he will be rewarded, and if they are bad, then he will be punished.

The Idols have no Power of Intercession

(And those whom they invoke instead of Him have no power) means, the idols and false gods.

(of intercession) means, they are not able to intercede for them.

(except for those who bear witness to the truth knowingly, and they know.) This means, but the one who bears witness to the truth has knowledge and insight, so his intercession with Allah will avail, by His leave.

The Idolators admit that Allah Alone is the Creator

(And if you ask them who created them, they will surely say: “Allah.” How then are they turned away) means, `if you ask these idolators who associate others in worship with Allah,’

(who created them, they will surely say: “Allah.”) means, they will admit that He Alone is the Creator of all things and He has no partner in that. Yet despite that they still worship others alongside Him who have nothing and are able to do nothing. This is the utmost foolishness and stupidity. Allah says:

(How then are they turned away)

The Prophet’s Complaint to Allah

(And his saying: “O my Lord! Verily, these are a people who believe not!”) means, Muhammad said this; he complained to his Lord about his people who did not believe in him, and said, `O Lord, these people do not believe.’ This is like the Ayah:

(And the Messenger will say: “O my Lord! Verily, my people deserted this Qur’an.”) (25:30). This is the view of Ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid and Qatadah, and this is how Ibn Jarir interpreted it. Al-Bukhari said: “`Abdullah — meaning Ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him — recited (Ayah 88 of Az-Zukhruf): (??????? ?????????? ??????) (And the Messenger will say: “O my Lord!”) Mujahid said concerning the Ayah:

(And his saying: “O my Lord! Verily, these are a people who believe not!”) “Allah is stating what Muhammad said.” Qatadah said, “These are the words of your Prophet , when he complained about his people to his Lord.”

(So turn away from them, ) means, from the idolators.

(and say Salam (peace!)) means, `do not respond to them in the same evil manner in which they address you; but try to soften their hearts and forgive them in word and deed.’

(But they will come to know.) This is a warning from Allah for them. His punishment, which cannot be warded off, struck them, and His religion and His word was supreme. Subsequently Jihad and striving were prescribed until the people entered the religion of Allah in crowds, and Islam spread throughout the east and the west. And Allah knows best.

This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Az-Zukhruf.