Surah Az Zukhruf (in Arabic text: سورة الزخرف) is the 43rd chapter of the Qur’an and is classified as a Meccan Surah. It is composed of 89 ayat (verses) and the Surah titled in English is “The Luxury”, “Ornaments of Gold”.
This Surah addresses that the revelation is given to people in Arabic so that people could understand. The revelation is a mercy from Allah. It also says, those who forget Allah come under the influence of the Satan. It re-tells story of the Pharaoh’s response to Prophet Moses and Allah’s punishment came against Pharaoh and his people.
“And gold ornament. But all that is not but the enjoyment of worldly life. And the Hereafter with your Lord is for the righteous.”
Surah Az Zukhruf Ayat 35
Read Surah Zukhruf with English Translation and Transliteration
Bismillah Hir Rahman Nir Raheem
In the name of Allah, The Most Gracious and The Most Merciful
1. Ha, Meem.
Wal Kitaabil Mubeen
2. By the clear Book,
إِنَّا جَعَلْنَـٰهُ قُرْءَٰنًا عَرَبِيًّۭا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ
Innaa ja’alnaahu Quraanan ‘Arabiyyal la’allakum ta’qiloon
3. Indeed, We have made it an Arabic Qur’an that you might understand.
وَإِنَّهُۥ فِىٓ أُمِّ ٱلْكِتَـٰبِ لَدَيْنَا لَعَلِىٌّ حَكِيمٌ
Wa innahoo feee Ummil Kitaabi Ladainaa la’aliyyun hakeem
4. And indeed it is, in the Mother of the Book with Us, exalted and full of wisdom.
أَفَنَضْرِبُ عَنكُمُ ٱلذِّكْرَ صَفْحًا أَن كُنتُمْ قَوْمًۭا مُّسْرِفِينَ
Afanadribu ‘ankumuz Zikra safhan an kuntum qawmam musrifeen
5. Then should We turn the message away, disregarding you, because you are a transgressing people?
وَكَمْ أَرْسَلْنَا مِن نَّبِىٍّۢ فِى ٱلْأَوَّلِينَ
Wa kam arsalnaa min Nabiyyin fil awwaleen
6. And how many a prophet We sent among the former peoples,
وَمَا يَأْتِيهِم مِّن نَّبِىٍّ إِلَّا كَانُوا۟ بِهِۦ يَسْتَهْزِءُونَ
Wa maa yaateehim min Nabiyyin illaa kaanoo bihee yasahzi’oon
7. But there would not come to them a prophet except that they used to ridicule him.
فَأَهْلَكْنَآ أَشَدَّ مِنْهُم بَطْشًۭا وَمَضَىٰ مَثَلُ ٱلْأَوَّلِينَ
Fa ahlaknaaa ashadda minhum batshanw wa madaa masalul lawwaleen
8. And We destroyed greater than them in [striking] power, and the example of the former peoples has preceded.
وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُم مَّنْ خَلَقَ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضَ لَيَقُولُنَّ خَلَقَهُنَّ ٱلْعَزِيزُ ٱلْعَلِيمُ
Wa la’in sa altahum man khalaqas samaawaati wal arda la yaqoolunna khalaqa hunnal ‘Azeezul ‘Aleem
9. And if you should ask them, “Who has created the heavens and the earth?” they would surely say, “They were created by the Exalted in Might, the Knowing.”
ٱلَّذِى جَعَلَ لَكُمُ ٱلْأَرْضَ مَهْدًۭا وَجَعَلَ لَكُمْ فِيهَا سُبُلًۭا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَهْتَدُونَ
Allazee ja’ala lakumul arda mahdanw wa ja’ala lakum feehaa subulal la’allakum tahtadoon
10. [The one] who has made for you the earth a bed and made for you upon it roads that you might be guided
وَٱلَّذِى نَزَّلَ مِنَ ٱلسَّمَآءِ مَآءًۢ بِقَدَرٍۢ فَأَنشَرْنَا بِهِۦ بَلْدَةًۭ مَّيْتًۭا ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ تُخْرَجُونَ
Wallazee nazzala minas samaaa’i maaa’am biqadarin fa anshamaa bihee baldatam maitaa’ kazaalika tukhrajoon
11. And who sends down rain from the sky in measured amounts, and We revive thereby a dead land – thus will you be brought forth –
وَٱلَّذِى خَلَقَ ٱلْأَزْوَٰجَ كُلَّهَا وَجَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنَ ٱلْفُلْكِ وَٱلْأَنْعَـٰمِ مَا تَرْكَبُونَ
Wallazee khalaqal azwaaja kullahaa wa ja’ala lakum minal fulki wal-an’aami maa tarkaboon
12. And who created the species, all of them, and has made for you of ships and animals those which you mount.
لِتَسْتَوُۥا۟ عَلَىٰ ظُهُورِهِۦ ثُمَّ تَذْكُرُوا۟ نِعْمَةَ رَبِّكُمْ إِذَا ٱسْتَوَيْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ وَتَقُولُوا۟ سُبْحَـٰنَ ٱلَّذِى سَخَّرَ لَنَا هَـٰذَا وَمَا كُنَّا لَهُۥ مُقْرِنِينَ
Litastawoo ‘alaa zuhoorihee summa tazkuroo ni’mata Rabbikum izastawaitum ‘alaihi wa taqooloo Subhaanal lazee sakhkhara lana haaza wa maa kunnaa lahoo muqrineen
13. That you may settle yourselves upon their backs and then remember the favor of your Lord when you have settled upon them and say. “Exalted is He who has subjected this to us, and we could not have [otherwise] subdued it.
وَإِنَّآ إِلَىٰ رَبِّنَا لَمُنقَلِبُونَ
Wa innaaa ilaa Rabbinaa lamunqaliboon
14. And indeed we, to our Lord, will [surely] return.”
وَجَعَلُوا۟ لَهُۥ مِنْ عِبَادِهِۦ جُزْءًا ۚ إِنَّ ٱلْإِنسَـٰنَ لَكَفُورٌۭ مُّبِينٌ
Wa ja’aloo lahoo min ‘ibaadihee juz’aa; innal insaana lakafoorum mubeen (section 1)
15. But they have attributed to Him from His servants a portion. Indeed, man is clearly ungrateful.
أَمِ ٱتَّخَذَ مِمَّا يَخْلُقُ بَنَاتٍۢ وَأَصْفَىٰكُم بِٱلْبَنِينَ
Amit takhaza mimmaa yakhluqu banaatinw wa asfaakum bilbaneen
16. Or has He taken, out of what He has created, daughters and chosen you for [having] sons?
وَإِذَا بُشِّرَ أَحَدُهُم بِمَا ضَرَبَ لِلرَّحْمَـٰنِ مَثَلًۭا ظَلَّ وَجْهُهُۥ مُسْوَدًّۭا وَهُوَ كَظِيمٌ
Wa izaa bushshira ahaduhum bimaa daraba lir Rahmaani masalan zalla wajhuhoo muswaddanw wa hua kazeem
17. And when one of them is given good tidings of that which he attributes to the Most Merciful in comparison, his face becomes dark, and he suppresses grief.
أَوَمَن يُنَشَّؤُا۟ فِى ٱلْحِلْيَةِ وَهُوَ فِى ٱلْخِصَامِ غَيْرُ مُبِينٍۢ
Awa mai yunashsha’u fil hilyati wa huwa fil khisaami ghairu mubeen
18. So is one brought up in ornaments while being during conflict unevident [attributed to Allah ]?
وَجَعَلُوا۟ ٱلْمَلَـٰٓئِكَةَ ٱلَّذِينَ هُمْ عِبَـٰدُ ٱلرَّحْمَـٰنِ إِنَـٰثًا ۚ أَشَهِدُوا۟ خَلْقَهُمْ ۚ سَتُكْتَبُ شَهَـٰدَتُهُمْ وَيُسْـَٔلُونَ
Wa ja’alul malaaa’ikatal lazeena hum ‘ibaadur Rahmaani inaasaa; a shahidoo khalaqhum; satuktabu shahaa datuhum wa yus’aloon
19. And they have made the angels, who are servants of the Most Merciful, females. Did they witness their creation? Their testimony will be recorded, and they will be questioned.
وَقَالُوا۟ لَوْ شَآءَ ٱلرَّحْمَـٰنُ مَا عَبَدْنَـٰهُم ۗ مَّا لَهُم بِذَٰلِكَ مِنْ عِلْمٍ ۖ إِنْ هُمْ إِلَّا يَخْرُصُونَ
Wa qaaloo law shaaa’ar Rahmaanu maa ‘abadnaahum; maa lahum bizaalika min ‘ilmin in hum illaa yakhrusoon
20. And they said, “If the Most Merciful had willed, we would not have worshipped them.” They have of that no knowledge. They are not but falsifying.
أَمْ ءَاتَيْنَـٰهُمْ كِتَـٰبًۭا مِّن قَبْلِهِۦ فَهُم بِهِۦ مُسْتَمْسِكُونَ
Am aatainaahum Kitaabam min qablihee fahum bihee mustamsikoon
21. Or have We given them a book before the Qur’an to which they are adhering?
بَلْ قَالُوٓا۟ إِنَّا وَجَدْنَآ ءَابَآءَنَا عَلَىٰٓ أُمَّةٍۢ وَإِنَّا عَلَىٰٓ ءَاثَـٰرِهِم مُّهْتَدُونَ
Bal qaalooo innaa wajadnaaa aabaaa’anaa ‘alaaa ummatinw wa innaa ‘alaaa aasaarihim muhtadoon
22. Rather, they say, “Indeed, we found our fathers upon a religion, and we are in their footsteps [rightly] guided.”
وَكَذَٰلِكَ مَآ أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ فِى قَرْيَةٍۢ مِّن نَّذِيرٍ إِلَّا قَالَ مُتْرَفُوهَآ إِنَّا وَجَدْنَآ ءَابَآءَنَا عَلَىٰٓ أُمَّةٍۢ وَإِنَّا عَلَىٰٓ ءَاثَـٰرِهِم مُّقْتَدُونَ
Wa kazaalika maaa arsalnaa min qablika fee qaryatim min nazeerin illaa qaala mutrafoohaaa innaa wajadnaaa aabaaa’anaa ‘alaaa ummatinw wa innaa ‘alaaa aasaarihim muqtadoon
23. And similarly, We did not send before you any warner into a city except that its affluent said, “Indeed, we found our fathers upon a religion, and we are, in their footsteps, following.”
۞ قَـٰلَ أَوَلَوْ جِئْتُكُم بِأَهْدَىٰ مِمَّا وَجَدتُّمْ عَلَيْهِ ءَابَآءَكُمْ ۖ قَالُوٓا۟ إِنَّا بِمَآ أُرْسِلْتُم بِهِۦ كَـٰفِرُونَ
Qaala awa law ji’tukum bi ahdaa mimmaa wajattum ‘alaihi aabaaa’akum qaalooo innaa bimaaa ursiltum bihee kaafiroon
24. [Each warner] said, “Even if I brought you better guidance than that [religion] upon which you found your fathers?” They said, “Indeed we, in that with which you were sent, are disbelievers.”
فَٱنتَقَمْنَا مِنْهُمْ ۖ فَٱنظُرْ كَيْفَ كَانَ عَـٰقِبَةُ ٱلْمُكَذِّبِينَ
Fantaqamnaa minhum fanzur kaifa kaana ‘aaqibatul mukazzibeen (section 2)
25. So we took retribution from them; then see how was the end of the deniers.
وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَٰهِيمُ لِأَبِيهِ وَقَوْمِهِۦٓ إِنَّنِى بَرَآءٌۭ مِّمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ
Wa iz qaala Ibraaheemu liabeehi wa qawmiheee innane baraaa’um mimmaa ta’budo
26. And [mention, O Muhammad], when Abraham said to his father and his people, “Indeed, I am disassociated from that which you worship
إِلَّا ٱلَّذِى فَطَرَنِى فَإِنَّهُۥ سَيَهْدِينِ
Illal lazee fataranee innahoo sa yahdeen
27. Except for He who created me; and indeed, He will guide me.”
وَجَعَلَهَا كَلِمَةًۢ بَاقِيَةًۭ فِى عَقِبِهِۦ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ
Wa ja’alahaa Kalimatam baaqiyatan fee ‘aqibihee la’al lahum yarji’oon
28. And he made it a word remaining among his descendants that they might return [to it].
بَلْ مَتَّعْتُ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ وَءَابَآءَهُمْ حَتَّىٰ جَآءَهُمُ ٱلْحَقُّ وَرَسُولٌۭ مُّبِينٌۭ
Bal matta’tu haaa’ulaaa’i wa aabaaa’ahum hattaa jaaa’a humul haqqu wa Rasoolum mubeen
29. However, I gave enjoyment to these [people of Makkah] and their fathers until there came to them the truth and a clear Messenger.
وَلَمَّا جَآءَهُمُ ٱلْحَقُّ قَالُوا۟ هَـٰذَا سِحْرٌۭ وَإِنَّا بِهِۦ كَـٰفِرُونَ
Wa lammaa jaaa’ahumul haqqu qaaloo haazaa sihrunw wa innaa bihee kaafiroon
30. But when the truth came to them, they said, “This is magic, and indeed we are, concerning it, disbelievers.”
وَقَالُوا۟ لَوْلَا نُزِّلَ هَـٰذَا ٱلْقُرْءَانُ عَلَىٰ رَجُلٍۢ مِّنَ ٱلْقَرْيَتَيْنِ عَظِيمٍ
Wa qaaloo law laa nuzzila haazal Quraanu ‘alaa rajulim minal qaryataini ‘azeem
31. And they said, “Why was this Qur’an not sent down upon a great man from [one of] the two cities?”
أَهُمْ يَقْسِمُونَ رَحْمَتَ رَبِّكَ ۚ نَحْنُ قَسَمْنَا بَيْنَهُم مَّعِيشَتَهُمْ فِى ٱلْحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنْيَا ۚ وَرَفَعْنَا بَعْضَهُمْ فَوْقَ بَعْضٍۢ دَرَجَـٰتٍۢ لِّيَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُهُم بَعْضًۭا سُخْرِيًّۭا ۗ وَرَحْمَتُ رَبِّكَ خَيْرٌۭ مِّمَّا يَجْمَعُونَ
Ahum yaqsimoona rahmata Rabbik; Nahnu qasamnaa bainahum ma’eeshatahum fil hayaatid dunyaa wa rafa’naa ba’dahum fawqa ba’din darajaatil liyattakhiza ba’duhum ba’dan sukhriyyaa; wa rahmatu Rabbika khairum mimmaa yajma’oon
32. Do they distribute the mercy of your Lord? It is We who have apportioned among them their livelihood in the life of this world and have raised some of them above others in degrees [of rank] that they may make use of one another for service. But the mercy of your Lord is better than whatever they accumulate.
وَلَوْلَآ أَن يَكُونَ ٱلنَّاسُ أُمَّةًۭ وَٰحِدَةًۭ لَّجَعَلْنَا لِمَن يَكْفُرُ بِٱلرَّحْمَـٰنِ لِبُيُوتِهِمْ سُقُفًۭا مِّن فِضَّةٍۢ وَمَعَارِجَ عَلَيْهَا يَظْهَرُونَ
Wa law laaa any yakoonan naasu ummatanw waahidatal laja’alnaa limany yakfuru bir Rahmaani libu yootihim suqufam min fiddatinw wa ma’aarija ‘alaihaa yazharoon
33. And if it were not that the people would become one community [of disbelievers], We would have made for those who disbelieve in the Most Merciful – for their houses – ceilings and stairways of silver upon which to mount
وَلِبُيُوتِهِمْ أَبْوَٰبًۭا وَسُرُرًا عَلَيْهَا يَتَّكِـُٔونَ
Wa libu yootihim abwaabanw wa sururan ‘alaihaa yattaki’oon
34. And for their houses – doors and couches [of silver] upon which to recline
وَزُخْرُفًۭا ۚ وَإِن كُلُّ ذَٰلِكَ لَمَّا مَتَـٰعُ ٱلْحَيَوٰةِ ٱلدُّنْيَا ۚ وَٱلْءَاخِرَةُ عِندَ رَبِّكَ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ
Wa zukhrufaa; wa in kullu zaalika lammaa mataa’ul hayaatid dunyaa; wal aakhiratu ‘inda Rabbika lilmuttaqeen (section 3)
35. And gold ornament. But all that is not but the enjoyment of worldly life. And the Hereafter with your Lord is for the righteous.
وَمَن يَعْشُ عَن ذِكْرِ ٱلرَّحْمَـٰنِ نُقَيِّضْ لَهُۥ شَيْطَـٰنًۭا فَهُوَ لَهُۥ قَرِينٌۭ
Wa mai ya’shu ‘an zikrir Rahmaani nuqaiyid lahoo Shaitaanan fahuwa lahoo qareen
36. And whoever is blinded from remembrance of the Most Merciful – We appoint for him a devil, and he is to him a companion.
وَإِنَّهُمْ لَيَصُدُّونَهُمْ عَنِ ٱلسَّبِيلِ وَيَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُم مُّهْتَدُونَ
Wa innahum la yasuddoo nahum ‘anis sabeeli wa yahsaboona annahum muhtadoon
37. And indeed, the devils avert them from the way [of guidance] while they think that they are [rightly] guided
حَتَّىٰٓ إِذَا جَآءَنَا قَالَ يَـٰلَيْتَ بَيْنِى وَبَيْنَكَ بُعْدَ ٱلْمَشْرِقَيْنِ فَبِئْسَ ٱلْقَرِينُ
Hattaaa izaa jaaa’anaa qaala yaa laita bainee wa bainaka bu’dal mashriqaini fabi’sal qareen
38. Until, when he comes to Us [at Judgement], he says [to his companion], “Oh, I wish there was between me and you the distance between the east and west – how wretched a companion.”
وَلَن يَنفَعَكُمُ ٱلْيَوْمَ إِذ ظَّلَمْتُمْ أَنَّكُمْ فِى ٱلْعَذَابِ مُشْتَرِكُونَ
Wa lai yanfa’akumul Yawma iz zalamtum annakum fil ‘azaabi mushtarikoon
39. And never will it benefit you that Day, when you have wronged, that you are [all] sharing in the punishment.
أَفَأَنتَ تُسْمِعُ ٱلصُّمَّ أَوْ تَهْدِى ٱلْعُمْىَ وَمَن كَانَ فِى ضَلَـٰلٍۢ مُّبِينٍۢ
Afa anta tusmi’us summa aw tahdil ‘umya wa man kaana fee dalaalim mubeen
40. Then will you make the deaf hear, [O Muhammad], or guide the blind or he who is in clear error?
فَإِمَّا نَذْهَبَنَّ بِكَ فَإِنَّا مِنْهُم مُّنتَقِمُونَ
Fa immaa nazhabanna bika fa innaa minhum muntaqimoon
41. And whether [or not] We take you away [in death], indeed, We will take retribution upon them.
أَوْ نُرِيَنَّكَ ٱلَّذِى وَعَدْنَـٰهُمْ فَإِنَّا عَلَيْهِم مُّقْتَدِرُونَ
Aw nuriyannakal lazee wa’adnaahum fa innaa ‘alaihim muqtadiroon
42. Or whether [or not] We show you that which We have promised them, indeed, We are Perfect in Ability.
فَٱسْتَمْسِكْ بِٱلَّذِىٓ أُوحِىَ إِلَيْكَ ۖ إِنَّكَ عَلَىٰ صِرَٰطٍۢ مُّسْتَقِيمٍۢ
Fastamsik billazeee oohi ya ilaika innaka ‘alaa Siraatim Mustaqeem
43. So adhere to that which is revealed to you. Indeed, you are on a straight path.
وَإِنَّهُۥ لَذِكْرٌۭ لَّكَ وَلِقَوْمِكَ ۖ وَسَوْفَ تُسْـَٔلُونَ
Wa innahoo lazikrul laka wa liqawmika wa sawfa tus’aloon
44. And indeed, it is a remembrance for you and your people, and you [all] are going to be questioned.
وَسْـَٔلْ مَنْ أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رُّسُلِنَآ أَجَعَلْنَا مِن دُونِ ٱلرَّحْمَـٰنِ ءَالِهَةًۭ يُعْبَدُونَ
Was’al man arsalnaa min qablika mir Rusulinaaa aja’alnaa min doonir Rahmaani aalihatany yu badoon (section 4)
45. And ask those We sent before you of Our messengers; have We made besides the Most Merciful deities to be worshipped?
وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا مُوسَىٰ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَآ إِلَىٰ فِرْعَوْنَ وَمَلَإِي۟هِۦ فَقَالَ إِنِّى رَسُولُ رَبِّ ٱلْعَـٰلَمِينَ
Wa laqad arsalnaa Moosaa bi aayaatinaaa ilaa Fir’awna wa mala’ihee faqaala innee Rasoolu Rabbil ‘aalameen
46. And certainly did We send Moses with Our signs to Pharaoh and his establishment, and he said, “Indeed, I am the messenger of the Lord of the worlds.”
فَلَمَّا جَآءَهُم بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَآ إِذَا هُم مِّنْهَا يَضْحَكُونَ
Falammma jaaa’ahum bi aayaatinaaa izaa hum minhaa yadhakoon
47. But when he brought them Our signs, at once they laughed at them.
وَمَا نُرِيهِم مِّنْ ءَايَةٍ إِلَّا هِىَ أَكْبَرُ مِنْ أُخْتِهَا ۖ وَأَخَذْنَـٰهُم بِٱلْعَذَابِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَرْجِعُونَ
Wa maa nureehim min aayatin illaa hiya akbaru min ukhtihaa wa akhaznaahum bil’azaabi la’allahum yarji’oon
48. And We showed them not a sign except that it was greater than its sister, and We seized them with affliction that perhaps they might return [to faith].
وَقَالُوا۟ يَـٰٓأَيُّهَ ٱلسَّاحِرُ ٱدْعُ لَنَا رَبَّكَ بِمَا عَهِدَ عِندَكَ إِنَّنَا لَمُهْتَدُون
Wa qaaloo yaaa ayyuhas saahirud’u lanaa Rabbaka bimaa ‘ahida ‘indaka innanaa lamuhtadoon
49. And they said [to Moses], “O magician, invoke for us your Lord by what He has promised you. Indeed, we will be guided.”
فَلَمَّا كَشَفْنَا عَنْهُمُ ٱلْعَذَابَ إِذَا هُمْ يَنكُثُونَ
Falammaa kashafnaa ‘anhumul ‘azaaba izaa hum yankusoon
50. But when We removed from them the affliction, at once they broke their word.
وَنَادَىٰ فِرْعَوْنُ فِى قَوْمِهِۦ قَالَ يَـٰقَوْمِ أَلَيْسَ لِى مُلْكُ مِصْرَ وَهَـٰذِهِ ٱلْأَنْهَـٰرُ تَجْرِى مِن تَحْتِىٓ ۖ أَفَلَا تُبْصِرُون
Wa naadaa Fir’awnu fee qawmihee qaala yaa qawmi alaisa lee mulku Misra wa haazihil anhaaru tajree min tahtee afalaa tubsiroon
51. And Pharaoh called out among his people; he said, “O my people, does not the kingdom of Egypt belong to me, and these rivers flowing beneath me; then do you not see?
أَمْ أَنَا۠ خَيْرٌۭ مِّنْ هَـٰذَا ٱلَّذِى هُوَ مَهِينٌۭ وَلَا يَكَادُ يُبِينُ
Am ana khairum min haazal lazee huwa maheenunw wa laa yuakaadu yubeen
52. Or am I [not] better than this one who is insignificant and hardly makes himself clear?
فَلَوْلَآ أُلْقِىَ عَلَيْهِ أَسْوِرَةٌۭ مِّن ذَهَبٍ أَوْ جَآءَ مَعَهُ ٱلْمَلَـٰٓئِكَةُ مُقْتَرِنِينَ
Falaw laa ulqiya ‘alaihi aswiratum min zahabin awjaaa’a ma’ahul malaaa’ikatu muqtarineen
53. Then why have there not been placed upon him bracelets of gold or come with him the angels in conjunction?”
فَٱسْتَخَفَّ قَوْمَهُۥ فَأَطَاعُوهُ ۚ إِنَّهُمْ كَانُوا۟ قَوْمًۭا فَـٰسِقِينَ
Fastakhaffa qawmahoo fa ataa’ooh; innahum kaanoo qawman faasiqeen
54. So he bluffed his people, and they obeyed him. Indeed, they were [themselves] a people defiantly disobedient [of Allah ].
فَلَمَّآ ءَاسَفُونَا ٱنتَقَمْنَا مِنْهُمْ فَأَغْرَقْنَـٰهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ
Falammaaa aasafoonan taqamnaa minhum fa aghraqnaahum ajma’een
55. And when they angered Us, We took retribution from them and drowned them all.
فَجَعَلْنَـٰهُمْ سَلَفًۭا وَمَثَلًۭا لِّلْءَاخِرِينَ
Faja’alnaahum salafanw wa masalal lil aakhireen (section 5)
56. And We made them a precedent and an example for the later peoples.
۞ وَلَمَّا ضُرِبَ ٱبْنُ مَرْيَمَ مَثَلًا إِذَا قَوْمُكَ مِنْهُ يَصِدُّونَ
Wa lammaa duribab nu Maryama masalan izaa qawmu ka minhu yasidoon
57. And when the son of Mary was presented as an example, immediately your people laughed aloud.
وَقَالُوٓا۟ ءَأَـٰلِهَتُنَا خَيْرٌ أَمْ هُوَ ۚ مَا ضَرَبُوهُ لَكَ إِلَّا جَدَلًۢا ۚ بَلْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ خَصِمُونَ
Wa qaalooo ‘a-aalihatunaa khairun am hoo; maa daraboohu laka illaa jadalaa; balhum qawmun khasimoon
58. And they said, “Are our gods better, or is he?” They did not present the comparison except for [mere] argument. But, [in fact], they are a people prone to dispute.
إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا عَبْدٌ أَنْعَمْنَا عَلَيْهِ وَجَعَلْنَـٰهُ مَثَلًۭا لِّبَنِىٓ إِسْرَٰٓءِيلَ
In huwa illaa ‘abdun an’amnaa ‘alaihi wa ja’alnaahu masalal li Baneee Israaa’eel
59. Jesus was not but a servant upon whom We bestowed favor, and We made him an example for the Children of Israel.
وَلَوْ نَشَآءُ لَجَعَلْنَا مِنكُم مَّلَـٰٓئِكَةًۭ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ يَخْلُفُونَ
Wa law nashaaa’u laja’alnaa minkum malaaa’ikatan fil ardi yakhlufoon
60. And if We willed, We could have made [instead] of you angels succeeding [one another] on the earth.
وَإِنَّهُۥ لَعِلْمٌۭ لِّلسَّاعَةِ فَلَا تَمْتَرُنَّ بِهَا وَٱتَّبِعُونِ ۚ هَـٰذَا صِرَٰطٌۭ مُّسْتَقِيمٌۭ
Wa innahoo la’ilmul lis Saa’ati fala tamtarunna bihaa wattabi’oon; haazaa Siraatum Mustaqeem
61. And indeed, Jesus will be [a sign for] knowledge of the Hour, so be not in doubt of it, and follow Me. This is a straight path.
وَلَا يَصُدَّنَّكُمُ ٱلشَّيْطَـٰنُ ۖ إِنَّهُۥ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّۭ مُّبِينٌۭ
Wa laa yasuddan nakumush Shaitaanu innahoo lakum ‘aduwwum mubeen
62. And never let Satan avert you. Indeed, he is to you a clear enemy.
وَلَمَّا جَآءَ عِيسَىٰ بِٱلْبَيِّنَـٰتِ قَالَ قَدْ جِئْتُكُم بِٱلْحِكْمَةِ وَلِأُبَيِّنَ لَكُم بَعْضَ ٱلَّذِى تَخْتَلِفُونَ فِيهِ ۖ فَٱتَّقُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُونِ
Wa lammaa jaaa’a ‘Eesaa bilbaiyinaati qaala qad ji’tukum bil Hikmati wa li-ubaiyina lakum ba’dal lazee takhtalifoona feehi fattaqul laaha wa atee’oon
63. And when Jesus brought clear proofs, he said, “I have come to you with wisdom and to make clear to you some of that over which you differ, so fear Allah and obey me.
إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ هُوَ رَبِّى وَرَبُّكُمْ فَٱعْبُدُوهُ ۚ هَـٰذَا صِرَٰطٌۭ مُّسْتَقِيمٌۭ
Innal laaha Huwa Rabbee wa Rabbukum fa’budooh; haaza Siraatum Mustaqeem
64. Indeed, Allah is my Lord and your Lord, so worship Him. This is a straight path.”
فَٱخْتَلَفَ ٱلْأَحْزَابُ مِنۢ بَيْنِهِمْ ۖ فَوَيْلٌۭ لِّلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا۟ مِنْ عَذَابِ يَوْمٍ أَلِيمٍ
Fakhtalafal ahzaabu mim bainihim fawailul lillazeena zalamoo min ‘azaabi Yawmin aleem
65. But the denominations from among them differed [and separated], so woe to those who have wronged from the punishment of a painful Day.
هَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا ٱلسَّاعَةَ أَن تَأْتِيَهُم بَغْتَةًۭ وَهُمْ لَا يَشْعُرُونَ
Hal yanzuroona illas Saa’ata an taatiyahum baghtatanw wa hum laa yash’uroon
66. Are they waiting except for the Hour to come upon them suddenly while they perceive not?
ٱلْأَخِلَّآءُ يَوْمَئِذٍۭ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ إِلَّا ٱلْمُتَّقِينَ
Al akhillaaa’u Yawma’izim ba’duhum liba’din ‘aduwwun illal muttaqeen (section 6)
67. Close friends, that Day, will be enemies to each other, except for the righteous
يَـٰعِبَادِ لَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْكُمُ ٱلْيَوْمَ وَلَآ أَنتُمْ تَحْزَنُونَ
Yaa ‘ibaadi laa khawfun ‘alaikumul Yawma wa laaa antum tahzanoon
68. [To whom Allah will say], “O My servants, no fear will there be concerning you this Day, nor will you grieve,
ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ بِـَٔايَـٰتِنَا وَكَانُوا۟ مُسْلِمِينَ
Allazeena aamanoo bi Aayaatinaa wa kaanoo muslimeen
69. [You] who believed in Our verses and were Muslims.
ٱدْخُلُوا۟ ٱلْجَنَّةَ أَنتُمْ وَأَزْوَٰجُكُمْ تُحْبَرُونَ
Udkhulul Jannata antum wa azwaajukum tuhbaroon
70. Enter Paradise, you and your kinds, delighted.”
يُطَافُ عَلَيْهِم بِصِحَافٍۢ مِّن ذَهَبٍۢ وَأَكْوَابٍۢ ۖ وَفِيهَا مَا تَشْتَهِيهِ ٱلْأَنفُسُ وَتَلَذُّ ٱلْأَعْيُنُ ۖ وَأَنتُمْ فِيهَا خَـٰلِدُونَ
Yutaafu ‘alaihim bishaa fim min zahabinw wa akwaab, wa feehaa maatashtaheehil anfusu wa talazzul a’yunu wa antum feehaa khaalidoon
71. Circulated among them will be plates and vessels of gold. And therein is whatever the souls desire and [what] delights the eyes, and you will abide therein eternally.
وَتِلْكَ ٱلْجَنَّةُ ٱلَّتِىٓ أُورِثْتُمُوهَا بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ
Wa tilkal jannatul lateee ooristumoohaa bimaa kuntum ta’maloon
72. And that is Paradise which you are made to inherit for what you used to do.
لَكُمْ فِيهَا فَـٰكِهَةٌۭ كَثِيرَةٌۭ مِّنْهَا تَأْكُلُونَ
Lakum feehaa faakihatun kaseeratum minhaa taakuloon
73. For you therein is much fruit from which you will eat.
إِنَّ ٱلْمُجْرِمِينَ فِى عَذَابِ جَهَنَّمَ خَـٰلِدُونَ
Innal mujrimeena fee ‘azaabi jahannama khaalidoon
74. Indeed, the criminals will be in the punishment of Hell, abiding eternally.
لَا يُفَتَّرُ عَنْهُمْ وَهُمْ فِيهِ مُبْلِسُونَ
Laa yufattaru ‘anhum wa hum feehi mublisoon
75. It will not be allowed to subside for them, and they, therein, are in despair.
وَمَا ظَلَمْنَـٰهُمْ وَلَـٰكِن كَانُوا۟ هُمُ ٱلظَّـٰلِمِينَ
Wa maa zalamnaahum wa laakin kaanoo humuz zaalimeen
76. And We did not wrong them, but it was they who were the wrongdoers.
وَنَادَوْا۟ يَـٰمَـٰلِكُ لِيَقْضِ عَلَيْنَا رَبُّكَ ۖ قَالَ إِنَّكُم مَّـٰكِثُونَ
Wa naadaw yaa Maaliku liyaqdi ‘alainaa Rabbuka qaala innakum maakissoon
77. And they will call, “O Malik, let your Lord put an end to us!” He will say, “Indeed, you will remain.”
لَقَدْ جِئْنَـٰكُم بِٱلْحَقِّ وَلَـٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَكُمْ لِلْحَقِّ كَـٰرِهُونَ
Laqad ji’naakum bilhaqqi wa laakinna aksarakum lilhaqqi kaarihoon
78. We had certainly brought you the truth, but most of you, to the truth, were averse.
أَمْ أَبْرَمُوٓا۟ أَمْرًۭا فَإِنَّا مُبْرِمُونَ
Am abramooo amran fainnaa mubrimoon
79. Or have they devised [some] affair? But indeed, We are devising [a plan].
أَمْ يَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّا لَا نَسْمَعُ سِرَّهُمْ وَنَجْوَىٰهُم ۚ بَلَىٰ وَرُسُلُنَا لَدَيْهِمْ يَكْتُبُونَ
Am yahsaboona annaa laa nasma’u sirrahum wa najwaahum; balaa wa Rusulunaa ladaihim yaktuboon
80. Or do they think that We hear not their secrets and their private conversations? Yes, [We do], and Our messengers are with them recording.
قُلْ إِن كَانَ لِلرَّحْمَـٰنِ وَلَدٌۭ فَأَنَا۠ أَوَّلُ ٱلْعَـٰبِدِينَ
Qul in kaana lir Rahmaani walad; fa-ana awwalul ‘aabideen
81. Say, [O Muhammad], “If the Most Merciful had a son, then I would be the first of [his] worshippers.”
سُبْحَـٰنَ رَبِّ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ رَبِّ ٱلْعَرْشِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ
Subhaana Rabbis samaawaati wal ardi Rabbil Arshi ‘ammaa yasifoon
82. Exalted is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, Lord of the Throne, above what they describe.
فَذَرْهُمْ يَخُوضُوا۟ وَيَلْعَبُوا۟ حَتَّىٰ يُلَـٰقُوا۟ يَوْمَهُمُ ٱلَّذِى يُوعَدُونَ
Fazarhum yakhoodoo wa yal’aboo hattaa yulaaqoo Yawmahumul lazee yoo’adoon
83. So leave them to converse vainly and amuse themselves until they meet their Day which they are promised.
وَهُوَ ٱلَّذِى فِى ٱلسَّمَآءِ إِلَـٰهٌۭ وَفِى ٱلْأَرْضِ إِلَـٰهٌۭ ۚ وَهُوَ ٱلْحَكِيمُ ٱلْعَلِيمُ
Wa Huwal lazee fissamaaa’i Ilaahunw wa fil ardi Ilaah; wa Huwal Hakeemul’Aleem
84. And it is Allah who is [the only] deity in the heaven, and on the earth [the only] deity. And He is the Wise, the Knowing.
وَتَبَارَكَ ٱلَّذِى لَهُۥ مُلْكُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٰتِ وَٱلْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا وَعِندَهُۥ عِلْمُ ٱلسَّاعَةِ وَإِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَ
Wa tabaarakal lazee lahoo mulkus samaawaati wal ardi wa maa bainahumaa wa ‘indahoo ‘ilmus Saa’ati wa ilaihi turja’oon
85. And blessed is He to whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and whatever is between them and with whom is knowledge of the Hour and to whom you will be returned.
وَلَا يَمْلِكُ ٱلَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ ٱلشَّفَـٰعَةَ إِلَّا مَن شَهِدَ بِٱلْحَقِّ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ
Wa laa yamlikul lazeena yad’oona min doonihish shafaa’ata illaa man shahida bilhaqqi wa hum ya’lamoon
86. And those they invoke besides Him do not possess [power of] intercession; but only those who testify to the truth [can benefit], and they know.
وَلَئِن سَأَلْتَهُم مَّنْ خَلَقَهُمْ لَيَقُولُنَّ ٱللَّهُ ۖ فَأَنَّىٰ يُؤْفَكُونَ
Wa la’in sa altahum man khalaqahum la yaqoolun nallaahu fa annaa yu’fakoon
87. And if you asked them who created them, they would surely say, ” Allah .” So how are they deluded?
وَقِيلِهِۦ يَـٰرَبِّ إِنَّ هَـٰٓؤُلَآءِ قَوْمٌۭ لَّا يُؤْمِنُونَ
Wa qeelihee yaa Rabbi inna haa’ulaaa’i qawmul laa yu’minoon
88. And [ Allah acknowledges] his saying, “O my Lord, indeed these are a people who do not believe.”
فَٱصْفَحْ عَنْهُمْ وَقُلْ سَلَـٰمٌۭ ۚ فَسَوْفَ يَعْلَمُونَ
Fasfah ‘anhum wa qul salaam; fasawfa ya’lamoon (section 7)
89. So turn aside from them and say, “Peace.” But they are going to know.
Tafsir of Surah Zukhruf
The revelation of the Qur’an was to call people to Islam and to be a book of guidance.
We should regularly read the Quran as I am sure you know, but let’s not neglect to study it’s message and it’s teaching. Below you can benefit from reading the commentary of Surah Az-Zukhruf by Ibn Kathir and from Tafheem ul Quran by Abul A’a Maududi.
Surah Zukhruf Tafsir by Ibn Kathir
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
(Ha-Mim. By the manifest Book.) means, plain and clear in both wording and meaning, because it was revealed in the language of the Arabs, which is the most eloquent language for communication among people. Allah says:
(Verily, We have made it) meaning, revealed it,
(a Qur’an in Arabic) meaning, in the language of the Arabs, eloquent and clear;
(that you may be able to understand.) means, that you may understand it and ponder its meanings. This is like the Ayah:
(In the plain Arabic language.) (26:195)
(And verily, it is in the Mother of the Book with Us, indeed exalted, full of wisdom.) This explains the high status of the Qur’an among the hosts on high (the angels), so that the people of earth will respect it, venerate it and obey it.
(And verily, it) means, the Qur’an,
(is in the Mother of the Book) meaning, Al-Lawh Al-Mahfuz (the Preserved Tablet). This was the view of Ibn `Abbas and Mujahid.
(with Us,) means, in Our presence. This was the view of Qatadah and others.
(indeed exalted) means, occupying a position of honor and virtue. This was the view of Qatadah.
(full of wisdom.) means, clear, with no confusion or deviation. All of this indicates its noble status and virtue, as Allah says elsewhere:
(That (this) is indeed an honorable recitation. In a Book well-guarded. Which none can touch but the pure. A revelation from the Lord of the all that exists.) (56:77-80)
(Nay, indeed it is an admonition. So whoever wills, let him pay attention to it. (It is) in Records held (greatly) in honor, exalted, purified, in the hands of scribes (angels), honorable and obedient.) (80:11-16)
(Shall We then take away the Reminder (this Qur’an) from you, because you are a people excessive.) means, `do you think that We will forgive you and not punish you, when you do not do as you have been commanded’ This was the view of Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Abu Salih, Mujahid and As-Suddi, and was the view favored by Ibn Jarir.
(Shall We then take away the Reminder (this Qur’an) from you,) Qatadah said, “By Allah, if this Qur’an had been taken away when the first generations of this Ummah rejected it, they would have been doomed, but Allah by His mercy persisted in sending it and calling them to it for twenty years, or for as long as He willed.” What Qatadah said is very good, and his point is that Allah, by His grace and mercy towards His creation, did not stop calling them to the truth and to the wise Reminder, i.e., the Qur’an, even though they were heedless and turned away from it. Indeed, He sent it so that those who were decreed to be guided might be guided by it, and so that proof might be established against those who were decreed to be.
(In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
Then Allah consoles His Prophet for the disbelief of his people, and commands him to bear it with patience.
(And how many a Prophet have We sent amongst the men of old.) meaning, among the sects (communities) of old.
(And never came there a Prophet to them but they used to mock at him.) means, they disbelieved him and mock at him.
(Then We destroyed men stronger than these) means, `We destroyed those who disbelieved in the Messengers, and they were stronger in power than these who disbelieve in you, O Muhammad.’ This is like the Ayah:
(Have they not traveled through the earth and seen what was the end of those before them They were more in number than them and mightier in strength) (40:82). And there are many similar Ayat.
(and the example of the ancients has passed away. ) Mujahid said, “The way of their life.” Qatadah said, “Their punishment.” Others said, “Their lesson,” i.e., `We made them a lesson for those disbelievers who came after them, that they would suffer the same end as them,’ as in the Ayah at the end of this Surah:
(And We made them a precedent, and an example to later generations.) (43:56);
(this has been the way of Allah in dealing with His servants) (40:85).
(and you will not find any change in the way of Allah.) (33:62)
Allah says: `If you, O Muhammad, were to ask these idolators who associate others with Allah and worship others besides Him,’
(“Who has created the heavens and the earth” They will surely say: “The All-Mighty, the All-Knower created them.”) In other words, they will admit that the Creator of all that is Allah Alone, with no partner or associate, yet they still worship others — idols and false gods — alongside Him.
(Who has made for you the earth like a bed,) means, smooth, stable and firm, so that you can travel about in it, and stand on it and sleep and walk about, even though it is created above water, but He has strengthened it with the mountains, lest it should shake.
(and has made for you roads therein,) means, paths between the mountains and the valleys.
(in order that you may find your way.) means, in your journeys from city to city, region to region, land to land.
(And Who sends down water from the sky in due measure, ) means, according to what is sufficient for your crops, fruits and drinking water for yourselves and your cattle.
(then We revive a dead land therewith,) means, a barren land, for when the water comes to it, it is stirred (to life), and it swells and puts forth every lovely kind (of growth). By referring to the revival of the earth, Allah draws attention to how He will bring bodies back to life on the Day of Resurrection, after they have been dead.
(and even so you will be brought forth.) Then Allah says:
(And Who has created all the pairs) meaning, of everything that grows in the earth, all kinds of plants, crops, fruits, flowers, etc., and all different kinds of animals.
(and has appointed for you ships) or vessels,
(and cattle on which you ride.) means, He has subjugated them to you and made it easy for you to eat their meat, drink their milk and ride on their backs. Allah says:
(In order that you may mount on their backs, ) meaning, sit comfortably and securely,
(on their backs) means, on the backs of these kinds of animals.
(and then may remember the favor of your Lord) means, whereby these animals are subjugated to you.
(when you mount thereon, and say: “Glory to Him Who has subjected this to us, and we could have never had it.”) means, if it were not for the fact that Allah has subjugated these things to us, we could never have done this by our own strength.’ Ibn `Abbas, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd said: “We could not have done this ourselves.”
(And verily, to Our Lord we indeed are to return.) means, `We will return to Him after our death, and our ultimate destination is with Him.’ In this Ayah, mention of earthly journeys draws attention to the journey of the Hereafter, just as elsewhere, mention of earthly provision draws attention to the importance of ensuring provision for the Hereafter, as Allah says:
(And take a provision (with you) for the journey, but the best provision is the Taqwa) (2:197). And mention of earthly garments is also used to draw attention to the raiment of the Hereafter:
(and as an adornment; and the raiment of the Taqwa, that is better) (7:26).
Here Allah speaks of the lies and fabrications of the idolators, when they devoted some of their cattle to their false gods and some to Allah, as He described in Surat Al-An`am where He said:
(And they assign to Allah share of the tilth and cattle which He has created, and they say: “This is for Allah” according to their claim, “and this is for our partners.” But the share of their partners reaches not Allah, while the share of Allah reaches their partners! Evil is the way they judge!) (6:136). Similarly, out of the two kinds of offspring, sons and daughters, they assigned to Him the worst and least valuable (in their eyes), i.e., daughters, as Allah says:
(Is it for you the males and for Him the females That indeed is a division most unfair!) (53:21-22) And Allah says here:
(Yet, they assign to some of His servants a share with Him. Verily, man is indeed a manifest ingrate!) Then He says:
(Or has He taken daughters out of what He has created, and He has selected for you sons) This is a denunciation of them in the strongest terms, as He goes on to say:
(And if one of them is informed of the news of that which he sets forth as a parable to the Most Gracious, his face becomes dark, and he is filled with grief!) means, if one of these people is given the news that there has been born to him one of those which he attributes to Allah, i.e., a daughter, he hates this news and it depresses and overwhelms him so much that he keeps away from people because he feels so ashamed. Allah says, so how can they dislike that so much and yet they attribute it to Allah
(A creature who is brought up in adornments, and who in dispute cannot make itself clear) means, women are regarded as lacking something, which they make up for with jewelry and adornments from the time of childhood onwards, and when there is a dispute, they cannot speak up and defend themselves clearly, so how can this be attributed to Allah
(And they make females the angels who themselves are servants of the Most Gracious.) means, that is what they believe about them, but Allah denounces them for that and says:
(Did they witness their creation) meaning, did they see Allah creating them as females
(Their testimony will be recorded,) means, concerning that,
(and they will be questioned!) means, about that, on the Day of Resurrection. This is a stern warning and a serious threat.
(And they said: “If it had been the will of the Most Gracious, we should not have worshipped them.”) means, (they said:) `if Allah had willed, He would have prevented us from worshipping these idols which are images of the angels who are the daughters of Allah; He knows about this and He approves of it.’ By saying this, they combined several types of error: First: They attributed offspring to Allah — exalted and sanctified be He far above that. Second: They claimed that He chose daughters rather than sons, and they made the angels, who are the servants of the Most Gracious, female. Third: They worshipped them with no proof, evidence or permission from Allah. This was based on mere opinion, whims and desires, imitation of their elders and forefathers, and pure ignorance. They used Allah’s decree as an excuse, and this reasoning betrayed their ignorance. Fourth: Allah denounced them for this in the strongest terms, for from the time He first sent Messengers and revealed Books, the command was to worship Him Alone with no partner or associate, and it was forbidden to worship anything other than Him. Allah says:
(And verily, We have sent among every Ummah a Messenger (proclaiming): “Worship Allah, and avoid all false deities.” Then of them were some whom Allah guided and of them were some upon whom the straying was justified. So travel through the land and see what was the end of those who denied.) (16:36)
(And ask those of Our Messengers whom We sent before you: “Did We ever appoint gods to be worshipped besides the Most Gracious”) (43:45) And Allah says in this Ayah, after mentioning this argument of theirs:
(They have no knowledge whatsoever of that.) meaning, of the truth of what they say and the arguments they put forward.
(They do nothing but lie!) means, they tell lies and fabricate untruths.
(They have no knowledge whatsoever of that. They do nothing but lie!) Mujahid said, “They do not appreciate the power of Allah.”
Allah condemns the idolators for worshipping others instead of Allah with no evidence or proof for doing so.
(Or have We given them any Book before this) means, before their idolatry.
(to which they are holding fast) means, with regard to what they are doing. This is not the case. This is like the Ayah:
(Or have We revealed to them an authority (a Scripture), which speaks of that which they have been associating with Him) (30:35) meaning, that did not happen. Then Allah says:
(Nay! They say: “we found our fathers following a certain way and religion (Ummah), and we guide ourselves by their footsteps.”) meaning, they have no grounds for their belief in idolatry apart from the fact that they are imitating their fathers and forefathers who were following a certain Ummah or way, i.e., religion. The word Ummah is used in a similar manner elsewhere, where Allah says:
(And verily, this your religion (Ummah) is one religion) (23:52), and they said;
(and we by their footsteps) means, behind them
(We guide ourselves) This is their claim with no evidence. Then Allah points out that what these people say was already said by those who were like them among the nations of the past who disbelieved in the Messengers. Their hearts and their words are similar.
(Likewise, no Messenger came to those before them but they said: “A sorcerer or a madman!” Have they transmitted this saying to these Nay, they are themselves a people transgressing beyond bounds!) (51:52-53) And Allah says here:
(And similarly, We sent not a warner before you to any town (people) but the luxurious ones among them said: “We found our fathers following a certain way and religion, and we will indeed follow their footsteps.”) Then He says:
(Say) — `O Muhammad, to these idolators –‘
(“Even if I bring you better guidance than that which you found your fathers following” They said: “Verily, we disbelieve in that with which you have been sent.”) `Even if they were convinced of the truth of what you have brought to them, they will not follow it, because of their evil intentions and their arrogance towards the truth and its people.’
(So We took revenge on them) means, on the disbelieving nations, by inflicting various kinds of punishments, as Allah has described in the stories of those nations.
(then see what was the end of those who denied) means, see what became of them, how they were destroyed and how Allah saved the believers.
Allah tells us about His servant, Messenger and close Friend, the leader of the monotheists and the father of all subsequent Prophets, from whom Quraysh were descended and claimed to have taken their religion. He disowned his father’s and his people’s worship of idols and said:
(“Verily, I am innocent of what you worship, except Him Who created me; and verily, He will guide me.” And he made it a Word lasting among his offspring,) The Word means the worship of Allah Alone with no partner or associate, and the denunciation of all gods apart from Him, i.e., La ilaha illallah. He left this word as an example to be followed by those of his progeny who were guided by Allah.
(that they may turn back.) means, come back to this word. `Ikrimah, Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Qatadah, As-Suddi and others commented on the Ayah:
(And he made it a Word lasting among his offspring,) “This means, La ilaha illallah, and there are still those among his offspring who say it.” A similar view was narrated from Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him. Ibn Zayd said, “The word of Islam,” which refers to the same thing suggested by the group.
Allah further says:
(Nay, but I gave to these) means, the idolators,
(and their fathers) means, they lived a long life in their misguidance.
(till there came to them the truth, and a Messenger making things clear.) means, his message is clear and his warning is clear.
(And when the truth came to them, they said: “This is magic, and we disbelieve therein.”) means, they were arrogant and stubborn, and they pushed him away out of disbelief, envy and transgression.
(And they say) means, objecting to that which Allah has revealed to him,
(Why is not this Qur’an sent down to some great man of the two towns) meaning, why was this Qur’an not revealed to some man who was great and prominent in their eyes, from the two towns, i.e., Makkah and At-Ta’if This was the view of Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, `Ikrimah, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd. Several scholars of Tafsir stated that by this, the Quraysh meant Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah and `Urwah bin Mas`ud Ath-Thaqafi. The apparent meaning is that what they meant was a great man from either of the two towns. Allah responded to their rejection by saying:
(Is it they who would portion out the mercy of your Lord) meaning, the matter has nothing to do with them; it is for Allah to decide. Allah knows best where to direct His Message, and He does not reveal it except to the one who is the purest in heart and soul, and of the noblest descent. Then Allah points out that He differentiates among His creation in terms of what He gives them of wealth, provision, intellect, understanding and other visible and hidden strengths:
(It is We Who portion out between them their livelihood in this world,)
(so that some may employ others in their work.) It was said that this means that some employ others in their work, because one needs the other, and vice versa. This was the view of As-Suddi and others.
(But the mercy of your Lord is better than which they amass.) means, the mercy of Allah towards His creation is better for them than the wealth and conveniences of this world which they possess.
(And were it not that mankind would have become of one community,) means, `were it not for the fact that many ignorant people would think that Our giving them wealth was a sign that We love the person to whom We give it, and thus they would have agreed upon disbelief for the sake of wealth.’ This is the view of Ibn `Abbas, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, As-Suddi and others.
(We would have provided for those who disbelieve in the Most Gracious, silver roofs for their houses, and elevators) means, ladders and staircases of silver. This was the view of Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah, As-Suddi, Ibn Zayd and others.
(whereby they ascend,) means, go up. And their houses would have doors, i.e., locks on their doors,
(and thrones on which they could recline,) means, all of that would be made of silver.
(And adornments) means, and gold. This was the view of Ibn `Abbas, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd.
(Yet all this would have been nothing but an enjoyment of this world.) means, all that belongs to this transient world which is insignificant before Allah. He hastens their reward for good deeds in the form of luxuries in this world, so that when they reach the Hereafter, they will have no good merits with Allah for which they may be rewarded, as was reported in the Sahih Hadith. It was reported in another Hadith:
(If this world were worth a gnat’s wing before Allah, He would not give a disbeliever a drink of water.) Al-Baghawi narrated its chain of narration.
(And the Hereafter with your Lord is (only) for those who have Taqwa.) means, it is exclusively for them, and no one else will share it with them. When `Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, visited the Messenger of Allah in seclusion, when he was keeping away from his wives, and he saw him resting on a rough mat which had left marks on his side, his eyes filled with tears and he said, “O Messenger of Allah, look at this Chosroes and this Caesar with all that they have, and you are the best of Allah’s creation. ” The Messenger of Allah was reclining, but he sat up and said:
(Are you in doubt, O son of Al-Khattab) Then he said:
(Those are people for whom the enjoyments are hastened in this world.) According to another report:
(Does it not please you that this world is for them and the Hereafter is for us) In as the Two Sahihs and elsewhere, it is reported that the Messenger of Allah said:
(Do not drink from vessels of gold and silver, and do not eat from plates of the same, for these things are for them in this world and for us in the Hereafter.) Allah has granted these things to them in this world because it is insignificant, as was reported by At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah via Abu Hazim from Sahl bin Sa`d, who said, “The Messenger of Allah said:
n(If this world were worth a gnat’s wing before Allah, He would never give a disbeliever a drink of water.)” At-Tirmidhi said: “Hasan Sahih.”
(And whosoever Ya`shu (turns away blindly)) means, whoever willfully ignores and turns away
(from the remembrance of the Most Gracious,) Al-`Asha (the root of Ya`sh) refers to weakness of vision; what is meant here is weakness of insight.
(We appoint for him Shaytan to be a Qarin (a companion) to him.) This is like the Ayat:
(And whoever contradicts and opposes the Messenger after the right path has been shown clearly to him) (4:115),
(So when they turned away, Allah turned their hearts away) (61:5), and
(And We have assigned for them intimate companions, who have made fair seeming to them, what was before them and what was behind them) (41:25). Allah says here:
(And verily, they hinder them from the path, but they think that they are guided aright! Until, when he comes to Us,) meaning, for this person who willfully neglects true guidance, We send to him a Shaytan to lead him astray and show him the path to Hell. When he comes before Allah on the Day of Resurrection, he will complain about the Shaytan who was appointed to accompany him.
(he says, “Would that between me and you were the distance of the two easts — a worst companion (indeed)!”) Some of them recited it; (حَتْى إِذَا جَاءَانَا) (Till, when they both come to Us.) referring to the companion Shaytan and the one whom he accompanies. Then Allah says:
(It will profit you not this Day as you did wrong, (and) that you will be sharers in the punishment.) means, `your being together in the Fire will not help you in the slightest, and you will both partake of the painful punishment.’ Allah says:
Can you make the deaf to hear, or can you guide the blind or him who is in manifest error؟ means, `that is not up to you. All you have to do is convey the Message, but you do not have to guide them. Allah guides whomsoever He wills and sends astray whomsoever He wills, and He is Wise and Just in doing so.’
Allah further says:
(And even if We take you away, We shall indeed take vengeance on them.) means, `We will inevitably wreak vengeance upon them and punish them, even if you pass away.’
(Or (if) We show you that wherewith We threaten them, then verily, We have perfect command over them.) means, `We are able to do both,’ but Allah will not take His Messenger (in death) until He gives him the joy of seeing his enemies brought low and gives him power and authority over them and their wealth. This was the view of As-Suddi and was the opinion favored by Ibn Jarir.
Allah then says;
(So hold you fast to that which is revealed to you. Verily, you are on the straight path.) means, hold fast to the Qur’an which has been sent down to your heart, for it is truth and what it leads to is truth that shows the way to the straight path that leads to Gardens of Delight and eternal, everlasting goodness.
(And verily, this is a Dhikr for you and your people,) It was said that this means, `it is an honor for you and your people;’ this was the view of Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid, Qatadah, As-Suddi and Ibn Zayd. This means that it is an honor for them in that it was revealed in their language, so they are the people who have the best understanding of it among mankind and hence are obliged to be the most steadfast in adhering to its commandments. This is how the best of them were, the first immigrants and those who emulated them and followed them. It was also said that the meaning of the phrase;
(And verily, this is indeed a Dhikr for you and your people,) was that `it was sent to remind you and your people.’ The fact that they are singled out does not exclude others. This is like the Ayat:
(Indeed, We have sent down for you (O mankind) a Book in which there is Dhikrukum (your Reminder). Will you not then understand) (21:10)
(And warn your tribe of near kindred) (26:214)
(and you will be questioned.) means, `about this Qur’an, and how you acted upon it and what your response to it was.’
(And ask whom We sent before you of Our Messengers: “Did We ever appoint gods to be worshipped besides the Most Gracious”) means, `all the Messengers called their people to the same as that to which you are calling mankind, namely the worship of Allah Alone with no partner or associate, and they forbade the worship of idols and false gods.’ This is like the Ayah:
(And verily, We have sent among every Ummah (nation) a Messenger (proclaiming): “Worship Allah, and avoid all false deities.”) (16:36) Mujahid said that `Abdullah bin Mas`ud recited it: (وَاسْأَلِ الَّذِينَ أَرْسَلْنَا إِلَيْهِمْ قَبْلَكَ (مِنْ) رُسُلِنَا) (And ask those whom We sent before you of Our Messengers.) This was narrated by Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and As-Suddi from Ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him. Yet this appears to be an explanation rather than an alternate version of recitation. And Allah knows best.
Here Allah tells us about His servant and Messenger Musa, peace be upon him, and how He sent him to Fir`awn and his chiefs. That is, his governors, ministers, leaders and followers among the Egyptians and the Children of Israel. Allah sent him to call them to worship Allah alone, with no partner or associate, and to forbid them from worshipping anything other than Him. He sent him with mighty signs, such as his hand and his staff, other signs such as the flood, locusts, Qummal, frogs and blood, and the loss of their crops and lives. Yet despite all that they remained arrogant and stubbornly refused to follow him; they rejected his message and made fun of it, and laughed at the one who had brought it.
(And not an Ayah We showed them but it was greater than its fellow preceding it,) but despite that they would not give up their sin, misguidance, ignorance and confusion. Every time one of these signs came to them, they would go and implore Musa, saying,
(“O you sorcerer!…”) meaning, expert or knowledgeable one — this was the view of Ibn Jarir. The scholars of that time were the sorcerers or magicians, and magic was not regarded as something reprehensible by them at that time, so this was not a slight on their part. They were in a state of need, so it would not have been appropriate for them to insult him. This was a way of honoring him, as they thought. On each occasion, they promised Musa that if the torment was lifted from them, they would believe in him and let the Children of Israel go with him, but on each occasion they went back on their word. This is like the Ayat:
(So We sent on them: the flood, the locusts, the Qummal, the frogs, and the blood; manifest signs, yet they remained arrogant, and they were of those people who were criminals. And when the punishment struck them, they said: “O Musa! Invoke your Lord for us because of His promise to you. If you remove the punishment from us, we indeed shall believe in you, and we shall let the Children of Israel go with you.” But when We removed the punishment from them to a fixed term, which they had to reach, behold! they broke their word!) (7:133-135)
Allah tells us how Fir`awn stubbornly persisted in his rebellion and disbelief. He assembled his people and addressed them in a vainglorious fashion, boasting of his dominion over Egypt.
(Is not mine the dominion of Egypt, and these rivers flowing underneath me) Qatadah said, “They had gardens and rivers of flowing water.”
(See you not then) means, `do you not see my position of might and power’ — implying that Musa and his followers were poor and weak. This is like the Ayah:
(Then he gathered (his people) and cried aloud, saying: “I am your lord, most high.” So Allah seized him with punishment for his last and first transgression.) (79:23-25)
(Am I not better than this one who is despicable) As-Suddi said, “He was saying, `indeed I am better than this one, who is despicable’.” Some of the grammarians of Basrah said that Fir`awn — may the curse of Allah be upon him — was saying that he was better than Musa, peace be upon him. But this is an obvious lie, may continued curses be upon him until the Day of Resurrection. By describing Musa as despicable he meant — as Sufyan said — insignificant. Qatadah and As-Suddi said, “He meant, weak.” Ibn Jarir said, “He meant, he had no power, authority or wealth.”
(and can scarcely express himself clearly) means, he cannot speak clearly, he stammers and cannot speak well. Fir`awn’s description of Musa as “despicable” is a lie; rather it is he who was despicable and insignificant, lacking in physical, moral and religious terms, and it is Musa who was noble, truthful, righteous and upright.
(and can scarcely express himself clearly). This was also a lie. Although something happened to Musa’s tongue when he was a child, when it was burnt by a coal. He asked Allah to loosen the knot from his tongue (i.e., to correct his speech defect) so that they could understand what he said, and Allah had answered his prayer and said:
(You are granted your request, O Musa) (20:36). It may be the case that some problem remained which he had not asked to be relieved of, as Al-Hasan Al-Basri suggested, and that he had asked only to be relieved of that which stood in the way of his conveying the Message. A person cannot be blamed for physical matters over which he has no control. Even though Fir`awn had the intelligence to understand that, he wanted to confuse and mislead his people, who were ignorant and stupid. So he said:
(Why then are not golden bracelets bestowed on him…) meaning, adornments which are placed on the arms. This was the view of Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Qatadah and others.
(or angels sent along with him) meaning, to serve him and to testify that he is telling the truth. He looked only at outward appearances and did not understand the true inner matters that are clearer than what he focused on, if only he had understood that. Allah says:
(Thus he fooled his people, and they obeyed him.) meaning, he confused them and invited them to misguidance, and they responded to him.
(Verily, they were ever a people who were rebellious.) Then Allah says:
(So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all.) `Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, said it means: “When they angered Us means, they provoked Our wrath.” Ad-Dahhak said, it means “They made Us angry.” This was also the view of Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi, Qatadah, As-Suddi and other scholars of Tafsir. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that `Uqbah bin `Amir, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the Messenger of Allah said:
(When you see that Allah gives a person what he wants even though he is persisting in sin, that means that Allah is enticing him into destruction.) Then he recited:
(So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all.) It was reported that Tariq bin Shihab said, “I was with `Abdullah, may Allah be pleased with him, and the issue of sudden death was mentioned. He said, `It is a relief for the believer and a source of regret for the disbeliever.’ Then he recited the Ayah:
(So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all). ” `Umar bin `Abdul-`Aziz, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “I found that punishment comes with negligence, meaning the Ayah:
(So when they angered Us, We punished them, and drowned them all).”
(And We made them a precedent, and an example to later generations.) Abu Mijlaz said, “Precedent for others who do the same as they did.” He and Mujahid said, “An example, i.e., a lesson to those who come after them.” Allah is the One Who guides to the straight path, and unto Him is the final return.
Allah tells us how the Quraysh persisted in their disbelief and stubborn arguments:
(And when the son of Maryam is quoted as an example, behold, your people cry aloud thereat.) Several others narrated that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid, `Ikrimah, As-Suddi and Ad-Dahhak said, “They laughed, i.e., they were astounded by that.” Qatadah said, “They were repelled by that and they laughed.” Ibrahim An-Nakha`i said, “They turned away.” The reason for this was mentioned by Muhammad bin Ishaq in As-Sirah. He said, “According to what I have heard, the Messenger of Allah sat down one day with Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah in the Masjid, and An-Nadr bin Al-Harith came and sat down with them. There were also other men from the Quraysh in the gathering. The Messenger of Allah spoke, then An-Nadr bin Al-Harith came up to him and the Messenger of Allah spoke to him until he defeated him in argument. Then he recited to him and to them,
(Certainly you and that which you are worshipping now besides Allah, are (but) fuel for Hell! (Surely) you will enter it.) (21:98) Then the Messenger of Allah got up and went to sit with `Abdullah bin Al-Zab`ari At-Tamimi. Al-Walid bin Al-Mughirah said to him, `By Allah, An-Nadr bin Al-Harith could not match the son of `Abd Al-Muttalib in argument. Muhammad claims that we and these gods that we worship are fuel for Hell.’ `Abdullah bin Az-Zab`ari said, `By Allah, if I meet with him I will defeat him in argument. Ask Muhammad whether everyone that is worshipped instead of Allah will be in Hell with those who worshipped him, for we worship the angels, and the Jews worship `Uzayr, and the Christians worship the Messiah `Isa bin Maryam.’ Al-Walid and those who were sitting with him were amazed at what `Abdullah bin Az-Zab`ari said, and they thought that he had come up with a good point. He said this to the Messenger of Allah , who said:
(Everyone who likes to worship something other than Allah will be with the one whom he worshipped, for indeed they are worshipping the Shaytan and whomever told them to worship that person.)” Then Allah revealed the words:
(Verily, those for whom the good has preceded from Us, they will be removed far therefrom (Hell)) (21:101), meaning that `Isa, `Uzayr and rabbis and monks who were also worshipped, who spent their lives in devotion towards Allah. The misguided people who came after them took them as lords instead of Allah. Concerning the notion of worshipping the angels as daughters of Allah, the following words were revealed:
(And they say: “The Most Gracious has begotten a son (or children).” Glory to Him! They are but honored servants.) (21:26) Concerning `Isa bin Maryam, the fact that he is worshipped instead of Allah, and to the amazement of Al-Walid and the others who were present at the argument, the following was revealed:
(And when the son of Maryam is quoted as an example, behold, your people cry aloud thereat.) meaning, they take this argument as a basis for rejecting your message. Then Allah mentions `Isa bin Maryam and says:
(He was not more than a servant. We granted Our favor to him, and We made him an example for the Children of Israel. And if it were Our will, We would have made angels to replace you on the earth. And he (`Isa) shall be a known sign for the Hour. ) meaning, the miracles and signs that happened at his hands, such as raising the dead and healing the sick, are sufficient as signs of the approach of the Hour.
(Therefore have no doubt concerning it. And follow Me! This is the straight path).” Ibn Jarir mentioned that Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, commented on the Ayah:
(And when the son of Maryam is quoted as an example, behold, your people cry aloud thereat.) “This means the Quraysh, when it was said to them:
(Certainly you and that which you are worshipping now besides Allah, are (but) fuel for Hell! (Surely) you will enter it.) (21:98) The Quraysh said to him: `What about `Isa bin Maryam’ He said:
(He is the servant and Messenger of Allah.) They said, `By Allah, he means that we should take him as a lord just as the Christians took `Isa son of Maryam as a lord.’ Then Allah said:
(They quoted not the above example except for argument. Nay! But they are a quarrelsome people).”
(And say: “Are our gods better or is he”). Qatadah said, “They were saying, `our gods are better than him’.” Qatadah said; “Ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him, recited it (أَآلِهَتُنَا خَيْرٌ أَمْ هذَا) (Are our gods better or is this (person))” they mean Muhammad .
(They quoted not the above example except for argument.) means, for the sake of stubborn argument, for they knew that he (`Isa ) was not included in the Ayah (21:98), because that would not make sense. The words,
(Certainly you and that which you are worshipping now besides Allah, are (but) fuel for Hell!) (21:98) are addressed to the Quraysh, for they used to worship idols and false gods — they did not worship the Messiah so why should he be included in what the Ayah says What they said was only for the sake of argument; they did not really believe in it. Imam Ahmad, may Allah have mercy on him, recorded that Abu Umamah, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “The Messenger of Allah said:
g(No people go astray after having been guided, but they resort to (futile) argument.) Then the Messenger of Allah recited this Ayah:
(They quoted not the above example except for argument. Nay! But they are a quarrelsome people).” It was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Ibn Jarir. At-Tirmidhi said, “This Hadith is Hasan Sahih, we do not know it except from the Hadith of Hajjaj bin Dinar…”
(He (`Isa) was not more than a servant. We granted Our favor to him,) means, `Isa, peace be upon him; he was no more than one of the servants of Allah whom Allah blessed with prophethood and messengership.
(and We made him an example for the Children of Israel.) means, `a sign, proof and evidence of Our power to do whatever We will.’
(And if it were Our will, We would have made angels to replace you on the earth.) As-Suddi said, “They would have taken your place on (the earth). ” Ibn `Abbas, may Allah be pleased with him, and Qatadah said, “They would have succeeded one another just as you succeed one another.” This view is implied by the former veiw. Mujahid said, “They would have populated the earth instead of you.” Allah’s saying:
(And he (`Isa) shall be a known sign for (the coming of) the Hour.) The correct view concerning this phrase is that it refers to his descent before the Day of Resurrection, as Allah says:
(And there is none of the People of the Scripture but must believe in him before his death) (4:159). — meaning before the death of `Isa, peace be upon him —
And on the Day of Resurrection, he will be a witness against them )4:159(. This meaning has the support from an alternate recitation of the Aya0t؛ (وَإِنَّهُ لَعَلَمٌ لِلسَّاعَةِ) (And he shall be a known sign for (the coming of) the Hour.) means, evidence that the Hour will surely come. Mujahid said:
(And he shall be a sign for (the coming of) the Hour.) means, sign and “One of the signs of the Hour will be the appearance of `Isa son of Maryam before the Day of Resurrection. ” Something similar was also narrated from Abu Hurayrah, Ibn `Abbas, `Abu Al-`Aliyah, Abu Malik, `Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and others. Many Mutawatir Hadiths report that the Messenger of Allah said that `Isa will descend before the Day of Resurrection as a just ruler and fair judge.
(Therefore have no doubt concerning it.) means, do not doubt that it will surely come to pass.
(And follow Me.) means, `in what I tell you about it.’
(This is the straight path. And let not Shaytan hinder you.) means, from following the truth.
(Verily, he (Satan) to you is a plain enemy. And when `Isa came with (Our) clear proofs, he said: “I have come to you with Al-Hikmah…”), meaning prophethood:
(and in order to make clear to you some of the (points) in which you differ.) Ibn Jarir said, “This means religious matters, not worldly matters.” What he said is good.
(Therefore have Taqwa of Allah) means, `with regard to what I command you to do.’
(and obey me.) means, `in what I bring to you.’
(Verily, Allah! He is my Lord and your Lord. So worship Him. This is the straight path.) means, `you and I are enslaved to Him, in need of Him and we commonly share in the worship of Him Alone, associating none with Him.’
(This is the straight path) means, `what I have brought to you is the straight path, which is the worship of the Lord, may He exalted, Alone.’
(But the sects from among themselves differed. ) means, they differed and became parties and factions, some who stated that he (`Isa) was the servant and Messenger of Allah — which is true – while others claimed that he was the son of Allah or that he himself was Allah — glorified be Allah far above what they say. Allah says:
(So woe to those who do wrong from the torment of a painful Day)!
Allah says, `do these idolaters who disbelieve in the Messengers wait’
(only for the Hour that it shall come upon them suddenly while they perceive not) means, for it is real and will inevitably come to pass, and these negligent people are unprepared for it. When it comes, it will catch them unawares, and on that Day they will feel the utmost regret when regret will not benefit them in the slightest and will not afford them any protection.
(Friends on that Day will be foes one to another except those who have Taqwa.) means, every friendship that exists for a purpose other than for the sake of Allah will turn to enmity on the Day of Resurrection, except for that which is for the sake of Allah, which will last forever. This is like the statement of Ibrahim, peace be upon him, to his people:
(You have taken (for worship) idols instead of Allah. The love between you is only in the life of this world, but on the Day of Resurrection, you shall disown each other, and curse each other, and your abode will be the Fire, and you shall have no helper.) (29:25)
(My servants! No fear shall be on you this Day, nor shall you grieve.) Then He will give them the glad tidings:
((You) who believed in Our Ayat and were Muslims.) means, their hearts believed and they submitted inwardly and outwardly to the Laws of Allah. Al-Mu`tamir bin Sulayman narrated that his father said: “When the Day of Resurrection comes and the people are resurrected, there will be no one left who will not be filled with terror. Then a caller will cry out:
(My servants! No fear shall be on you this Day, nor shall you grieve.) So all the people will be filled with hope, but this will be followed by the words:
((You) who believed in Our Ayat and were Muslims.) Then all of mankind will be filled with despair apart from the believers.”
(Enter Paradise, ) means, they will be told to enter Paradise.
(you and your wives,) means, your counterparts
(in happiness (Tuhbarun).) means, in delight and joy.
(Trays of gold and cups will be passed round them;) means, fine vessels of gold containing food and drink, without spouts or handles. (وَفِيهَا مَا تَشْتَهِي الْأَنْفُسُ) ﴿(there will be) therein all that their souls could desire).﴾ Some of them recited:
(that their souls desire,)
(and all that eyes could delight in) means, of good food, delightful fragrances and beautiful scenes.
(and you will therein) means, in Paradise
(abide forever) means, you will never leave it or want to exchange it. Then it will be said to them, as a reminder of the blessing and favor of Allah:
(This is the Paradise, which you have been made to inherit because of your deeds that you used to do.) means, the righteous deeds which were the cause of your being included in the mercy of Allah. For no one will be admitted to Paradise by virtue of their deeds alone; that will be by the mercy and grace of Allah. But the varying ranks and degrees of Paradise will be attained according to one’s righteous deeds.
(Therein for you will be fruits in plenty,) means, of all kinds.
(of which you will eat.) means, whatever you choose and desire. When food and drink are mentioned, fruit is also mentioned to complete the picture of blessing and joy. And Allah knows best.
The description of the state of the blessed is followed by a description of the state of the doomed.
(Verily, the criminals will be in the torment of Hell to abide therein forever. It will not be lightened for them,) meaning, not even for one moment.
(and they will be plunged into destruction with deep regrets, sorrows and in despair therein,) means, they will despair of any goodness.
(We wronged them not, but they were the wrongdoers.) means, by their committing wrong actions after proof had been established against them and Messengers had been sent to them, but they rejected them and rebelled, so they are to be punished accordingly. And your Lord is not at all unjust to (His) servants.
(And they will cry: “O Malik…”) who is the keeper of Hell. Al-Bukhari said, “Hajjaj bin Minhal told us, Sufyan bin `Uyaynah told us, from `Amr bin `Ata, ‘ from Safwan bin Ya`la that his father, may Allah be pleased with him, said, `I heard the Messenger of Allah reciting on the Minbar:
(And they will cry: “O Malik! Let your Lord make an end of us.”) meaning, `let Him destroy our souls and give us some respite from our predicament.’ But it will be as Allah says:
(Neither will it have a complete killing effect on them so that they die nor shall its torment be lightened for them) (35:36).
(But it will be avoided by the wretched, who will enter the great Fire. There he will neither die (to be in rest) nor live (a good living).) (87:11-13). When they ask to be allowed to die, Malik will answer them:
He will say: Verily, you shall abide forever. meaning, you will have no way out from it and no refuge. Then the reason why they are doomed will be given, which is their stubborn resistance to the truth. Alla0h says:
(Indeed We have brought the truth to you, ) meaning, `We have explained it to you clearly and in detail.’
(but most of you have a hatred for the truth.) means, `but your nature could not accept it and did not seek it; on the contrary, you followed and venerated falsehood, and you stood in the way of truth and refused it, and despised its followers.’ So they will blame themselves and will feel regret at the time when regret will not be of any benefit to them. Then Allah says:
(Or have they plotted some plan Then We too are planning.) Mujahid said, “They wanted to plot some evil, but We are also planning.” What Mujahid said is like the Ayah:
(So they plotted a plot, and We planned a plan, while they perceived not.) (27:50). The idolators were trying their utmost to find ways of refuting the truth with falsehood, but Allah planned it so that the consequences of that would backfire on them. He said in refutation:
(Or do they think that We hear not their secrets and their private counsel) meaning, what they say secretly and openly.
(Yes (We do) and Our messengers are by them, to record.) means, `We know what they are doing, and the angels are also recording their deeds, major and minor.’
(81. Say: “If the Most Gracious had a son, then I am the first of the worshippers.”) (82. Glorified is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, the Lord of the Throne! Exalted be He from all that they ascribe (to Him).) (83. So leave them (alone) to speak nonsense and play until they meet the Day of theirs which they have been promised.) (84. It is He Who is the only God in the heaven and the only God on the earth. And He is the All-Wise, the All-Knower.) (85. And Blessed be He to Whom belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, and with Whom is the knowledge of the Hour, and to Whom you (all) will be returned.) (86. And those whom they invoke instead of Him have no power of intercession — except for those who bear witness to the truth knowingly, and they know.) (87. And if you ask them who created them, they will surely say: “Allah.” How then are they turned away) (88. And his saying: “O my Lord! Verily, these are a people who believe not!”) (89. So turn away from them, and say: Salam (peace!) But they will come to know.)
(Say) — `O Muhammad’ —
(If the Most Gracious had a son, then I am the first of the worshippers.) meaning, `if this were so, then I would worship Him on that basis, because I am one of His servants; I obey all that He commands me and I am not too arrogant or proud to worship Him.’ This conditional phrase does not mean that what is described could happen nor that is possible as Allah says:
(Had Allah willed to take a son, He could have chosen whom He willed out of those whom He created. But glory be to Him! He is Allah, the One, the Irresistible.) (39:4). Allah says here:
(Glorified is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, the Lord of the Throne! Exalted be He from all that they ascribe (to Him).) meaning, exalted and sanctified and glorified be the Creator of all things far above having any offspring, for He is Unique, One and Eternally Self-Sufficient. There is none equal to Him or like Him, and He does not have any offspring.
(So leave them (alone) to speak nonsense) means, in their ignorance and misguidance,
(and play) in their world,
(until they meet the Day of theirs which they have been promised.) which is the Day of Resurrection, i.e., then they will come to know what their end and destination will be on that Day.
(It is He Who is the only God in the heaven and the only God on the earth.) means, He is the God of those who are in the heavens and the God of those who are on earth; all of them worship Him and are humbled before Him.
(And He is the All-Wise, the All-Knower.) This Ayah is like the Ayah:
(And He is Allah in the heavens and on the earth; He knows what you conceal and what you reveal, and He knows what you earn.) (6:3) which means, He is the One who is called Allah in the heavens and on the earth.
(And Blessed be He to Whom belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them,) means, He is their Creator and Sovereign, the One Who is controlling them with none to resist or oppose His rule. Blessed and exalted be He far above the notion of His having a child. He is eternally free of all faults and shortcomings, because He is the Lord, the Exalted, the Almighty, the Sovereign of all things, Who is in control of all affairs.
(and with Whom is the knowledge of the Hour, ) means, no one knows when it will happen except Him.
(and to Whom you (all) will be returned.) means, and each person will be requited for his deeds; if they are good, then he will be rewarded, and if they are bad, then he will be punished.
(And those whom they invoke instead of Him have no power) means, the idols and false gods.
(of intercession) means, they are not able to intercede for them.
(except for those who bear witness to the truth knowingly, and they know.) This means, but the one who bears witness to the truth has knowledge and insight, so his intercession with Allah will avail, by His leave.
(And if you ask them who created them, they will surely say: “Allah.” How then are they turned away) means, `if you ask these idolators who associate others in worship with Allah,’
(who created them, they will surely say: “Allah.”) means, they will admit that He Alone is the Creator of all things and He has no partner in that. Yet despite that they still worship others alongside Him who have nothing and are able to do nothing. This is the utmost foolishness and stupidity. Allah says:
(How then are they turned away)
(And his saying: “O my Lord! Verily, these are a people who believe not!”) means, Muhammad said this; he complained to his Lord about his people who did not believe in him, and said, `O Lord, these people do not believe.’ This is like the Ayah:
(And the Messenger will say: “O my Lord! Verily, my people deserted this Qur’an.”) (25:30). This is the view of Ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him, Mujahid and Qatadah, and this is how Ibn Jarir interpreted it. Al-Bukhari said: “`Abdullah — meaning Ibn Mas`ud, may Allah be pleased with him — recited (Ayah 88 of Az-Zukhruf): (وَقَالَ الرَّسُولُ ياربِّ) (And the Messenger will say: “O my Lord!”) Mujahid said concerning the Ayah:
(And his saying: “O my Lord! Verily, these are a people who believe not!”) “Allah is stating what Muhammad said.” Qatadah said, “These are the words of your Prophet , when he complained about his people to his Lord.”
(So turn away from them, ) means, from the idolators.
(and say Salam (peace!)) means, `do not respond to them in the same evil manner in which they address you; but try to soften their hearts and forgive them in word and deed.’
(But they will come to know.) This is a warning from Allah for them. His punishment, which cannot be warded off, struck them, and His religion and His word was supreme. Subsequently Jihad and striving were prescribed until the people entered the religion of Allah in crowds, and Islam spread throughout the east and the west. And Allah knows best.
This is the end of the Tafsir of Surat Az-Zukhruf.
Tafseer by Abul A’la Maududi
43. Surah Az Zukhruf (The Ornaments of Gold)
It is derived from the word zukhruf-an which occurs in verse 33 of this Surah.
Period of Revelation
It could not be known from any authentic tradition, but a study of its subject matter shows that this Surah also was sent down in the same period in which the Surahs Al-Mumin, As-Sajdah and Ash-Shura, were sent down. It appears that the revelation of this series of the Surahs began when the disbelievers of Makkah were planning to put an end to the Holy Prophet’s life. Day and night they were holding consultations in their assemblies as how to eliminate him, and even an attack on his life also had been made as has been clearly referred to in vv. 79-80.
Theme and Topics
In this Surah a forceful and severe criticism has been made of the Quraish and the common Arabs creeds and superstitions of ignorance in which they persisted, and their stubbornness has been exposed in a firm and effective way, so that every member of the society, who was reasonable in some degree, should be made to consider the evils in which the community was involved and its tyrannical treatment of the person who was trying to redeem it.
The discourse starts in a way as if to say: “You, by means of your mischiefs, want that the revelation of this Book should be stopped, but Allah has never withheld the appointment of His Prophets and the revelation of His Books because of the mischief of the people, but has destroyed the wicked people, who obstructed the way of His guidance. The same He will do again. A little further in vv. 41-43 and 79-80 the same thing has been reiterated. Though the people who were plotting against his life are meant, the Holy Prophet has been addressed to the effect: “whether you remain alive or not, We will certainly punish the wicked,” and the people themselves have been plainly warned to the effect: “If you have decided to take an action against Our Prophet, We too will take a decisive action.”
Then, it has been told what is the reality of the religion that the people are following so devotedly and what are the arguments on whose strength they are resisting Muhammad (upon whom be Allah’s peace and Blessings).
They themselves admit that the Creator of the earth and heavens and of themselves and their deities is only Allah. They also know and admit that the blessings they are benefiting from, have been bestowed by Allah; yet they insist on making others associates of Allah in His Godhead.
They regard the servants as the children of Allah, and that too daughters, whom they regard as disgraceful for themselves.
They believe that the angels are goddesses; they have carved their images as females; they adorn them with female dresses and ornaments, and call them daughters of Allah: they worship them and invoke them for the fulfillment of their needs. How did they know that the angels were female?
When they are rebuked for these superstitions, they present the pretense of destiny and say :”Had Allah disapproved of these our practices, we could not have worshiped these images, whereas the means of finding out whether Allah had approved of something or not, are His Books and not those things which are happening in the world according to His Will. For under His Will not only idol worship but crimes like theft and adultery, robbery. murder, etc. also are being committed. Can this argument be used to justify as right and proper this commission of every crime and evil is the world?
When it is asked: Have you any other authority, apart from this wrong argument, for the polytheism of yours? They reply, “The same has been the practice since the time of our forefathers.” In other words, this in their opinion is a strong enough argument for a creed’s being right and true, whereas the Prophet Abraham, descent from whom is the only basis of their pride and distinction, had rejected the religion of his elders and left his home, and he had discarded every such blind imitation of his forefathers, which did not have the support of any rational argument. Then, if these people had to follow their elders only, for this also they selected their most ignorant elders and abandoned their most illustrious elders like the Prophets Abraham and Ishmael (on whom be peace).
When they are asked: “Has ever a Prophet or a Book sent down by God also given this teaching that others beside Allah too are worthy of worship? they present this practice of the Christians as an argument that they took Jesus son of Mary as son of God and worshiped him; whereas the question was not this whether the community of a Prophet had committed shirk or not, but this whether a Prophet had himself taught shirk. Jesus son of Mary had never said that he was son of God and that the people should worship him. His own was the same teaching which every other Prophet had given “My Lord as well as your Lord is Allah: so worship Him alone.”
They were disinclined to believe in the Prophethood of the Holy Prophet because he was neither a rich man nor a person of high worldly position and rank. They said “Had Allah willed to appoint a prophet among us, He would have appointed one of the great men of’ our two cities (Makkah and Taif). On that very basis, Pharaoh also had looked down upon the Prophet Moses and said: “If Allah, the King of the heavens, had to send a messenger to me, the king of the earth, He would have sent him with bracelets of gold and a company of angels in attendance. Where from has this mendicant appeared I am superior to him, for the kingdom of Egypt belongs to me, and the canals of the River Nile are flowing under my control. What is the status of this man as against me? He has neither wealth nor authority.”
Thus, after criticizing each practice of ignorance of the disbelievers and rejecting it with rational arguments, it has been pointed out: “Neither has God any offspring, nor are there separate gods of the earth and heavens, nor is there any intercessor who may be able to protect from His punishment those who adopt deviation knowingly. Allah is far above this that He should have children. He alone is the God of the whole Universe: all others are His servants and not associates in His attributes and powers, and only such men can intercede with Him, who are themselves followers of the Truth and they also can intercede only for those who may have adopted obedience of the Truth in the world.”
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
1-8 Al-Quran is a transcript from the Mother Book which is in Allah’s keeping
(43:1) Ha’. Mim. (43:2) By the Clear Book; (43:3) verily We have made it an Arabic Qur’an that you may understand.1 (43:4) Indeed it is transcribed in the Original Book with Us;2 sublime and full of wisdom.3 (43:5) Should We divert this Good Counsel from you because you are a people immersed in extravagance?4 (43:6) How many a Prophet did We send to the earlier peoples! (43:7) Yet never did a Prophet come to them but they mocked him.5 (43:8) We utterly destroyed them although they were greater in might than these. The examples of ancient peoples have gone before.6
1. The object of taking an oath by the Quran is to impress this fact: We are the Author of this Book and not Muhammad (peace be upon him), and the attribute of the Quran chosen for the oath is that it is a lucid Scripture. To swear by the Quran itself with this attribute in order to impress that the Quran is divine Word by itself implies this: O people, this is an open Book before you. Read it intelligently. Its clear and un-ambiguous themes, its language and literary style, its teaching which distinguishes the truth from falsehood, all are testifying to the fact that none but the Lord of the Universe could be its Author. Then the sentence: “Indeed, We made it a Quran in Arabic that you might understand” has two meanings:
(1) It is not in any foreign tongue but in your own language; therefore, you can have no difficulty in assessing its value and worth. Had it been in a non-Arabic language, you could have offered the excuse that you could not determine its being divine, or otherwise, for you did not understand it. But you cannot offer this excuse about this Arabic Quran. Its each word is clear to you, its each passage and discourse, both in language and in theme, is plain for you. Now you may see it for yourself whether this could be the word of Muhammad (peace be upon him) or of some other Arab.
(2) We have sent this Book in Arabic because We are addressing the Arabs, who can only understand an Arabic Quran. The person who disregards this expressly rational ground for sending down the Quran in Arabic and regards it as the word of Muhammad (peace be upon him) instead of divine Word only because Muhammad’s mother tongue is also Arabic, commits a grave injustice. (To understand this second meaning, please see (Surah HaMim As-Sajdah, Ayat 44 and its E.N).
2. Umm al-Kitab: the “Original Book”: the Book from which all the Books sent down to the Prophets have been derived. In Surah Al-Waqiah the same thing has been described as Kitab-um-Maknun (the hidden and preserved Book) and in (Surah Al-Burooj, Ayat 22 )as Lauh-i Mahfuz (the preserved tablet), that is, the tablet whose writing cannot be effaced, which is secure from every kind of interference. By saying that the Quran is inscribed in Umm al-Kitab, attention has been drawn to an important truth. Different Books had been revealed by Allah in different ages to different Prophets for the guidance of different nations in different languages, but all these Books invited mankind to one and the same faith. They regarded one and the same thing as the truth. They presented one and the same criterion of good and evil. They propounded the same principles of morality and civilization. In short, they brought one and the same Deen (religion). The reason was that their source and origin was the same, only words were different; they had the same meaning and theme which is inscribed in a Source Book with Allah, and whenever there was a need, He raised a Prophet and sent down the same meaning and subject-matter clothed in a particular diction according to the environment and occasion. Had Allah willed to raise the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) in another nation instead of the Arabs, He would have sent down the same Quran in the language of that nation. In it the meaning and content would have been expressed according to the environments and conditions of the people and land. The words would have been different and the language also different but the teaching and guidance the same basically, and it would be the same Quran though not the Arabic Quran. This same thing has been expressed in Surah Ash-Shuara, thus: This (Book) has been revealed by the Lord of the worlds. The trustworthy Spirit has come down with it upon your heart so that you may become one of those who are (appointed by God) to warn (the people) in plain Arabic language, and this is also contained in the scriptures of the former peoples. (verses 192-196). (For explanation, see( Surah Ash-Shuara, Ayats 192-196) and the E.Ns there of).
3. This sentence is related both to Kitab-i mubin and to Umm al-Kitab. Thus, it is in praise of both the Quran and the Original Book from which the Quran has been derived. This praise is meant to impress the fact that if a person does not recognize the true worth of this Book and does not benefit from its wise teachings because of his own folly, it would be his own misfortune. If someone tried to degrade it and found fault with it, it would be his own meanness. It cannot become worthless on account of someone’s lack of appreciation of it, and its wisdom cannot be eclipsed by anyone’s throwing dust at it. This is by itself a glorious Book, which stands exalted by its matchless teaching, miraculous eloquence, faultless wisdom and the sublime personality of its great Author. Therefore, none can succeed in minimizing its value and worth. In( verse 44) below the Quraish in particular and the Arabs in general have been told that the revelation of the Book for which they are showing such lack of appreciation had provided them a unique opportunity of honor, which if they lost, would subject them to a severe accountability before God. (See E.N. 39) below.
4. In this one sentence the entire history that had taken place since the time the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) had proclaimed to be a Prophet till the revelation of these verses during the past few years has been compressed. This sentence depicts the following picture: A nation has been involved in ignorance, backwardness and depravity for centuries. Suddenly, Allah looks at it with favor. He raises in it an illustrious guide and sends down His own Word to take it out of the darkness of ignorance so that it is aroused from slumber, it gives up superstitions of ignorance and it becomes aware of the truth and adopts the right way of life. But the ignorant people of the nation and the tribal chiefs turn hostile to the guide, and try their utmost to defeat him and his mission. With the passage of time their hostility and mischief go on increasing; so much so that they make up their mind to kill him. At this, it is being said: Should We stop making any efforts to reform you because you are proving to be unworthy people? Should We withhold sending down this Admonition, and leave you lying in the same wretched state in which you have been lying since centuries? Do you really think that should be the demand of Our Mercy? Have you ever considered what doom you would meet when you have turned down the bounty of Allah and persisted in falsehood after the truth has come before you?
5. That is, if such absurdity and senselessness had barred the sending of a Prophet or a Book, no Prophet would ever have come to any nation nor a Book sent to it.
6. That is, the result of the senselessness of some particular people could not be that the entire mankind should be deprived of the guidance of the Prophethood and the Book. The result has always been that the worshippers of falsehood, with the pride of power, did not desist from mocking the Prophets and were ultimately destroyed. When Allah’s wrath descended upon the people, those who possessed thousands of times greater power than that possessed by the chiefs of the Quraish, they were crushed to annihilation like mosquitoes and fleas.
9-15 Even the Mushrikin believe that heavens, earth and all therein is created by Allah and Supplication before riding a conveyance
(43:9) Yet if you were to ask them: “Who created the heavens and the earth?” they will certainly say: “The All-Mighty, the All-Knowing has created them.” (43:10) He it is Who made this earth for you a cradle7 and made in it pathways8 for you that you may find the way to your destination;9 (43:11) He Who sent down water from the sky in a determined measure,10 and thereby We revived a dead land: likewise will you be raised up (from the earth)11 (43:12) He Who created these pairs,12 all of them, and provided you ships and cattle on which you ride, (43:13) so that when you are mounted upon them you may remember the bounty of your Lord, and say: “Glory be to Him Who has subjected this to Us whereas we did not have the strength to subdue it.13 (43:14) It is to our Lord that we shall eventually return.”14 (43:15) Yet they have made some of His servants a part of Him.15 Indeed man is most evidently thankless.
7. At other places the earth has been described as a bed, but here as a cradle. That is, just as a child lies resting in its cradle, so is this great globe meant to be a place of rest for you, which is suspended in space, which is spinning on its axis at a speed of 1,000 miles an hour, which is revolving around the sun at a speed of 66,000 miles an hour. Its interior is so intensely hot that it can melt the stones and sometimes it manifests its power in the form of volcano eruptions. But, in spite of that, the Creator has made it so tranquil that one sleeps on it in fill peace and there is no jerk whatsoever. One lives on it and does not at all feel that this globe is suspended and he is hanging from it with his head pointing downward. One moves about on it with satisfaction and never thinks that he is riding on a vehicle moving faster than a bullet. You dig it at will and turn it inside out and beat it as you like to obtain your sustenance. Whereas, a little shaking of it in an earthquake makes you feel what a terrible giant it is, which Allah has subdued for you. (For further explanation, see (Surah Al-Naml, Ayat 61 and E.N. 74) of it.
8. The passes in the mountains and the rivers in the hill and plain regions are the natural paths, which Allah has provided on the surface of the earth. Man has spread on the earth by means of these. If the mountainous ranges had been created erect, without a crevice, and there had been no rivers and streams, man would have been confined to the same areas where he was born. Then, Allah through another grace has not made the entire surface of the earth uniform in nature, but has created different marks of distinction by means of which man recognizes different lands and feels the difference between one land and another. This is the second important means by which man became able to move about on the earth. This blessing can be appreciated by the one who has had a chance of going on a vast desert, where for thousands of milts the earth is without any landmarks and one does not know where one has reached and where one has to go.
9. This sentence gives two meanings simultaneously:
(1) That by means of these natural paths and landmarks you may find your way and reach the place you want to reach.
(2) That you may obtain guidance from the observation of this craftsmanship of Allah Almighty. May reach the underlying reality and understand that this system of the earth is not functioning haphazardly, nor has been devised by many gods jointly, but there is one All-Wise Creator, Who has made these paths in the hills and on the plains in view of the needs and requirements of His creatures, and has given each region of the earth a different form in countless different ways by means of which man can distinguish one region from the other.
10. That is, for each region He has ordained an average measure of the rain which falls year after year for long ages regularly. It does not happen that an area may have two inches of the rainfall one year and 200 inches of it the next year. Then He spreads the rainfall over different places in different times in such a way that it becomes beneficial on the whole for the products of the earth. And this is also His wisdom that He has deprived some parts of the earth of the rainfall almost entirely and turned them into dry barren deserts, and in some other parts, He sometimes causes famines to occur and sometimes sends torrential rains so that man may know what a great blessing the rain and its general regularity is for the populated areas, and he may also remember that this system is under the control of another power, whose decrees cannot be changed by anyone. No one has the power that he may change the general average of the rainfall of a country, or effect a variation in its distribution over vast areas of the earth, or avert an impending storm, or attract the clouds towards his own land and compel them to rain. (For further explanation, see (Surah Al-Hijr, Ayats 21-22); (Surah Al- Muminun, Ayats 18-20).
11. Here, the birth of vegetation in the earth by means of water has been presented as an argument for two things simultaneously:
(1) That these things are happening by the power and wisdom of One God; no one else is His associate in these works.
(2) That there can be life after death and it will be. (For further explanation, see (Surah An-Nahl, Ayats 65-67); (Surah Al-Hajj, Ayats 5-7); (Surah An-Naml, Ayat 60); (Surah Ar-Room, Ayats 19, 24); (Surah Fatir E.N. 19 )and (Surah YaSeen E.N. 29).
12. Pairs here does not imply only pairs of men and women among human beings and of males and females among animals and vegetation, but there are countless other things which the Creator has made as matching partners of each other and by whose coming together and combination new and ever new things come into being in the world. For example, among the elements, some can be combined with others and some cannot be combined. The combination of those which can combine is resulting into various compositions, e.g. the negative and positive charges in electricity are the matching partners of each other and their mutual attraction is causing wonderful things to happen in the world. If man considers the structure and the mutual relationships and the different forms of cooperation and the results of the combination of this and other countless pairs which Allah has created among countless of His creations. He cannot help testifying to the truth that this great workshop of the world is the creation of one and only one Almighty, All-Wise Designer, and is functioning only under His care and control. Only a man of mean intelligence could suppose that all this happened, and is happening, without a Wise Being, or there is the possibility in it of the agency and interference of more than one God.
13. That is, only man from among all the creatures of the earth has been given this power by Allah to use boats and ships and animals as conveyance. Should he never think and be grateful as to who it is who created possibilities for him to run boats in the mighty oceans, and who created some animals, among the countless kinds of animals, with a nature that they become his servants in spite of being far stronger than him in power, so he ride on them and drive them wherever he likes. To benefit by these blessings and to forget the Benefactor is a sign of the heart’s becoming dead and the conscience’s being insensitive. For, when a man endowed with a living heart and a sensitive conscience will sit on these conveyances, he will be filled with the feelings of the blessings and with the gratitude for it, and will cry out: Glorified is the Being Who subjected these things to me. Glorified is He from that another should be His associate in His Being and attributes and powers. Glorified is He and free from the weakness that He should become helpless of performing the functions of His Godhead by Himself and should stand in need of other associate gods. Glorified is He that I should make another an associate with Him in rendering thanks for these blessings.
The best practical commentary of the intention and meaning of this verse are the words that the Prophet (peace be upon him) used to pronounce at the time he sat on the conveyance. Abdullah bin Umar says that whenever the Prophet (peace be upon him) sat on a conveyance for a journey, he would pronounce Allahu-Akbar three times, then would recite this verse, and then pray: O God, I implore You to grant me in this journey the grace of goodness and piety and such acts as may please You. O God, make the journey easy and roll up the long distance for us. O God, You alone are the Companion during the journey and Guardian of the family in our absence. O God, take care of us during the journey and our household in our absence. (Musnad Ahmed, Muslim, Abu Daud, Nasai, Darimi, Tirmidhi).
Ali says: Once the Prophet (peace be upon him) put his foot in the stirrup with Bismillah, and then, after riding, said: Alhamdu-lillah subhan-alladhi sakhkhara lana hadha . . . . , then pronounced Alhamdu-lillah three times, and Allahu- Akbar three times; then said: Subhana-ka la-ilaha illa anta, qad zalamtu nafsi faghfir-li. Then he laughed. I asked: What made you laugh. O Messenger of Allah? He replied: When a servant says: Rabb-ighfir-li, Allah Almighty is very pleased with this. He says: My servant knows that there is none beside Me who can forgive sins. (Ahmed, Abu Daud, Tirmidhi, Nasai, and others)
Abu Mijlaz says: Once I rode on my animal and recited this verse: Subhan-alladhi sakhkhara lane hadha . . ., Hasan said: Have you been commanded to say so? I said: What should I say then? He replied: Say, thank God, Who guided us to Islam: Thanks to Him, Who did us a favor by sending Muhammad (peace be upon him): Thanks to Him Who admitted us into the best community that has been raised for the people; then recite this verse. (Ibn Jarir, Ahkam al- Quran by Jassas).
14. That is, while embarking on every journey one should remember that there is ahead a longer and final journey also. Besides there is the possibility in the use of every conveyance that an accident may turn that very journey into one’s last journey; therefore, every time one should remember his return to his Lord so that if something unexpected happens, he does not die unaware.
Let us pause here for a while and consider the moral results of this teaching. Can one imagine that a person who while sitting on a conveyance starts his journey consciously with full remembrance of Allah and his return and accountability before Him, would commit sins and injustices and tyrannies on the way? Can a person think or utter these words from his mouth when he intends to go to meet a prostitute, or to visit a club for the purpose of drinking and gambling? Can a ruler, or a government official, or a merchant who has stepped out of his house with such thoughts and such words at his lips, usurp the rights of others when he reaches his destination? Can a soldier utter these words while boarding his aircraft or tank when he goes out to shed blood of the innocent and deprive the weak of their freedom? If not, then this one thing alone is enough to bar every movement undertaken for the commission of a sin.
15. “Assign to some of His slaves a share with Him” implies declaring a servant of Allah His offspring, for an offspring inevitably is homogeneous with and a part of the father’s body, and regarding somebody as Allah’s son or daughter means that he or she is being made a partner in Allah’s Being. Besides, another form of making a creature a part of Allah is that it should be regarded as possessor of the attributes and powers as are specifically Allah’s own, and it should be invoked under the same concept, or rites of worship performed before it, or its sanctities observed and regarded as imperative and binding. For, in that case man divides divinity and provider between Allah and His servants and hands over a part of it to the servants.
16-25 Some Mushrikin regard the angels to be the female divinities being the daughters of Allah
(43:16) Has Allah taken for Himself daughters out of those whom He creates and has chosen you to have sons?16 (43:17) (They believe so although when) any of them is given tidings of the birth of a female child the like of which he assigns to the Merciful One, his countenance darkens and he is choked with grief. (43:18) Do they assign to Allah one who grows up amidst ornaments and is not well-versed in the art of disputation?17 (43:19) They claim that angels, who are Allah’s chosen servants,18 are females. Did they witness how their body is constituted?19 Their testimony shall be written and they shall be called to account. (43:20) They say: “Had the Merciful One so willed, we would never have worshipped these deities.”20 But they have no knowledge of the matter and are simply conjecturing. (43:21) Or did We bestow upon them a Book before on whose authority they are holding on (to angel-worship)?21 (43:22) Nay; they simply claim: “We found our forefathers on a way, and we continue to find guidance in their footsteps.”22 (43:23) And thus it is: whenever We sent any warner to a city its affluent ones said: “We found our forefathers on a way and we continue to follow in their footsteps.”23 (43:24) Each Prophet asked them: “Will you do so even if we were to show you a way better than the way of your forefathers?” They answered: “We disbelieve in the religion with which you have been sent.” (43:25) Then We exacted retribution from them. So do consider the end of those who gave the lie (to the Prophets).
16. Here, the folly of the polytheists of Arabia has been fully exposed. They said that the angels were the daughters of Allah. They had carved out their images as females, and these were their goddesses whom they worshiped. About this Allah says: In the first place, in spite of knowing and recognizing that the Creator of the earth and heavens is Allah and it is He Who has made this earth a cradle for you and it is He Who sends down the rain from the sky, and it is He Who has created these animals for your service, yet you have taken others as gods beside Him, whereas those whom you serve as deities are not God but creatures of God. Then, further more, you have made some of the servants associates of Allah not only in His attributes but in His Being as well, and invented the creed that they were Allah’s offspring. Then, not resting content with this, you assigned to Allah that kind of the offspring which you regard as disgraceful for your own selves. When a daughter is born in your house, your face grows dark, you feel distressed, and sometimes you bury her alive. This offspring you assign to Allah and reserve for yourselves the sons, whom you regard as a source of joy and pride. Even then you claim that you believe in Allah.
17. In other words, You have assigned to Allah the offspring that is by nature delicate, weak and frail, and adopted for yourselves the offspring that is bold, courageous and fearless. This verse shows permissibility of the ornaments for the women, for Allah has mentioned the ornaments as a natural thing for them. The same is also confirmed by the Hadith. Imam Ahmad, Abu Daud and Nasai have related on the authority of Ali that the Prophet (peace be upon him) took silk in one hand and gold in the other and said that both were forbidden to be used in dress by the men of his Ummah. Tirmidhi and Nasai have related from Abu Musa Ashari a tradition, saying that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Silk and gold have been forbidden for the men but made lawful for the women of my Ummah. Allama Abu Bakr al-Jassas has discussed this question in his Ahkam ai-Quran and related the following traditions:
Aishah says: Once Usamah, son of Zaid bin Harithah, was hurt and started bleeding. The Prophet (peace be upon him) loved him like his own children. He sucked his blood and spat it out, and cheered him saying: Had Usamah been a daughter we would have adorned him with ornaments! Had Usamah been a daughter, we would have dressed him in fine clothes!
Abu Musa Ashari has related that the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: Wearing of silken clothes and ornaments of gold is unlawful for the men of my Unmah but lawful for the women.
Amr bin Aaas has related: Once two women came before the Prophet (peace be upon him), and they were wearing bracelets of gold. He said: Would you like that Allah should make you wear bracelets of the fire instead of these? They replied that they would not. Thereupon he said: Pay their dues, i.e. the zakat due on them.
Aisha has stated that there is no harm in wearing the ornaments if the zakat due on them is paid.
Umar wrote to Abu Musa Ashari: Order the Muslim women who live in the areas under your administrative control that they should pay the zakat dues on their ornaments.
Imam Abu Hanifah has related the following traditions on the authority of Amr bin Dinar: Aishah had arranged ornaments of gold for her sisters and Abdullah bin Umar for his daughters.
After citing all these traditions, Allama Jassas writes: The traditions that have been related from the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the companions about the permissibility and lawfulness of gold and silk for the women are better known and more common than those that are there about their unlawfulness, and the above verse also points to their lawfulness. Then the practice of the Muslims also from the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and his companions till our time (i.e. till the latter part of the 4th century of hijrah) has been the same, and no one ever objected to it. In such matters, no objection can be admitted on the basis of the isolated reports (Akhbar ahab).
18. That is, who are free from this that they should be males or females.
19. Another translation can be: Were they present at the time of their creation?
20. This was their reasoning from destiny to cover up their deviation and error, and this has been the argument of the wrongdoers in every age. They argued that their worshiping the angels became possible only because Allah allowed them to do so. Had He not willed so they could not have done it; and then it had been a practice with them for centuries and no torment from Allah had descended on them, which meant that Allah did not disapprove of their this practice.
21. It means this: These ignorant people think that whatever is happening in the world has the approval of Allah for it, because it is happening according to His will. This argument, however, is wrong. For it is not only shirk which is being committed in the world, but countless other crimes like stealing, robbery, murder, bribery, etc. are also taking place, which nobody likes. Then, can it be said by the same reasoning that all such acts are lawful and good only because Allah is letting them happen in His world, and when He allows them to happen, He must have approved of them also? The means of knowing what Allah likes and what He hates are not the events that are happening in the world, but the Book of Allah, which comes through His Messenger and in which Allah Himself states as to what beliefs, what deeds and what morals He likes and what He dislikes. If these people have a Book, which came before the Quran, and which tells that Allah has appointed the angels also as deities beside himself and that they should worship them also, they should cite it. (For further explanation, see (Surah Al-Anaam, Ayats 107-112, 137, 148-149); (Surah Al- Aaraf, Ayat 28); (Surah Younus, Ayat 99); (Surah Hud, Ayats 118-119); (Surah Ar-Raad, Ayat 31); (Surah An-Nahl, Ayats 9, 35-36, 93); and (E.N. 20 of Surah Az-Zumar) and (E.N. 11 of Surah Ash-Shura).
22. That is, they have no authority of any divine book. The only authority they have is that it has been the practice since the time of their forefathers. Therefore, they have taken the angels as goddesses in imitation of them.
23. Here, the point worth consideration is why only the well to do people of every community have resisted the Prophets and upheld the imitation of their forefathers in every age. Why have they alone been in the forefront to oppose the truth and to endeavor to maintain the established falsehood and to beguile and incite the common people against them? Its basic causes were two:
(1) The well to do and affluent people are so absorbed in making and enjoying the world of their own that they are not inclined to bother themselves about the useless debate (as they assume it to be) between the truth and falsehood. Their love of ease and mental lethargy renders them so heedless of religion and conservative that they want the established order, no matter whether it is based on truth or falsehood, to retrain in force so that they do not have to take the trouble of thinking about the new order at all for themselves.
(2) Their interests become so dependent on the established order that when they get the first glimpse of the order presented by the Prophets, they start feeling that if it came, it would not only put an end to their leadership but also would deprive them of the freedom to consume the lawful and commit the unlawful. (For further details, see Surah Al-Anaam, Ayat 103; (Surah Al-Aaraf, Ayats 66-70). 75, 88, 109, 127); (Surah Houd, Ayats 27-28); (Surah Bani-Israil, Ayat 16); (Surah Al-Muaminun, Ayats 24-33, 46); (Surah Saba, Ayat 34 )and the corresponding E.Ns).
26-35 Prophet Ibrahim recognized the Oneness of Allah and rejected Shirk (Polytheism) and If it were not that all mankind will become one race of unbelievers, Allah would have given the unbeliever houses made with sterling silver
(43:26) Call to mind when Abraham said to his father and his people:24 “I totally disown all whom you serve (43:27) except the One Who created me; and, behold, it is He Who will direct me to the Right Way.”25 (43:28) And Abraham left behind this word26 to endure among his posterity so that they may return to it.27 (43:29) (Even when they began worshipping others than Allah We did not destroy them) but bestowed sustenance on them and on their forefathers until there came to them the Truth and a Messenger who clearly expounded things to them.28 (43:30) And when the Truth came to them they said: “This is just sorcery29 and we reject it.” (43:31) They say: “Why was this Qur’an not sent down upon some great man from the two (main) cities?”30 (43:32) Is it they who distribute the Mercy of your Lord? It is We Who have distributed their livelihood among them in the life of this world, and have raised some above others in rank that some of them may harness others to their service.31 Your Lord’s Mercy is better than all the treasures that they hoard.32 (43:33) Were it not that all mankind would become a single community (and follow the same way), We would have provided for all those who disbelieve in the Merciful One silver roofs for their houses, and (silver) stairs on which to go up, (43:34) and (silver) doors to their houses, and couches (of silver) upon which they would recline;33 (43:35) or that they be made of gold. Surely all this is only the enjoyment of the life of the world. But (true prosperity) in the Hereafter with Your Lord is only for the God-fearing.
24. For details, see (Surah Al-Baqarah, Ayats 124-133); (Surah Al-Anaam, Ayats 74-84); (Surah Ibrahim, Ayats 35- 41); (Surah Maryam, Ayats 41-50); (Surah Al-Anbiya, Ayats 51-73); (Surah Ash-Shuara, Ayats 69-89), (Surah Al-Ankabut, Ayats 16-27); (Surah As-Saaffat, Ayats 83-100) and the corresponding E.Ns.
25. In these words not only did the Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) state his creed but also gave the argument for it. The reason for not having any connection with the other deities is that they neither have created nor they give right guidance in any matter, nor they can; and the reason for having a connection only with Allah Almighty is that He alone is the Creator and He alone gives, and can give the right guidance to mankind.
26. A word: the word that none but the Creator is worthy of worship in the world.
27. That is, whenever they swerve from the right path, this word should be there to guide them so that they return to it again. This event has been mentioned here in order to expose the foolishness of the disbelieving Quraish and to put them to shame, as if to say: When you have adopted obedience of your ancestors, you have selected the most depraved of them for the purpose instead of the most righteous and illustrious, who were the Prophets Abraham and Ishmael (peace be upon them). The basis of the leadership of the Quraish in Arabia was that they were the descendants of the Prophets Abraham and Ishmael (peace be upon them) and were the attendants of the Kabah built by them. Therefore, they should have followed them and not their ignorant forefathers who had given up the way of the Prophets and adopted polytheism from the neighboring idol-worshipers. Furthermore, by mentioning this event another error of those people has been pointed out. That is, if the blind imitation of the forefathers, without the distinction of good and evil had been the right thing, the Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) should have done so in the first instance. But he had plainly told his father and his people that he could not follow their creed of ignorance in which they had abandoned the Creator and made those imaginary beings their deities, who were not the creator. This shows that the Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him) did not believe in following the forefathers, but his creed was that before one followed the forefathers one should see whether they were following the right way or not, and if it became known by reason that they were following the wrong way, one should give up their way and adopt the way that was proved right.
28. Another meaning of the word rasulum-mubin can be: A Messenger whose being a Messenger was obvious and apparent: Whose life before and after the Prophethood clearly testified that he was certainly Allah’s Messenger.
29. For explanation, see (Surah Al-Anbiya, Ayat 3 and E.N. 5) on it, and (E.N. 5 of Surah Suad).
30. The two towns: Makkah and Taif. What the disbelievers meant was: Had Allah really willed to send a messenger and intended to send down a book to him, He would have selected a great man from our these central cities for the purpose. For Allah could not have selected for this great mission a person who was born an orphan, who did not inherit much property, who passed his youth by tending goats, who even at present earned his living through business with his wife’s money, and who was neither the chief of a tribe nor the head of a family. Were not there well known chiefs like Walid bin Mughirah and Utbah bin Rabiah in Makkah, and nobles like Urwah bin Masud, Habib bin Amr, Kinanah bin Abdi Amr and Ibn Abd Yalil in Taif? This was their reasoning in the first instance, they were also not inclined to believe that a man could be a Messenger. But when the Quran refuted this misconception by argument and reason and they were told that in the past only men had come as Messengers and a man only could be a Messenger for the guidance of the people, and not another kind of being and the Messenger who came did not descend suddenly from heavens but were born in the same ordinary dwellings, walked about in the streets, had children and families and stood in need of food and drink (see (Surah An-Nahl, Ayat 43); (Surah Bani Israil, Ayats 94-95); (Surah Yousuf, Ayat 109); (Surah Al-Furqan, Ayats 7, 20); (Surah Al-Anbiya, Ayats 7-8); (Surah Ar-Raad, Ayat 38), they took this stand, saying: Well, even if a human being, he should be a big man, who should be wealthy, influential and awe-inspiring and having a large following. How could Muhammad bin Abdullah (peace be upon him) be fit for this appointment?
31. This is the answer to their objection, which briefly mentions many important things:
First, it asks: Since when do these people become responsible for distributing the mercy of your Lord? Is it for them to decide whom Allah should favor with His mercy and whom He should not? (Here, by Allah’s mercy is implied His general mercy from which everyone has a share).
Second, Allah says: Prophethood is a great blessing. We have even kept the distribution of the common means of life in the world in Our own hand, and have not entrusted it to anyone else. We create someone beautiful and another ugly, someone with a sweet voice and another with a harsh voice, someone robust and strong and another weak and frail, someone intelligent and another dull, someone with a strong memory and another forgetful, some with healthy limbs and another a cripple, or blind or deaf and dumb, someone in a rich family and another among the poor, someone in an advanced country and another in a backward community. No one can do anything about this destiny concerning birth. One is compelled to be what We have made him. And it is in no one’s power to avert the impact his circumstances of birth have on his destiny. Then it is We our self Who are distributing provisions, power, honor, fame, wealth, government, etc. among men. No one can degrade the one whom We have blessed with good fortune, and no one can save from ruin the one whom We have afflicted with misfortune. All plans and schemes of man become ineffective against Our decrees. In this universal divine system, therefore, how can these people decide as to whom should the Master of the universe make His Prophet and whom He should not?
Thirdly, an abiding principle that We have kept in view in this divine system is that everything should not be given to one and the same person, or everything should not be given to everybody. If you look around carefully, you will see that great differences exist between the people in every respect. We have given one thing to one person but deprived him of another, and given the same to another one. This is based on the wisdom that no human being should become independent of others, but everyone should remain dependent on the other in one way or the other. Now if would be foolish on your part to think that We should have given the Prophethood also to the same person whom We had blessed with wealth and nobility. Likewise, will you also say that wisdom, knowledge, wealth, beauty, power, authority and all other excellences should be assembled in one and the same person, and the one who has not been given one thing, should not be given anything else?
32. Your Lord’s mercy: the Prophethood. It means: Your leaders and chiefs whom you regard as big people because of their wealth and dignity and chiefship, are not worthy of this wealth, which has been given to Muhammad bin Abdullah (peace be upon him). This wealth is far superior to that and for this the criterion is different. If you think that every noble and rich man is worthy of becoming a prophet, it would only show your own thinking. Why do you expect Allah to be so ignorant and simple?
33. That is, this silver and gold whose possession by somebody is the highest blessing and the very climax of good fortune in your sight, is so base and contemptible a thing in the sight of Allah that had there been no danger of all human beings being inclined towards unbelief, He would have made every disbeliever’s house of gold and silver. Since when has the abundance of this worthless commodity become proof of man’s nobility and his piety and his spiritual purity? This kind of wealth is even found in the possession of those foul and wicked people whose filthy characters make the whole society stink. And this you have made the criterion of man’s greatness of character.
36-45 He who turns away from the remembrance of Allah, Allah appoints a Shaitan to be his intimate friend and Hold fast to Al-Quran if you want to be rightly guided
(43:36) He who is negligent to remember the Merciful One,34 to him We assign a satan as his boon companion, (43:37) and these satans hinder them from the Right Path, while he still reckons himself to be rightly-guided. (43:38) But when he comes to Us, he will say (to his satan): “Would that there had been between me and you the distance as between the East and the West. How evil a companion you were!” (43:39) (He will then be told): “Today it will not benefit you the least that after your wrong-doing you and your satans now share the chastisement.”35 (43:40) Can you, (O Prophet), then make the deaf hear, or direct to the Right Way the blind or one lost in manifest error?36 (43:41) We shall inflict retribution on them, whether We take you away from the world (before We do that), (43:42) or make you see the end that We had promised them, for We have full power over them.37 (43:43) So hold fast to what has been revealed to you. Surely you are on the Straight Way.38 (43:44) Verily it is a great source of eminence for you and your people, and soon you will be called to account concerning that.39 (43:45) Ask all Our Messengers whom We sent before you whether We had appointed any deities beside the Merciful One to be worshipped.40
34. Dhikrir Rahman: His remembrance as well as His admonition and the Quran.
35. That is, in this there is no aspect of consolation for you that the one who misguided you is being punished, for you are also receiving the same punishment for accepting and following the deviation.
36. It means to say: Pay attention to those who are inclined to listen and have not closed their eyes to the realities, and do not consume yourself in showing the way to the blind and making the deaf to hear, nor consume yourself with the grief as to why your near and dear ones are not coming to the right path, and why they are making themselves worthy of Allah’s torment.
37. This thing can be understood fully only by keeping in view the background in which it was said. The disbelievers of Makkah thought that the person of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) had become a source of trouble for them. If they could somehow get rid of him, matters would become normal. On the basis of this evil thought they were holding consultations day and night and planning to kill him. At this, Allah addresses His Prophet (peace be upon him) so as to tell them indirectly: It doesn’t make any difference whether you remain among them or not. If you live, you will see them meet their doom with your own eyes. If you are recalled from the world, they will be sent to their doom in your absence, because they cannot in any case escape the consequences of their misdeeds.
38. That is, you should not worry as to what punishment do those who are resisting and opposing the truth with injustice and dishonesty receive and when. Nor should you worry whether Islam flourishes during your lifetime or not. For you this satisfaction is quite enough that you are on the right path. Therefore, you should go on fulfilling your mission unconcerned about the results, and leave it to Allah whether He defeats falsehood in front of you or after you.
39. That is, there can be no greater good fortune for a person than that Allah should choose him from among all men to become the recipient of His Book, and there can be no greater good fortune also for a nation than that Allah should raise His Prophet in it, apart from all other nations of the world, and should send down His Book in its tongue, and give it the opportunity to rise as the standard-bearer of divine message in the world. If the Quraish and the people of Arabia have no sense of this great honor, and spurn it, a time will come when they will be called upon to account for it.
40. Ask the Messengers: Find out from the Books brought by them. Just as the meaning of: “If there arises any dispute among you about anything, refer it to Allah and His Prophet,” is not that the dispute should be taken before Allah and His Messenger, but that one should turn to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger for a decision, so “asking the Messengers” also does not mean that one should approach all the Messengers who have left the world and ask them, but the right meaning is: Discover what teachings the Messengers of Allah have left in the world as to which of them taught that another than Allah also is worthy of worship and service.
46-56 Prophet Musa was sent to Fir’on and his chiefs with signs but they ridicule him and the signs as a result Allah drowned them all
(43:46) Indeed We41 sent Moses with Our Signs42 to Pharaoh and his nobles. He told them: “I am a Messenger of the Lord of the Universe.” (43:47) Yet when he brought forth Clear Signs from Us, then lo, they burst into laughter. (43:48) Every Sign that We showed them was greater than its predecessor; and then We seized them with Our chastisement so that they may return (to the Right Way).43 (43:49) (Whenever they faced an affliction) they would say: “O magician, pray for us to your Lord according to your station with Him. We shall certainly be guided to the Right Way.” (43:50) But lo, each time We removed Our affliction from them, they would go back on their word.44 (43:51) And Pharaoh proclaimed among his people:45 “My people, do I not have dominion over Egypt, and are these streams not flowing beneath me? Can’t you see?46 (43:52) Am I better or this contemptible man47 who is scarcely able to express himself?48 (43:53) Why were bracelets of gold not bestowed upon him? Why did a retinue of angels not accompany him as attendants?”49 (43:54) He incited his people to levity and they obeyed him. Surely they were an iniquitous people.50 (43:55) So when they incurred Our wrath, We exacted retribution from them, and drowned them all, (43:56) and made them a thing of the past and an example for those who would come after them.51
41. This story has been narrated here for three objects:
(1) That when Allah sends His Prophet to a country and nation and affords it the opportunity which He has now given to the Arabs by appointing the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) to Prophethood, and it, instead of taking advantage of this, commits the folly of Pharaoh and his people, it meets the same fate which has become an object lesson in history.
(2) That just as Pharaoh also on account of his arrogance and pride of kingdom and grandeur and wealth and possessions had belittled the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) as mean and contemptible, so the unbelieving Quraish are now regarding Muhammad (peace be upon him) as insignificant as against their chiefs. But God’s judgment was different which ultimately proved who was really great.
(3) That to mock Allah’s revelations and show stubbornness against His warnings is not a mere joke, but a very serious sin. If you do not learn a lesson from the fate of those who have been doomed on account of this, you also would go to your doom on account of the same.
42. This implies the signs with which the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) had gone to the court of Pharaoh, i.e. the signs of the staff and the shining hand. (For explanation, see (Surah Al-Aaraf, Ayats 107-108); (Surah TaHa, Ayats 20-22); (Surah Ash-Shuara, Ayats 32-33); (Surah An-Naml; Ayats 10-12), (Surah Al-Qasas; Ayats 31-32).
43. This implies the signs which Allah showed them through the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) afterwards, and these were the following:
(1) A public encounter of Allah’s Prophet with the magicians, who believed after their defeat. For details, see (Surah Al-Aaraf, Ayats 112-126); (Surah TaHa, Ayats 68-73); (Surah Ash Shuara, Ayats 37-51).
(2) A severe famine which hit the land of Egypt according to Prophet Moses’ (peace be upon him) announcement and which left the country only by his prayer.
(3) Dreadful rain and hail-storms accompanied by lightning and thunder struck the country even as Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) had announced, which destroyed the crops and dwellings and which also was removed only by his prayer.
(4) The sudden appearance of locusts in the land. This calamity was also not removed when Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) prayed to Allah.
(5) Lice and weevils spread throughout the country according to the announcement made by Moses (peace be upon him), which afflicted men and animals on the one hand, and destroyed granaries on the other. This torment was also averted when Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) was requested to pray for its removal.
(6) Frogs appeared everywhere in the country according to the warning given by Prophet Moses (peace be upon him), which put the whole population to great distress. This calamity did not also retreat until Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) prayed for it.
(7) The torment of blood appeared precisely as foretold by Moses (peace be upon him), which turned the water of all canals, wells, springs, pools and cisterns into blood. The fish died and the water smelled so bad that the Egyptians could not drink from it for a full week. This evil was also averted when the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) was asked to pray for its removal. For details, see (Surah Al- Aaraf, Ayats 130-136). (Surah An-Naml, Ayat 12) and (E.N. 37 of Surah Al-Mumin).
Chapters 7 to 10 of Exodus also contain the details of these calamities, but it is a combination of gossip and truth. It says that when the calamity of blood appeared, the magicians also worked a similar miracle, but when the calamity of the lice came, the magicians could not produce lice in response, and they said that it was God’s work. Even more strange than this is that when the storm of the frogs came, the magicians also brought about frogs, but in spite of that Pharaoh requested only the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) to pray to God to take away the frogs. The question is when the magicians could produce frogs, why didn’t Pharaoh get the frogs taken away through them? And how did it become known which of the frogs were Allah’s work and which of the magicians’ work? The same question arises about the blood. When according to the warning of Moses (peace be upon him) water became blood everywhere, which water did the magicians turn into blood? And how was it known that the water of a particular place had turned blood by the power of the magicians? Such are the things which show that the Bible does not consist of purely divine revelation, but the people who wrote it mixed up many things in it from their own imagination. The pity, however, is that the authors also were people of ordinary intelligence, who did not even know how to invent a story.
44. The stubbornness of Pharaoh and the chiefs of his people can be judged from the fact that when distressed by the torment they wanted the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) to pray for its removal, even then they did not recognize him as a Prophet but addressed him as a magician, whereas they were not unaware of the truth about magic, and they also knew that those miraculous things could not be brought about by the power of magic. The most that a magician can do is that in a limited area he can so influence the people present in front of him as to make them feel that water has become blood, or frogs are coming out in large numbers or swarms of locusts are advancing. And within this limited place also no water will actually become blood, but water will remain water as soon as it comes outside it; no frog will be produced in actual fact, but will prove to be an imaginary thing as soon as brought outside the circle; locusts also would be imaginary: they would not be able to destroy any crop. As for this that a famine appears throughout a country, or that the canals and springs and wells of the country are filled with blood, or that swarms of locusts spread over thousands of square miles and eat up crops growing over thousands of acres, this has neither been accomplished by a magician so far, nor can it ever happen by the power of magic. Should such magicians be there in the service of a king, he need not keep forces and fight wars; he could conquer the whole world by the power of magic. Even if the magicians possessed such power, they would not seek service under the kings, but would assume kingship themselves.
The commentators in general have been perplexed as to why Pharaoh and his courtiers addressed the Prophet Moses as “O sorcerer”, when they requested him to pray for the removal of the calamity, for the one who seeks another’s help in a hard time flatters him and does not condemn him. They have given the interpretation that sorcery in the Egypt of those days was held as a very respectable art, and when they addressed Moses as “O sorcerer” they did not condemn him, but honored him because it amounted to calling him as “O Learned man” But this interpretation is absolutely wrong on the ground that wherever at other places in the Quran Pharaoh’s sayings have been cited in which he had called the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) a sorcerer and the miracles presented by him sorcery, the sense of condemnation and contempt becomes apparent, and it becomes manifestly clear that sorcery was false in his sight, which he imputed to the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) so as to prove his claim to the Prophethood to be false! Therefore, it cannot be acceptable that suddenly at this time “sorcerer” became the title of an honorable and learned man in his sight. As for the question: Why did the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) accede to his request at all when even while requesting him for the prayer, Pharaoh insulted him publicly, the answer is that the object before the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) was to strengthen the case against those people by Allah’s command. Their request to him to pray for the removal of the torment by itself proved that in their hearts they had come to know why the torments were occurring, who was sending them and who could avert them. In spite of that, when they called him a “sorcerer” stubbornly, and went back on their word of following the right way as soon as the torment was averted, they in fact, did not do any harm to Allah’s Prophet, but only caused the case and argument to be strengthened against themselves, which Allah at last decided against them with their total destruction. When they called him a sorcerer, this did not mean that they believed in their hearts as well that the torments against them were coming by the power of sorcery, but they realized it fully that those were Allah’s signs and yet they denied them deliberately. The same thing has been said in (Surah An-Naml, Ayat 14): They rejected those signs out of sheer injustice and vanity, whereas in their hearts they were convinced.
45. Pharaoh probably sent heralds to the cities and towns throughout the country to proclaim what he said in his address to his ministers and courtiers in the capital. Pharaoh could not have availed of the services of a sycophantic press, controlled news agencies and official radio.
46. The words of the proclamation clearly show that ground was slipping from under the Pharaoh’s feet. The miracles performed one after the other by the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) had caused the common people’s beliefs in their gods to waver and the Pharaoh’s spell under which their dynasty was ruling over Egypt as representatives of the gods, was shattered. Thereupon, Pharaoh cried out: O wretched people, can’t you see who is ruling over this land and under whose control are the canals which have been dug out from the Nile, upon which depends your whole economy? All these developments in this country have been brought about by me and my predecessors, but you are being devoted, charmed and fascinated by this pauper!
47. Who is despicable: the person who has neither wealth, nor power, nor authority. This same objection had been raised by the disbelieving Quraish against the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).
48. Some commentators have expressed the opinion that Pharaoh referred to the impediment of speech from which the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) suffered since childhood. But this is not a correct opinion. As has been mentioned in Surah TaHa above, when the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) was being appointed to Prophethood, he had implored Allah Almighty to remove the defect from his tongue so that the people might understand his speech and at that very time his request had also been granted along with his other requests (verse 27-36). Moreover, orations of the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) that have been cited at different places in the Quran, point to his perfect eloquence and fluency. Therefore, the basis of Pharaoh’s objection was not any impediment of speech from which Moses (peace be upon him) might be suffering but what he meant was: This person talks confusedly, at least I have never been able to understand what he says.
49. In the ancient times when a person was appointed to be governor of a land or sent as an ambassador to a foreign country, a robe of honor was conferred on him by the king, which also included bracelets of gold, and he was also accompanied by a contingent of soldiers and servants for over-awing the people and for showing the glory and grandeur of the king who had appointed him. What Pharaoh meant to say was: If the King of the heavens had really sent Moses (peace be upon him) as His ambassador to His counterpart on the earth, he should have been dressed in a robe of honor and come with several contingents of angels in attendance. How strange that a poor man should appear with a staff in his hand and say that he was the messenger of the Lord of the worlds!
50. A tremendous reality has been expressed in this brief sentence. When a person wishes to become autocratic in a country and contrives every plan openly to achieve his object, he practices every deception and trick. He buys and sells consciences and persecutes and crushes ruthlessly those who cannot be purchased. He, in fact, shows by his actions, whatever he may say to the contrary, that he takes the people of the country to be light as regards to their intellect, morals and manliness, and has formed the impression that he can drive the foolish, unscrupulous and cowardly people wherever he likes. Then, when he has succeeded in his designs and the people have become his obedient servants, they prove by their conduct and behavior that they are actually what the wicked man had taken them to be, and the main cause of their depravity is that they are basically a sinful people. They are not in the least concerned as to what is the truth and what is falsehood, what is justice and what is injustice, whether the noble traits of character are truthfulness and honesty or falsehood and dishonesty and meanness. Instead of this, only their personal interests are of real importance to them, for the sake of which they remain ever ready to cooperate with every wicked person, to yield to every tyrant, to accept every falsehood and to suppress every protest that is voiced in favor of the truth.
51. That is, they are a precedent for those who do not learn any lesson from their example, and an object lesson for those who are keen to learn a lesson.
57-67 Prophet Isa (Jesus) was no more than a mortal whom Allah favored and made him and example for the Children of Israel
(43:57) No sooner the example of the son of Mary was mentioned than, lo and behold, your people raised a clamour (43:58) and said: “Who is better, our deities or he?”52 They said so only out of contentiousness. They are a disputatious people. (43:59) He was no more than a servant (of Ours), one upon whom We bestowed Our favours and whom We made an example (of Our infinite power) for the Children of Israel.53 (43:60) If We had so willed We could have made some of you into angels54 to become your successors on earth. (43:61) Verily he [i.e., Jesus) is a portent of the Hour.55 So be in no doubt concerning it and follow Me. This is the Straight Way. (43:62) Let not Satan hinder you (from believing in the Hour),56 for surely he is your open enemy. (43:63) When Jesus came with Clear Signs and said: “I have brought wisdom to you that I may make plain to you some of the things you differ about. So fear Allah and follow me. (43:64) Allah is my Lord and your Lord; therefore, serve Him. That is the Straight Way.”57 (43:65) Then the factions fell apart among themselves.58 So woe to the wrong-doers from the chastisement of a grievous Day. (43:66) Are they awaiting anything other than the Last Hour that it should suddenly come upon them without their even perceiving it? (43:67) On that Day even bosom friends shall become enemies to one another, all except the God-fearing.59
52. In (verse 45) above, it was said: You may ask all other Messengers whom We sent before you whether We had appointed any other gods to be worshiped beside the Merciful God. When this discourse was being presented before the people of Makkah, a person called Abdullah ibn az-Zibara in the traditions, put forward the objection: Well, is it not a fact that the Christians regard the son of Mary as the son of God and worship him? What is then wrong with our gods? This caused much laughter among the crowd of the disbelievers and they started clamoring for an answer to this objection. But at this foolish behavior, the continuity of the revelation was not broken, but was first completed and then the objection of the questioner was taken up. (It should be borne in mind that this incident has been reported in the books of commentaries in different ways which contain great variations, but after a study of the context and the traditions the real incident in our view is the same as we have mentioned above).
53. “We made him an example” implies causing the Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) to be born without a father, and then granting him such miracles as had not been granted to anyone before him nor to anyone after him. He would make a bird of clay and then breathe into it and it would become a living bird; he would give sight to those born blind; he would cure the lepers; so much so that he would raise the dead back to life. What Allah means to say is: It is wrong to worship him as son of God and regard him as above servitude only because of his extraordinary birth and the great miracles granted to him. He was no more than a mere servant, whom We had blessed and made an example of Our power. (For details, see (Surah Aal-Imran, Ayats 42-49, 59); (Surah An-Nisa, Ayat 156); (Surah Al- Maidah, Ayats 17,110); (Surah Maryam, Ayats 17-35); (Surah Al-Anbiya, Ayat 91); (Surah Al-Muminun, Ayat 50).
54. Another translation can be: make some of you angels.
55. Another translation of this sentence can be: He is a means of the knowledge of Resurrection. Here the question arises: What is implied by “he”? According to Hasan Basri and Saeed bin Jubair it implies the Quran. That is, one can learn from the Quran that Resurrection will come. But this commentary is irrelevant to the context. There is nothing in the context on the basis of which it may be said that it refers to the Quran. Other commentators almost unanimously have expressed the opinion that it implies the prophet Jesus Christ (peace be upon him), and this is suitable to the context. Now the question is: In what sense has Jesus Christ been called a sign or a means of the knowledge of Resurrection? Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Ikrimah, Qatadah, Suddi, Dahhak, Abul Aliyah and Abu Malik say that this refers to the second coming of the Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) as has been foretold in a large number of the traditions, and the verse means that when he comes the second time to the world, it will become known that Resurrection is not far behind. But in spite of the great authority that these scholars hold it is difficult to believe that in this verse the second advent of the Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) has been called a sign of Resurrection, or a means of its knowledge. For it is contradicted by the next verse. His second advent, indeed, can be a means of the knowledge of Resurrection only for those people who will be living in that future period or will be born after that. How could he be regarded as a means of the knowledge for the pagans of Makkah, who are being asked not to have any doubt about it? Therefore, the correct interpretation in our opinion is the one that has been given by some other commentators, according to which the Prophet Jesus’ (peace be upon him) birth without a father and his making a bird out of clay and his raising the dead back to life has been presented as a proof of the possibility of Resurrection. So, the divine words would mean: Why do you think it is impossible for God to raise you and all mankind from death when He can create a child without a father and a servant of His can breathe life into an image of clay and raise the dead back to life by His permission?
56. Hinder you: hinder you from believing in Resurrection.
57. That is, the Prophet Jesus (peace be upon him) himself had never claimed that he was God or son of God, and that the people should worship him, but, on the contrary, his message was the same as of all other Prophets, the same as was now being conveyed to you through Muhammad (peace be upon him). (For explanation, see (Surah Aal-Imran, Ayats 50-51); (Surah An-Nisa, Ayats 171-172); (Surah Al- Maidah, Ayats 72, 116-117); (Surah Maryam, Ayats 30-36).
58. That is, one group of the people denied him and in their antagonism went to the extent of accusing him of illegitimate birth and got him crucified as they thought. The other group believed in him but owing to exaggerated reverence made him son of God, and then the question of man’s being God became such a riddle for it that every effort to resolve it caused it to be divided into countless sects. (For explanation, see (Surah An-Nisa, Ayat 171), (Surah Al-Maidah, Ayats 17,77, 116-117 )and the corresponding E.Ns).
59. In other words, only those friendships will remain unaffected which are based on righteousness and piety in the world. All other friendships will turn into enmities, and those who are cooperating with one another in deviation, tyranny and wickedness today, will on the Day of Resurrection, put the blame on others and try to escape. This subject has been treated repeatedly at many places in the Quran so that every person in this very world may fully realize with whom it would be beneficial for him to cooperate and with whom it is harmful.
68-89 On the Day of Judgement believers will have no fear or regret, they will be warded paradise and made happy and O Prophet tell the Christians, if Allah had a son, I would have been the first one to worship him
(43:68) (It will be said to them): “My servants, today you have nothing to fear or regret, (43:69) you who believed in Our Signs and had surrendered yourselves (to Us)! (43:70) Enter Paradise joyfully, both you and your spouses.”60 (43:71) Platters and cups of gold shall be passed around them, and there shall be all that they might desire and all that their eyes might delight in. (They shall be told): “Herein shall you abide for ever. (43:72) Such is the Paradise that you shall inherit by virtue of your good deeds in the life of the world. (43:73) Herein you will have abundant fruits of which you will eat.” (43:74) But the evil-doers shall abide in the torment of Hell. (43:75) Never will their torment be lightened for them. They shall remain in utter despair. (43:76) It is not We Who wronged them; rather, it is they who wronged themselves. (43:77) They shall call out: “O Malik,61 let your Lord put an end to us.” He will reply: “You must stay on in it. (43:78) We brought you the Truth; but to the truth most of you were averse.”62 (43:79) Have they contrived some scheme?63 If so, We too will contrive a scheme. (43:80) Or do they think that We do not hear their secret talks and their whispering counsels? Yes, indeed We do and Our messengers [i.e., angels) are with them, writing. (43:81) Say: “If the Merciful One had a son, I would have been the first one to worship him.”64 (43:82) Exalted be the Lord of the heavens and the earth, the Lord of the Throne, above what they attribute to Him. (43:83) So leave them alone to indulge in their vanities and to frolic about until they encounter that Day of theirs against which they have been warned. (43:84) He it is Who is God in the heavens and the earth. He is the Most Wise, the All-Knowing.65 (43:85) Blessed is He Who has dominion over the heavens and the earth and all that is between them.66 With Him is the knowledge of the Hour; and to Him you shall all be sent back.67 (43:86) Those whom they call upon, instead of Allah have no power of intercession, except such that testify to the truth based on knowledge.68 (43:87) If you were to ask them: “Who created them?” they will surely say: “Allah.”69 Whence are they, then, being led astray? (43:88) We call to witness the cry of the Messenger: “O Lord, these are a people not wont to believe!”70 (43:89) Indulge them, (O Prophet), and say to them: “Peace to you.”71 For soon they shall come to know.
60. The word azwaj as used in the original can be used both for the wives and for those people who are a person’s close associates, friends and peers. This comprehensive word has been used so as to cover both the meanings. The believers will be accompanied both by their believing wives and by their believing friends in Paradise.
61. Malik: a keeper of Hell as is evident from the context.
62. That is, We made the reality plain to you, but you were fond of the imaginary, and you had an aversion to the truth. Now, why do you lament at the fate of your foolish choice? It may be a part of the Hell-keeper’s answer, and it may also be that his answer ended with: Here you must remain, and this second sentence as an addition by Allah. In the first case, the keeper’s saying: We had brought the Truth to you, is just like an official’s using the word “we” on behalf of his government, when he wants to say: Our government did this or gave such and such an order.
63. The allusion is to the plans that the chiefs of the Quraish were devising in their secret assemblies in order to take a decisive action against the Prophet (peace be upon him).
64. It means: My rejection of somebody’s being God’s offspring and my refusal to worship those whom you regard as His offspring is not due to any stubbornness and obduracy. My reason for the refusal is only this that God has no son or daughter, and your such beliefs are against the reality; otherwise I am such a faithful servant of my Lord that if at all the reality had been the same as you state I would have submitted myself in worship before you.
65. That is, the gods of the heavens and the earth are not separate, but there is only One God of the entire universe. It is His wisdom that is working in the whole system of the universe and only He has the knowledge of all realities.
66. That is, He is far above it that another should be His associate in Godhead and may have any share whatsoever in ruling this great universe. Whatever is there in the earth and the heavens, whether the Prophets, the saints, the angels, jinn, spirits, stars or planets, they are His servants and slaves and subjects. It is impossible for them to be characterized with a divine attribute or be possessed with a divine power.
67. That is, you may have taken anyone as your helper and patron in the world, but after death you will have to face only One God and render an account of your deeds before Him alone.
68. This sentence has several meanings:
(1) Those whom the people have made their deities in the world, will not at all be their intercessors before Allah. Those of them who were wicked, will themselves be presented as culprits there. However, those who had borne witness to the truth by virtue of knowledge (and not unconsciously) will certainly be able to intercede for others.
(2) Those who will be permitted to intercede, will be able to do so only for those who had testified to the truth consciously (and not heedlessly). They will neither intercede of their own will, nor will have the permission to intercede for anyone who had gone and been led astray from the truth in the world, or had been affirming the faith in Allah as the only Deity unconsciously as well as serving other deities at the same time
(3) If a person says that those whom he has made gods necessarily possess the powers of intercession, and they wield such an influence with Allah that they can have anyone they like forgiven, irrespective of his beliefs and deeds, is totally wrong. No one enjoys such a position with Allah. If the one who claims that another has such powers of intercession can testify to the truth of this matter by virtue of knowledge, one should have the courage to say so. But if one is not in a position to bear such a testimony, and he is certainly not, it would be sheer folly to invent such a creed on the basis of mere hearsay or conjecture and risk his life Hereafter relying only on an imaginary support.
Incidentally, this verse also gives two important principles: First, it shows that bearing a testimony to the truth without knowledge may be reliable in the world, but it is not so before Allah. In the world, whoever affirms the faith verbally will be regarded as a Muslim and treated as such unless he openly commits an act expressly contradictory to belief. But as before Allah only such a one will be counted as a Muslim, who has uttered Lailaha illAllah consciously, with full understanding of what he is denying and what he is affirming according to his best knowledge. Secondly, it gives this principle of the law of evidence that knowledge is a pre-requisite of bearing the evidence. If the bearer of an evidence has no knowledge of the event to which he is bearing evidence, his evidence is meaningless. The same is borne out by a decision given by the Prophet (peace be upon him). He said to a witness: If you saw what happened with your own eyes as you are seeing the sun, then you may bear the witness, otherwise not. (Ahkam al- Quran by al Jassas).
69. This verse has two meanings:
(1) If you ask them who has created them, they will say: Allah.
(2) If you ask them who is the Creator of their gods, they will say: Allah.
70. This is one of the most difficult verses of the Quran as it involves the complicated syntactic question of the kind of waw that has been used in wa qili-hi. From the translation of Shah Abdul Qadir it appears that the waw here is not conjunctive but for taking oath, and is related to fa-anna yu-fakun, and the pronoun in qili-hi turns to the Prophet (peace be upon him) of Allah. Therefore, the verse means this: By this saying of the Messenger: O my Lord, these are a people who would not believe. They are so utterly deluded that although they themselves admit that Allah alone is their Creator and Creator of their gods, yet they abandon the Creator and persist in worshiping His creatures.
The object of swearing by this saying of the Messenger is that the conduct of the people clearly shows that they are, in fact, stubborn, for the foolishness of their attitude is apparent from their own admission, and such an irrational attitude can be adopted only by such a person, who is resolved not to believe. In other words, the oath implies: The Messenger has rightly said so: indeed these people would not believe.
71. That is, you should neither curse them for their scornful words and attitude of mockery and derision, nor respond with harsh words, just wish them well and take your leave.